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Voice of America, 99-04-22

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP/THURSDAY (L ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] PENTAGON / KOSOVO (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [03] Q&A KOSOVO BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)
  • [04] Q&A / KOSOVO-VILLAGE BY PHILIP SMUCKER / SUSAN YACKEE (SKOPJE/WASH)
  • [05] ALBANIA CRIME (L ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)
  • [06] ALBANIA/BORDER (L) BY TIM BELAY (KUKES)
  • [07] KOSOVO / RIGHTS (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [08] MACEDONIA / REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (BLACE, MACEDONIA)
  • [09] MACEDONIA-VILLAGE UPDATE BY EVE CONANT (MALINA, MACEDONIA)
  • [10] U-N / MACEDONIAN REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [11] CLINTON/KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [12] CLINTON/NATO ONITER (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [13] CONGRESS-KOSOVO-WAR POWERS BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [14] NATO SUMMIT BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [15] NATO SUMMIT / RUSSIA BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)
  • [16] NATO SUMMIT/OVERNIGHTER (L) BY KYLE KING (WASHINGTON)
  • [17] GREECE / KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTON)
  • [18] E-U / OIL EMBARGO (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [19] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [20] KOSOVO ATROCITY REPORTS BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON7)
  • [21] KOSOVO WAR CRIMES (L) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)
  • [22] PEACE SUMMIT (L ONLY) BY SABINA CASTELFRANCO (ROME)
  • [23] EDITORIAL: KOHL RECEIVES FREEDOM MEDAL
  • [24] WORLD TRADE REPORT (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [25] WORLD BANK PRIORITIES (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [26] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [27] BALKAN WAR DAMPENS NATO'S 50TH BIRTHDAY BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [28] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP/THURSDAY (L ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248490
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-RUNNING W/CORRECT NUMBER ///

    INTRO: A POSSIBLE GLIMMER OF DIPLOMATIC HOPE IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS LATE THURSDAY, EVEN AS NATO WARPLANES TARGETED THE MAIN BELGRADE RESIDENCE OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. CORRESPONDENT JIM MALONE WRAPS UP THURSDAY'S DEVELOPMENTS ON KOSOVO.

    TEXT: RUSSIA'S ITAR-TASS NEWS AGENCY QUOTED SPECIAL ENVOY VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN AS SAYING THAT YUGOSLAV PRESDIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS NOW WILLING TO ACCEPT WHAT HE CALLS "AN INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE" IN KOSOVO.

    MR. CHERNOMYRDIN'S COMMENTS CAME AFTER A MEETING WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC JUST HOURS AFTER NATO PLANES BOMBED MR. MILOSEVIC'S MAIN RESIDENCE IN BELGRADE.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON WAS ASKED ABOUT THIS LATEST DIPLOMATIC TWIST AT THE WHITE HOUSE LATE THURSDAY.

    /// CLINTON ACT. ///

    IF THERE IS AN OFFER FOR A GENUINE SECURITY FORCE, THAT IS THE FIRST TIME THAT MR. MILOSEVIC HAS EVER DONE THAT AND THAT REPRESENTS, I SUPPOSE, SOME STEP FORWARD. MY BELIEF IS THAT THE MEMBERS OF OUR ALLIANCE WANT US TO GO IN THERE AND THAT THE KOSOVAR-ALBANIANS WANT TO FEEL PROTECTED AND WILL EXPECT US TO BE THERE.

    /// END ACT. ///

    MR. CLINTON WAS MEETING WITH NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA ON THE EVE OF NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT HERE IN WASHINGTON. MR. SOLANA IS STRESSING NATO UNITY AS DELEGATIONS FROM 42 NATIONS PREPARE FOR A MEETING EXPECTED TO BE DOMINATED BY THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO.

    /// SOLANA ACT. ///

    NATO WILL SEE THIS THROUGH TO THE END. WE HAVE THE MEANS AND WE HAVE THE WILL.

    /// END ACT. ///

    SECRETARY GENERAL SOLANA HAS AUTHORIZED NATO COMMANDERS TO UPDATE PLANS FOR A POSSIBLE GROUND INVASION OF YUGOSLAVIA -- PLANNING THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS HE SUPPORTS. BUT U-S AND BRITISH OFFICIALS STILL SAY THEY REMAIN OPPOSED TO DEPLOYING GROUND TROOPS AT PRESENT, PREFERRING TO GIVE THE AIR CAMPAIGN MORE TIME.

    SPEAKING OF THE AIR CAMPAIGN, SERB TELEVISION SHOWED PICTURES OF WHAT IT SAID WAS BOMB DAMAGE AT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S MAIN RESIDENCE IN BELGRADE THURSDAY.

    U-S OFFICIALS, FROM PRESIDENT CLINTON ON DOWN, WERE QUICK TO DENY SUGGESTIONS THAT NATO IS TRYING TO ASSASSINATE THE YUGOSLAV LEADER.

    /// OPT ///

    PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS THE PRESIDENTIAL RESIDENCE WAS A LEGITIMATE TARGET BECAUSE IT ALSO HOUSED A MILITARY COMMAND AND CONTROL CENTER.

    /// BACON ACT. ///

    WE ARE NOT TARGETING PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC OR THE SERB PEOPLE. WE ARE TARGETING THE MILITARY AND THE MILITARY INFRASTRUCTURE THAT SUPPORTS THE INSTRUMENTS OF OPPRESSION IN KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT. ///

    U-S DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAY NATO FORCES HAVE NOW DESTROYED UP TO 20-PERCENT OF SERB TANKS OPERATING IN KOSOVO. ADMIRIAL TOM WILSON ALSO SAYS THE CONTINUING AIR ATTACKS ARE STARTING TO WEAR DOWN MORALE AMONG YUGOSLAV TROOPS. /// END OPT ///

    THE WAR OF WORDS BETWEEN YUGOSLAVIA AND NATO IS ALSO HEATING UP. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC GAVE A RARE INTERVIEW TO A U-S TELEVISION STATION AND BLAMED THE NATO BOMBING FOR CAUSING THE MASSIVE REFUGEE EXODUS FROM KOSOVO.

    /// MILOSEVIC ACT. ///

    YOU ARE RIGHT. THERE ARE A LOT OF REFUGEES. BUT THEY ARE A RESULT OF (NATO) BOMBING AND THEY ARE NOT ONLY ALBANIANS. EVERYBODY IS RUNNING AWAY BECAUSE OF BOMBING.

    /// END ACT. ///

    THAT COMMENT BROUGHT A QUICK RETORT FROM U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT. ///

    MILOSEVIC CAN DENY THE TRUTH, BUT HE CANNOT CHANGE IT. AND THE TRUTH IS THAT HIS FORCES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE WORST CRIMES COMMITTED IN EUROPE IN MORE THAN HALF A CENTURY.

    /// END ACT. ///

    MS. ALBRIGHT IS ALSO THROWING U-S SUPPORT BEHIND AN OIL EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA BEING PLANNED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE EMBARGO COULD GO INTO EFFECT EARLY NEXT WEEK IF APPROVED BY E-U FOREIGN MINISTERS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    SOME GOOD NEWS ON THE REFUGEE FRONT. UNITED NATIONS RELIEF WORKERS SAY THEY WERE ABLE TO REACH ABOUT SIX-THOUSAND KOSOVO REFUGEES STRANDED IN THE MOUNTAIN VILLAGE OF MALINA. THEY HAVE BEEN WAITING THERE FOR DAYS FOR FOOD AND MEDICINE. BUT U-N OFFICIALS SAY ANOTHER TEN-THOUSAND REFUGEES ARE ON THEIR WAY TO THE AREA.

    ALSO THURSDAY, THE HEAD OF THE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE SAID MORE AND MORE REFUGEES ARE TELLING OF ALLEGED MASSACRES AND ETHNIC CLEANSING BY SERBIAN FORCES AS THEY FLED KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JBM/WFR
    22-Apr-99 6:44 PM EDT (2244 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] PENTAGON / KOSOVO (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248465
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TOP U-S INTELLIGENCE OFFICIALS SAY NATO AIR STRIKES HAVE DESTROYED UP TO 20 PER CENT OF THE SERB TANKS IN KOSOVO. REAR ADMIRAL TOM WILSON ALSO SAYS THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY IS REGAINING STRENGTH AND HARRYING SERB-LED YUGOSLAV FORCES. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: ADMIRAL WILSON SAYS THERE WERE HUNDREDS OF SERB TANKS AND ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS IN OR NEAR KOSOVO WHEN OPERATION ALLIED FORCE BEGAN. HE SAYS MANY OF NATO'S THOUSANDS OF AIR ATTACKS FOCUSED ON THE TANKS THAT HELP FORCE ETHNIC ALBANIANS TO FLEE THEIR HOMES OR DIE. THE INTELLIGENCE EXPERT SAYS NATO BOMBS HAVE TAKEN A TOLL ON SERB ARMOR.

    /// WILSON ACT ///

    I DO NOT HAVE A GOOD RELIABLE NUMBER BUT ITS PROBABLY BETWEEN TEN AND 20 PERCENT IN THAT ARENA

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ADMIRAL SAYS SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO HAVE HAD TO STEP UP THEIR COUNTER-INSURGENCY OPERATIONS AGAINST THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY IN RECENT DAYS.

    /// WILSON ACT ///

    THE SERBS THEMSELVES IN KOSOVO ARE UNDER INCREASING PRESSURE FROM A RESURGENT U-C-K (KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY) THEY ARE BACK IN THERE WITH MORE NUMBERS THAN THEY HAD BEFORE. THEY HAVE SUCCESSFULLY RECRUITED FROM REFUGEE CAMPS IN ALBANIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ADMIRAL SAYS THE AIR ATTACKS ARE HURTING SERB MILITARY MORALE AND, ON SOME DAYS, 'HUNDREDS' OF SERB SOLDIERS WALK AWAY FROM THEIR UNITS IN KOSOVO.

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY THE AIR WAR WILL CONTINUE AND INTENSIFY. NATO WARPLANES HAVE FLOWN 93-HUNDRED SORTIES IN THE WEEKS SINCE OPERATION ALLIED FORCE BEGAN BATTERING SERB TARGETS ALL ACROSS YUGOSLAVIA.

    NATO'S TOP PRIORITY IS TO WRECK OR CONFUSE YUGOSLAV AIR DEFENSES, AND ADMIRAL WILSON SAYS NATO PLANES CAN NOW GO ANYWHERE IN YUGOSLAVIA AND ATTACK ANYTHING WITHOUT TAKING UNACCEPTABLE RISKS. HE SAYS AT LEAST 16 YUGOSLAV EARLY WARNING RADARS HAVE BEEN DESTROYED, ALONG WITH ONE THIRD OF THE BIG SA-3 SURFACE TO AIR MISSILES AND PERHAPS 15 PER CENT OF THE MOBILE SA-6 MISSILES MOST FEARED BY NATO PILOTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/KL
    22-Apr-99 1:10 PM EDT (1710 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] Q&A KOSOVO BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248446
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    LES CARPENTER: THERE IS RUMOR THAT ONE OF THE HOUSES OF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC MAY HAVE BEEN HIT OVERNIGHT.

    GUY DIMORE: ITS THE OFFICIAL RESIDENCE, WHICH IS NOT FAR FROM WHERE I LIVE. Q: CAN YOU TELL ME MORE ABOUT THAT. D: THE OFFICIAL RESIDENCE OF THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT, WHO IS NOW PRESIDENT MILOSIVIC. BEFORE HIM IN THE EARLY 80'S AND 70'S IT WAS THE OFFICIAL RESIDENCE OF PRESIDENT TITO. IT IS IN A RESIDENTIAL AREA, ON A HILL CENTRAL BELGRADE. IT IS A VERY HUGE RESIDENCE, IT IS BELIEVED ALSO TO HAVE AN UNDERGROUND BUNKER, COMMAND CENTER.

    THERE WERE ENORMOUS EXPLOSIONS IN THE AREA. I'M NOT LIVING FAR FROM THERE MYSELF. TELEVISION THIS MORNING CONFIRMED THAT THE RESIDENCE HAD BEEN HIT AND THEY SAY PRESIDENT MILOSIVIC WAS NOT IN IT AT THE TIME. THE AREA IS NOW SEALED OFF. Q.: WHAT ARE THE OTHER TARGETS THAT WERE HIT DURING THE NIGHT IN THE BELGRADE AREA. A: THERE WERE ENORMOUS EXPLOSIONS THAT WE STILL HAVE NOT MANAGED TO FIND OUT WHERE THEY ALL WERE. THEY MIGHT HAVE BEEN TARGETING AN AREA NEAR THE PANCHIVO BRIDGE WHICH IS THE MAIN BRIDGE IN BELGRADE BECAUSE OF THE DANUBE LINKING CENTRAL SERBIA WITH THE NORTH. THE BRIDGE ITSELF HAS NOT BEEN HIT BUT AREAS AROUND IT WERE.

    ACCORDING TO STATE TELEVISION ALSO THE TOWN OF VALIVO IN CENTRAL SERBIA WAS ALSO DAMAGED LAST NIGHT. Q: WE ALSO UNDERSTAND THAT RUSSIAN PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S SPECIAL ENVOY VICTOR CHERNOMYRDIN IS TO BE IN BELGRADE PROBABLY SOME TIME TODAY. HE IS SAID TO BE ON HIS WAY. DO YOU EXPECT ANY OR ANYTHING TO LOOK PROMISING OUT OF THIS VISIT WITH MR. MILOSIVIC? A: I THINK IT IS A VERY IMPORTANT VISIT. HE SAYS WE HAVE A FIVE-POINT INITIATIVE THAT IS ALSO BEING (ENDORSED BY) GEORGIA, UKRAINE, AND SOME OF THE OTHER FORMER STATES OF THE SOVIET UNION. THE MOST IMPORTANT INGREDIENT OF THIS INITIATIVE IS SOME KIND OF INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE FOR KOSOVO WHICH WOULD PROBABLY BE LED BY THE UNITED NATIONS AND WOULD INVOLVE COUNTRIES PERHAPS MORE ACCEPTABLE TO YUGOSLAVIA. THE PROBLEM WITH THIS IS THAT THE PROBLEM SO FAR IS PRESIDENT MILOSIVIC HAS REFUSED ANY FOREIGN TROOPS IN KOSOVO AND HE IS INSISTING ON A U-N CIVILIAN FORCE RATHER THAN A MILITARY FORCE.

    I THINK WE WILL HAVE TO WAIT AND SEE WHETHER THE RUSSIANS HAVE GOT SUFFICIENT LEVERAGE OVER MILOSIVIC TO PERSUADE HIM TO ACCEPT SOME KIND OF INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE. Q: NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA HAS AUTHORIZED ALLIANCE COMMANDERS TO UPDATE THEIR PLANS FOR A POSSIBLE GROUND INVASION OF KOSOVO. THE NATO MEETINGS ARE IN WASHINGTON STARTING LATER TOMORROW (FRIDAY). IS THERE ANY WORD THERE THAT THEY ARE HOPEFUL THAT SOMETHING WILL COME OUT OF THIS NATO MEETING THAT WILL HELP END THE AIR STRIKES? D: NO. I THINK QUITE THE CONTRARY. THE GOVERNMENT'S POSITION SEEMS TO BE THAT THEY ARE EXPECTING, EVENTUALLY, A GROUND INVASION OF SOME KIND. THE MAIN QUESTION SEEMS TO BE WHICH DIRECTION IT WILL COME -- WHETHER FROM ALBANIAN MACEDONIA IN THE SOUTH WHICH LOGISTICALLY APPEARS IMPOSSIBLE. FROM BOVIR IN THE WEST WHICH IS ALSO VERY DIFFICULT BECAUSE THEY HAVE TO GO THROUGH SERB-CONTROLLED TERRITORY. A LOT OF PEOPLE IN BELGRADE SUSPECT THE INVASION MAY EVENTUALLY COME IF EITHER FROM CROATIA AND HUNGARY IN THE NORTH OR BULGARIA AND ROMANIA IN THE EAST. THE GOVERNMENT HERE SAYS ITS PREPARING FOR THAT GROUND INVASION. I THINK THEY HAVE BEEN SAVING A LOT OF THEIR AIR DEFENSE UNITS TO GET READY FOR THE LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT THAT WILL COME IN WITH GROUND TROOPS.

    I THINK THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE WITHIN THIS GOVERNMENT BELIEVE A GROUND INVASION WOULD HELP THEM TO SOME EXTENT BECAUSE THEY THINK IT WILL SWING THE RUSSIANS FIRMLY BEHIND THEM AND PROVOKE A WIDER CONFLICT. Q: THEY ARE PUTTING PRESSURE ON SOME OF THE NEIGHBORS, BULGARIA, FOR INSTANCE, TO PREVENT ANY INVASION FROM COMING FROM THAT AREA? A: BULGARIA DOES SEEM VERY DIVIDED OVER THE WHOLE ISSUE. THE OPPOSITION IS STRONGLY AGAINST NATO AIR STRIKES. THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE MOMENT IS GOING ONLY SO FAR AS IT HAS TO IN ORDER TO SUPPORT NATO. BUT YES, THERE IS A LOT OF PRESSURE FROM BELGRADE ON ITS NEIGHBORING STATES TO KEEP OUT OF THE CONFLICT. BUT SERBIA DOES NOT HAVE VERY GOOD RELATIONS WITH ANY OF HIS NEIGHBORS. IT IS QUITE A DIFFICULT POSITION.
    NEB / CB-T / WD
    22-Apr-99 6:56 AM EDT (1056 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] Q&A / KOSOVO-VILLAGE BY PHILIP SMUCKER / SUSAN YACKEE (SKOPJE/WASH)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248484
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FEW WESTERN REPORTERS HAVE BEEN IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE SINCE MARCH -- WHEN NATO BEGAN BOMBING SERB FORCES AND HUNDREDS OF THOUSAND OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS STARTED FLEEING THE COUNTRY. V-O-A'S SUSAN YACKEE SPOKE TO JOURNALIST PHILIP SMUCKER WHO HAS JUST RETURNED FROM KOSOVO AND DESCRIBED WHAT HE SAW IN THIS INTERVIEW FROM SKOPJE, MACEDONIA. YACKEE: YOU'VE HAD QUITE AN ADVENTURE, JUST RETURNING FROM KOSOVO AS YOU HAVE AND HAVING BEEN ONE OF THE RARE WESTERN JOURNALISTS TO HAVE VISITED A SERB-CONTROLLED VILLAGE. AND THERE YOU WERE ABLE TO SPEAK WITH SOME OF THE PEOPLE. WHAT WERE THE STORIES THOSE RESIDENTS HAD FOR YOU? SMUCKER: WELL, IT WAS A REMOTE VILLAGE AND IT WAS ON THE BORDER NEAR PRIZREN. BUT THIS REMOTE VILLAGE HAD NOT BEEN DESTROYED. IT HAD BEEN ETHNICALLY CLEANSED -- IN OTHER WORDS, THERE WEREN'T MANY ALBANIANS LEFT THERE. THERE WERE ONLY OLD PEOPLE AND ONE MAN IN PARTICULAR WHO HAD A WIFE WHO WAS DYING. THESE FOLKS HAD STAYED ON DESPITE EVERYTHING AND WERE TRYING TO GET BY. BUT THEY WERE BEING SUBJECTED TO SOME RATHER AWFUL THREATS -- THEY SAID -- FROM SERBIAN SOLDIERS WHO HAD COME IN FACT ON THE 18TH AND 19TH OF THIS MONTH AND TOLD THEM THAT IF NATO STARTED A GROUND WAR THEY WOULD BE IMMEDIATELY EXECUTED. THEY WERE WARNED TO GET OUT. THE SAME KIND OF THING WE'VE HEARD. BUT, ON THE OTHER HAND, THEY SAW WITH THEIR OWN EYES A KIND OF ROUTINE OF INTIMIDATION AND LOOTING EVERYDAY -- AT THE SAME TIME, 10 A-M -- THERE IS A MILITARY TRUCK THAT COMES TO THIS VILLAGE AND PICKS UP T-V SETS, VIDEO PLAYERS, AND ANYTHING OF VALUE. NOW THIS VILLAGE HAS BEEN PRESERVED INTACT. ONE COULD SUGGEST THAT THAT COULD BE BECAUSE THERE'S A LOT OF SERBIAN POLICE STATIONED IN THIS VILLAGE -- NOT ONLY POLICE BUT THERE SEEM TO BE SOME SPECIAL FORCES WHICH WE SAW ON PATROL -- MEN IN BLACK. THEY COULD BE EITHER MINISTRY OF INTERIOR TROOPS, SPECIAL FORCES, OR THEY COULD BE SPECIAL FORCES ATTACHED TO ONE GENTLEMEN WHO RUNS A PARAMILITARY OUTFIT.... SO THESE PEOPLE ON PATROL SEEM TO HAVE LEFT SOME OF THE COWS THERE. BUT A LOT OF THE ANIMALS HAVE BEEN SLAUGHTERED IN THE STREET. THAT'S THE GENERAL PICTURE THERE. YACKEE: DID YOU SPEAK TO ANY OF THE SERB OFFICIALS THERE OR DID YOU DELIBERATELY TRY TO AVOID THEM? SMUCKER: WELL, NO I DID NOT DELIBERATELY TRY TO AVOID THEM BUT SINCE THESE WERE PROBABLY SOME OF THE MOST INTOLERANT FORCES IN KOSOVO AT THE MOMENT -- IT WAS NOT APPROPRIATE TO APPROACH THEM. WE SAW THEM FROM THE HILL AFTER A SEVEN HOUR WALK INTO KOSOVO AND WE DID NOT KNOW WHAT TO DO BECAUSE WE NEEDED A PLACE TO SLEEP. WE COULDN'T GO BACK OVER THE MOUNTAIN BECAUSE WE COULD HAVE VERY WELL FROZEN TO DEATH. SO WE WATCHED THE PATROL GO BY; WE TOOK NOTE OF IT AND THEN WE WENT DOWN INTO THE VILLAGE INTO A HOUSE AND WE SPENT THE NIGHT WITH AN OLD MAN WHOSE WIFE WAS ON DRIPS (GETTING I-V FLUIDS). BEFORE, SHE WAS GETTING INTRAVENOUS FEEDING AND NOW SHE HAS NOTHING AND SHE WAS SCREAMING ALL NIGHT, KIND OF DELIRIOUS. I THINK SHE MAYBE HAS A DAY OR TWO LEFT BEFORE SHE DIES. YACKEE: WHAT ABOUT GETTING AID TO THESE PEOPLE? IS IT POSSIBLE TO GET MORE AID TO THEM OR IS THERE SITUATION PRETTY HOPELESS AT THIS TIME? SMUCKER: WELL THIS IS DISTINGUISHED FROM THE PEOPLE WHO ARE LIVING IN THE FOREST AND WHO ARE EXPOSED. THOSE PEOPLE APPARENTLY HAVE NO AID AND THEY HAVE NO OR LITTLE SUPPLIES OF FOOD BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT IN THEIR OWN HOMES. THESE PEOPLE, THEY HAVE A LITTLE BIT. BUT IN THE CASE OF SOME OF THEM, PARTICULARLY THIS GENTLEMAN, HIS WIFE HAS NO ACCESS TO MEDICINE EVEN THOUGH THERE IS A SERBIAN BASE NOT FAR FROM THE VILLAGE THAT PRESUMABLY, WITH 500 SOLDIERS, WOULD HAVE PLENTY OF MEDICS. BUT THAT IS NOT BEING GIVEN OUT TO THEM. THE OTHER FOLKS OBVIOUSLY ARE IN DIRE NEED OF SOME KIND OF AIRDROPS (OF AID). BUT WE HEARD WESLEY CLARK, THE HEAD OF NATO, SAY THAT IS NOT FEASIBLE AT THE MOMENT AND HE AT ONE POINT SUGGESTED THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAD THE RESPONSIBILITY TO FEED THESE PEOPLE. NEB/PS/SY/PHW/JO
    22-Apr-99 6:48 PM EDT (2248 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] ALBANIA CRIME (L ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248471
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN REFUGEE RELIEF AID IS FLOWING INTO ALBANIA THROUGH ADRIATIC SEAPORTS AND TIRANA'S AIRPORT. SOME OF THE SUPPLIES HAVE BEEN FOUND ON THE OPEN MARKET, AND THERE ARE CHARGES OF WIDESPREAD THEFT. BUT V-O-A CORRESPONDENT GIL BUTLER IN TIRANA REPORTS RELIEF AGENCIES AND INTERNATIONAL POLICE OFFICERS SAY THE FIGURES ABOUT THEFTS OF AID ARE INFLATED.

    TEXT: ALBANIA -- THE POOREST COUNTRY IN EUROPE -- PROBABLY HAS THE MOST GUNS PER PERSON. ARMED GANGS OPERATE IN SOME PARTS OF THE COUNTRY AND BANDITRY IS A PROBLEM IN REMOTE REGIONS. ADD TO THOSE FACTS THE REACTION TO MORE THAN 40 YEARS OF REPRESSIVE COMMUNISM AND OBSERVERS SAY IT IS LITTLE WONDER THAT THIS COUNTRY HAS A CRIME PROBLEM.

    AN AMERICAN BANK ROBBER OF THE 1930'S SAID -- WHEN ASKED WHY HE ROBBED BANKS -- THAT'S WHERE THE MONEY IS. NOW, REFUGEE RELIEF IS REPORTED TO BE A TARGET OF CRIMINALS. JUST HOW BIG A PROBLEM IT IS IS DISPUTED. SOME NEWS REPORTS SAY AN UNLIKELY 70 PERCENT OF ALL INCOMING RELIEF SUPPLIES IS STOLEN ON THE WAY FROM THE PORT TO THE REFUGEE CAMPS.

    JOHN MURRAY OF THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM SAYS THAT FIGURE IS GREATLY INFLATED, ALTHOUGH HE ACKNOWLEDGES SOME THEFT CANNOT BE AVOIDED. HE SAYS THE FOOD PROVIDERS ARE TRYING TO CONTROL IT, AND ARE SATISFIED WITH THEIR ARRANGEMENTS.

    /// MURRAY ACT ///

    WE ARE CONFIDENT THAT THE ARRANGEMENTS WE HAVE IN PLACE FOR THE RECEIPT, THE STORAGE IN PORTS AND THE AIRPORT, AND THE MOVEMENT UP-COUNTRY TO THE SEVERAL EXTENDED DELIVERY POINTS THAT WE HAVE IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF ALBANIA -- WE ARE CONFIDENT THAT THE FOOD THERE IS WELL-STORED, IS SECURE, AND IS NOT BEING MISUSED.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN 1997, THE COLLAPSE OF AN ALBANIAN PYRAMID INVESTMENT SCHEME FURTHER IMPOVERISHED THE PEOPLE. AND GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTIONS LIKE THE POLICE FELL APART.

    IN RESPONSE, THE EUROPEAN UNION STARTED A PROJECT TO MODERNIZE AND IMPROVE ALBANIA'S POLICE FORCE. FRENCH POLICE OFFICIAL ALAIN LABROT HEADS THE PROJECT. HE SAYS THERE ARE MANY RUMORS ABOUT HUGE THEFTS OF REFUGEE GOODS, BUT HE SAYS THE NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS TO POLICE DOES NOT MATCH THE RUMORS.

    OF THE CRIME PROBLEM IN GENERAL, COLONEL LABROT POINTS TO THE NUMBER OF GUNS IN PRIVATE HANDS IN ALBANIA.

    /// LABROT ACT ///

    THE ALBANIAN POLICE HAVE TO FACE A VERY BIG CRIMINAL ELEMENT. ONE OF THE MAIN CONCERNS IS THE FACT THAT THE POPULATION IS OVER-ARMED. THE WEAPONS HAVE BEEN STOLEN IN THE 1997 CRISIS. AND EVERYBODY IS ARMED AND THIS REALLY CREATES A VERY STRONG FEELING OF INSECURITY -- NOT ONLY IN THE POPULATION BUT ALSO ON THE PART OF THE POLICE.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAYS ONE OF THE MAIN PROJECTS IS TO, STEP-BY-STEP, GET THE WEAPONS OUT OF THE HANDS OF THE GENERAL POPULATION.

    ANOTHER PROBLEM, A LEGACY OF YEARS OF COMMUNISM, WAS A GENERAL DISTRUST OF POLICE. COLONEL LABROT SAYS THAT ATTITUDE IS CHANGING AS POLICE BEHAVIOR IMPROVES.

    HE SAYS THE INFLUX OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES HAS PRESENTED A SPECIAL CHALLENGE FOR ALBANIAN POLICE. COLONEL LABROT SAYS THE POLICE ARE CREATING A SPECIAL ORGANIZATION TO DEAL ONLY WITH THE REFUGEE CAMPS AND REFUGEE CRIMINALITY.

    THE REFUGEE CRISIS SHOWS NO SIGNS OF DISAPPEARING ANY TIME SOON. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION POLICE MISSION RECENTLY SIGNED AN AGREEMENT TO TRAIN ALBANIAN POLICE FOR ANOTHER YEAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH/KL
    22-Apr-99 2:30 PM EDT (1830 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] ALBANIA/BORDER (L) BY TIM BELAY (KUKES)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248480
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LESS THAN ONE THOUSAND REFUGEES CROSSED FROM KOSOVO INTO ALBANIA ON THURSDAY. TIM BELAY REPORTS FROM KUKES THAT THE QUIET SITUATON CONTINUES TO CONCERN INTERNATIONAL MONITORS.

    TEXT: THE FLOW OF KOSOVAR REFUGESS HERE HAS SLOWED TO A TRICKLE THIS WEEK COMPARED TO THE FLOOD OF NEW ARRIVALS AT THE END OF LAST WEEK. WHILE THE CHANGE HAS MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR THE UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE AGENCY TO MOVE GREATER NUMBERS OF PEOPLE OUT OF THE KUKES DISTRICT, THERE ARE GRAVE CONCERNS ABOUT WHAT MIGHT BE HAPPENING TO PEOPLE ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BORDER.

    OWEN O'SULLIVAN IS THE HEAD OF THE KUKES FIELD OFFICE OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE OR OSCE. MR. O'SULLIVAN SAYS THERE MAY BE UP TO ONE MILLION DISPLACED PEOPLE STILL INSIDE KOSOVO.

    ///O'SULLIVAN ACT 1//

    I MEAN OUR INFORMATION IS THAT THE NUMBER OF THESE ARE TRYING TO GET OUT BUT THEY ARE BEING PREVENTED. I MEAN THEY HAVE LEFT THEIR HOMES AND THEY ARE BEING MOVED AROUND BY THE SERBS. "

    //END ACT 1//

    MR O'SULLIVAN SAYS THERE ARE TWO THEORIES WHY THE REMAINING ETHNIC ALABANIANS INSIDE KOSOVO HAVE NOT LEFT. WHEN THE NATO BOMBING BEGAN THERE WERE UP TO FOUR THOUSAND REFUGEES ARRIVING IN ALBANIA EACH HOUR. HE SAYS AT THAT RATE ALL OF THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS WOULD HAVE EVACUATED KOSOVO WITHIN THREE WEEKS.

    //O'SULLIVAN ACT 2//

    AND I CAN ONLY ASSUME THAT SOMEBODY SAID : "WELL STOP THE LIGHT". IF THIS HAPPENS, EVERYBODY LEFT INSIDE IS GOING TO BE LEGITIMATE TARGET FOR NATO. THE OTHER THEORY IS THAT THEY WANT THE PERPETRATORS OF THIS GENOCIDE, ETHNIC CLEANSING -- CALL IT WHAT YOU WANT --, WANT TO MAKE THE PEOPLE SUFFER MORE.

    //END ACT 2//

    MEANWHILE THERE WAS ANOTHER MINOR BORDER INCIDENT ON THURSDAY. MR. OSULLIVAN SAYS YUGOSLAV TROOPS FIRED MACHINE GUNS AT ALBANIAN BORDER POLICE NORTH OF KUKES, NEAR THE VILLAGE OF DE BRUNA. THE ALBANIAN SIDE REPORTEDLY DID NOT RETURN FIRE ALTHOUGH ONE ALBANIAN BORDER POLICE OFFICER WAS WOUNDED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TB/PHW-T/PT
    22-Apr-99 4:40 PM EDT (2040 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KOSOVO / RIGHTS (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248461
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE HEAD OF THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE, MARY ROBINSON, SAYS THERE IS AN INCREASING NUMBER OF ALLEGED CASES OF ETHNIC CLEANSING, SUMMARY AND ARBITRARY EXECUTIONS AND DISAPPEARANCES OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS MS. ROBINSON GAVE HER LATEST UPDATE ON THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO TO THE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION.

    TEXT: THE U-N'S CHIEF HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICER, MARY ROBINSON, SAYS A PATTERN OF ABUSE IS EMERGING FROM INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED BY HER INVESTIGATORS IN THE BALKANS.

    MS. ROBINSON SAYS TESTIMONIES RECEIVED SO FAR INDICATE THAT TENS OF THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS HAVE BEEN BRUTALLY EXPELLED FROM THEIR HOMES IN KOSOVO BY SERB MILITARY, PARAMILITARY, OR POLICE FORCES.

    SHE SAYS THE DESCRIPTIONS TAKE ON A HORRIBLE SIMILARITY. FOR INSTANCE, SHE SAYS HER STAFF INTERVIEWED THREE REFUGEE FAMILIES FROM DIFFERENT VILLAGES., AND ALL THREE FAMILIES REPORTED THEY WERE FORCIBLY EVICTED FROM THEIR HOMES AT VERY SHORT NOTICE.

    /// ROBINSON ACT ONE ///

    THEY REPORTED THAT THE POLICE ARRIVED IN TANKS, ARMORED VEHICLES, AS WELL AS WHAT APPEARED TO BE CONFISCATED CIVILIAN VEHICLES. IN EACH CASE, THE POLICE EITHER HAD MASKS OVER THEIR FACES OR THEIR FACES WERE PAINTED. THE FAMILIES REPORTED THAT THEIR IDENTITY CARDS, CAR REGISTRATION PLATES, AND VALUABLES WERE CONFISCATED OR DESTROYED.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY ESTIMATES NEARLY 600-THOUSAND KOSOVAR REFUGEES HAVE FLED INTO NEIGHBORING ALBANIA, MACEDONIA AND MONTENEGRO SINCE NATO BEGAN ITS BOMBING CAMPAIGN ONE MONTH AGO. THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM BELIEVES ABOUT 800-THOUSAND INTERNALLY DISPLACED PEOPLE REMAIN INSIDE KOSOVO.

    MS. ROBINSON SAYS REFUGEES WHO MADE IT TO THE BORDER REPORTED THEY HAD BEEN HIDING FOR WEEKS IN THE HILLS AND IN SOME CASES HAD TO WALK FOR DAYS TO REACH THE BORDER.

    /// ROBINSON ACT TWO ///

    OUR OFFICE HAS RECEIVED ACCOUNTS OF CHILDREN AND ELDERLY PEOPLE DYING OF EXPOSURE ON THEIR WAY OUT OF KOSOVO. SEVERAL REFUGEES HAVE REPORTED BEING FORCED TO PAY SUBSTANTIAL BRIBES TO BORDER OFFICIALS IN ORDER TO CROSS THE FRONTIER. SOME REFUGEES WHO HAVE ARRIVED DURING THE LAST WEEK IN MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA ARE REPORTED TO HAVE SHOWN SIGNS OF MISTREATMENT AND BEATINGS, SUCH AS SCARS AND BRUISES, WHILE OTHERS, INCLUDING CHILDREN, HAD BULLET OR SHRAPNEL WOUNDS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE HUMAN RIGHTS CHIEF SAYS SHE HAS RECEIVED ACCOUNTS OF MASS EXECUTIONS AND KILLINGS IN KOSOVO. SHE SAYS NEWLY ARRIVED REFUGEES SAY THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE DETAINED IN KOSOVO AND ARE BEING USED AS FORCED LABOR. SHE SAYS DIFFERENT SOURCES REPORT AS MANY AS 100-THOUSAND KOSOVO ALBANIAN MEN OF FIGHTING AGE HAVE DISAPPEARED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    22-Apr-99 12:06 PM EDT (1606 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] MACEDONIA / REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (BLACE, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248460
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BLACE BORDER POINT IN MACEDONIA IS ONCE AGAIN BEING USED AS A TRANSIT CAMP FOR ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO. AND INTERNATIONAL AID WORKERS ARE TRYING TO COPE WITH INCREASING NUMBERS OF REFUGEES AND LIMITED SPACE TO HOUSE THEM. V-O-A'S EVE CONANT REPORTS AID WORKERS ALSO SAY THEY ARE BEING DENIED ACCESS TO CERTAIN VILLAGES WHERE REFUGEES ARE IN DIRE NEED OF HELP.

    TEXT: TWO WEEKS AGO THE 40-THOUSAND REFUGEES CRAMMED INTO THIS SMALL AREA KNOWN AS THE "NO-MAN'S LAND" AT BLACE WERE CLEARED OUT ALMOST OVERNIGHT. FAMILIES WERE SEPARATED AND MANY REFUGEES REPORTED ABUSE BY MACEDONIAN POLICE DURING THEIR HASTY, AND IN SOME CASES, FORCED DEPARTURE.

    FOR WEEKS BLACE REMAINED EMPTY. REFUGEES CROSSING THE BORDER WERE IMMEDIATELY TRANSPORTED BY BUS TO NEARBY CAMPS. BUT NOW, THE REFUGEE CAMPS ARE FULL. THE MACEDONIAN GOVERNMENT HAS ALLOWED INTERNATIONAL AID WORKERS TO TAKE OVER THE BLACE AREA AND NOW THOSE WORKERS HAVE NO OTHER CHOICE BUT TO USE BLACE ONCE AGAIN AS A TRANSIT CAMP.

    /// SOUNDS OF HAMMERING ///

    WORKERS HAMMER TENT STAKES IN THE GROUND AS REFUGEES CONTINUE TO POUR ACROSS THE BORDER.

    AN OLDER WOMAN, HANIFE HALIMI (HA-'NI'-FE 'HA'-LEE-MEE) HAS JUST MADE IT TO BLACE AFTER BEING TURNED BACK TWICE BY SERB FORCES. SHE SITS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE TRANSIT CAMP WITH ABOUT 100 OTHERS WHO JUST ARRIVED. THEIR TENTS ARE NOT READY YET.

    /// HALIME ACT - IN ALBANIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    WE ARE WAITING,, SHE SAYS, BUT I DON'T KNOW FOR WHAT. I AM VERY, VERY TIRED.

    A SPOKESPERSON FOR THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, PAULA GHEDINI, SAYS AID WORKERS HOPE TO AVOID THE PREVIOUS DISASTER AT BLACE -- WHERE REFUGEES WERE HELD FOR DAYS WITHOUT PROPER TENTS OR SANITATION. BUT SHE SAYS THERE IS AN EMERGENCY SHORTAGE OF SPACE IN MACEDONIA.

    /// GHEDINI ACT ///

    AS MOST OF YOU KNOW, WE ARE OUT OF CAPACITY HERE. WE DESPERATELY NEED TO START EVACUATING MORE PEOPLE OUT OF MACEDONIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-N-H-C-R STATISTICS SHOW THERE ARE NOW MORE THAN 130-THOUSAND REFUGEES IN MACEDONIA.

    MS. GHEDINI SAYS SEVERAL THOUSAND ARE IN THE MOUNTAIN VILLAGE OF MALINA WHERE ONE REFUGEE CHILD HAS ALREADY DIED OF OVEREXPOSURE TO COLD. SHE SAYS HUMANITARIAN WORKERS ARE TRYING TO SUPPLY BLANKETS AND FOOD TO THE VILLAGE. BUT EVEN AS THE THREAT OF DISEASE AND HUNGER GROWS, SHE SAYS, MACEDONIAN POLICE ARE REFUSING TO GRANT U-N-H-C-R ACCESS TO THE VILLAGE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH
    22-Apr-99 11:29 AM EDT (1529 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] MACEDONIA-VILLAGE UPDATE BY EVE CONANT (MALINA, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43161
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // EDITORS: THIS BACKGROUND REPORT WAS FILED MONDAY, APRIL 19. THE TEXT REMAINS THE SAME, BUT THE INTRO IS BEING UPDATED BECAUSE MACEDONIAN POLICE ARE NOW REFUSING TO ALLOW JOURNALISTS OR AID WORKERS INTO THIS VILLAGE. //

    INTRO: THE TINY VILLAGE OF MALINA IN NORTHEASTERN MACEDONIA HAS BECOME AN UNOFFICIAL GATHERING POINT FOR THOUSANDS OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES. THERE ARE 60 HOMES IN THE VILLAGE -- AND NOW THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES. THE THREAT OF HUNGER AND DISEASE IS WORSENING DAILY. ONE CHILD HAS ALREADY DIED OF OVEREXPOSURE. INTERNATIONAL AID WORKERS AND JOURNALISTS SAY MACEDONIAN POLICE ARE DENYING THEM ACCESS TO THE VILLAGE. V-O-A-'S EVE CONANT WAS ABLE TO VISIT MALINA EARLIER THIS WEEK AND FILED THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: LAST WEEK, THIS SMALL VILLAGE IN THE NORTHEAST MOUNTAINS OF MACEDONIA WAS HOME TO LESS THAN 300 PEOPLE. NOW, ABOUT 36-HUNDRED KOSOVAR REFUGEES HAVE MADE IT THEIR TEMPORARY HOME.

    ENTIRE KOSOVO VILLAGES HAVE BEEN TRANSPORTED HERE. THERE ARE PEOPLE EVERYWHERE. THE ONE NARROW DIRT ROAD IS FILLED WITH REFUGEES, THE MUD AND STRAW HOUSES PACKED WITH BETWEEN 50 TO 80-PEOPLE.

    /// NAT CROWDED ROOM, BABIES CRYING/ AND COUGHING ///

    THE VILLAGE SCHOOL IS NOW HOME TO 250 EXHAUSTED REFUGEES -- MANY WITH TERRIBLE COUGHS AFTER DAYS OF HIKING THROUGH THE MOUNTAINS TO REACH THE BORDER. THEY STAND SHOULDER-TO-SHOULDER, SQUEEZING PAST EACH OTHER TO VISIT THEIR FAMILIES IN SEPARATE ROOMS.

    CHILDREN SLEEP IN ROWS OF 10, UNDERNEATH CHALKBOARDS AND MAPS OF EUROPE. THEY HAVE ALL ARRIVED IN THE PAST TWO DAYS. MANY ARE SLEEPING AFTER CARRYING THEIR CHILDREN THROUGH THE MOUNTAINS, THOSE WHO ARE WIDE AWAKE STILL HAVE A LOOK OF TERROR ON THEIR FACES.

    MANY SNEAKED ACROSS FROM THE VILLAGE OF LUBISHTA ('LU'-BISH-TA) AND SHARE THE SAME STORIES. ONE WOMAN TALKS OF THREE VILLAGE MEN BEING MURDERED. A MAN ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE VILLAGE, 28-YEAR-OLD HAIRIE HAZIRI (HAI-'RI'-YEH HA-'ZI'-RI), TELLS THE SAME STORY.

    /// ACT HAZIRI IN ALBANIAN IN FULL AND FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS -- SOLDIERS BEAT THE MEN AND ASKED THEM WHERE THE K-L-A WERE HIDING, THEN THEY TOOK THEM DOWN TO THE STORE, GOUGED OUT THEIR EYES, SHOT THEM AND THREW THEM IN THE RIVER.

    IN THE DARK BASEMENT OF ONE VILLAGE HOUSE, A FAMILY OF 17 WARMS ITSELF AROUND AN ANCIENT FIREPLACE. OVER THE FIRE HANGS A LARGE BLACK POT. THEY ARE BOILING WATER TO WASH THEIR CLOTHES. IN THE DARK, DAMP AIR. AN OLD WOMAN IN WHITE ROCKS A BABY TO SLEEP IN A WOODEN CRADLE. HER DAUGHTER, XHEZIDE HASIMI (JEH-'ZI'-DE 'HA'-SI-MI), STOKES THE FIRE AND TALKS OF HER JOURNEY TO MALINA.

    /// ACT HASIMI IN ALBANIAN IN FULL AND FADE UNDER ///

    SHE SAYS -- WHEN THE POLICE FORCED US TO LEAVE, TWO PEOPLE GATHERED THE WHOLE VILLAGE TOGETHER. WE WAITED UNTIL MIDNIGHT BECAUSE WE WERE SCARED, THEN WE SNEAKED THROUGH THE BORDER. SHE SAYS -- THREE BABIES DIED ON THE WAY AND ONE OLD MAN GOT LOST IN THE DARK.

    THE NEW VILLAGERS OF MALINA ARE DOING THEIR BEST TO GATHER STRENGTH BEFORE THEY MOVE ON. MEN BRAVE THE CHILLY MOUNTAIN WIND TO CHOP AND COLLECT WOOD FOR FIRES. THE MOUNTAINS SURROUNDING THEM ARE STILL COVERED IN SNOW.

    /// TAKE NAT SOUND UP AND UNDER WATER/ROOSTER IN BACKGROUND ///

    IN ONE MUDDY YARD, A BOY PILES POTATOES INTO A POT, USING A LARGE WOODEN STICK TO STIR AND WASH THEM. THE MOST WIDESPREAD FORM OF ENTERTAINMENT FOR THE CHILDREN IS TO CHASE CHICKENS AROUND THE MUD HOUSES -- ADDING TO THE NOISE AND HAVOC IN THIS ONCE SLEEPY VILLAGE.

    INTERNATIONAL AIDE WORKERS HAVE DISCOVERED MALINA, BUT ROUGH ROADS AND A RECENT RAINFALL MAKES TRANSPORTING BLANKETS AND FOOD HERE NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE. MOST CARS CANNOT TRAVERSE THE MUDDY HILLS AND SMALL RIVERS TO GET HERE.

    INSIDE THE VILLAGE, THERE IS NO (HOUSING) SPACE. SCHOOL DESKS AND FURNITURE ARE PILED OUTSIDE TO MAKE ROOM. FAMILIES OF 20 AND 30 PEOPLE CAN BE SEEN WALKING AWAY FROM MALINA ON THE MUDDY, STEEP PATHS THAT LEAD TO NEARBY VILLAGES.

    BUT EVEN AS THE REFUGEES SLOWLY DEPART, EACH NIGHT AFTER MIDNIGHT MORE REFUGEES ARRIVE -- AND NO ONE HERE IN THIS TINY, OVERWHELMED VILLAGE IS TURNING THEM AWAY. (SIGNED) NEB/EC/ALW/RAE/RRM
    22-Apr-99 11:28 AM EDT (1528 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] U-N / MACEDONIAN REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248477
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SAYS U-N AID WORKERS HAVE GAINED ACCESS TO SEVERAL THOUSAND REFUGEES STRANDED IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA. THERE WERE FEARS MANY OF THE REFUGEES COULD FACE STARVATION WITHOUT IMMEDIATE AID. V-O-A'S U-N CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: U-N SPOKESMAN FRED ECKHARD SAYS THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, THE U-N-H-C-R, WAS GRANTED ACCESS TO A GROUP OF ABOUT SIX-THOUSAND KOSOVO REFUGEES, WHO HAVE BEEN STRANDED FOR DAYS, WITHOUT FOOD AND WATER, IN THE MACEDONIAN VILLAGE OF MALINA.

    /// ECKHARD ACT ///

    WE JUST LEARNED FROM THE U-N-H-C-R TEAM IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA, THAT AID WORKERS, WHO HAVE BEEN TRYING SINCE MONDAY TO REACH MORE THAN SIX-THOUSAND REFUGEES STRANDED ON A WINDSWEPT RIDGE OF MALINA, HAVE GAINED ACCESS TO THEM ABOUT ONE HOUR AGO. NO DETAILS OF THEIR CONDITIONS WERE IMMEDIATELY KNOWN.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-N AID WORKERS HAVE BEEN TRYING TO REACH THE STRANDED REFUGEES FOR DAYS. THE WORKERS HAD BEEN TURNED BACK FROM THE SNOWBOUND VILLAGE BY MACEDONIAN BORDER GUARDS DESPITE THE FACT THEY HAD PERMISSION FROM THE MACEDONIAN GOVERNMENT TO TRAVEL TO THE VILLAGE.

    EARLIER IN THE WEEK, THOUSANDS MORE REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO WERE REPORTED TO BE TRAVELLING TOWARDS THE SAME VILLAGE, RAISING CONCERNS AMONG AID WORKERS THAT LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE COULD DIE OF EXPOSURE TO THE COLD OR STARVATION. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/WTW
    22-Apr-99 3:38 PM EDT (1938 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] CLINTON/KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248486
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON -- ON THE EVE OF THE NATO SUMMIT OPENING SAYS HE BELIEVES THE ALLIES CAN STILL REACH THEIR OBJECTIVES IN KOSOVO WITHOUT USING GROUND TROOPS. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: APPEARING HERE ALONGSIDE WITH NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA, THE PRESIDENT SAID HE SUPPORTS MR. SOLANA'S DECISION TO UPDATE NATO CONTINGENCY PLANS FOR A GROUND INVASION OF KOSOVO. BUT HE INSISTED THAT THE NOW MONTH-LONG AIR CAMPAIGN IS WORKING AND WILL EVENTUALLY PREVAIL:

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY///

    MY POSITION IS STILL THE SAME. I SUPPORT THE STRATEGY WE HAVE EMBRACED. IT HAS THE UNITY OF THE ALLIANCE AND IT WILL BE VIGOROUSLY PROSECUTED. A VIGOROUS PROSECUTION OF THE AIR CAMPAIGN, AN INTENSIFICATION OF ECONOMIC PRESSURES ALONG WITH OUR CONTINUING DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS -- I BELIEVE IS THE CORRECT STRATEGY. AND I BELEIVE IT WILL SUCCEED.BUT I SUPPORT THE DECISION HE MADE. I THINK IT'S ONLY PRUDENT.

    ///END ACT///

    UNDER QUESTIONING, MR. CLINTON SAID NATO IS NOT TARGETING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HIMSELF DESPITE THE MISSILE STRIKE THAT DAMAGED ONE OF HIS HOMES IN BELGRADE. HE ALSO GAVE A CAUTIOUS WELCOME TO A REPORT THAT THE YUGOSLAV LEADER HAS TOLD RUSSIAN ENVOY VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN HE WOULD SUPPORT AN INTERNATIONAL FORCE FOR KOSOVO:

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY///

    IF THERE IS AN OFFER FOR A GENUINE SECURITY FORCE, THAT'S THE FIRST TIME THAT MR. MILOSEVIC HAS EVER DONE THAT AND THAT REPRESENTS -- I SUPPOSE -- SOME STEP FORWARD. MY INTEREST HERE IS IN SOMETHING THAT WILL WORK, THAT WILL HAVE THE SUPPORT OF THE PARTIES. MY BELIEF IS THAT THE MEMBERS OF OUR ALLIANCE WANT US ALL TO BE ABLE TO GO IN THERE, AND THAT THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS WANT TO FEEL PROTECTED.

    ///END ACT///

    THE REPORT ON THE MILOSEVIC OFFER -- BY RUSSIA'S ITAR-TASS NEWS AGENCY -- SAID THE FORCE ENVISAGED BY BELGRADE WOULD BE UNDER U-N AUSPICES AND INCLUDE RUSSIAN TROOPS.

    MR. CLINTON SAID HE HOPED RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND OTHERS WOULD CONTRIBUTE TROOPS TO A KOSOVO PEACE FORCE, WHICH HE SAID WOULD ALSO BE TASKED WITH PROTECTING KOSOVO'S SERB MINORITY FROM ETHNIC-ALBANIAN VENGEANCE.

    BUT ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS HAVE STRESSED THE UNITED STATES WANTS THE FORCE TO BE UNDER NATO -- AS OPPOSED TO U-N COMMAND -- REGARDLESS OF WHETHER NON-NATO COUNTRIES TAKE PART. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/WFR
    22-Apr-99 5:28 PM EDT (2128 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] CLINTON/NATO ONITER (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248487
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LEADERS OF MORE THAN 40 COUNTRIES HAVE CONVERGED ON WASHINGTON FOR A NATO SUMMIT MEETING AND A LARGER GATHERING OF THE ALLIANCE AND ITS PARTNER STATES TO MARK NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. AS VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE, THE BIGGEST DIPLOMATIC GATHERING EVER HELD IN WASHINGTON WILL BE DOMINATED BY EVENTS IN KOSOVO.

    TEXT: THE SUMMIT WAS TO HAVE BEEN A CELEBRATION OF NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. BUT FESTIVITIES HAVE BEEN SCALED BACK BECAUSE OF KOSOVO AND THE LEADERS WILL PONDER, WHETHER THE AIR WAR ALONE WILL ACHIEVE THEIR OBJECTIVES.

    ON THE EVE OF THE SUMMIT, PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID HE WELCOMES A NATO DECISION TO UPDATE CONTINGENCY PLANS FOR A GROUND INVASION OF KOSOVO BUT INSISTED THE AIR CAMPAIGN IS WORKING. HE ALSO GAVE A CAUTIOUS WELCOME TO A RUSSIAN REPORT THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC NOW ACCEPTS AN INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE IN KOSOVO:

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY///

    IF THERE IS AN OFFER FOR A GENUINE SECURITY FORCE, THAT'S THE FIRST TIME MR. MILOSEVIC HAS EVER DONE THAT AND THAT REPRESENTS -- I SUPPOSE -- SOME STEP FORWARD.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. MILOSEVIC IS SAID TO WANT A FORCE UNDER U-N AUSPICES THAT WOULD INCLUDE RUSSIAN TROOPS. THE UNITED STATES SUPPORTS A RUSSIAN ROLE BUT WANTS THE FORCE TO BE UNDER THE NATO'S COMMAND STRUCTURE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/WFR
    22-Apr-99 6:08 PM EDT (2208 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] CONGRESS-KOSOVO-WAR POWERS BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43201
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// NOTE TO EDITORS: NO DATE FOR THE WAR POWERS VOTE HAS BEEN SET, BUT UNDER THE TIMETABLE ESTABLISHED IN LAW, BY REPUBLICAN LEADERS SAYS IT WILL LIKELY COME TO THE FLOOR WEDNESDAY OR THURSDAY. ///

    INTRO: HISTORY IS HAUNTING THE U-S CONGRESS AS IT CONSIDERS THE CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS. A CONTROVERSY AS OLD AS THE NATION ITSELF HANGS OVER THE LEGISLATURE: CAN THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES DEPLOY TROOPS INTO HOSTILE SITUATIONS WITHOUT THE EXPRESSED CONSENT OF CONGRESS? SOME LAWMAKERS SAY "NO" AND ARE CHALLENGING THE NATO MISSION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA ON LEGAL GROUNDS. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS THEY ARE DEMANDING A VOTE ON A DECLARATION OF WAR.

    TEXT: THE DRAFTERS OF THE U-S CONSTITUTION SET THE STAGE FOR THIS VOTE. THEY GAVE THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES THE ROLE OF COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE ARMED FORCES. BUT THEY GAVE CONGRESS THE POWER TO DECLARE WAR.

    THE RESULT HAS BEEN AN ONGOING TEST OF WILLS BETWEEN THE LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT. IT CULMINATED IN THE 1973 WAR POWERS RESOLUTION.

    PASSED BY A LEGISLATURE ANGRY AND FRUSTRATED BY THE LONG UNDECLARED WAR IN VIETNAM, THE WAR POWERS RESOLUTION WAS DESIGNED TO GIVE CONGRESS A LOUD SAY IN MAJOR DEPLOYMENTS ABROAD.

    IT BECAME LAW OVER THE VETO OF PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON, AND HAS BEEN CONTROVERSIAL FROM THE VERY START. EVERY OCCUPANT OF THE WHITE HOUSE SINCE 1973 HAS DISPUTED THE WAR POWERS RESOLUTION, AND REFUSED TO ABIDE BY ITS PROVISIONS.

    THE RESOLUTION HAS MANY ELEMENTS. BUT IN ESSENCE, IT SAYS A PRESIDENT CAN ONLY SEND TROOPS TO FIGHT ABROAD IF THERE IS A DECLARATION OF WAR OR OTHER LEGAL AUTHORIZATION FROM CONGRESS.

    CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS HAD HOPED TO AVOID A WAR POWERS CONFRONTATION OVER THE BALKANS. BUT A LONE REPUBLICAN LAWMAKER FROM THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA HAD OTHER PLANS.

    TOM CAMPBELL INVOKED HIS RIGHT UNDER THE WAR POWERS RESOLUTION TO DEMAND A VOTE ON THE MILITARY OPERATION IN YUGOSLAVIA. HE INTRODUCED TWO RESOLUTIONS. ONE DECLARES WAR. THE OTHER ORDERS THE PRESIDENT TO BRING THE TROOPS HOME.

    ///CAMPBELL ACT///

    IF CONGRESS DOES NOT STAND UP FOR ITS CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO DECLARE WAR IN THIS INSTANCE THERE IS NOTHING LEFT TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENT THAT CONGRESS AND ONLY CONGRESS DECLARE WAR.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. CAMPBELL IS A CONSTITUTIONAL SCHOLAR AND A FORMER LAW PROFESSOR. HE SAYS HE IS WILLING TO TAKE ON THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION TO MAKE HIS POINT.

    ///CAMPBELL ACT///

    IT IS VERY CLEAR THAT CONGRESS MUST DECLARE WAR IF WE ARE TO CONDUCT THE OPERATIONS WE ARE IN KOSOVO...BECAUSE IT IS WAR AND BECAUSE IT IS NOT IN THE INHERENT POWER OF THE PRESIDENT AS COMMANDER IN CHIEF.

    ///END ACT///

    APPEALS FROM FELLOW LAWMAKERS DID NOT CONVINCE MR. CAMPBELL TO WITHDRAW HIS LEGISLATION. NOR DID THESE WORDS FROM SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT.

    ///ALBRIGHT ACT///

    WE THINK THAT A DECLARATION OF WAR WOULD HAVE A NUMBER OF NEGATIVE EFFECTS SUCH AS (ON MATTERS SUCH AS) NATO COHESION, REGIONAL STABILITY AND OUR RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA.

    ///END ACT////

    MR. CAMPBELL ACKNOWLEDGES HIS LEGISLATION IS LIKELY TO FAIL AND LAWMAKERS WILL OPT TO KEEP TROOPS IN THE BALKANS WITHOUT A FORMAL DECLARATION OF WAR. HE SAYS IF THAT HAPPENS, HE WILL FILE A LAWSUIT AND CHALLENGE THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE DEPLOYMENT IN COURT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/LTD/JO
    22-Apr-99 4:20 PM EDT (2020 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] NATO SUMMIT BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43198
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LEADERS FROM THE NATO ALLIANCE AND ITS PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES ARE CONVERGING ON WASHINGTON FOR A SUMMIT COMMEMORATING NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. AS CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE, THE CELEBRATIONS HAVE BEEN DAMPENED BY THE KOSOVO CRISIS, WHICH WILL DOMINATE THE THREE-DAYS OF EVENTS.

    TEXT: CLINTON ADMINISTRATION PLANNERS HAVE CUT DOWN ON THE CELEBRATORY ASPECTS OF THE SUMMIT -- TO MAKE IT WHAT WHITE-HOUSE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER SANDY BERGER TERMS A WORKING MEETING OF A MILITARY ALLIANCE IN THE MIDDLE OF A CONFLICT.

    THE SUMMIT COMES A FULL MONTH AFTER NATO BEGAN ITS BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. IN THEIR WORKING MEETINGS AND PRIVATE SESSIONS THE 19 ALLIED LEADER WILL ASSESS THE RESULTS OF THE AIR WAR AND WHETHER GROUND TROOPS MIGHT BE NECESSARY.

    WHITE HOUSE OFFICIALS SAID, ON THE EVE OF THE SUMMIT, THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON REMAINS HIGHLY CONFIDENT THE ALLIES CAN ACHIEVE THEIR AIMS THROUGH AIR POWER ALONE. BUT THEY SAID HE SUPPORTS NATO'S DECISION TO UPDATE A CONTINGENCY PLAN FOR A GROUND INVASION CONDUCTED LAST OCTOBER.

    WHILE THE CURRENT FIGHTING CAN BE EXPECTED TO DOMINATE SUMMIT DISCUSSIONS, SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAYS THE NATO PARTNERS WILL LOOK BEYOND THE AIR CAMPAIGN TO A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT AND A LONG-TERM EFFORT TO REBUILD AND STABILIZE THE BALKANS:

    /// ALBRIGHT ACTUALITY ///

    EVEN AS WE RESPOND TO THIS CRISIS IN KOSOVO, WE MUST CONCERN OURSELVES MORE BROADLY WITH THE FUTURE OF THE REGION. OUR EXPLICIT GOAL SHOULD BE TO TRANSFORM THE BALKANS FROM EUROPE'S PRIMARY SOURCE OF INSTABILITY INTO AN IMPORTANT PART OF ITS MAINSTREAM, AND WE MUST WORK TO ENSURE THAT NATO FORCES WILL NOT AGAIN BE CALLED ON TO FIGHT TERROR AND DESTRUCTION IN THIS CORNER OF THE CONTINENT. IN OUR DISCUSSIONS AT THE SUMMIT, WE WILL BEGIN TO DO JUST THAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MS. ALBRIGHT AND OTHER OFFICIALS HAVE PROVIDED FEW DETAILS OF THE BALKANS STABILIZATION EFFORT THEY EXPECT NATO TO EMBRACE AT THE SUMMIT.

    BUT IT WOULD LIKELY INCLUDE DEVELOPMENT FUNDS FROM THE WORLD BANK, THE UNITED STATES, AND THE EUROPEAN UNION TO COUNTRIES IN THE REGION THAT HAVE COOPERATED WITH NATO -- ESPECIALLY FRONT-LINE COUNTRIES THAT HAVE TAKEN IN REFUGEES AND ALLOWED NATO FORCES TO OPERATE FROM THEIR SOIL.

    DEPUTY SECRETARY OF STATE STROBE TALBOTT SAYS GOVERNMENTS IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES OF THE REGION INCLUDING MACEDONIA, BULGARIA, AND ROMANIA HAVE TAKEN SERIOUS DOMESTIC POLITICAL RISKS TO ENDORSE NATO AIRSTRIKES, AND ARE LOOKING TO THE SUMMIT FOR SUPPORT:

    /// TALBOTT ACTUALITY ///

    WHAT WE BOTH HOPE AND EXPECT WILL COME OUT OF THE NATO SUMMIT IS A HIGH DEGREE OF REASSURANCE TO THESE GOVERNMENTS AND THEIR LEADERS THAT NATO IS IN THIS TO WIN, AND NOT JUST ON BEHALF OF ITS OWN INTERESTS, BUT ON BEHALF OF THEIR INTERESTS AS WELL. AND IT IS PRECISELY THE OVERLAP BETWEEN THE ALLIES' INTERESTS AND THE PARTNERS' INTEREST THAT GAVE RISE TO THE CREATION OF "THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE". WE WANT THEM TO HAVE NO REASON WHAT-SO-EVER EVER TO REGRET THE BRAVE DECISION TO SUPPORT THAT ACTION. AND I THINK THE SUMMIT WILL DEFINITELY ADVANCE THAT GOAL.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SUMMIT AGENDA INCLUDES A MEETING OF NATO FOREIGN MINISTERS AND THEIR COUNTERPARTS FROM THE KOSOVO FRONTLINE COUNTRIES. LATE SATURDAY AND SUNDAY, THE SESSIONS EXPAND TO INCLUDE LEADERS OF THE NATO MEMBER STATES AND THOSE OF THE PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES -- MAKING IT THE LARGEST GATHERING OF ITS KIND IN WASHINGTON'S HISTORY.

    IN ADDITION TO THE HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT, THERE ARE 17-HUNDRED DELEGATION MEMBERS AND MORE THAN THREE-THOUSAND MEDIA REPRESENTATIVES TAKING PART IN THE SUMMIT.

    GIVEN THE EXTENSIVE SECURITY AND LOGISTICAL REQUIREMENTS, A LARGE SECTION OF DOWNTOWN WASHINGTON WILL BE CORDONED OFF FOR THE THREE-DAYS OF SESSIONS. MOST U-S GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES AND WASHINGTON SCHOOLCHILDREN WILL HAVE THE DAY OFF FRIDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/RAE
    22-Apr-99 1:19 PM EDT (1719 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] NATO SUMMIT / RUSSIA BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43200
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // EDS : THIS IS THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF REPORTS ON ISSUES FACING NATO LEADERS IN ADVANCE OF THE SUMMIT. //

    INTRO: RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS CONTINUE TO CRITICIZE NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WHILE AT THE SAME TIME TRYING TO PLAY A DIPLOMATIC ROLE TO RESOLVE THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO. IN THIS REPORT FROM WASHINGTON, V-O-A'S FORMER MOSCOW CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT RUSSIA'S ROLE IN THE LATEST BALKAN CRISIS.

    TEXT: RUSSIA HAS BEEN STRONGLY CRITICAL OF NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES SINCE THE WESTERN ALLIANCE BEGAN ITS MILITARY OPERATIONS MARCH 24TH.

    WITHIN HOURS OF THE FIRST AIR STRIKES, RUSSIA RECALLED ITS AMBASSADOR TO NATO. AND ON HIS WAY TO THE UNITED STATES, PRIME MINISTER YEVGENI PRIMAKOV TURNED HIS PLANE AROUND AFTER HE WAS INFORMED THAT NATO BOMBINGS WERE IMMINENT.

    IN ANOTHER SIGN OF RUSSIA'S DISPLEASURE, MOSCOW SENT A RECONNAISSANCE SHIP TO THE MEDITERRANEAN FROM ITS BLACK SEA FLEET. RUSSIAN OFFICIALS SAY THE SHIP WILL COLLECT INFORMATION VITAL TO RUSSIA'S SECURITY.

    BRUCE JOHNSON IS A RUSSIAN EXPERT WITH THE "HUDSON INSTITUTE" RESEARCH CENTER. HE SAYS WESTERN LEADERS HAVE NEGLECTED RUSSIA'S POTENTIAL DIPLOMATIC ROLE IN RESOLVING THE KOSOVO CRISIS, GIVEN MOSCOW'S HISTORICAL, CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS LINKS WITH SERBIA.

    // JOHNSON ACT //

    I THINK THERE HAS BEEN A HIGH DEGREE OF MARGINALIZATION BY THE PRE-EMPTIVE AND UNILATERAL ACTION BY NATO. IN OTHER WORDS, THERE WAS NO ATTEMPT ON RECORD OR OFF - TO MY KNOWLEDGE - TO INVOLVE RUSSIA EVEN AS AN OUTSIDE ADVISER. INSTEAD WE MARGINALIZED THEM. WE FORCED THEM INTO THE BACKGROUND WITHOUT PAYING ANY CREDENCE AT ALL TO THE RELATIONSHIP WITH SERBIA THAT GOES BACK FIVE-SIX HUNDRED YEARS.

    // END ACT //

    THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN HAS FOSTERED A VERY STRONG ANTI-AMERICAN AND ANTI-WESTERN MOOD IN RUSSIA.

    MICHAEL MCFALL WITH THE (WASHINGTON BASED) "BROOKINGS INSTITUTION" SAYS NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN HAS REINFORCED THE VIEW OF MANY RUSSIANS THAT MOSCOW IS NO LONGER A MAJOR PLAYER ON THE WORLD SCENE.

    // MCFALL ACT //

    THIS WHOLE NATO CAMPAIGN FOR THE RUSSIANS, TRAGICALLY UNDERSCORES HOW WEAK AND IRRELEVANT THEY ARE. AND I THINK THAT IS WHY THE ANTI-WESTERN REACTION THAT YOU HAVE SEEN IN RUSSIA HAS BEEN AS VEHEMENT AND PASSIONATE AS IT HAS BEEN. I THINK PEOPLE IN THE WEST DO NOT REALIZE YET WHAT A CONSENSUS THERE HAS BEEN IN RUSSIA - AT LEAST SO FAR - IN REJECTING THE NATO CAMPAIGN.

    // END ACT //

    //OPT//

    MR. MCFALL SEES A WORRYING TREND IN THE LATEST ANTI-AMERICAN SENTIMENT IN RUSSIA.

    // SECOND MCFALL ACT //

    IT HAS ALWAYS BEEN IN THE PAST THAT THE SORT OF STANDARD 55-YEAR-OLD 'BABUSHKAS' - GRANDMOTHERS - WOULD SHOW UP TO DENOUNCE AMERICAN IMPERIALISM. THIS TIME IT IS NOT. IT IS YOUNG PEOPLE OUTSIDE THE (AMERICAN) EMBASSY AND EVEN MORE IMPORTANTLY -- IT IS YOUNG PEOPLE UP AT MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY PROTESTING AGAINST THE NATO ACTIONS. THAT MEANS THAT THE 'YUPPIES' - THOSE THAT WE HAD ALWAYS THOUGHT WERE GOING TO BE THE PRO-WESTERN FORCES WITHIN RUSSIA ONCE THEY CAME TO POWER - THEY ARE NOW HESITATING AND TURNING AGAINST THE WEST. THAT IS A REALLY DANGEROUS SIGN.

    // END ACT & OPT//

    RECENT PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS INDICATE ANTI-AMERICANISM BUILDING DRAMATICALLY AMONG ORDINARY RUSSIANS. EVEN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN SAID RECENTLY IN SOME REGIONS, AN ANTI-WESTERN MOOD IS THRIVING. BUT IN A CONCILIATORY STATEMENT, HE SAID DESPITE NATO'S AGGRESSIVE ACTIONS, MOSCOW CANNOT BREAK WITH WESTERN COUNTRIES AND CAN NOT BE ISOLATED.

    ANALYSTS SAY RUSSIA IS APPARENTLY TAKING A NEW APPROACH TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS -- NOT JUST CRITICIZING NATO FOR ITS MILITARY ACTION. THEY SAY MOSCOW IS TRYING TO PLAY A MEDIATING ROLE AT A TIME WHEN DIPLOMATIC CHANNELS BETWEEN THE WEST AND YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC ARE ALL BUT CUT.

    FORMER NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBER CHARLES KUPCHIN SAYS NATO MUST MOVE ON THE DIPLOMATIC FRONT.

    // KUPCHIN ACT //

    AND RUSSIA PROVIDES A VEHICLE FOR MOVEMENT ON THAT FRONT. AND REGARDLESS OF THE ULTIMNATE OUTCOME, I THINK IT IS CRITICAL THAT RUSSIA BE PART OF SOME SORT OF INTERNATIONAL FORCE THAT IS INTRODUCED INTO THE REGION TO CREATE A STABLE SITUATION IN KOSOVO - OR PERHAPS ALONG THE BORDERS OF KOSOVO IF ULTIMATELY NATO DOES NOT MOVE INTO KOSOVO. BUT IT IS CRITICAL TO TURN ADVERSITY INTO ADVANTAGE AND IN THIS CASE, TO GO FROM RUSSIA'S ALIENATION TO USING THIS AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO EMBRACE RUSSIA IN SOME SORT OF BROADER, MULTILATERAL DIPLOMATIC AND MILITARY RESOLUTION OF THE CONFLICT.

    // END ACT //

    LAST MONDAY, PRESIDENT CLINTON SPOKE BY PHONE WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT YELTSIN -- THE FIRST CONVERSATION BETWEEN THE TWO LEADERS SINCE THE NATO AIR STRIKES BEGAN. AND PRESIDENT YELTSIN HAS NAMED FORMER PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN AS HIS SPECIAL ENVOY TO THE BALKANS -- A CLEAR SIGN RUSSIA WANTS TO PLAY AN ACTIVE DIPLOMATIC ROLE IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    ANALYSTS SAY THERE IS A GROWING REALIZATION AMONG WESTERN LEADERS THAT ANY SOLUTION OF THE KOSOVO CRISIS REQUIRES RUSSIA'S COOPERATION AND PARTICIPATION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/WFR
    22-Apr-99 1:58 PM EDT (1758 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] NATO SUMMIT/OVERNIGHTER (L) BY KYLE KING (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248488
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LEADERS OF THE 19 MEMBER NATO ALLIANCE OPEN THEIR 50TH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION IN WASHINGTON (FRIDAY) WITH THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO DOMINATING CEREMONY AND THE SUBSTANCE OF THE SUMMIT. VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE SUMMIT WAS ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A CELEBRATION OF THE 50-YEAR OLD ALLIANCE -- AN OPPORTUNITY TO DEFINE A NEW POST COLD WAR MISSION FOR THE 19 NATO NATIONS.

    ALLIANCE LEADERS HAD BEEN EXPECTED TO USE THE SUMMIT TO ADDRESS THE KEY QUESTION, UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES WOULD NATO USE ITS MILITARY MIGHT OUTSIDE ALLIANCE TERRITORY. BUT THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO AND NATO'S MONTH LONG BOMBING CAMPAIGN THERE HAVE ANSWERED THAT QUESTION AND PREEMPTED THE DEBATE.

    ATTENTION IS NOW FOCUSED ON HOW BEST TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT AND ALLOW HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES TO RETURN SAFELY TO THEIR HOMES.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON ACKNOWLEDGED THE CRISIS WILL DOMINATE THE SUMMIT, BUT HE SAYS OTHER KEY ISSUES WILL BE ADDRESSED.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    THE CRISIS HAS UNDERSCORED THE IMPORTANCE OF THE EFFORTS WE HAVE BEEN MAKING FOR FIVE YEARS NOW TO STRENGTHEN AND ADAPT NATO FOR THE NEW CENTURY TO ENHANCE OUR CAPACITY ON NATO'S DOORSTEP, TO PROTECT CITIZENS AGAINST TERRORISM AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION, TO IMPROVE SECURITY COOPERATION WITH PARTNER NATIONS, TO HELP ASPIRING MEMBERS IMPROVE THEIR CANDIDACY SO THEY CAN JOIN NATO.

    // END ACT //

    MR. CLINTON SAYS THE ALLIANCE WILL ALSO USE THE SUMMIT TO REAFFIRM ITS COMMITMENT TO ENHANCE COOPERATION WITH RUSSIA. THE DIFFICULTY OF THAT TASK HAS BEEN UNDERSCORED BY THE FACT THAT RUSSIA DECLINED AN INVITATION TO ATTEND THE SUMMIT TO PROTEST NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY THEY DO NOT EXPECT THE ALLIANCE TO MAKE ANY DECISIONS ABOUT NEW NATO MEMBERS AT THE SUMMIT, BECAUSE THEY DO NOT WANT TO FURTHER ANGER THE RUSSIANS.

    ANALYSTS POINT OUT THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO HAS BECOME A DEFINING MOMENT FOR THE ALLIANCE, A TEST OF ITS ABILITY TO TAKE ON MISSIONS OUTSIDE THE TERRITORY OF ITS MEMBERS.

    WITH THE COLD WAR THREAT OF A SOVIET UNION NOW GONE, IT IS A TEST THE ALLIANCE MUST PASS IF IT EXPECTS TO HAVE A CONTINUING ROLE IN WORLD AFFAIRS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/WFR
    22-Apr-99 7:24 PM EDT (2324 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] GREECE / KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248485
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GREEK PRIME MINISTER COSTAS SIMITIS IS IN WASHINGTON FOR THE NATO SUMMIT -- PRESSING A PEACE PLAN TO END THE CRISIS OVER YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. GREECE -- BOTH A NATO MEMBER AND YUGOSLAVIA'S NEIGHBOR -- IS UNEASY ABOUT THE ALLIANCE'S MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA. ATHENS HAS REFUSED TO SEND FORCES AND HAS BEEN URGING A POLITICAL SOLUTION. NEJLA SAMMAKIA REPORTS.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER SIMITIS SAYS GREECE HAS WHAT HE CALLED AN "ACTION PLAN" WHICH AIMS TO FIND A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. HE SAYS WHILE GREECE ABIDES BY ITS NATO MEMBERSHIP OBLIGATIONS, IT ALSO HAS RESPONSIBILITIES TOWARD YUGOSLAVIA.

    //SIMITIS ACT ONE//

    WE ARE ALSO MEMBER STATES OF THE BALKANS, WE ARE COOPERATING WITH THESE NEIGHBORS. WE WANT STABILITY IN THE REGION AND WE MUST BE CREDIBLE ALSO TOWARD OUR NEIGHBORS. AND IF WE WANT TO BE CREDIBLE TOWARD OUR NEIGHBORS, WE HAVE TO WORK TO OPERATE FOR PEACE IN THE REGION.

    //END ACT//

    OUTLINING GREECE'S ACTION PLAN DURING A NEWS CONFERENCE IN WASHINGTON THURSDAY, MR. SIMITIS STRESSED THAT HIS COUNTRY WAS FIRMLY AGAINST A CHANGE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S BORDERS. GREECE AND ITS NATO ALLIES HAVE SAID THEY WOULD NOT ACCEPT INDEPENDENCE FOR KOSOVO AND ITS MOSTLY ETHNIC ALBANIAN POPULATION.

    //SIMITIS ACT//

    OUR BASIC OBJECTIVE IS FOR THERE TO BE A SYNERGY BETWEEN INSTITUTIONS AND ACTIONS WHICH WILL LEAD TO ACCEPTANCE OF PRELIMINARY CONDITIONS BY YUGOSLAVIA: THE WITHDRAWAL OF (SERB) TROOPS FROM KOSOVO, A SAFE RETURN OF THE REFUGEES TO THEIR HOMES, THE DEPLOYMENT OF A BROAD INTERNATIONAL FORCE WITH CLEAR LEGITIMACY, AND IF THIS IS ACCEPTED, SIMULTANEOUS CEASING OF ACTS OF WAR.

    //END ACT//

    MR. SIMITIS SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE COULD BE FORMED BY THE UNITED NATIONS, THE EUROPEAN SECURITY ORGANIZATION, OR ANOTHER COMBINATION OF TROOPS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    AS MR. SIMITIS SPOKE IN WASHINGTON, RUSSIAN PEACE ENVOY VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN INDICATED THERE MAY BE A POSSIBLE DIPLOMATIC BREAKTHROUGH IN HIS TALKS WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE (THURSDAY).

    MR. MILOSEVIC HAS REFUSED TO ACCEPT NATO TROOPS ON HIS SOIL. BUT MR. CHERNOMYRDIN SAYS HE MAY BE WILLING TO ACCEPT WHAT HE CALLED AN "INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE" UNDER U-N AUSPICES TO FACILITATE A PEACE DEAL.

    OFFICIALS IN WASHINGTON ARE GIVING A CAUTIOUS WELCOME TO THE NEWS, BUT HAVE NO PLANS TO STOP MILITARY ACTION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NS/JO
    22-Apr-99 6:10 PM EDT (2210 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] E-U / OIL EMBARGO (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248455
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION IS FINALIZING PLANS FOR AN OIL EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS E-U FOREIGN MINISTERS ARE EXPECTED TO FORMALLY APPROVE THE PLAN ON MONDAY, AND THE EMBARGO WOULD GO INTO EFFECT BY NEXT WEDNESDAY.

    TEXT: OIL REFINERIES AND STORAGE FACILITIES ARE MAJOR TARGETS IN NATO'S AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. AND E-U OFFICIALS SAY IT IS ABSURD THAT WHILE NATO IS BOMBING YUGOSLAV OIL SUPPLIES, THERE IS NOTHING TO PREVENT NATO MEMBERS OR OTHER EUROPEAN NATIONS FROM REPLENISHING THOSE OIL SUPPLIES.

    SO AMBASSADORS FROM E-U COUNTRIES AGREED THAT EUROPE MUST BUILD ON ITS EXISTING SANCTIONS -- SUCH AS AN ARMS EMBARGO, A FLIGHT BAN, AND VARIOUS ECONOMIC MEASURES -- BY IMPOSING A NEW BAN ON OIL SHIPMENTS.

    E-U OFFICIALS ARE NOW WORKING ON DETAILS OF THE PROPOSAL, IN THE HOPE THAT THE MEASURE CAN BE APPROVED MONDAY AT A MEETING IN LUXEMBOURG OF THE 15 E-U FOREIGN MINISTERS, AND CAN THEN BE PUT IN PLACE BY TUESDAY OR WEDNESDAY. MEANWHILE, CONSULTATIONS ARE UNDERWAY IN WASHINGTON, THE SCENE OF THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY NATO SUMMIT, ABOUT HOW TO EXTEND THE EMBARGO BEYOND THE EUROPEAN UNION TO OTHER NATO NATIONS AND OTHER COUNTRIES..

    E-U TRADE SPOKESMAN NIGEL GARDNER SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION IS MOVING SWIFTLY TO IMPLEMENT THE OIL EMBARGO, NOW THAT ITS MEMBERS NATIONS HAVE APPROVED THE IDEA..

    MR. GARDNER SAYS THERE WILL BE TWO EXCEPTIONS TO THE BAN -- OIL SHIPMENTS WHICH ARE AT SEA WHEN THE MEASURE COMES INTO EFFECT, AND OIL FOR HUMANITARIAN PURPOSES. HE SAYS THERE WILL BE CLOSE MONITORING IN BOTH AREAS TO AVOID ABUSES.

    THE EMBARGO WILL COVER OIL COMPANIES BASED IN E-U NATIONS AS WELL AS SHIPPING COMPANIES WHICH TRANSPORT OIL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH
    22-Apr-99 10:05 AM EDT (1405 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248475
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///EDS: RE-RUNNING WITH CORRECTED NUMBER///

    INTRO: U-S AND BRITISH OFFICIALS SAY NATO TROOPS SHOULD NOT HAVE TO FIGHT THEIR WAY INTO KOSOVO. BUT AS VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS, OFFICIALS ARE NOW HINTING THAT GROUND TROOPS COULD BE SENT IN WITHOUT A FORMAL AGREEMENT WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    TEXT: WHEN NATO BEGAN ITS BOMBING CAMPAIGN ONE MONTH AGO, OFFICIALS RULED OUT THE USE OF GROUND TROOPS IN KOSOVO UNTIL THEY WERE INVITED IN AS PART OF A PEACE DEAL. NOW, AS NATO LEADERS HOLD THEIR 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON, THE DISCUSSION OF GROUND TROOPS HAS BECOME A KEY QUESTION FACING THE ALLIANCE.

    IN A JOINT NEWS CONFERENCE WITH BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK, SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAID THE UNITED STATES REMAINS OPPOSED TO SENDING GROUND TROOPS INTO WHAT SHE CALLED A HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT.

    // ALBRIGHT ACT //

    WE ARE CONFIDENT THAT A SUSTAINED AND RELENTLESS AIR CAMPAIGN CAN ACHIEVE OUR OBJECTIVES.

    // END ACT //

    NEVER THE LESS, MS. ALBRIGHT SAID SHE SUPPORTED WEDNESDAY'S NATO DECISION TO REVISE PLANS FOR THE POSSIBLE USE OF GROUND FORCES -- AN OPTION SHE REFUSED TO RULE OUT.

    // ALBRIGHT ACT TWO //

    I THINK IT IS INAPPROPRIATE TO RULE ANYTHING OUT AND WE HAVE NOT DONE SO.

    // END ACT //

    BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR TOLD REPORTERS AT THE U-S CAPITAL THAT THERE HAD BEEN NO CHANGE IN THE ALLIANCE POSITION ON THE USE OF GROUND FORCES. BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK SAYS NATO TROOPS WILL NOT BE SENT TO FIGHT THEIR WAY INTO KOSOVO. BUT MR. COOK'S REMARKS LEFT OPEN THE POSSIBILITY THAT NATO TROOPS COULD BE DEPLOYED WITHOUT A FORMAL AGREEMENT WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    // COOK ACT //

    I'M NOT SURE THAT WE WOULD MAKE AN ABSOLUTE CONDITION THAT THERE HAS TO BE A FORMAL TREATY SIGNING, WITH A CEREMONY AND PHOTOGRAPHS. BUT AT WHAT POINT IT IS APPROPRIATE TO GO IN, IS A MATTER WE WOULD HAVE TO JUDGE WITH CARE AND WITH VERY CLEAR REGARD TO MILITARY ADVISE.

    // END ACT //

    FRENCH OFFICIALS HAVE ALSO HINTED THEY NOW SUPPORT THE POSSIBLE USE OF GROUND FORCES IF THE MOVE IS AUTHORIZED BY THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL. A POSSIBILITY MOST ANALYSTS VIEW AS REMOTE GIVEN STRONG RUSSIAN OBJECTIONS TO THE IDEA.

    NEVER THE LESS, THE DISCUSSION ON GROUND TROOPS HAS CLEARLY SHIFTED FROM NATO'S ORIGINAL GOAL OF SENDING 28-THOUSAND PEACEKEEPERS TO KOSOVO AS PART OF A PEACE AGREEMENT.

    INSTEAD OF THE TERM PERMISSIVE ENVIRONMENT, NATO OFFICIALS ARE NOW TALKING ABOUT ENTERING KOSOVO WITH OUT A PEACE AGREEMENT. A SCENARIO DESCRIBED AS A SEMI-PERMISSIVE ENVIRONMENT.

    // REST OPTIONAL //

    MEANWHILE, U-S AND EUROPEAN OFFICIALS CONTINUE LOOKING AT WAYS TO HALT THE FLOW OF OIL TO THE SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT. AFTER WEEKS OF TARGETING OIL REFINERIES AND STORAGE DEPOTS, SECRETARY OF STATE ALRBIGHT SAYS STEPS ARE BEING TAKEN TO CUT DELIVERIES TO ADRIATIC PORTS.

    // ALBRIGHT ACT THREE //

    WE BELIEVE ADDITIONAL STEPS CAN BE TAKEN WHERE BY EACH COUNTRY, IN INTERPRETING ITS LAWS, CAN IN FACT SEARCH AND VISIT THE VESSELS ON THE ADRIATIC, WHICH IN NO WAY WOULD INTERFERE WITH NEUTRAL SHIPPING.

    // END ACT //

    THE SECRETARY SAYS THE ALLIANCE IS ALSO LOOKING AT OTHER WAYS TO TIGHTEN THE ECONOMIC EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, BUT SHE OFFERED NO DETAILS. BOTH SHE AND FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK EXPRESSED CONFIDENCE NATO AIR STRIKES WILL SUCCEED IN TIME. (SIGNED) NEB/KBK/ENE/PT,
    22-Apr-99 3:55 PM EDT (1955 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] KOSOVO ATROCITY REPORTS BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON7)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43199
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S AND NATO OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS A GROWING BODY OF EVIDENCE INDICATING SERB FORCES ARE COMITTING WIDESPREAD ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO, AND THEY ARE PLEDGING TO PASS ON THEIR FINDINGS TO THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. HOWEVER, SOME CRITICS SAY THERE IS NO HARD EVIDENCE POF ATROCITIES, AND IT IS TOO SOON TO SPEAK OF WAR CRIMES. V-O-A'S PAMELA TAYLOR HAS MORE ON THE CONTROVERSY OVER ATROCITY REPORTS.

    TEXT: WESTERN GOVERNMENTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS AGENCIES SAY THERE IS GROWING, IF CIRCUMSTANTIAL, EVIDENCE THAT SERB FORCES ARE KILLING ETHNIC ALBANIAN CIVILIANS IN AN APPARENT PATTERN OF ATROCITIES. MOST OF THE EVIDENCE HAS BEEN COLLECTED FROM REFUGEES ARRIVING IN ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA.

    DAVID SCHEFFER, A U-S AMBASSADOR ASSIGNED TO INVESTIGATE WAR CRIMES, SAYS IN A REPORT TO THE STATE DEPARTMENT THAT THE REFUGEES' ACCOUNTS ARE CONSIDERED HIGHLY CREDIBLE, BECAUSE OF THE CONSISTENCY OF THEIR DETAIL.

    /// FIRST SCHEFFER ACT ///

    WE HAVE SO MANY REFUGEES COMING OUT WITH SO MANY STORIES WHICH ARE CONSISTENT WITH EACH OTHER THAT IT PAINTS A PICTURE OF A SYSTEMATIC AND WIDESPREAD ASSAULT ON THE KOSOVAR ALBANIAN PEOPLE BY SERB MILITARY, PARAMILITARY AND POLICE.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT MANY SERB OFFICIALS QUESTION THIS. THEY SAY CONSISTENCY CAN BE EASILY EXPLAINED IF KOSOVAR ALBANIAN LEADERS ARE TELLING THEIR PEOPLE WHAT TO SAY.

    DAVID SCHEFFER DISMISSES THIS AS THE SAME SORT OF ASSERTION AS BELGRADE'S CONTENTION THAT REFUGEES ARE FLEEING KOSOVO TO ESCAPE NATO BOMBS, NOT SERB MILITARY ACTION. HE SAYS MOST HUMAN-RIGHTS ORGANIZATIONS CONCUR IN THE ASSESSMENT THAT REFUGEE ACCOUNTS OF ATROCITIES ARE CONSISTENT AND CREDIBLE. AMBASSADOR SCHEFFER SAYS HE HAS SPOKEN WITH DOZENS OF REFUGEES AND HEARD STORIES OF COUNTLESS CRIMINAL ACTS THAT FIT THE DEFINITION OF ATROCITIES AND WAR CRIMES.

    /// SECOND SCHEFFER ACT ///

    IT'S HARD TO PRIORITIZE ATROCITIES, BUT THE ONE THAT DISTURBS ME MOST IS OF THOSE THAT RESISTED LEAVING AND WERE EITHER SHOT ON THE SPOT OR LEFT IN THEIR HOMES AND THEIR HOMES [WERE] TORCHED, FOR THEM TO BURN ALIVE INSIDE.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN ADDITION TO THE REFUGEE REPORTS, NATO AND U-S DEFENSE OFFICIALS HAVE RELEASED PHOTOS OF KOSOVO, TAKEN FROM SATELLITES, WHICH THEY SAY SHOW RECENTLY-DUG MASS GRAVES. AT LEAST ONE U-S ANALYST SAYS SUCH CLAIMS SHOULD BE VIEWED WITH SKEPTICISM.

    ROBERT HAYDEN IS A PROFESSOR OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH, IN PENNSYLVANIA. HE SAYS SEVERAL REPORTS FROM WESTERN SOURCES HAVE LATER PROVEN INCORRECT. AMONG THESE WAS A REPORT THAT A LEADING ETHNIC ALBANIAN JOURNALIST [BATON HAIXU] WAS ASSASSINATED. HE LATER TURNED UP ALIVE.

    /// FIRST HAYDEN ACT ///

    THEN THERE WAS A REPORT THE SERBS HAD FORMED A "CONCENTRATION CAMP" IN THE SOCCER STADIUM IN PRISTINA AND BOTH A FRENCH REPORTER AND AN AMERICAN REPORTER WENT THERE AND SAID, "GUESS WHAT? THAT WAS ALSO FRAUDULENT." LAST WEEK NATO ATTACKED, THEY NOW ADMIT, TWO CIVILIAN CONVOYS IN KOSOVO. AND WHAT WAS THE IMMEDIATE RESPONSE OF GENERAL WESLEY CLARK, THE COMMANDER OF NATO? QUOTE: "WE HAVE HARD EVIDENCE IT WAS THE SERBS WHO DID THIS." WELL, THAT WAS CLEARLY A LIE. NOW WE HEAR ABOUT MASS GRAVES, BUT THE PICTURES ARE FASCINATING. I HAVEN'T BEEN DOWN THERE WITH A TROWEL [DIGGING] AND NOBODY ELSE HAS. WHEN YOU HAVE AN ARMY CONDUCTING ATROCITIES, THEY SCOOP UP A HOLE IN THE GROUND WITH A BULLDOZER AND THROW IN THE BODIES AND COVER THEM OVER AGAIN. INSTEAD WE SEE VERY NEAT LINES OF INDIVIDUAL GRAVES. THIS SOUNDS TO ME UTTERLY IMPLAUSIBLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    // OPT //

    PROFESSOR HAYDEN SAYS HE HAS NO DOUBT THE SERBS' ETHNIC-CLEANSING CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO HAS BEEN BRUTAL. BUT HE SAYS THE WEST HAS A DUAL STANDARD WHEN IT COMES TO DEFINING ATROCITIES AND WAR CRIMES.

    /// SECOND HAYDEN ACT ///

    WHAT IT HAS LOOKED LIKE ON THE GROUND [IN KOSOVO] IS ALMOST EXACTLY LIKE WHAT IT LOOKED LIKE ON THE GROUND IN CROATIA, IN 1995, WHEN THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT IN A WEEK-LONG OFFENSIVE EXPELLED A QUARTER OF A MILLION SERBS FROM CROATIA [KRAJINA]. BUT THIS WAS DONE WITH AMERICAN MILITARY TRAINING, AMERICAN MILITARY INTELLIGENCE AND ALL THE DIPLOMATIC COVER YOU COULD WANT. THE UNITED STATES WAS NOT SCREAMING ABOUT ATROCITIES AT THAT TIME.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    PROFESSOR HAYDEN SAYS NATO IS PLAYING THE ATROCITY CARD AND TALKING ABOUT HITLER TO FOCUS PUBLIC ATTENTION AWAY FROM THE CONSEQUENCES OF BOMBING SERBIA'S CIVILIAN INFRASTRUCTURE AND PEOPLE. TALK ABOUT ATROCITIES, HE SAYS, IS A WAY TO JUSTIFY NATO'S WAR ON A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/WTW
    22-Apr-99 2:37 PM EDT (1837 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] KOSOVO WAR CRIMES (L) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248468
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WHILE THE NEEDS OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES CONCERN MANY OF THE INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES IN ALBANIA, ONE ORGANIZATION IS LOOKING INTO THE BASIC REASON THEY BECAME REFUGEES IN THE FIRST PLACE -- WAR CRIMES. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT GIL BUTLER IN ALBANIA'S CAPITAL, TIRANA, REPORTS THAT INVESTIGATORS FROM THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR (THE FORMER) YUGOSLAVIA ARE MEETING WITH THE REFUGEES.

    TEXT: A TEAM OF INVESTIGATORS HAS BEEN COLLECTING HUGE AMOUNTS OF EVIDENCE OF POSSIBLE WAR CRIMES IN KOSOVO.

    A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL AT THE HAGUE SPOKE WITH REPORTERS IN TIRANA, AND SAID THE COURT LOOKS AT FOUR CATEGORIES OF CRIMES -- VIOLATIONS OF THE CUSTOMS OF WARFARE, GRAVE BREACHES OF THE GENEVA CONVENTION, CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, AND GENOCIDE. IN KOSOVO, THERE ARE THOUSANDS OF REPORTS OF RAPE, MURDER, SUMMARY EXECUTIONS, AND BURNING OF HOMES.

    SPOKESMAN JAMES LANDALE SAID IT IS CLEAR THERE HAS BEEN WIDESPREAD COMMISSION OF OFFENSES THAT FALL UNDER THE TRIBUNAL'S JURISDICTION.

    BUT MR. LANDALE SAID THAT GIVEN THE LARGE SCALE OF THE REPORTED CRIMES, IT NOT BE POSSIBLE TO PROSECUTE EVERY PERSON WHO HAS COMMITTED WAR CRIMES IN KOSOVO. HE SAID THE CHIEF PROSECUTOR, LOUISE ARBOUR, INTENDS TO FOLLOW THE EVIDENCE TO AS HIGH AS IT WILL LEAD -- EVEN, HE IMPLIES, TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    /// LANDALE ACT ///

    MILOSEVIC NOT BEEN PUBLICLY INDICTED BY THE TRIBUNAL. HOWEVER, I SHOULD STRESS, THAT THE PROSECUTOR HAS MADE IT CLEAR THAT SHE INTENDS TO PURSUE THE CHAIN OF COMMAND FOR CRIMES THAT HAVE BEEN COMMITTED IN KOSOVO. SHE WILL PURSUE THAT AS HARD AS SHE CAN AND AS HARD AS THE EVIDENCE WILL ALLOW.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAYS THE POLICY IS TO GO AFTER AS MANY SENIOR WAR CRIME SUSPECTS AS POSSIBLE -- THOSE HE CALLS THE ARCHITECTS OF CRIME.

    THE HAGUE INVESTIGATORS INCLUDE POLICEMEN AND PROSECUTORS. AND THEY COORDINATE WITH OTHER AGENCIES -- AND EVEN JOURNALISTS -- WHO CAN RELAY INFORMATION ABOUT WAR CRIMES IN KOSOVO.

    THE CONCENTRATION OF REFUGEES IN CAMPS IN ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA AND THEIR ALMOST UNIVERSAL EXPERIENCE AS VICTIMS OF SERB SOLDIERS AND POLICE HAS PRODUCED A HUGE AMOUNT OF MATERIAL.

    THE HAGUE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HAS BEEN INVESTIGATING KOSOVO CRIMES SINCE MARCH OF 1998. SO FAR, THERE HAVE BEEN NO PUBLIC INDICTMENTS. BUT SPOKESMAN JAMES LANDALE SAYS HE IS NOT AT LIBERTY TO TALK ABOUT SEALED -- OR SECRET -- INDICTMENTS THAT MAY BE PREPARED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH/KL
    22-Apr-99 2:14 PM EDT (1814 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] PEACE SUMMIT (L ONLY) BY SABINA CASTELFRANCO (ROME)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248463
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SEVEN NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNERS MEETING IN ROME SAY THEY SUPPORT AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE BALKANS. SABINA CASTELFRANCO IN ROME REPORTS THEY SAY THE AIM OF SUCH A CONFERENCE SHOULD BE WHAT THEY CALL THE EUROPIZATION OF THE BALKANS INSTEAD OF THE BALKANIZATION OF EUROPE.

    TEXT: THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNERS CALLED FOR AN URGENT SOLUTION TO THE BALKAN CONFLICT. AT THE END OF A TWO-DAY "WORLD PEACE SUMMIT" IN ROME, THE FIRST OF ITS KIND, THEY APPROVED A RESOLUTION ON THE CURRENT CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS.

    THEY SAID FIGHTING MUST BE BROUGHT TO AN END AND NEGOTIATIONS STARTED IMMEDIATELY. THEY UNDERLINED THE IMPORTANCE OF REACHING A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO AND TO REJECT FORCE AS AN INSTRUMENT TO RESOLVE PROBLEMS AMONG STATES.

    THEY SAID A COMPROMISE TO END THE WAR SHOULD BE BASED ON FOUR MAIN POINTS -- URGENT INITIATIVES SHOULD BE TAKEN TO STOP THE HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE, KOSOVO REFUGEES SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO RETURN HOME, AUTONOMY SHOULD BE GRANTED THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO, AND, REFUGEES SHOULD BE GUARANTEED ALL NEEDED SUPPORT.

    THE SEVEN NOBEL PEACE PRIZE LAUREATES HAD GATHERED TO DISCUSS GENERAL PEACE ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES FOR THE FUTURE ON THE EVE OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM.

    FORMER SOUTH AFRICAN PRESIDENT F-W DE KLERK -- WHO SHARED THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WITH NELSON MANDELA IN 1993 -- SAID THERE IS A NEED TO ACCOMMODATE MINORITIES IN A MEANINGFUL WAY WHEREVER THERE ARE DIVIDED SOCIETIES.

    /// DE KLERK ACT ///

    I BELIEVE THAT THIS MEETING WILL MAKE AN IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO START A GREAT DEBATE ABOUT THE QUESTION OF COLLECTIVE RIGHTS, OF GROUP RIGHTS, OF THE PREVENTION OF SUPPRESSION OF IMPORTANT CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS MINORITIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    FORMER ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER SHIMON PERES -- WHO SHARED THE 1994 PRIZE WITH THEN ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER YITZHAK RABIN AND PALESTINIAN LEADER YASSER ARAFAT -- SAID DEMOCRACY IS NOT JUST A DECLARATION THAT EVERY PERSON SHOULD BE EQUAL BUT ALSO THAT EVERY PERSON HAS THE EQUAL RIGHT TO BE DIFFERENT.

    /// PERES ACT ///

    I THINK EVERY PERSON AND EVERY NATION HAS THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE ITS OWN RELIGION -- CHRISTIAN, MOSLEM, BUDDHIST, JEWISH, MORMON -- BUT NONE OF THEM HAVE THE RIGHT TO USE VIOLENCE, BELLIGERENCY, AND FUNDAMENTALISM TO ENDANGER THE LIFE OF OTHER PEOPLE WHETHER IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY OR OUTSIDE THEIR OWN COUNTRY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR PERES, LIKE THE OTHERS, HAD SHARED HIS VIEWS WITH THE POPE AT A MEETING THURSDAY IN THE VATICAN.

    THE SUMMIT WAS ORGANIZED BY THE GORBACHEV FOUNDATION AND THE ROME CITY COUNCIL. ROME MAYOR FRANCESCO RUTELLI SUGGESTED THE CREATION OF A PERMANENT FORUM OF NOBEL PEACE LAUREATES. HE ALSO PROPOSED THE NEXT MEETING BE HELD IN ROME IN NOVEMBER OF THE YEAR 2000. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SC/JWH
    22-Apr-99 12:11 PM EDT (1611 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] EDITORIAL: KOHL RECEIVES FREEDOM MEDAL

    DATE= 04/25/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08274
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    04/25/99.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS.

    VOICE:

    THIS PAST WEEK, PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON PRESENTED THE MEDAL OF FREEDOM -- AMERICA'S HIGHEST CIVILIAN AWARD -- TO THE FORMER CHANCELLOR OF GERMANY, HELMUT KOHL. "FUTURE HISTORIANS WILL SAY EUROPE'S TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY BEGAN ON HIS WATCH," MR. CLINTON SAID. HE WAS REFERRING TO MR. KOHL'S EXTRAORDINARY ROLE IN ENDING THE COLD WAR DIVISION OF EUROPE.

    BORN IN LUDWIGSHAFEN IN 1930, HELMUT KOHL GREW UP IN A GERMANY OPPRESSED BY THE RUTHLESS NAZI DICTATORSHIP OF ADOLF HITLER AND DEVASTATED BY THE SECOND WORLD WAR. FOLLOWING ITS DEFEAT IN THAT CONFLICT, GERMANY WAS PARTITIONED. WEST GERMANY BECAME INDEPENDENT AND DEMOCRATIC, AND EVENTUALLY PROSPERED. EAST GERMANY, DOMINATED BY THE SOVIET UNION, BECAME A GRIM COMMUNIST STATE. BERLIN, THE FORMER GERMAN CAPITAL, WAS DIVIDED. IT BECAME A CRISIS POINT THROUGHOUT THE COLD WAR. IN 1982, HELMUT KOHL BECAME CHANCELLOR OF WEST GERMANY. ONE OF THE FIRST CHALLENGES HE FACED WERE MASSIVE DEMONSTRATIONS AGAINST NATO'S DEPLOYMENT OF MEDIUM-RANGE MISSILES IN GERMANY AND OTHER WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. CHANCELLOR KOHL STOOD WITH OTHER NATO LEADERS, INCLUDING U.S. PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN, BRITISH PRIME MINISTER MARGARET THATCHER, AND FRENCH PRESIDENT FRANCOIS MITTERAND, IN CARRYING OUT THE DEPLOYMENT, WHICH WAS INTENDED TO COUNTER A NEW SOVIET MISSILE THREAT. NATO'S FIRM STAND WAS ULTIMATELY VINDICATED WHEN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE BROKE FREE OF SOVIET DOMINATION AND THE SOVIET UNION ITSELF COLLAPSED. WHEN THE BERLIN WALL CAME DOWN IN NOVEMBER 1989, CHANCELLOR KOHL TOOK ON THE FORMIDABLE TASK OF BRINGING EAST AND WEST GERMANY BACK TOGETHER. IN LESS THAN A YEAR, ON OCTOBER 3RD, 1990, A FREE AND UNITED GERMANY WAS REBORN. U.S. PRESIDENT JOHN KENNEDY ONCE PRAISED THE COURAGE OF THE PEOPLE OF WEST BERLIN BY SAYING THAT THE PROUDEST BOAST IN THE FREE WORLD WAS, "ICH BIN EIN BERLINER!" [I AM A BERLINER!]. RECALLING THAT SENTIMENT, PRESIDENT CLINTON PRAISED THE VISION AND COURAGE OF HELMUT KOHL BY SAYING, "TODAY A GRATEFUL UNITED STATES SAYS TO YOU, 'DU BIST EIN AMERIKANER.' IN COUNTLESS WAYS, YOU HAVE BEEN AN AMERICAN."

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    22-Apr-99 4:06 PM EDT (2006 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [24] WORLD TRADE REPORT (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248448
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: THIS REPORT IS EMBARGOED FOR USE AT 1200 U-T-C (8 AM EDT) ///

    INTRO: THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION, W-T-O, SAYS ASIA'S FINANCIAL CRISIS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR A DRAMATIC DROP IN THE GROWTH OF WORLD TRADE LAST YEAR. HOWEVER, THE W-T-O'S ANNUAL WORLD TRADE REPORT SAYS THE GLOBAL ECONOMY GREW LAST YEAR BY TWO PERCENT, WHICH IT SAYS IS NOT BAD CONSIDERING THE FINANCIAL TURMOIL IN ASIA. LISA SCHLEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA.

    TEXT: THE REPORT SAYS THE ECONOMIC OUTLOOK IS BETTER IN ASIA, PARTICULARLY IN THAILAND, SOUTH KOREA, AND THE PHILIPPINES. BUT, IT SAYS IT IS TOO SOON TO PREDICT THE RE-AWAKENING OF THE SO-CALLED ASIAN TIGER. THE REPORT SAYS THAT WILL DEPEND ON WHAT HAPPENS IN JAPAN. JAPAN'S ECONOMY IS IMPROVING, THE REPORT SAYS, BUT IT IS STILL NOT STRONG ENOUGH TO HELP STIMULATE OTHER ASIAN ECONOMIES.

    W-T-O ECONOMISTS PREDICT WORLD TRADE WILL GROW BY THREE-AND-ONE-HALF PERCENT THIS YEAR -- ABOUT THE SAME AS DURING 1998. THE UNITED STATES IS EXPECTED TO RECORD THE HIGHEST GROWTH RATE AMONG INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES IN 1999. BUT THE REPORT SAYS BOTH THE UNITED STATES AND WESTERN EUROPE CAN EXPECT TO GROW MORE SLOWLY THAN LAST YEAR.

    W-T-O CHIEF ECONOMIST PATRICK LOW SAYS ANY SLOWDOWN IN WORLD GROWTH HAS AN IMMEDIATE IMPACT ON POORER NATIONS.

    /// LOW ACT ONE ///

    I THINK WE'VE DEFINITELY SEEN THIS IN ASIA VERY CLEARLY. COUNTRIES THAT WERE SO HARD HIT AND WHOSE ECONOMIES CONTRACTED SO SEVERELY HAVE CERTAINLY SEEN MUCH MORE ECONOMIC HARDSHIP. IN JAPAN, THERE'S MORE OF A CUSHION THAT ONE DOESN'T SEE QUITE SUCH SEVERE SENSE OF ECONOMIC IMPACT FROM THE KIND OF CONTRACTION THAT THEY HAVE JUST LIVED THROUGH.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE REPORT SAYS LATIN AMERICA FACES SOME BLEAK ECONOMIC PROSPECTS. IT SAYS AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST WERE HIT HARD BY THE DECLINE IN COMMODITY PRICES. AMONG THE SO-CALLED TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIES OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE, THE REPORT SAYS POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, AND HUNGARY HAD STRONG TRADE PERFORMANCES. BUT, IT SAYS RUSSIA CONTINUES TO FACE GREAT DIFFICULTIES.

    MR. LOW SAYS HE DOES NOT EXPECT ANY CONSEQUENCES IN THE SHORT TERM FROM TRADE DISPUTES BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE UNITED STATES. BUT, HE SAYS THE SPECTACLE OF THESE TWO ECONOMIC GIANTS THREATENING TRADE WARS OVER BANANAS OR BEEF GROWTH HORMONES IS UNSETTLING AND COULD RAISE PROBLEMS IN THE LONG TERM.

    /// LOW ACT TWO ///

    IF THERE ARE TOO MANY OF THEM AND THEY ARE SEEN TO BE TOO INTRACTABLE AND THEY SEEM TO BE TOO IMPORTANT, THAN, YES, THEY CERTAINLY CAN HAVE A NEGATIVE EFFECT ON THE INSTITUTION AND I'M SURE, ALTHOUGH WE CAN NEVER PRECISELY CALCULATE THIS, HAVE AN EFFECT ON THE ATTITUDE THAT ECONOMIC AGENTS HAVE TOWARDS TRADE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. LOW SAYS THE WORLD IS NOT YET ANYWHERE NEAR THAT SITUATION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    22-Apr-99 7:20 AM EDT (1120 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [25] WORLD BANK PRIORITIES (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248464
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: (ATTENTION AFRICA SERVICES)

    INTRO: THE PRESIDENT OF THE WORLD BANK, JAMES WOLFENSOHN, SAYS HE IS HOPEFUL OF A NEW LOAN AGREEMENT FOR RUSSIA. CORRESPONDENT BARRY WOOD REPORTS MR. WOLFENSOHN SAYS (THURSDAY) THE BANK ALSO EXPECTS NEW LOAN AGREEMENTS FOR ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA, COUNTRIES STRUGGLING TO COPE WITH AN INFLUX OF REFUGEES

    TEXT: MR. WOLFENSOHN SAYS HE THINKS ONE-POINT-EIGHT-BILLION DOLLARS IN STALLED WORLD BANK LOANS FOR RUSSIA WILL BE RELEASED VERY SOON.

    THE WORLD BANK PRESIDENT ECHOED REMARKS MADE EARLIER BY THE HEAD OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND THAT NEW RUSSIAN LOAN AGREEMENTS ARE NEARLY COMPLETE. THE I-M-F AND WORLD BANK HAVE BLOCKED MOST OF THEIR LENDING TO RUSSIA SINCE LAST AUGUST WHEN MOSCOW DEVALUED ITS CURRENCY AND DEFAULTED ON MANY BANK LOANS.

    MR. WOLFENSOHN SAYS MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA ARE LIKELY TO NEED UP TO ONE-HALF-BILLION DOLLARS IN LOANS TO COPE WITH THE COST OF REFUGEES AND ECONOMIC DISRUPTION. SPECIAL MEETINGS OF AID DONORS ARE PLANNED FOR THE NEXT FEW WEEKS.

    THE WORLD BANK IS THE BIGGEST MULTI-LATERAL DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTION. ITS LOANS AND GRANTS TARGET POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN MORE THAN 100 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

    MR. WOLFENSOHN SAYS HE IS PARTICULARLY CONCERNED ABOUT SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA WHERE HE SAYS 20-PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IS AFFECTED BY EITHER WAR OR OTHER VIOLENCE. BUT MR. WOLFENSOHN SAYS THE DISEASE AIDS MAY BE THE BIGGEST PROBLEM THAT AFRICA CURRENTLY FACES.

    // WOLFENSOHN ACT //

    WE NOW HAVE 33-MILLION CASES OF AIDS IN THE WORLD, OF WHICH 80-PERCENT ARE IN AFRICA. YOU HAVE RECENT STATISTICS WHICH SHOW OF ALL THE TEENAGE GIRLS IN SOUTH AFRICA, 25-PERCENT OF THEM ARE NOW H-I-V POSITIVE. WE HAVE A DOZEN COUNTRIES IN AFRICA WHERE 10-PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IS AFFECTED BY AIDS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. WOLFENSOHN MAKES CLEAR THAT AFRICA IS AT THE CENTER OF THE BANK'S PRIORITIES AND LENDING TO THE CONTINENT IS LIKELY TO BE STEADILY INCREASED DURING THE NEXT FIVE YEARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/RAE
    22-Apr-99 12:54 PM EDT (1654 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [26] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248483
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP STRONGLY TODAY (THURSDAY) WITH TWO MAJOR AVERAGES CLOSING AT RECORD HIGHS. VOA BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH FOR THE SECOND STRAIGHT DAY, ENDING AT 10 THOUSAND 727, UP 145 POINTS OR ALMOST ONE AND ONE-HALF PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX ALSO CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH 13 HUNDRED 58, UP 22 POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX WAS SHORT OF A RECORD BUT CLOSED UP ALMOST THREE PERCENT.

    TECHNOLOGY STOCKS RETURNED TO MARKET LEADERSHIP AFTER BEING SOMEWHAT OUT-OF-FAVOR FOR THE LAST COUPLE OF WEEKS.

    ///BEGIN OPT//

    JOE CANGEMI (CAN-JEMEE) OF THE MAGLIO INVESTMENT COMPANY EXPECTS THE TECHNOLOGY SECTOR TO CONTINUE TO BE THE CATALYST FOR A RISING STOCK MARKET.

    ///OPT//CANGEMI ACT///

    I THINK THE TECHNOLOGY STOCKS WILL TAKE US INTO THE FUTURE. I THINK THEY ARE THE OVERALL LEADERS REGARDLESS OF WHAT THEY MAY DO IN THE SHORT-TERM, THEY WILL LEAD US FOR THE NEXT 10 YEARS.

    ///END ACT & OPT///

    BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED EARNINGS FROM TWO MAJOR TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES SPARKED ENTHUSIASM. LATE WEDNESDAY, I-B-M, THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER COMPANY, REPORTED SOLID PROFIT GAINS. ON THURSDAY, LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES, THE WORLD'S LARGEST MAKER OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT, SAID ITS EARNINGS MORE THAN DOUBLED IN THE LATEST QUARTER.

    ///REST OPT///

    U-S CENTRAL BANK CHAIRMAN ALAN GREENSPAN HAS GIVEN GENERAL APPROVAL TO THE IDEA OF LATIN AMERICAN NATIONS ADOPTING THE U-S DOLLAR AS A NATIONAL CURRENCY. HOWEVER, MR. GREENSPAN TOLD A CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE THAT SO-CALLED "DOLLARIZATION" WOULD BENEFIT A NATION ONLY IF IT PURSUES SOUND ECONOMIC POLICIES.

    THE WORLD'S SECOND LARGEST TELEPHONE COMPANY WILL BE CREATED THROUGH THE MERGER OF DEUTSCHE TELECOM AND TELECOM ITALIA. THE COMBINATION OF THE GERMAN AND ITALIAN COMPANIES WILL PRODUCE A PAN-EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS GIANT WITH ANNUAL REVENUES OF ABOUT 63 BILLION DOLLARS, SECOND ONLY TO N-T-T OF JAPAN. PEPSICO, THE FOOD AND SOFT DRINK COMPANY, REPORTED A 12 PERCENT DROP IN QUARTERLY EARNINGS BUT THE RESULTS WERE STILL SLIGHTLY AHEAD OF WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS.

    THE MCDONALD'S RESTAURANT CHAIN REPORTED AN 11 PERCENT PROFIT INCREASE. THE COMPANY SAYS SALES ROSE IN BOTH THE U-S AND INTERNATIONAL MARKETS. SEARS, ROEBUCK, THE SECOND LARGEST RETAILER IN THE UNITED STATES, REPORTED A FIVE PERCENT RISE IN QUARTERLY EARNINGS, AHEAD OF WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS.

    CHARLES SCHWAB, THE INVESTMENT BROKERAGE FIRM, ANNOUNCED A TWO-FOR-ONE STOCK SPLIT. IT IS SCHWAB'S SEVENTH STOCK SPLIT SINCE THE COMPANY WENT PUBLIC 12 YEARS AGO. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/WFR
    22-Apr-99 5:13 PM EDT (2113 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [27] BALKAN WAR DAMPENS NATO'S 50TH BIRTHDAY BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/22/99
    TYPE=WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11254
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THE BALKAN WAR AND, TO A LESSER EXTENT, THE MASSACRE AT A COLORADO HIGH SCHOOL HAVE CAST A PALL OVER NATO'S MUCH-ANTICIPATED 50TH-ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS IN WASHINGTON. IN THE WORLD PRESS, EDITORIAL WRITERS ARE FOCUSING ON THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO AND OTHER PRESSING PROBLEMS THAT NATO FACES AFTER HAVING EMERGED VICTORIOUS, THOUGH UNTESTED, FROM THE COLD WAR.

    WE GET A SAMPLING NOW FROM __________ IN THIS WEEK'S WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: AS THIS SURVEY OF FOREIGN PRESS COMMENT IS BEING PREPARED, NATO'S BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION IS JUST BEGINNING. BUT THE STRAINS OF THE BALKAN WAR, AND NOW, THE MASSACRE AT A SUBURBAN DENVER HIGH SCHOOL, HAVE NOTICEABLY DAMPENED THE ENTHUSIASM PLANNERS EXPECTED FOR THE MUCH-ANTICIPATED EVENT. OVERSEAS, COMMENTATORS FROM MOST PARTS OF THE WORLD AGREE THAT THE BALKAN CRISIS WILL DOMINATE THE SUMMIT, TURNING WHAT WAS TO BE A "TRIUMPHANT JUBILEE" INTO -- THE WORDS OF ONE NEWSPAPER -- "WAR CABINET" MEETING. MANY PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON THE QUESTION OF FURTHER EXPANSION OF NATO, AND HOW THE ALLIANCE WILL DEAL WITH NATIONS SUCH AS SLOVENIA, THE BALTIC STATES AND UKRAINE, WHICH VERY MUCH WANT TO JOIN.

    IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD, EXPANSION OF NATO' IS BEING SEEN AS A NEW KIND OF GLOBAL IMPERIALISM. WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING IN PARIS, WHERE THE FRENCH DAILY "LIBERATION" NOTES:

    VOICE: THE ALLIES ARE RIGHT TO WANT TO ADOPT A LOW AND FIRM PROFILE ... FIRST, BECAUSE THERE IS NO REASON TO APPEAR TRIUMPHANT. FOR THE MOMENT, NATO HAS FAILED ITS TEST FOR ADMISSION INTO THE NEXT CENTURY. IT HAS MADE NUMEROUS ERRORS OF METHOD, ORGANIZATION, PREDICTION; IT HAS SHOWN ABSENCE OF DETERMINATION AND INSUFFICIENT COURAGE ... THE SECOND REASON FOR A SHOW OF MODESTY IS THAT [YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC HAS PROVEN HE CAN SHOW UP WHERE HE IS THE LEAST EXPECTED...

    TEXT: A FAR DIFFERENT VIEW COMES FROM "LE FIGARO," ALSO IN PARIS, WHERE THIS APPEARED:

    VOICE: EUROPEIS ATTENDING THE SUMMIT WITH SEVERAL THINGS WORKING IN ITS FAVOR ... IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS, IT PLAYED AN UNPRECEDENTED ROLE. ... THE UNITED STATES HAS UNDERSTOOD THAT IT CAN NOT DO EVERYTHING BY ITSELF. ... INSIDE NATO, THE UNITED STATES IS PROGRESSING FROM A POSITION OF HEGEMONY TOWARD AN ACTIVE PARTNERSHIP IN A MULTIPOLAR WORLD...

    TEXT: TURNING TO GERMANY, DUESSELDORF'S BUSINESS DAILY "HANDELSBLATT" PUBLISHED THIS EDITORIAL THURSDAY [4/22] BY ITS WASHINGTON CORRESPONDENT:

    VOICE: THE ISSUE OF THE KOSOVO CONFLICT WILL DOMINATE THE CELEBRATIONS FOR NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. ... IT WILL TURN INTO A WORKING LUNCH, WITHOUT THE ORIGINALLY-PLANNED AIR SQUADRONS AND BRILLIANT GALA DINNERS. ... BUT DESPITE THE DOMINANCE OF KOSOVO, THIS SUMMIT WILL ALSO DEAL WITH ITS ORIGINAL TASKS, THE QUESTION OF THE FUTURE OF NATO. U-S SOURCES REFER TO A SEVEN-POINT PLAN WHOSE FOCAL POINT IS A NEW STRATEGIC CONCEPT ... AND THE FUTURE EUROPEAN DEFENSE AND SECURITY IDENTITY

    TEXT: THIS THEME OF CHANGED FOCUS FOR THE ALLIANCE IS ECHOED IN ITALY'S "IL SOLE 24-ORE," IN MILAN, WHICH SAYS, IN PART:

    VOICE: IT WAS SUPPOSED TO BE A CELEBRATION. INSTEAD, THE NATO 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT ... WILL BE AN OPERATIONAL MEETING IN ALL RESPECTS.

    TEXT: IN RUSSIA, THERE IS FAIRLY STRONG GRUMBLING ABOUT THE ALLIANCE'S GOLDEN JUBILEE BY MOSCOW'S WEEKLY "ITOGI."

    VOICE: [NATO'S] NEW CONCEPT NOT ONLY CYNICALLY DIMINISHES INTERNATIONAL LAW BUT, IN EFFECT, SIGNIFIES A COMPLETE ABANDONMENT OF THE RULES FOR THE USE OF FORCE THAT THE WEST HAS FOLLOWED IN THE PAST-VIETNAM PERIOD. BOMBING CAN'T MAKE A NATION INTO A DEMOCRACY, RESTORE CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER OR STOP ETHNIC CLEANSING.

    TEXT: FROM KAZAKHSTAN, AN INTERESTED NON-MEMBER OF NATO AND A FORMER REPUBLIC OF THE SOVIET UNION, WE READ IN THE ALMATY PUBLICATION "ZHAS ALASH":

    VOICE: THE DECISION MADE BY KAZAKHSTAN [TO ATTEND THE NATO ANNIVERSARY] CONCERNS RUSSIA AND CHINA, BECAUSE THESE TWO NATIONS COMPETE WITH THE NORTH ATLANTIC UNION, STRIVING TO INFLUENCE INTERNATIONAL POLICY AND PLAY A LEADING ROLE ... WE CONSIDER THE TRIP OF THE KAZAKHSTANI PRESIDENT TO NATO'S ANNIVERSARY A POLITICAL VICTORY.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MIDDLE EAST, EGYPT'S INFLUENTIAL "AL AHRAM" OPINES FROM CAIRO:

    VOICE: THERE ARE HOPES THAT THE EUROPEAN LEADERS WILL TAKE OFF THE UNIFIED UNIFORM THE UNITED STATES IS TESTING ON THEM IN THE BALKANS. THERE ARE HOPES THAT THEY WILL [INDICATE] ... THEIR OPPOSITION TO THIS NEW NATO POLICY, AND THAT THEY SHOULD REVIEW EVERY ITEM CASE-BY-CASE WITH THEIR U-S PARTNER FROM NOW ON.

    TEXT: IN ASIA, WE GET AN IDEA OF CHINESE REACTION FROM THE OFFICIAL COMMUNIST PARTY "PEOPLE'S DAILY" IN BEIJING, WHICH NOTES:

    VOICE: NATO'S AIR STRIKES HAVE DAMAGED THE PEACE AND STABILITY OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD, AND IMPAIRED THE AUTHORITY OF THE U-N AND THE [UNITED NATIONS] SECURITY COUNCIL. THE RUSSIAN-U-S RELATIONSHIP HAS DROPPED TO ITS LOWEST LEVEL SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR. ... NATO'S NEW CONCEPT IS TO PLAY "WORLD POLICEMAN" ON THE AMERICANS' BEHALF

    TEXT: IN ANOTHER PART OF CHINA -- THE FORMER COLONY OF HONG KONG, WHICH HAS A MUCH FREER PRESS -- "THE SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST" HAS THIS ASSESSMENT:

    VOICE: IF THE KOSOVO CAMPAIGN REALLY DOES ENCAPSULATE THE ALLIANCE'S STRATEGIC GOALS AND MILITARY PROWESS, THEN THIS WEEKEND'S TALKS HAVE NOT COME A MOMENT TOO SOON. RATHER THAN MERELY LOOK BACK WISTFULLY OVER 50 YEARS OF THE TRIUMPH OF DEMOCRATIC CAPITALISM, NATO'S LEADERS WILL BE FORCED TO CONFRONT TOUGH QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION'S POLITICAL AND MILITARY FUTURE. ... DOES NATO'S BALANCE OF POWER REST TOO HEAVILY WITH THE UNITED STATES OR, MORE SPECIFICALLY, THE WASHINGTON-LONDON AXIS?

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, FROM THE SUBCONTINENT, "THE TIMES OF INDIA" IN NEW DELHI OFFERED THIS INTERESTING IDEA SEVERAL WEEKS AGO:

    VOICE: IF STABILITY AND PEACE IN EUROPE WERE REALLY THE GOALS OF NATO, THE MOST URGENT STEP WOULD BE TO ASSIST AND SUPPORT RUSSIA.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF GLOBAL OPINION REGARDING NATO'S 50TH-BIRTHDAY PARTY AND SUMMIT CONFERENCE IN WASHINGTON.
    NEB/ANG/WTW
    22-Apr-99 4:49 PM EDT (2049 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [28] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/22/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11252
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: FROM EVERY CORNER OF THE NATION, U-S NEWSPAPERS ARE AGONIZING OVER THE CARNAGE IN THE DENVER SUBURB OF LITTLETON, WHERE TWO HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS KILLED 12 OTHER STUDENTS AND A TEACHER ON TUESDAY. THE MAGNITUDE OF THE MASSACRE HAS PUSHED NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY AND THE WAR IN THE BALKANS TO THE BOTTOM OF MANY FRONT PAGES, AS THE NATION GRAPPLED WITH THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF SCHOOL SHOOTINGS.

    OTHER EDITORIAL TOPICS INCLUDE: THE NATO BIRTHDAY; JUSTICE IN MALAYSIA; GERMANY'S RE-BORN PARLIAMENT BUILDING OPENS; THE LONG-DELAYED CENTRAL AMERICAN HURRICANE RELIEF AID; AND REMINDERS TO LOVE THE PLANET ON EARTH DAY. NOW, HERE WITH SOME EXCERPTS AND A CLOSER LOOK IS __________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: EVERYWHERE IN THE EDITORIAL PAGES THERE ARE EXPRESSIONS OF HORROR AND FRUSTRATION ABOUT THE GRUESOME CONSEQUENCES OF TUESDAY'S COLORADO HIGH SCHOOL SHOOTING.

    A PAIR OF STUDENTS OPENED FIRE WITH VARIOUS WEAPONS AND SET OFF BOMBS IN THE SCHOOL, KILLING 13 PEOPLE AND THEN THEMSELVES. "THE SAVANNAH [GEORGIA] MORNING NEWS" HAS THIS COMMENT.

    VOICE: WHAT WAS ONCE UNTHINKABLE HAS, ALAS, SUDDENLY BECOME COMMON. TUESDAY'S MASS MURDER ... IN ... COLORADO, WAS THE EIGHTH U-S SCHOOL SHOOTING SINCE OCTOBER FIRST, 1997. .... ALREADY THERE HAVE BEEN THE PREDICTABLE CALLS FOR MORE-RESTRICTIVE GUN CONTROL .... BUT THIS IS SIMPLY TREATING THE SYMPTOMS - - REDUCING THE FEVER WHILE THE CANCER GROWS. PREVENTION LIES IN RESTORING THAT INVISIBLE WALL, THOSE CIVILIZING AGENTS, THAT MAKE US HUMAN.

    TEXT: DISAGREEING, "NEWSDAY" ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND SAYS: "THE ONE SURE WAY TO PREVENT SCHOOL MASSACRES IS TO KEEP GUNS OUT OF STUDENTS' HANDS." WHILE IN PENNSYLVANIA, "THE [GREENSBURG] TRIBUNE REVIEW" LAMENTS WHAT IT SEES AS THE BREAKDOWN OF AMERICAN SOCIETY:

    VOICE: SADLY, WE'VE NO CAUSE TO BELIEVE THESE EVILS WILL ABATE, LET ALONE CEASE. NOT IN A SOCIETY WHERE TRADITIONAL MORAL YARDSTICKS ARE MOCKED; WHERE A NUCLEAR (TWO PARENT) FAMILY - - A CRITICAL COMPONENT IN A CHILD'S UPBRINGING - - IS LESS A CONVENTION THAN A CURIOSITY

    TEXT: "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" TAKES AIM AT THE NATIONAL RIFLE ASSOCIATION, AMERICA'S MAIN GUN OWNERSHIP ADVOCACY GROUP, AND ITS PRESIDENT, CHARLTON HESTON.

    VOICE: FOR CHARLTON HESTON ... AND THE SUPERZEALOTS OF THE GUN LOBBY, WHAT HAPPENED TUESDAY ... MAY HAVE BEEN JUST COLLATERAL DAMAGE IN THE FIGHT TO PRESERVE THE AMERICAN RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS. BUT FOR MOST AMERICANS, WE SUSPECT, IT WILL BE THE LAST STRAW. IT CERTAINLY OUGHT TO BE.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: IN MAINE, "THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" SAYS "MORE CAN BE DONE TO PREVENT SHOOTINGS," SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: THOUGH THE DEATH TOLL IS FAR WORSE THAN OTHER SCHOOL SHOOTINGS ... THE CIRCUMSTANCES ... ARE FAMILIAR. BOYS, FRUSTRATED BY PEER PRESSURE, ABLE TO OBTAIN WEAPONS AND FEELING LITTLE EMPATHY FOR THOSE AROUND THEM, LASHED OUT VIOLENTLY. ... IF ONLY THEIR PARENTS SAW THEIR ANGER, PERHAPS TRAGEDY COULD HAVE BEEN AVERTED. IF ONLY THE BOYS DIDN'T HAVE SUCH EASY ACCESS TO FIREARMS ... ,,,,,,THE WAVE OF SCHOOL SHOOTINGS CAN BE ADDRESSED THROUGH THE SCHOOLS, AT HOME, AND IN CONGRESS AND STATE LEGISLATURES WHERE MORE CONTROLS ON FIREARMS SHOULD BECOME LAW. IT IS TIME TO ACT.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: A FINAL THOUGHT FROM TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" LEAD EDITORIAL:

    VOICE: ... IT IS NOT WHAT YOU KEEP FROM A CHILD [INFERRED: GUNS] THAT WILL SAVE HIM, NOR WHAT TOWN YOU MOVE HIM TO. IT IS WHAT YOU PUT INTO HIM IN THE FIRST PLACE.

    TEXT: NOW TO THE NATO 50TH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS, DUE TO BEGIN IN WASHINGTON. "THE DETROIT NEWS" NOTES THE ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS STRAINS, TEARING AT NATO UNITY.

    VOICE: IN THE ABSENCE OF THE OLD SOVIET THREAT, THE ALLIANCE CANNOT ASSUME SOLIDARITY ON THE PART OF MEMBERS FOR EVERY 'OUT-OF-AREA' MISSION THAT IT UNDERTAKES. EVEN IN THE WORST INSTANCES OF ETHNIC CLEANSING, THE NECESSITY OF SUCH MISSIONS WILL BE INEVITABLY FILTERED THROUGH THE SPECIFIC NATIONAL, ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS BIASES OF EACH NATO MEMBER. /// OPT /// IT IS THEREFORE NO COINCIDENCE THAT GREEKS, WHO SHARE AN ETHNIC LINK WITH YUGOSLAVIAN SERBS, HAVE BEEN AT BEST RELUCTANT SUPPORTERS OF THE AIR BOMBINGS AGAINST BELGRADE. AND THEY REMAIN IMPLACABLY OPPOSED TO COMMITTING THE GROUND FORCES IN SERBIA WITHOUT WHICH MR. MILOSEVIC CANNOT BE DEFEATED. TURKS, WITH THEIR SYMPATHY FOR ALBANIAN MUSLIMS, ON THE OTHER HAND, HAVE DEPLORED THE TEPIDNESS OF THE ALLIED RESPONSE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" SEES THE BALKAN CLOUD SUBSTANTIALLY DIMMING THE LUSTER OF THE ANNIVERSARY:

    VOICE: .IT WILL NOT BE THE MIX OF CELEBRATION AND VISION-STRETCHING THAT ITS PLANNERS HAD HOPED. THAT'S BECAUSE THE ALLIANCE'S WAR TO PROTECT KOSOVO REQUIRES THE MOST ATTENTION. WHAT'S MORE, THE ULTIMATE OUTCOME OF THIS CRISIS WILL HELP TELL NATO WHAT ITS FUTURE MISSION SHOULD BE - - AND CAN BE. ... THIS SUMMIT IS NOT THE TIME FOR GRANDIOSITY. IT'S THE TIME FOR THE KIND OF REALISM AND DETERMINATION THAT DEFEATED HITLER, STALIN AND THEIR HEIRS.

    TEXT: AS FOR THE WAR ITSELF, TODAY'S "HARTFORD [CONNECTICUT] COURANT" CALLS ON AMERICA'S LEADERSHIP TO "STOP THE POLITICS ON KOSOVO."

    VOICE: SINCE WE ARE FIGHTING A WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA, CONGRESS MIGHT AS WELL GIVE ITS CONSTITUTIONAL IMPRIMATUR BY OFFICIALLY DECLARING WAR. ... BUT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OPPOSES IT. ... THE WAR IN THE BALKANS IS ALREADY A MONTH OLD. WHEN IT WILL END IS ANYONE'S GUESS, BUT IT IS NOT LIKELY TO BE SOON. MR. CLINTON WOULD BE WELL ADVISED TO SUPPORT A CONGRESSIONAL DECLARATION ... OF WAR.

    TEXT: TO ASIA, WHERE THE "PROVIDENCE [RHODE ISLAND] JOURNAL" IS ANGRY WITH WHAT IT SAYS IS A MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE IN THE TRIAL AND PRISON TERM GIVEN TO DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER ANWAR IBRAHIM FOR ALLEGED SEXUAL OFFENSES.

    VOICE: THE VERDICT WAS NOT UNEXPECTED; THE CHARGES AGAINST MR. ANWAR WERE WIDELY VIEWED AS TRUMPED UP, AND THE JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST HIM A SHAM. BUT THE SENTENCE WAS SURPRISINGLY HARSH. ... SYMPATHIZERS WITH MR. ANWAR'S 'REFORMASI' MOVEMENT SHOULD PITCH IN [JOIN] AND TRANSFORM THEIR ANGER OVER HIS CONVICTION INTO ..... A VIABLE OPPOSITION PARTY. [MALAYSIAN PRIME MINISTER] DR. [MAHATHIR MOHAMAD] MAHATIR WILL NOT BE AROUND FOREVER, ALTHOUGH IT MAY SEEM THAT WAY TO SOME MALAYSIANS. NOW IS A GOOD TIME TO ... LAY THE GROUNDWORK FOR A GREATER DEGREE OF POLITICAL FREEDOM.

    TEXT: AS FOR THE BEAUTIFULLY RE-BUILT REICHSTAG PARLIAMENTARY BUILDING IN GERMANY'S RE-BORN NATIONAL CAPITOL OF BERLIN, JUST CEREMONIALLY REDEDICATED, "THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE"SAYS:

    VOICE: FEW BUILDINGS BEAR THE WEIGHT OF A COUNTRY'S PAST AS HEAVILY AS THE HULKING REICHSTAG. ... IN SIMPLE BUT THOUGHTFUL CEREMONIES, THE REICHSTAG WAS REMEMBERED FOR THE DARK PAST AND ITS AMPLE FUTURE. ... BY RETURNING TO BERLIN, WHICH LIES IN IMPOVERISHED EASTERN GERMANY, THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT WANTS TO GIVE MORE ATTENTION TO THE FORMER SOVIET SATELLITE.

    /// OPT ///

    ... THE MOVE ALSO INTENDS TO TAKE PART IN A REVIVAL OF BERLIN, A LEGENDARY ARTISTIC AND CULTURAL CENTER THAT FLOURISHED IN THE DECADES BEFORE THE NAZI YEARS. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING TO THIS HEMISPHERE, "THE WASHINGTON POST" IS FRUSTRATED AT THE U-S CONGRESS'S SLOW PACE IN GIVING AID TO HURRICANE-DEVASTATED CENTRAL AMERICA.

    VOICE: CONGRESS IS PREOCCUPIED WITH THE PRESIDENT'S REQUEST FOR EMERGENCY FUNDS TO CARRY OUT THE MILITARY OPERATION IN KOSOVO. THAT'S AS IT SHOULD BE; THE NECESSARY FUNDS OUGHT TO BE GRANTED WITH DISPATCH. BUT IN THE PROCESS CONGRESS SHOULD NOT NEGLECT THE OTHER EMERGENCY REQUEST THAT UNFORTUNATELY IS STILL BEFORE IT: A REQUEST FOR HUMANITARIAN AID THAT HAS BECOME A PAWN IN A FIGHT OVER FISCAL VIRTUE. ... THE KOSOVO BILL WILL TAKE CARE OF ITSELF. THE CENTRAL AMERICAN BILL, WHICH OUGHT TO BE SO SIMPLE, SEEMS TO NEED A LITTLE HELP.

    TEXT: TODAY, APRIL 22ND, IS EARTH DAY AROUND THE WORLD, AND "THE ORLANDO SENTINEL" REMINDS US WE SHOULD LOVE THE PLANET, BECAUSE "IT'S THE ONLY EARTH WE'VE GOT," CONCLUDING:

    VOICE: SO TAKE A MOMENT OUT OF YOUR DAY. FIGURE OUT WHAT YOU CAN DO TO DO A BETTER JOB OF PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT - - NOW AND FOR THE FUTURE. SET AN EXAMPLE. THE AIR YOU POLLUTE AND THE FORESTS YOU RAZE TODAY COULD BE THE LEGACY YOU LEAVE TOMORROW.

    TEXT: THIS IS THE EVE OF SHAKESPEARE'S BIRTHDAY [23 APRIL] AND IN MAINE, "THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" CELEBRATES THE BARD, SAYING:

    VOICE: .AN EVENT CELEBRATED IN ALL ... LANDS WHERE THE WORKS OF THE WORLD'S GREATEST PLAYWRIGHT HAVE BEEN PERFORMED. ... THE SUN NEVER SETS ON SHAKESPEARE, SOMEONE ONCE WROTE. HIS WORKS SHINE EVER BRIGHTER WITH THE PASSAGE OF TIME, A GIFT FITTING FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    22-Apr-99 12:14 PM EDT (1614 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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