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Voice of America, 99-04-23

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] RUSSIA / YUGOSLAVIA (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [03] RUSSIA / YUGOSLAVIA (S UPDATE) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [04] NATO RUSSIA REACT (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [05] Q & A WITH GUY DINMORE BY LES CARPENTER (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] YUGO DISPATCH FRIDAY (L-ONLY) BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)
  • [07] ALBANIA REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (KUKES, ALBANIA)
  • [08] KOSOVO/FOOD AID, AG/EARTH DAY, MONEY/SOY BY ROB SIVAK (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [10] NATO / BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)
  • [11] NATO TONE (L-ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (WASHINGTON)
  • [12] CLINTON SUMMIT (L) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [13] CLINTON-NATO (S) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [14] NATO NEW MEMBERS (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (WASHINGTON)
  • [15] NATO / KOSOVO (S) BY KYLE KING (WASHINGTON)
  • [16] GROUND TROOPS? / BALKAN REACT (L-O) BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTON)
  • [17] NATO AND RUSSIA BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [18] NATO SUMMIT WRAP (L) BY KYLE KING (WASHINGTON)
  • [19] BLAIR / CHICAGO / L BY MIKE JOYCE (CHICAGO)
  • [20] S-E EURO ECON/ KOSOVO BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)
  • [21] CHINA / NATO (L-ONLY) BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)
  • [22] E-U / YUGO OIL EMBARGO (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [23] NATO / UKRAINE (L-ONLY) BY JIM RANDLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [24] MACEDONIA / NATO (L ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (SKOPJE, MACEDONIA)
  • [25] THE CONTINUING CRISIS IN KOSOVO
  • [26] FRANCE / GAULLISM (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [27] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [28] NATO AT 50 AND THE TEST OF KOSOVO BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)
  • [29] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248545
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO LEADERS MEETING IN WASHINGTON HAVE VOWED TO STEP UP AIRSTRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA, AS THE ALLIES CONTINUE TRYING TO STOP THE BLOODSHED AND ETHNIC CLEANSING IN KOSOVO. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS ON THE START OF THE NATO SUMMIT AND OTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN THE KOSOVO CONFLICT.

    TEXT: // BEGIN WITH MUSIC ACT //

    LIKE ANY SUMMIT, THIS ONE HAS ITS SHARE OF POMP AND CEREMONY. BUT AT EVERY TURN, NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY IS SHADOWED BY THE BALKAN CRISIS, A MONTH-LONG AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST A DEFIANT ENEMY, WITH NO END IN SIGHT.

    AS THE MEETINGS BEGAN, SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA SOUGHT TO DELIVER A MESSAGE OF UNITY AND RESOLVE, SAYING THE ALLIES ARE DETERMINED TO SEE THE CHALLENGE THROUGH. PRESIDENT CLINTON ECHOED HIS WORDS.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    WE HAVE DONE EVERYTHING WE COULD TO RESOLVE THIS MATTER PEACEFULLY. BUT WHEN WE FIGHT WE FIGHT TO PREVAIL. TO PREVAIL IN THIS CONFLICT AND TO BUILD THE UNDIVIDED DEMOCRATIC EUROPE THAT THE FOUNDERS OF NATO ENVISIONED 50 YEARS AGO.

    // END ACT //

    IN A STATEMENT (ISSUED FRIDAY), THE 19 ALLIANCE MEMBERS SAY THEY WILL NOT COMPROMISE ON DEMANDS FOR AN INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING ARMY IN KOSOVO AND THE RETURN OF REFUGEES. THE DOCUMENT ALSO CALLS FOR TIGHTER ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ON YUGOSLAVIA, INCLUDING AN OIL EMBARGO. MEANWHILE, NATO CONTINUES TO CARRY THE AIR WAR STRAIGHT TO BELGRADE. AN EARLY-MORNING MISSILE STRIKE (FRIDAY) HIT SERBIAN TELEVISION HEADQUARTERS, REDUCING PART OF THE BUILDING TO RUBBLE AND TRAPPING STAFFERS INSIDE. OUTRAGED YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS REPORT AT LEAST TEN CIVILIANS DEAD AND OTHERS MISSING. AT THE PENTAGON, SPOKESMAN KEN BACON DEFENDS THE CHOICE OF TARGETS.

    // BACON ACT //

    SERB TV IS AS MUCH A PART OF MILOSEVIC'S MURDER MACHINE AS HIS MILITARY IS. IT HAS STIRRED UP NATIONALIST PASSIONS IN THE COUNTRY, IT HAS MISREPORTED WHAT'S GOING ON.

    // END ACT //

    THE MISSILES FELL JUST HOURS AFTER RUSSIA'S BALKAN MEDIATOR, VICTOR CHERNOMYRDIN MET WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND REACHED WHAT THE RUSSIAN ENVOY CALLED A BREAKTHROUGH. MR. CHERNOMYRDIN TOLD REPORTERS MR. MILOSEVIC HAS GIVEN HIS CONSENT TO AN INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE IN KOSOVO.

    BUT BELGRADE'S FOREIGN MINISTRY APPEARED TO CONTRADICT THE STATEMENT -- AND NATO LEADERS QUICKLY REJECTED THE REPORTED OFFER. AT THE SUMMIT, BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK SAID THE PLAN IS NOT SATISFACTORY.

    // COOK ACT //

    FIRST OF ALL IT WOULD PROVIDE FOR MILOSEVIC TO KEEP A VERY LARGE VOLUME OF SERB FORCES WITHIN KOSOVO WHICH NOT ONLY COULD WE NOT ACCEPT BUT I'M QUITE SURE THAT THE REFUGEES WOULD NOT ACCEPT AS THE BASIS ON WHICH THEY COULD RETURN. AND SECONDLY THE LIMITATIONS ON WHO MIGHT MAKE UP THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY PRESENCE ARE WHOLLY UNACCEPTABLE.

    // END ACT //

    FOR NOW AT LEAST, NATO APPEARS TO BE FOCUSED ON FORCE, NOT DIPLOMACY. THE ALLIES ARE DIVIDED OVER THE POSSIBLE NEXT STEP - THE USE OF GROUND TROOPS TO PUSH THE SERBS OUT OF KOSOVO. OFFICIALS PREVIOUSLY VOWED THOSE SOLDIERS WOULD ONLY DEPLOY ASPEACEKEEPERS. THAT STANCE IS BEING REASSESSED, BUT THE SUMMIT IS NOT LIKELY TO BRING A DECISION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/KL
    23-Apr-99 5:39 PM EDT (2139 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] RUSSIA / YUGOSLAVIA (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248510
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA'S MEDIATOR ON THE KOSOVO CRISIS IS PREPARING TO MEET NATO LEADERS FOLLOWING HIS TALKS IN BELGRADE WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS RUSSIAN SPECIAL ENVOY VICTOR CHERNOMYRDIN RETURNED TO MOSCOW SPEAKING OF A BREAKTHROUGH.

    TEXT: MR. CHERNOMYRDIN ARRIVED BACK IN MOSCOW SAYING THE YUGOSLAV LEADER HAD AGREED IN PRINCIPLE TO ACCEPT AN "INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE" IN KOSOVO. BUT EXACTLY WHAT THAT MEANS REMAINS HAZY. RUSSIA'S INTERFAX NEWS AGENCY QUOTED DIPLOMATIC SOURCES SAYING THE PRESENCE WOULD BE "NON-MILITARY" AND UNDER UNITED NATIONS AUSPICES.

    BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES REACTED COOLLY TO NEWS OF THE PROPOSAL, SAYING IT FALLS FAR SHORT OF NATO'S DEMANDS.

    NEVERTHELESS, MR. CHERNOMYDIN CALLED THE YUGOSLAV CONCESSION "A BREAKTHROUGH." INTERFAX QUOTED HIM AS SAYING "THE BALL IS NOW IN NATO'S COURT".

    THE RUSSIAN ENVOY SAID HE WOULD BRIEF PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN ON HIS TALKS IN BELGRADE, THEN HEAD WEST TO CONTINUE HIS DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVE IN TALKS WITH NATO LEADERS. IT WAS NOT IMMEDIATELY CLEAR IF HE WOULD FLY TO WASHINGTON, WHERE THE ALLIANCE IS MARKING ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY.

    SUCH A VISIT WOULD SURELY UPSTAGE THE ALLIANCE'S BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION. RUSSIA EARLIER HAD MADE A POINT OF SAYING IT WOULD BOYCOTT THE OBSERVANCES TO PROTEST AIRSTRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA.

    WHATEVER HIS NEXT MOVE, HOWEVER, MR. CHERNOMYRDIN IS LIKELY TO FIND THE GOING ROUGH AS HE TRIES TO BROKER AN END TO HOSTILITIES OVER KOSOVO. NATO COUNTRIES ARE DEMANDING THAT YUGOSLAVIA PULL ITS FORCES OUT OF THE KOSOVO REGION AND ACCEPT AN ALLIANCE-LED PEACEKEEPING FORCE.

    THERE HAS BEEN NO INDICATION THAT MR. MILOSEVIC IS READY TO ACCEPT THOSE CONDITIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH
    23-Apr-99 9:44 AM EDT (1344 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] RUSSIA / YUGOSLAVIA (S UPDATE) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248524
    CONTENT VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: THIS REPORT UPDATES CR 2-248511 ///

    INTRO: RUSSIA'S SPECIAL ENVOY ON THE BALKANS SAYS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS AGREED TO AN INTERNATIONAL MILITARY PRESENCE IN KOSOVO. BUT AS V-O-A CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, THE ENVOY'S COMMENTS WERE CONTRADICTED IN BELGRADE AND REJECTED IN WASHINGTON.

    TEXT: RUSSIA'S BALKANS MEDIATOR VICTOR CHERNOMYRDIN TOLD REPORTERS FRIDAY BELGRADE HAS GIVEN ITS CONSENT FOR A PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN KOSOVO.

    /// CHERNOMYRDIN ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS "YUGOSLAVIA HAS AGREED TO THE PRESENCE OF OTHER STATES." WHEN ASKED WHAT KIND, HE ANSWERED "MILITARY FORCES, OF COURSE. EARLIER, MR. CHERNOMYRDIN HAD DESCRIBED THE RESULTS OF HIS EIGHT-HOUR CONVERSATION WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AS "A BREAKTHROUGH".

    BUT INFORMATION COMING FROM BELGRADE'S FOREIGN MINISTRY APPEARS TO CONTRADICT MR. CHERNOMYRDIN'S ASSERTION. A YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT SPOKESMAN WAS QUOTED AS SAYING THE RUSSIAN MEDIATOR'S TALKS WITH MR. MILOSEVIC FOCUSED ON AN UNARMED UNITED NATIONS OBSERVER FORCE, NOT THE MILITARY PRESENCE NATO IS DEMANDING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH
    23-Apr-99 1:04 PM EDT (1704 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] NATO RUSSIA REACT (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248528
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO OFFICIALS ARE REACTING COOLLY TO A RUSSIAN-MEDIATED PLAN TO END THE BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA, SAYING THE MEASURE FALLS FAR SHORT OF WHAT IS NEEDED TO BRING PEACE TO KOSOVO. MEANTIME, NATO IS INTENSIFYING IT MILITARY CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAV TARGETS, WHICH INCLUDE SERB TELEVISION AND ELECTRIC FACILITIES. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE HAS THE STORY.

    TEXT: NATO BLASTED SERB STATE TELEVISION OFF THE AIR FOR ABOUT SIX HOURS. PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS THE NETWORK IS A FONT OF LIES AND PROPAGANDA USED BY YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO AROUSE AND CONTROL THE SERB PEOPLE.

    /// BACON ACT ///

    SERB TV IS AS MUCH A PART OF MILOSEVIC'S MURDER MACHINE AS HIS MILITARY IS. IT HAS STIRRED UP NATIONALIST PASSIONS IN THE COUNTRY. IT HAS MISREPORTED ON WHAT IS GOING ON IN A WAY THAT HAS MADE IT EXTREMELY DIFFICULT, IMPOSSIBLE PROBABLY, FOR THE SERB PEOPLE TO GRASP THE FULL MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM IN KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    SERB OFFICIALS CALLED THE ATTACK "CRIMINAL."

    MEANTIME NATO LEADERS SAY RUSSIA'S DIPLOMATIC PLAN TO STOP THE BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA IS INADEQUATE. BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOKE SAYS RUSSIA'S PLAN -- AGREED TO BY BELGRADE -- FOR A NON-MILITARY U-N PRESENCE IN KOSOVO IS FLAWED, BECAUSE IT ALLOWS SERB TROOPS TO STAY IN KOSOVO, WHILE BANNING NATO FORCES NEEDED TO PROTECT RETURNING ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES.

    /// COOKE ACT ///

    WHICH NOT ONLY COULD WE NOT ACCEPT, BUT I AM QUITE SURE THAT THE REFUGEES WOULD NOT ACCEPT AS A BASIS ON WHICH THEY COULD RETURN. AND SECONDLY, THE LIMITATIONS ON WHO COULD MAKE UP THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY PRESENCE ARE WHOLLY UNACCEPTABLE. THAT INTERNATIONAL MILITARY PRESENCE MUST BE CREDIBLE AND IT IS NOT GOING TO BE CREDIBLE WITHOUT PARTICIPATION BY MEMBERS OF NATO.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO LEADERS SAY THEY WILL NOT STOP BOMBING SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA UNTIL SERB-LED FORCES STOP KILLING ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO, AND ALLOW THE MORE-THAN-ONE MILLION DISPLACED PEOPLE AND REFUGEES TO GO HOME.

    MANY MILITARY EXPERTS AND POLITICIANS SAY YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL NOT ACCEPT THESE TERMS UNLESS NATO ATTACKS WITH GROUND FORCES AS WELL AS AERIAL BOMBS.

    ALLIANCE LEADERS INSIST THEY ARE STRONGLY UNITED BEHIND THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN, BUT SAY THERE IS NO CONSENSUS ON SENDING FOOT SOLDIERS, TANKS AND ARTILLERY INTO KOSOVO AGAINST SERB RESISTANCE.

    ALLIANCE SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS THE AIR CAMPAIGN IS WORKING AND SAYS GROUND TROOPS ARE NOT SOME KIND OF PANACEA THAT CAN BE INTRODUCED AT A MOMENT'S NOTICE.

    /// SHEA ACT ///

    THE AIR OPERATION CAN DO A LOT AND WE SHOULD THE CHANCE TO SHOW WHAT IT CAN DO.

    /// END ACT ///

    MEANTIME, NATO MILITARY PLANNERS ARE FIGURING OUT HOW MANY TROOPS WOULD BE NEEDED FOR A GROUND CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO. AND NATO PRESIDENTS AND PRIME MINISTERS ARE DISCUSSING THE ISSUE BEHIND CLOSED DOORS AT THE WASHINGTON SUMMIT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/ENE/JO
    23-Apr-99 2:06 PM EDT (1806 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] Q & A WITH GUY DINMORE BY LES CARPENTER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248507
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FOLLOWING IS THE TRANSCRIPT OF THE INTERVIEW LES CARPENTER OF VOA'S NEWS NOW CONDUCTED WITH JOURNALIST GUY DINMORE IN BELGRADE.

    TEXT: L-C: NATO WAR PLANES HAVE STRUCK AGAIN IN BELGRADE, AND WE UNDERSTAND THEY HIT THE TV STATION, THE GOVERNMENT TV STATION? G-D: THAT'S RIGHT. RADIO-TELEVISION PROGRAM R-T-S. IT WAS HIT ABOUT 2:00 THIS MORNING. THE BUILDING WAS VERY BADLY DAMAGED; PART OF IT COLLAPSED COMPLETELY. CONCRETE FLOORS PANCAKING ON TO EACH OTHER. SOME OF THE BUILDING ALSO CAUGHT FIRE. OFFICIALS ARE SAYING POSSIBLY FIFTEEN PEOPLE WERE KILLED. THERE'S NORMALLY A SHIFT OF ABOUT TWENTY PEOPLE THERE OVERNIGHT. OF COURSE, THE TELEVISION STATION WAS KNOCKED OFF THE AIR, BUT I'VE JUST BEEN TOLD BY FRIENDS IN BELGRADE THAT THEY'RE BACK ON THE AIR ALREADY. CLEARLY THEY HAVE ANOTHER TRANSMITTER SOMEWHERE, DIFFERENT STUDIOS. AND NATO HAS KILLED FIFTEEN PEOPLE FOR REMOVING R-T-S FROM THE AIR FOR ABOUT SEVEN HOURS. L-C: WE UNDERSTAND THERE WERE SOME RELAY STATIONS THAT WERE ALSO HIT. HAVE YOU HEARD ANYTHING ABOUT THAT? G-D: THAT'S RIGHT. AROUND THE COUNTRY NATO SEEMS TO BE TARGETING THESE RELAY STATIONS. BOTH NORTH OF BELGRADE AND DOWN IN THE SOUTH. WE'RE NOT VERY SURE WHAT THE OVERALL SITUATION IS, BUT I IMAGINE THAT QUITE LARGE AREAS ARE NOT ABLE TO SEE THE MAIN NATIONAL TELEVISION STATIONS. THEY MAY STILL BE ABLE TO WATCH THEIR OWN LOCAL TELEVISION STATIONS. L-C: ARE THERE OTHER ATTACKS IN THE YUGOSLAV REGION OVERNIGHT AND IN YUGOSLAVIA AS WELL? G-D: YES, WELL APART FROM THESE RELAY STATIONS AND TRANSMITTERS, I THINK THE CITY OF VELJEVO CAME UNDER ATTACK AGAIN, INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN THE SOUTH AND ALSO NEAR PRISTINA AND KOSOVO. BUT ... WE HAVEN'T BEEN GETTING SO MUCH NEWS THIS MORNING SO WE'RE NOT QUITE SO UP-TO-DATE YET. L-C: NATO IS BEGINNING ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS HERE IN WASHINGTON TODAY. THERE WILL BE A LOT OF TALK ABOUT KOSOVO. WE UNDERSTAND THAT RUSSIA NOW HAS MADE A PROPOSAL, AT LEAST THERE'S WORD THAT VICTOR CHERNOMYRDIN HAS COME AWAY FROM MEETINGS WITH MR. MILOSEVIC WITH A PROPOSAL. DO YOU HAVE ANYMORE INFORMATION ON IT FROM YOUR POINT OF VIEW THERE IN BELGRADE? G-D: CHERNOMYRDIN SPOKE ABOUT HAVING AN INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE IN KOSOVO, WHICH WOULD INCLUDE A RUSSIAN CONTINGENT. IT'S NOT TOTALLY CLEAR FROM WHAT HE WAS SAYING, AND HE ALSO ADMITTED THAT DETAILS HAD TO BE FLUSHED OUT, WHETHER THIS WOULD BE CIVILIAN OR MILITARY. SO FAR, PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS INSISTED ON A CIVILIAN, U-N LED, PRESENCE IN KOSOVO. BUT THOSE SOURCES QUOTE THE GOVERNMENT SUGGESTING THAT BELGRADE MIGHT BE READY TO ACCEPT A U-N PEACE KEEPING FORCE THAT WOULD BE ARMED, BUT ON THE CONDITION THAT IT DID NOT INCLUDE NATO COUNTRIES THAT ARE CURRENTLY TAKING PART IN THIS OFFENSE AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, WHICH WOULD IN FACT, RULE OUT MOST OF NATO. IT'S HARD TO SEE AT THE MOMENT HOW THIS WOULD BE ACCEPTABLE TO NATO, BUT CHERNOMYRDIN IS EXPECTED TO GO TO THE STATES TO TALK WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON OR OTHER AMERICAN OFFICIALS, AND RETURN TO BELGRADE TO SORT OF TRY AND WORK ON IT AND GET SOME KIND OF POLITICAL DIALOGUE GOING. L-C: WHAT ARE THE PROSPECTS THERE, DOES IT APPEAR THIS MAY BE SOMETHING THAT COULD WORK? G-D: IF YOU MEAN IN AMERICA OR BELGRADE? L-C: IN BELGRADE, DOES IT APPEAR THAT IT'S A GOOD POSSIBILITY, IS THERE A GOOD FEELING ABOUT IT THAT YOU HAVE SENSED? G-D: YEAH, WITH FRIENDS LAST NIGHT, WHEN WE HEARD THE NEWS ON THE RADIO THAT THERE WAS THIS POSSIBILITY THAT U-N FORCES (MIGHT COME). PEOPLE ARE QUITE ENTHUSIASTIC ABOUT THAT. I CERTAINLY WOULDN'T EXPECT PEOPLE TO BE RECEPTIVE TO THE IDEA OF AMERICAN FORCES COMING INTO KOSOVO. I THINK THERE THE GOVERNMENT REALLY HAS THE SUPPORT OF THE PEOPLE THAT THERE WOULD HAVE TO BE A U-N LED FORCE NOT NATO LED, FOR THEY ARE A VERY SELECTIVE COUNTRY.
    NEB/DJ/KL
    23-Apr-99 11:25 AM EDT (1525 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] YUGO DISPATCH FRIDAY (L-ONLY) BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248527
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RESCUE WORKERS IN BELGRADE ARE STRUGGLING TO FREE SURVIVORS AND BODIES FROM THE WRECKAGE OF SERBIA'S STATE TELEVISION HEADQUARTERS HIT BY NATO MISSILES EARLY FRIDAY. THE ATTACK CAME JUST HOURS AFTER A SPECIAL RUSSIAN ENVOY LAUNCHED A NEW DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVE TO END THE CRISIS OVER YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. GUY DINMORE REPORTS.

    TEXT: MORE THAN 100 STAFF WERE IN THE BELGRADE HEADQUARTERS OF RADIO-TELEVISION SERBIA WHEN THE MISSILES STRUCK AT 2.00 A-M FRIDAY MORNING -- REDUCING ONE SECTION OF THE BUILDING TO RUBBLE AND TRAPPING MANY INSIDE. DOCTORS HAD TO AMPUTATE THE LEG OF ONE MAN BEFORE HE COULD BE EXTRACTED. THE CRIES OF ANOTHER FOR WATER COULD BE HEARD FROM THE WRECKAGE.

    OFFICIALS SAID AT LEAST 10 CIVILIANS WERE DEAD AND SOME STILL MISSING. YUGOSLAV FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN NEBOJSA VUJOVIC SAID NATO WAS CELEBRATING ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY IN WASHINGTON FRIDAY WITH DEATH AND DESTRUCTION AND TERRORIST ATTACKS ON CIVILIANS. THE WESTERN ALLIANCE, HE SAID, WOULD NOT SUCCEED IN ITS CAMPAIGN TO BOMB YUGOSLAVIA INTO SUBMISSION OVER KOSOVO. ACCORDING TO YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS, ONE MONTH OF NIGHTLY BOMBING RAIDS HAVE KILLED MORE THAN 500 CIVILIANS.

    NATO AND WESTERN LEADERS DEFENDED THE ATTACK, SAYING THE STATE-RUN NETWORK HAD FUELED THE ETHNIC CONFLICT IN KOSOVO PROVINCE WITH LIES AND HATRED.

    SERBS WERE OUTRAGED THAT NATO HAD NOT EVEN GIVEN A WARNING TO PEOPLE TO LEAVE THE BUILDING. THEY ALSO ASKED WHY THEIR GOVERNMENT HAD NOT EVACUATED THE BUILDING. FOREIGN AND SERBIAN JOURNALISTS ALIKE CONDEMNED THE ATTACK.

    THE THREE CHANNELS OF SERBIAN TELEVISION WERE KNOCKED OFF THE AIR BY THE ATTACK, BUT RESUMED BROADCASTS AFTER A FEW HOURS FROM A DIFFERENT LOCATION.

    THE MISSILES LANDED JUST HOURS AFTER RUSSIAN SPECIAL ENVOY, VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN, MET YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN THE SEARCH FOR A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT TO THE CONFLICT. NATO DEMANDS THAT IT LEAD A PEACEKEEPING FORCE INTO KOSOVO TO ENSURE THE SAFE RETURN OF SEVERAL HUNDRED THOUSAND ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES. BUT MR MILOSEVIC TOLD RUSSIA'S ENVOY HE WOULD ONLY CONSIDER AN UNARMED OBSERVER MISSION LED BY THE UNITED NATIONS.

    RUSSIAN DIPLOMATS SAID MR CHERNOMYRDIN WOULD CONTINUE HIS MEDIATION EFFORTS AND U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN IS SCHEDULED TO VISIT MOSCOW NEXT WEEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GD/JO
    23-Apr-99 12:56 PM EDT (1656 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] ALBANIA REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (KUKES, ALBANIA)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248530
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN ALBANIA, THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY IS WORKING TO CONVINCE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO TO MOVE AWAY FROM ALBANIA'S BORDER WITH YUGOSLAVIA. TIM BELAY REPORTS FROM KUKES IN NORTHERN ALBANIA.

    TEXT: WHAT BEGAN LAST WEEK AS A FRIENDLY INVITATION HAS TURNED INTO A STERN WARNING FOR KOSAVARS WHO HAVE REMAINED IN NORTHERN ALBANIA.

    INTERNATIONAL RELIEF AGENCIES CITE TWO REASONS FOR WANTING THE 100-THOUSAND KOSAVARS IN KUKES TO RELOCATE TO OTHER PARTS OF ALBANIA. LOCAL FACILITIES CANNOT CONTINUE TO SERVE THE GROUP, WHICH IS THREE TIMES THE NORMAL POPULATION OF THE KUKES DISTRICT. AND A SPOKESMAN FOR THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, RAY WILKINSON, SAYS THERE ALSO IS A HIGH SECURITY RISK FOR THE PEOPLE CAMPED OUT SO CLOSE TO THE BORDER WITH YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// WILKINSON ACT ///

    THE SECURITY REASON IS A BIG PROBLEM. THE ALBANIAN AUTHORITIES HAVE BEEN TELLING US THE SECURITY SITUATION IS DETERIORATING. AND THE LAST THING WE WANT, OF COURSE, IS ANOTHER SARAJEVO MARKET SITUATION WHERE -- IF YOU RECALL -- A SHELL, ONE SHELL, HIT THE MARKET AND 60 OR 70 PEOPLE WERE KILLED. YOU CAN IMAGINE A SIMILAR KIND OF MAYHEM IN A REFUGEE CAMP HERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    REFUGEES HAVE RESPONDED TO THE PLEAS TO RELOCATE IN TWO WAYS. DISPLACED KOSAVARS IN KUKES WITH MONEY AND A PLACE TO GO ARE WILLING TO MOVE TO OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. BUT PEOPLE WHO HAVE NEITHER -- LIKE 60 YEAR OLD RUSHIT SEJDIU -- ARE NOT.

    /// RUSHIT SEJDIU ACT - IN ALBANIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS HE DOES NOT WANT TO MOVE BECAUSE IT TAKES MONEY TO RELOCATE. BUT IF HE HAD MONEY, HE SAYS, HE WOULD BE PLEASED TO LEAVE THE MUDDY CAMP OUTSIDE KUKES.

    BORDER MONITORS SAY THERE ARE STILL UP TO ONE-MILLION DISPLACED ETHNIC ALBANIANS INSIDE KOSOVO. RELIEF WORKERS IN KUKES SAY IF THOSE KOSAVARS CROSS INTO ALBANIA IN LARGE NUMBERS, THE CONGESTION WILL BE UNBEARABLE. THIS IS ANOTHER MAIN REASON FOR THE EFFORT TO CLEAR REFUGEE CAMPS IN THIS REGION.

    THE BORDER CROSSING HERE WAS QUIET ON FRIDAY. FEWER THAN 200 KOSAVAR REFUGEES ARRIVED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TB/JWH
    23-Apr-99 2:10 PM EDT (1810 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] KOSOVO/FOOD AID, AG/EARTH DAY, MONEY/SOY BY ROB SIVAK (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=AGRICULTURE BRIEFS #99-14
    NUMBER=7-31894
    TELEPHONE=202-619-2023
    EDITOR=SMART
    CONTENT=

    [ATT: AGRICULTURE, KOSOVO, FOOD, ENVIRONMENT]

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ANNOUNCES PLANS FOR ADDITIONAL U-S FOOD AID SHIPMENTS FOR KOSOVO REFUGEES...EARTH DAY EXHIBITS ON THE NATIONAL MALL DESCRIBE AGRICULTURE'S ROLE IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT...AND THE PEOPLE WHO PRINT AMERICA'S MONEY SAY THEY ARE PLANNING TO USE SOYBEAN INK FOR ALL FUTURE U-S PAPER CURRENCY. ROB SIVAK HAS DETAILS IN THIS WEEK'S "AGRICULTURE BRIEFS:"

    TEXT: U-S SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE DAN GLICKMAN ANNOUNCED THURSDAY THAT THE UNITED STATES WILL SOON BEGIN PROVIDING LARGE AMOUNTS OF ADDITIONAL FOOD AID TO HELP FEED REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- GLICKMAN "WE ARE LOOKING TO NEEDS OF ABOUT 1500 TONS PER MONTH -- BEGINNING SOMETIME IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SUMMER AND LASTING THROUGH THE END OF THE YEAR."

    TEXT: MR. GLICKMAN SAID THE NEW U-S FOOD AID WILL CONSIST OF WHEAT FLOUR, NON-FAT DRY MILK, COOKING OIL AND OTHER READY TO USE ITEMS. IT WILL SUPPLEMENT THE 80 THOUSAND TONS OF U-S FOOD AID PLEDGED TO KOSOVO REFUGEES BEFORE THE START OF NATO'S BOMBING CAMPAIGN IN YUGOSLAVIA. AND IT FOLLOWS THE 10 THOUSAND TONS OF U-S WHEAT FLOUR AND OTHER FOOD ITEMS THE U-S GOVERNMENT PURCHASED AND SHIPPED EARLIER THIS MONTH TO AID KOSOVO REFUGEES:

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- GLICKMAN "THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION EFFORTS HAVE BEEN QUITE SUCCESSFUL. BUT THE NUMBER OF REFUGEES CONTINUES TO INCREASE RATHER DRAMATICALLY, SO THE DEMANDS WILL PERHAPS BE EVEN GREATER IN THE FUTURE THAN WE ANTICIPATE RIGHT NOW."

    TEXT: NEARLY THREE QUARTERS OF A MILLION ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES HAVE FLED YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE IN THE PAST SEVERAL MONTHS. CART: MUSIC BRIDGE :05

    TEXT: PEOPLE ACROSS THE UNITED STATES AND AROUND THE WORLD OBSERVED EARTH DAY THURSDAY TO MARK PROGRESS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- SFX: AMBIENT SOUND (SNEAK, HOLD UNDER THRU THOMPSON)

    TEXT: HERE IN THE U-S CAPITAL CITY, THOUSANDS OF STUDENTS AND OTHER VISITORS TO THE NATIONAL MALL STOPPED BY A SERIES OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT EXHIBITS DECRIBING THE LINKS BETWEEN FARMING, HEALTHY SOILS, AND A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT. ELEVEN-YEAR-OLD DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA STUDENT ANDREW THOMPSON WAS FASCINATED BY A DISPLAY OF THE MANY DIFFERENT LAYERS OF SOIL THAT SUPPORT A FOOD CROP:

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- THOMPSON "WHEN WE LOOK AT THE SOIL, THAT'S THE TOP OF THE SOIL, BUT ALL THIS OTHER STUFF, THIS IS WHAT'S UNDER THE SOIL, UNDER ALL THE LAYERS."

    TEXT: (**) MARK BRAMSTEDT OF THE AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT'S NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE SAYS A FAVORITE EXHIBIT WITH THE YOUNGER CROWD WAS THE "SOIL TUNNEL:"

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- BRAMSTEDT (**) ADVANCE ROLL :07 FOR AMBIENCE "THEY REALLY LOVE THIS ONE, THEY GET ON THEIR BACK AND SLIDE THROUGH AND THEY CAN SEE WHAT IS IN THE SOIL AND HOW PLANTS AND ANIMALS NEED THE SOIL TO SURVIVE. AND THIS HAS PLANT ROOTS AND ROCKS IN THERE, AND THEY PRETEND THEY ARE A WORM AND SLIDE THROUGH THE SOIL AND THEY HAVE A GREAT TIME..."

    TEXT: U-S-D-A SOIL SPECIALIST MARK BRAMSTEDT, ALSO HAVING A GREAT TIME DURING EARTH DAY ACTIVITIES THURSDAY ON WASHINGTON'S NATIONAL MALL. CART: MUSIC BRIDGE :05

    OFFICIALS AT THE U-S BUREAU OF PRINTING AND ENGRAVING SAY ALL U-S PAPER MONEY WILL SOON BE PRINTED WITH NEW SOYBEAN-BASED INK. CARLA KIDWELL, THE BUREAU'S CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST, HAS BEEN WORKING ON THE CHEAPER, RENEWABLE INK FOR SEVERAL YEARS TO MAKE SURE IT MEETS TOUGH DURABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS: TAPE; CUT SIX -- KIDWELL "WE ARE STILL IN A TESTING PHASE. WE HAVE ABOUT A MILLION NOTES ON THE STREET THAT WERE PRODUCED WITH THE SOYBEAN VEHICLE, WHICH MEET ALL OF THE DURABILTY REQUIREMENTS."

    TEXT: MISS KIDWELL SAYS IT COULD BE ANOTHER TWO YEARS BEFORE ALL U-S PAPER MONEY IS PRINTED WITH SOYBEAN INK. WHILE ITS USE ON PAPER MONEY WON'T MAKE A HUGE DIFFERENCE FOR AMERICAN SOYBEAN FARMERS, AN INDUSTRY SPOKESMAN SAYS EVERY NEW USE OF SOYBEANS HELPS A LITTLE. IN WASHINGTON, I'M ROB SIVAK.
    NEB/RMS/NES
    23-Apr-99 9:06 AM EDT (1306 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248512
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE HEAD OF THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS HER AGENCY IS GEARING UP FOR THE POSSIBILITY OF THOUSANDS OF NEW KOSOVAR REFUGEES FLEEING INTO MACEDONIA, ALBANIA, AND MONTENEGRO. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS MS. OGATA SAYS SHE ALSO IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE WELFARE OF CIVILIANS IN YUGOSLAVIA WHO ARE SUFFERING FROM NATO BOMBING.

    TEXT: THE U-N REFUGEE CHIEF, SADAKO OGATA, SAYS THERE ARE NO SIGNS OF A NEW EXODUS RIGHT NOW. BUT, SHE SAYS SHE CANNOT EXCLUDE THE POSSIBILITY THAT THERE WILL BE ANOTHER LARGE-SCALE PUSH OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS OUT OF KOSOVO INTO MONTENEGRO, MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA.

    MS. OGATA SAYS HER STAFF IS ON ALERT FOR THOUSANDS OF NEW REFUGEES TRYING TO CRAM THEIR WAY INTO ALREADY OVERCROWDED REFUGEE CAMPS. THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY REPORTS REFUGEE MOVEMENTS ARE STILL VERY SLOW.

    ON THURSDAY, AID WORKERS COUNTED JUST UNDER ONE-THOUSAND NEW ARRIVALS INTO NORTHERN ALBANIA AND ABOUT 15-HUNDRED NEW ARRIVALS AT THE BORDER BETWEEN KOSOVO AND MACEDONIA. U-N REFUGEE SPOKESWOMAN, JUDITH KUMIN SAYS THE SITUATION IS VERY UNCLEAR.

    /// KUMIN ACT ONE ///

    WE DON'T SEE ANYONE ON THE ROADS. THEN ALL OF A SUDDEN A GROUP ARRIVES AND THEN THERE ISN'T ANYONE AGAIN. AND IT'S VERY DIFFICULT, THERE I'M TALKING ABOUT THE MACEDONIAN AND THE ALBANIAN BORDERS. SO WE DON'T REALLY KNOW WHAT'S HAPPENING. THERE DON'T REALLY SEEM TO BE PEOPLE WAITING AT THE BORDER,S AND YET THEY ARRIVE. SO CLEARLY THERE'S SOME MECHANISM THAT'S STOPPING AND STARTING THE FLOW OF PEOPLE. BUT, WE HAVE NO WAY OF KNOWING WHAT IT IS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MS. KUMIN SAYS ONLY A FEW HUNDRED ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARRIVED IN MONTENEGRO ON THURSDAY. SHE SAYS IT IS DIFFICULT TO KNOW WHY THE FLOW OF REFUGEES HAS SUDDENLY DRIED UP. BUT, SHE SAYS IT MAY BE LINKED TO THE INCREASED PRESENCE OF THE YUGOSLAV ARMY IN THE ROZAJE DISTRICT OF MONTENEGRO.

    /// KUMIN ACT TWO ///

    AND THE INCREASED LEVEL OF TENSION THERE AND THE FACT THAT THERE ARE MORE CHECKPOINTS ON THE ROADS THAT DISPLACED PEOPLE WOULD PROBABLY BE RELUCTANT TO GO THROUGH. OTHER EXPLANATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN GIVEN IN THE PAST HAVE BEEN DESTRUCTION OF BRIDGES ON ONE OF THE MAIN ROADS LEADING OUT OF KOSOVO INTO ROZAJE DISTRICT WHICH MEANS THAT DISPLACED PEOPLE HAVE TO GO QUITE A LONG WAY ROUND TO GET TO MONTENEGRO.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY IS TRYING TO MOVE ABOUT 10-THOUSAND REFUGEES A DAY OUT OF THE KUKES REGION IN NORTHERN ALBANIA INTO THE INTERIOR. THE AGENCY SAYS IT HAS TO MAKE ROOM IN KUKES FOR THE POSSIBLE ARRIVAL OF NEW REFUGEES THERE.

    U-N REFUGEE CHIEF OGATA SAYS NATO AIRSTRIKES HAVE NOT PREVENTED THE EXODUS OF REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO AND THEY APPEAR TO BE HAVING AN ADVERSE AFFECT ON CIVILIANS IN YUGOSLAVIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    23-Apr-99 9:47 AM EDT (1347 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] NATO / BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248536

    STREET SCENE (L-ONLY) CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS LEADERS FROM NATO'S MEMBER STATES ARE MEETING IN WASHINGTON (THIS WEEKEND), ACTIVITIES IN THE CENTER OF THE NATION'S CAPITAL HAVE COME TO A NEAR STAND-STILL. A FEW PEOPLE HAVE VENTURED OUT, MANEUVERING THROUGH A PLETHORA OF SECURITY BLOCKADES. CAROL PINEAU REPORTS FROM THE STREETS OF DOWNTOWN WASHINGTON.

    TEXT:

    /// SFX -- BELL RINGING ///

    A LONE BICYCLE RICKSHAW IS THE ONLY FORM OF MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION BRAVING THE STREETS OF DOWNTOWN WASHINGTON AS STREETS ARE CLOSED TO TRAFFIC AND EMPLOYEES HAVE BEEN TOLD TO STAY HOME RATHER THAN SUFFER THROUGH THE BARRAGE OF NATO SECURITY BARRIERS THROUGHOUT THE CITY.

    BUT BUSINESS HAS BEEN GOOD FOR LEGAL ASSISTANT GARY SCHMIDT. HE RENTED A BICYCLE RICKSHAW AND OPENED -- JUST FOR THE WEEKEND -- A CLEAN AIR TAXI COMPANY TO HELP TOURISTS AND EVEN A FEW CONGRESSMEN GET AROUND TOWN.

    /// SCHMIDT ACT ///

    I DROP PEOPLE OFF AT THE WILLARD AND THE MARRIOTT AND ALL AROUND TOWN, RITZ CARLTON. PEOPLE TAKE ME FOR FUN OR NOVELTY, OR JUST TO GET PLACES.

    /// END ACT ///

    SECURITY IS TIGHT IN DOWNTOWN WASHINGTON AS HELICOPTERS PASS OVERHEAD AND GUARDS FROM ALMOST EVERY IMAGINABLE U-S AND INTERNATIONAL AGENCY MAN THE STREETS OF THE CAPITAL.

    BUT NEAR THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, A COUPLE HUNDRED PROTESTORS BRAVED THE SECURITY TO ATTEND A RALLY ON DE-NUKING NATO.

    /// SFX -- PROTEST ///

    // OPT //

    SEVERAL PEACE ACTIVIST ORGANIZATIONS PARTICIPATED IN THE FOUR-HOUR PROGRAM. AMID SPEECHES, SONGS AND PUPPET SKITS DEPICTING NATO GENERALS SURROUNDED BY A CHORUS OF PHANTOMS WEARING DEATH MASKS, THE PROTESTORS CALLED FOR AN END TO THE BOMBINGS IN KOSOVO AND THE ABOLITION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ALLIANCE.

    THE DIRECTOR OF PHYSICIANS FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, BOB MUSIL, PRESENTED A CITIZEN'S COMMUNIQUE.

    /// MUSIL ACT ///

    WE THE CITIZENS OF THE MEMBER COUNTRIES OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION HAVE COME TOGETHER IN WASHINGTON D-C ON THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE ALLIANCE TO CALL ON NATO TO END ITS ALLIANCE ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND WORK TOWARD A NUCLEAR WEAPONS FREE WORLD AS WE ENTER THE 21ST CENTURY.

    // END ACT ///

    ACCEPTING THE COMMUNIQUE WAS NATO SPOKESMAN FRANCOIS LE BLEVENNEC, WHO SAID HE WOULD DELIVER IT TO NATO'S SECRETARY GENERAL. MR. LE BLEVENNEC COMMENTED AFTERWARDS THAT PROTESTS ARE PART OF DEMOCRACY, AND PROVE NATO IS STRONG ENOUGH TO DEAL WITH DISSENT WITHIN ITS MEMBER NATIONS.

    SEVERAL OF THE PROTESTORS SHOUTED SLOGANS AGAINST NATO'S BOMBING IN KOSOVO, BUT MR. MUSIL SAYS PHYSICIANS FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PLANNED THE PROTEST LONG BEFORE THE WAR IN KOSOVO. HE SAYS KOSOVO IS A DIFFICULT ISSUE BECAUSE, WHILE HIS GROUP IS OPPOSED TO MILITARY CAMPAIGNS, THEY ARE ALSO APPALLED BY REPORTS OF ETHNIC CLEANSING. HE SAYS FOR HIS GROUP THE KEY ISSUE IS ABOLITION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS.

    /// SFX -- PROTEST CHANTS ///

    // END OPT //

    MEANWHILE, THROUGHOUT THE NATION'S CAPITAL, TOURISTS ARE NAVIGATING THE COMPLEX MAZE OF CLOSED-OFF CORRIDORS, BUT FOR ANYONE NEEDING A QUICK LIFT THROUGH THE NATO SECURITY AREA, THERE IS ALWAYS THE CLEAN AIR TAXI.

    /// SFX -- BICYCLE BELL ///

    (SIGNED)
    NEB/CP/JO
    23-Apr-99 4:23 PM EDT (2023 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [11] NATO TONE (L-ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248539 (CQ)
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-ISSUING CLARIFYING LAST GRAF ///

    INTRO: THE NATO SUMMIT WAS ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A BIG CELEBRATION -- A 50TH BIRTHDAY PARTY COMPLETE WITH FESTIVE MUSIC AND MILITARY JETS FLYING IN FORMATION, LEAVING COLORED PLUMES IN THE AIR. BUT THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO HAS CHANGED THE TONE. AS PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS, THIS IS A SOMBER SUMMIT.

    TEXT: THEY RETURNED TO THE SPOT WHERE THE ALLIANCE BEGAN.

    STANDING SIDE BY SIDE IN THE SAME AUDITORIUM WHERE THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY WAS SIGNED, THE LEADERS OF THE 19 MEMBER COUNTRIES MARKED THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF NATO.

    THEIR WORDS WERE MEASURED...SOMETIMES PHILOSOPHICAL. IN A WEEKEND OF MEETINGS, THIS WAS THEIR ONE OPPORTUNITY TO SPEAK TO THE WORLD AND SPEAK FROM THE HEART.

    WORDS OF CELEBRATION WERE TEMPERED BY THOUGHTS OF THE CONFLICT OF THE BALKANS. EACH LEADER SEEMED TO APPROACH THE OCCASION FROM HIS OWN UNIQUE PERSPECTIVE.

    SOME WERE BORN AFTER WORLD WAR TWO. BUT FOR THE DUTCH PRIME MINISTER, MEMORIES OF THAT CONFLICT ARE STRONG.

    ///KOK ACT///

    MY EARLIEST MEMORIES AS A CHILD ARE OF A WORLD AT WAR. THEY HAVE LEFT AN INDELIBLE MARK ON MY WAY OF THINKING.

    ///END ACT///

    WIN KOK SAID NATO WAS BORN OF THE PAIN OF WORLD WAR TWO AND IS NOT JUST AN ALLIANCE OF NATIONS, BUT AN ALLIANCE OF VALUES.

    /// KOK ACT ///

    FROM THE VERY BEGINNING, THE ALLIANCE HAS STOOD FOR FREEDOM, FOR DEMOCRACY, FOR PEACE AND FOR STABILITY -- CORE VALUES THAT ARE AS VALID TODAY AS THEY WERE HALF A CENTURY AGO.

    ///END ACT///

    ONE BY ONE, THE PRESIDENTS AND PRIME MINISTERS ADDRESSED THE CROWD OF DIGNITARIES FROM AROUND THE WORLD. IT WAS A PARADE OF NATIONS: FROM TURKEY TO LUXEMBOURG ... PORTUGAL TO GERMANY.

    GERHARD SCHROEDER, THE NEW GERMAN CHANCELLOR, REFLECTED BRIEFLY ON NATO'S PAST. HE SAID HIS COUNTRY HAS A MORAL OBLIGATION TO TAKE PART IN TODAY'S OPERATION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    ////SCHROEDER IN GERMAN WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATION ACT////

    WE HAD TO INTERVENE MILITARILY IN KOSOVO SIMPLY BECAUSE THERE WERE NO OTHER MEANS LEFT IN ORDER TO DEFEND THE VALUES OF A CIVILIZED WESTERN WORLD.

    ///END ACT///

    THE NEWEST MEMBERS OF NATO PROVIDED THE MOST POIGNANT MOMENTS. HUNGARY IS THE ONLY COUNTRY IN THE ALLIANCE THAT BORDERS YUGOSLAVIA. AND WHILE HE DID NOT REFER DIRECTLY TO THE CONFLICT, IT WAS IMPLICIT IN THE WORDS OF PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR ORBAN. HE PARAPHRASED A QUOTE FROM THE BIBLE: "FOR EVERY THING, THERE IS A SEASON."

    ///ORBAN ACT///

    THERE IS A TIME TO LET THINGS HAPPEN...AND A TIME TO MAKE THINGS HAPPEN. I AM CONVINCED THAT THROUGH CLOSE COOPERATION WITH OUR NEW ALLIES IN NATO, THE HUNGARIANS WILL BE ABLE TO CONTRIBUTE TO A MORE JUST WORLD.

    ///END ACT///

    THE CEREMONY WAS RESTRAINED. EACH LEADER SPOKE BRIEFLY, SIGNED A DECLARATION REAFFIRMING THE GOALS AND VALUES OF THE ALLIANCE AND RETURNED TO HIS SEAT. THEY LEFT WITHOUT FANFARE, WITH JUST A HANDSHAKE OR TWO. THEY ORIGINALLY PLANNED TO COME TO WASHINGTON TO CELEBRATE NATO'S PAST AND PONDER THE FUTURE. INSTEAD, THEIR SUMMIT IS PREOCCUPIED WITH THE PRESENT -- WITH A CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/JO
    23-Apr-99 6:11 PM EDT (2211 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] CLINTON SUMMIT (L) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248520
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RE-RUNNING WITH CORRECT NUMBER //

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS OPENED NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON -- VOWING TO INCREASE THE PRESSURE AGAINST YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. FROM THE SUMMIT, V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: MR. CLINTON SAYS THE SUMMIT WILL SEND A CLEAR MESSAGE OF UNITY AND DETERMINATION TO MR. MILOSEVIC. AS HE WELCOMED NATO LEADERS TO WASHINGTON, THE PRESIDENT CALLED THE SUMMIT AN OPPORTUNITY TO CHART A NEW FUTURE FOR THE 19-MEMBER ALLIANCE AND REAFFIRM ITS MISSION IN KOSOVO.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    TODAY WE SEND A CLEAR MESSAGE OF UNITY AND DETERMINATION TO SUSTAIN OUR AIR CAMPAIGN FOR AS LONG AS IT TAKES, TO STAND FIRM IN OUR CONDITIONS FOR ENDING IT. TO PURSUE DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVES TO MEET THOSE CONDITIONS. TO INCREASE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC PRESSURE AGAINST THE REGIME IN BELGRADE. TO STAND BY THE FRONT LINE NATIONS, THREATENED BY BELGRADE'S ACTIONS. AND TO WORK WITH THEM FOR STABILITY DEMOCRACY AND PROSPERITY IN SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE.

    // END ACT //

    AS THE PRESIDENT SPOKE, NATO JETS CONTINUED POUNDING TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA, AND ALLIANCE OFFICIALS WERE QUIETLY DISCUSSING THE POSSIBLE USE OF GROUND FORCES IN THE CONFLICT. THURSDAY, OFFICIALS ACKNOWLEDGED THEY MIGHT NOW BE WILLING TO SEND TROOPS INTO KOSOVO WITHOUT A FORMAL AGREEMENT SIGNED BY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. AT THE START OF THE OPERATION THE OFFICIALS HAD VOWED THEY WOULD ONLY SEND PEACEKEEPING TROOPS INTO WHAT THEY DESCRIBED AS A PERMISSIVE ENVIRONMENT. THE TERM BEING USED BY NATO LEADERS NOW IS A SEMI-PERMISSIVE ENVIRONMENT.

    NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA HAS ORDERED ALLIANCE MILITARY PLANNERS TO REVISE A SET OF OPTIONS FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF GROUND TROOPS THAT WERE DONE LAST YEAR.

    SPEAKING AT THE OPENING OF THE SUMMIT, MR. SOLANA SAID THE ALLIANCE WAS UNITED IN ITS RESOLVE TO BRING ABOUT A JUST POLITICAL SOLUTION IN KOSOVO.

    // SOLANA ACT //

    MILOSEVIC MUST KNOW THAT THERE IS NO PLACE FOR HIS POLICIES IN EUROPE ON THE EVE OF THE 21ST CENTURY.

    // END ACT //

    ON THURSDAY, PRESIDENT CLINTON WELCOMED PRELIMINARY REPORTS THAT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MIGHT BE WILLING TO ACCEPT SOME FORM OF INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE IN KOSOVO. THE SKETCHY OFFER EMERGED FOLLOWING A MEDIATION EFFORT BY RUSSIAN SPECIAL ENVOY VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN. SOME SKEPTICAL NATO OFFICIALS SAID THE OFFER FROM BELGRADE MAY BE AN EFFORT TO UNDERCUT NATO MOVES TOWARD A STEPPED UP MILITARY CAMPAIGN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/ENE/JO
    23-Apr-99 12:28 PM EDT (1628 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] CLINTON-NATO (S) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248516
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON WELCOMED NATO LEADERS TO THE SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON FRIDAY, TELLING THEM THAT THE ALLIANCE'S WARPLANES ARE DEFENDING SHARED DEMOCRATIC VALUES WITH ATTACKS IN YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS, ALLIANCE LEADERS ARE EXPECTED TO TALK ABOUT EXPANDING THE KOSOVO CAMPAIGN FROM AIR STRIKES TO GROUND TROOPS.

    TEXT: LEADERS FROM MORE THAN 40 NATIONS ARE GATHERED IN WASHINGTON TO CELEBRATE NATO'S HISTORY AND PLAN ITS FUTURE. PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS THE ALLIANCE IS UNIFIED AND WILL CONTINUE ITS AIR ATTACKS IN KOSOVO.

    /// CLINTON ACT 40 ///

    WE HAVE DONE EVERYTHING WE COULD TO RESOLVE THIS MATTER PEACEFULLY. BUT WHEN WE FIGHT WE FIGHT TO PREVAIL. TO PREVAIL IN THIS CONFLICT AND TO BUILD THE UNDIVIDED DEMOCRATIC EUROPE THAT THE FOUNDERS OF NATO ENVISIONED 50 YEARS AGO.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO LEADERS HAVE REACTED CAUTIOUSLY TO A REPORT THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS WILLING TO ACCEPT A U-N CONTROLLED INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE IN KOSOVO. MEANTIME, NATO MILITARY OFFICIALS ARE FIGURING OUT HOW MANY TROOPS WOULD BE NEEDED FOR A GROUND CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO. WHILE OFFICIALS SAY THE ALLIANCE IS UNITED BEHIND THE AIR CAMPAIGN, THERE IS NO AGREEMENT ON EXPANDING TO A GROUND WAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/ENE/KL
    23-Apr-99 10:26 AM EDT (1426 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] NATO NEW MEMBERS (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248538
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS PAID SPECIAL TRIBUTE TO NATO'S THREE NEW MEMBERS, AS THE ALLIANCE FORMALLY MARKED ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY IN WASHINGTON. FROM THE SUMMIT, VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: IT WAS AN ELABORATE FORMAL CEREMONY TO MARK THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF NATO'S CREATION. WITH THEIR WIVES AND FAMILY MEMBERS LOOK ON FROM THE AUDIENCE, LEADERS OF THE ALLIANCE, ONE BY ONE, STEPPED ONTO A STAGE LINED WITH FLAGS OF THE 19 MEMBERS.

    IN THEIR INDIVIDUAL REMARKS, NATO HEADS OF STATE CONDEMNED THE POLICIES OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID THE ALLIANCE WAS INVOLVED IN KOSOVO TO REPLACE ETHNIC CLEANSING WITH TOLERANCE AND DECENCY.

    ALTHOUGH THE CRISIS HAS IN MANY WAYS OVERSHADOWED THE WASHINGTON SUMMIT THERE WAS ONE UPBEAT NOTE. PRESIDENT CLINTON AND MANY OF THE OTHER LEADERS TOOK TIME TO WELCOME NATO'S THREE NEW MEMBERS, POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    TO PRIME MINISTER ORBAN, PRESIDENT HAVEL, PRESIDENT KWASNIEWSKI, WELCOME TO NATO, WELCOME HOME TO THE COMMUNITY OF FREEDOM.

    // END ACT //

    CZECH PRESIDENT VACLAV HAVEL SAID NATO HAD BEYOND ALL DOUBT, CONTRIBUTED TO THE FACT THAT THERE HAS BEEN NO NEW WORLD WAR IN EUROPE SINCE THE CREATION OF NATO. BUT ALLUDING TO THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO, HE SAID PEACE IS STILL THREATENED. AND HE SAID IT WAS IMPORTANT TO IDENTIFY THE NEW TYPES OF DANGERS.

    // HAVEL ACT //

    IT IS MY HOPE THIS MEETING WILL HELP US TO ADVANCE IN THIS DIRECTION AND WILL THUS ADD STRENGTH TO THE IDEA OF AN EQUITABLE PEACE, THAT IS PEACE FOUNDED NOT ON A VIOLATION OF HUMANITY BUT ON THE CONTRARY, ON RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES.

    // END ACT //

    POLISH PRESIDENT ALEKSANDER KWASNIEWSKI SAID HE WAS DEEPLY MOVED BY THE OPPORTUNITY TO BE SPEAKING AT THE SUMMIT. THROUGH THE EARLY YEARS OF THE ALLIANCE, WHEN POLAND WAS NOT A MEMBER, HE SAID NATO HAD BEEN A SYMBOL OF HOPE TO HIS PEOPLE.

    // KWASNEIWSKI ACT //

    THE HOPE THAT THE IRON CURTAIN WOULD NOT LAST FOREVER, THE HOPE THAT AS SOON AS POLAND WAS ABLE TO DETERMINE ITS FATE, IT WOULD TAKE PART IN THE CREATION OF A BETTER FUTURE FOR ITSELF FOR THE WHOLE OF THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT.

    // END ACT //

    MR. KWASNEIWSKI SAID RECENT EVENTS IN THE BALKANS MADE IT CLEAR THAT THAT LONG SOUGHT MEMBERSHIP IN THE ALLIANCE BROUGHT RESPONSIBILITY AS WELL AS COMFORT.

    THE POLISH PRESIDENT SAID THE TRAGIC EVENTS IN KOSOVO HAD OVERSHADOWED WHAT WAS TO HAVE BEEN A CELEBRATION. BUT, ECHOING THE REMARKS OF OTHER LEADERS, HE SAID THE DECISION TO LAUNCH AIR STRIKES PROVED THAT NATO HAD REMAINED TRUE TO THE ITS EVERLASTING AND FUNDAMENTAL VALUES OF FREEDOM AND RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/KL
    23-Apr-99 4:55 PM EDT (2055 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] NATO / KOSOVO (S) BY KYLE KING (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248537
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO LEADERS CELEBRATING THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE ALLIANCE HAVE VOWED TO TIGHTEN ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND CONTINUE THEIR MILITARY CAMPAIGN. FROM THE SUMMIT, VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: A STATEMENT ISSUED AFTER THE OPENING SESSIONS OF THE NATO SUMMIT, SAID THE ALLIANCE IS DETERMINED TO PREVAIL IN ITS CONFLICT WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA SAID THE ALLIANCE REMAINED UNIFIED AND WOULD STICK BY ITS POLICY OF AIR STRIKES.

    // SOLANA ACT //

    DETERMINATION TO SEE THIS CAMPAIGN THROUGH, AND TO GO ALL THE WAY TO THE END, UNTIL THE FIVE CONDITIONS ESTABLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ARE MET BY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC.

    // END ACT //

    NATO WANTS YUGOSLAV TROOPS TO WITHDRAW FROM THE PROVINCE AND ALLOW ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES TO RETURN UNDER THE PROTECTION OF AN INTERNATIONAL FORCE.

    A NATO STATEMENT SAID AIR STRIKES WOULD NOT BE HALTED UNTIL ITS CONDITIONS ARE MET. UNTIL THEN THE STATEMENT SAID OFFICIALS WOULD WORK TO TIGHTEN ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST BELGRADE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/KL
    23-Apr-99 4:45 PM EDT (2045 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] GROUND TROOPS? / BALKAN REACT (L-O) BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248534
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LEADERS OF BALKAN STATES NEIGHBORING YUGOSLAVIA ARE GIVING A MIXED WELCOME TO ANY SUGGESTION THAT NATO GROUND TROOPS COULD BE DEPLOYED IN AN OFFENSIVE MEASURE. WHILE GENERALLY SUPPORTIVE OF NATO'S AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA, SOME COUNTRIES -- SUCH AS ROMANIA AND THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA -- ARE RELUCTANT TO SUPPORT ANY MOVES TOWARD A GROUND WAR. NEJLA SAMMAKIA REPORTS ON CONCERNS EXPRESSED BY SOME BALKAN LEADERS ATTENDING THE NATO SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON.

    TEXT: ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI PLESU SAYS IT WAS NOT EASY TO GET HIS PARLIAMENT TO APPROVE A MEASURE TO GIVE UNRESTRICTED ACCESS TO NATO WARPLANES -- EVEN THOUGH ROMANIA HAS LOBBIED HARD TO ONE DAY JOIN NATO. HE SAYS MANY ROMANIANS ARE SYMPATHETIC TO THE SERBS -- WITH WHOM THEY SHARE THE ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN FAITH. HE CAUTIONS THE ALLIANCE AGAINST GOING INTO BATTLE AGAINST SERB FORCES.

    //PLESU ACT//

    MY PERSONAL VIEW IS THAT THIS CONFLICT WILL MAKE NECESSARY TROOPS ON THE GROUND. IT WILL BE A VERY, VERY TOUGH CONFRONTATION AND ONE SHOULD DO EVERYTHING IN ORDER TO AVOID THAT. A FIGHT ON THE GROUND WITH SERBS WOULD BE A TRAGEDY AND WOULD IMPLY A LOT OF VICTIMS ON BOTH SIDES, AND MIGHT IMPLY INTERFERENCE OF OTHER COUNTRIES IN THE CONFLICT THAT WOULD FEEL PUSHED BY THEIR PUBLIC OPINION TO GESTICULATE IN ONE WAY OR ANOTHER.

    //END ACT//

    MR. PLESU SAYS HE HOPES A WAY CAN BE FOUND FOR NATO AND YUGOSLAVIA TO RETURN TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE

    OTHER BALKAN LEADERS STRESSED IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT ANY NATO TROOP DEPLOYMENT HAVE BROADER SUPPORT -- INCLUDING UNITED NATIONS CLEARANCE -- AND A CLEAR EXIT STRATEGY.

    CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTER MATE GRANIC -- WHOSE COUNTRYMEN FOUGHT FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA EARLIER THIS DECADE -- SUGGESTED IT WOULD HAVE BEEN BETTER HAD THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ACTED EARLIER TO STOP WHAT HE CALLED THE "MADNESS OF GREATER SERBIA." ADDRESSING THE POSSIBILITY OF A GROUND WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, MR. GRANIC HAS THIS TO SAY:

    //GRANIC ACT//

    NATO MUST WIN, THAT'S ALL. ALL OTHER THINGS ARE TECHNIQUES AND TACTICS.

    //END ACT//

    THE BALKAN LEADERS SAY, THAT IN THE EVENT OF A PEACEFUL END TO THE CRISIS, NATO-LED GROUND TROOPS MUST STILL ENTER KOSOVO TO ENSURE THE SAFE RETURN OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSAND OF ALBANIAN REFUGEES. AFTER THAT, THEY SAY, IT WILL BE TIME TO REBUILD KOSOVO AND THE COUNTRIES WHOSE ECONOMIES HAVE BEEN HURT BY THE WAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NS/JO
    23-Apr-99 4:58 PM EDT (2058 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] NATO AND RUSSIA BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43215
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS THE NATO SUMMIT GOT UNDERWAY, A GROUP OF TRANSATLANTIC ORGANIZATIONS FOCUSED ON A LARGE POWER THAT IS NOT PART OF THE CELEBRATION: RUSSIA. SPEAKERS EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT NATO AND U-S RELATIONS WITH MOSCOW HAVE SERIOUSLY FRAYED OVER KOSOVO BUT MIGHT BE MENDED BY DRAWING RUSSIA INTO A POSSIBLE POLITICAL SETTLEMENT. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS THE DISCUSSION.

    TEXT: OF ALL THE MEMBERS OF NATO, GREECE IS THE MOST TROUBLED BY THE WAR IN KOSOVO. SURVEYS SUGGEST A LARGE MAJORITY OF ITS PEOPLE ARE OPPOSED TO THE BOMBING AND EVEN MORE RESISTANT TO A GROUND WAR THAT MIGHT INVOLVE THE USE OF GREEK TERRITORY.

    AT A CONFERENCE HELD IN WASHINGTON BY THE BRITISH AMERICAN SECURITY INFORMATION COUNCIL AND THREE OTHER ORGANIZATIONS (BRITISH INFORMATION CENTER FOR TRANSATLANTIC SECURITY, LAWYERS ALLIANCE FOR WORLD SECURITY, HEINRICH BOLL FOUNDATION), GREEK DEFENSE MINISTER AKIS TSOCHATZOPOULOS SAID THERE IS AN OVER-EMPHASIS ON A MILITARY RATHER THAN A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO KOSOVO:

    // TSOCHATZOPOULOS ACT //

    THE INITIAL ATTEMPT BY RUSSIA AS WELL AS THE SUBSEQUENT ONE BY GERMANY WERE NOT SUFFICIENTLY SUPPORTED, AND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A POLITICAL SOLUTION AND AN INFLEXIBLE ULTIMATUM WAS NOT UNDERSTOOD. THE RESULT WAS THE STRENGTHENING OF NOT ONLY BELGRADE'S INTRANSIGENCE BUT ALSO THE THE COMING TOGETHER OF SERBS AROUND MILOSEVIC'S LEADERSHIP WHO CHOSE TO DISREGARD THE BOMBING, MILITARIZE KOSOVO AND AT THE SAME TIME PRACTICE ETHNIC CLEANSING AGAINST THE ALBANIAN POPULATION OF KOSOVO.

    // END ACT //

    MR. TSOCHATZOPOULOS SAID NATO, AS IT EVOLVES, SHOULD ACT WITHIN INTERNATIONAL LAW, NOT TRY TO REPLACE IT.

    LEIF SPORNBECK, A FORMER U-S ADVISER TO NATO ON CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN AFFAIRS, SAID HE IS PROUD OF THE CLOSE RELATIONS HE HELPED ESTABLISHED BETWEEN THE ALLIANCE AND RUSSIA. BUT THAT HAS NOW CRUMBLED. HE BLAMES MOSCOW MORE THAN NATO:

    // SPORNBECK ACT //

    WE HAVE SEEN HERE THE SOVIET-STYLE MEDIA CAMPAIGN THAT HAS TAKEN PLACE UNDER THE CURRENT LEADERSHIP OF (PRIME MINISTER) PRIMAKOV AND THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, IVANOV. THOSE TWO PEOPLE HAVE IN MANY WAYS ORCHESTRATED THIS ANTI-NATO MEDIA CAMPAIGN IN RUSSIA, AND THE RESULT IS ALL OF THE ECONOMIC FRUSTRATIONS, ALL OF THE PROBLEMS RUSSIA HAS BEEN HAVING ARE NOW BEING MANIFEST IN THIS ANTI-NATO PROPAGANDA.

    // END ACT //

    DMITRI TRENIN, A RUSSIAN WHO IS DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE CARNEGIE MOSCOW CENTER, AGREED NATO-RUSSIAN RELATIONS HAVE BROKEN DOWN, BUT HE BLAMES THE BOMBING. IT IS NOT THAT RUSSIANS FEEL ANY STRONG KINSHIP WITH FELLOW SLAVS IN SERBIA, HE SAID. NOR IS IT A MATTER OF SHARING ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY. RUSSIANS ARE SIMPLY WORRIED ABOUT NATO. THEY ASK: WHERE WILL IT GO NEXT? EVER CLOSER TO RUSSIAN BORDERS AND TO RUSSIAN VITAL INTERESTS LIKE THE CAUCASUS?

    // TRENIN ACT //

    I THINK MOST WOULD AGREE NOW THAT NATO AT FIFTY IS AN EXPANSIONIST POLITICAL MILITARY OR MILITARY-POLITICAL STRUCTURE WHICH HAS KEPT ITS OLD FUNCTION OF DETERRING A RESURGENT RUSSIA AND HAS ACQUIRED A NEW ONE OF INTERVENTIONISM AT WILL, PRACTICALLY ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD BUT ABOVE ALL WHERE IT MATTERS TO RUSSIA MOST. THIS VIEW I THINK IS SHARED TODAY BY ALMOST EVERYONE IN RUSSIA FROM YOUR COMMUNIST DEMONS ALL THE WAY TO YOUR LIBERAL DARLINGS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. TRENIN SAID ANTI-AMERICAN RHETORIC IN RUSSIA MAY BE EXAGGERATED, BUT IF NATO IS CAPABLE OF BLUNDERS, SO IS MOSCOW. SHOULD A GROUND WAR BEGIN, BLUNDERS BECOME MORE LIKELY.

    MR. TRENIN ADDED IF RUSSIA IS INVOLVED IN SOME POLITICAL SETTLEMENT OF THE WAR BEFORE IT GOES TOO FAR, RELATIONS WITH NATO AND THE UNITED STATES COULD BE REPAIRED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/KL
    23-Apr-99 2:14 PM EDT (1814 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] NATO SUMMIT WRAP (L) BY KYLE KING (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248548
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO LEADERS MARK THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THEIR ALLIANCE SAYING THEY ARE DETERMINED TO PREVAIL OVER YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. FROM THE WASHINGTON SUMMIT, V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: ALLIANCE LEADERS USED THEIR ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION TO DENOUNCE THE POLICIES OF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. A NATO STATEMENT SAID THERE WOULD BE NO CHANGE IN NATO STRATEGY, AND AIRSTRIKES WOULD CONTINUE.

    SPEAKING AT THE FORMAL CEREMONY TO MARK THE ALLIANCE'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY, PRESIDENT CLINTON CALLED MR. MILOSEVIC THE LAST EUROPEAN DICTATOR. MR. CLINTON AND OTHER NATO LEADERS SAID NATO WILL NOT ALLOW "ETHNIC CLEANSING" TO CONTINUE.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    OUR MESSAGE IS CLEAR: PEACE AND HUMANITY WILL PREVAIL IN KOSOVO, THE REFUGEES WILL GO HOME. THEY WILL HAVE SECURITY. THEY WILL HAVE THEIR SELF-GOVERNMENT. THE LAST EUROPEAN DICTATORSHIP OF THE 20TH CENTURY WILL NOT DESTROY EUROPE'S LONG-AWAITED CHANCE TO LIVE AT LAST TOGETHER IN PEACE AND FREEDOM.

    // END ACT //

    THE SUMMIT STATEMENT SAID THE ALLIANCE WOULD ALSO MOVE TO TIGHTEN AN EMBARGO ON OIL DELIVERIES TO THE YUGOSLAV FEDERATION. NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA SAYS THE ALLIANCE IS DETERMINED TO TIGHTEN THE ECONOMIC SCREWS ON MR. MILOSEVIC.

    // SOLANA ACT //

    THE COUNTRIES OF NATO AND OTHER COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION WHICH DO NOT BELONG TO NATO WILL CONTINUE TO PUT ECONOMIC PRESSURE SO THAT THE REGIME OF MILOSEVIC IS ALSO ECONOMICALLY ISOLATED.

    // END ACT //

    THE EUROPEAN UNION AGREED TO AN EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA ON FRIDAY. NATO SAYS IT IS DIRECTING MILITARY OFFICIALS TO FIND WAYS TO HALT DELIVERIES OF WAR MATERIALS BY SEA.

    ALTHOUGH ALLIANCE BOMBS AND MISSILES HAVE DAMAGED YUGOSLAVIA'S REFINERIES, DELIVERIES OF OIL CONTINUE THROUGH ADRIATIC PORTS IN MONTENEGRO (-- A YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC).

    NATO LEADERS MADE NO MENTION OF SENDING GROUND TROOPS TO KOSOVO, AN IDEA THAT HAS BEEN WIDELY DISCUSSED IN THE MEDIA DURING THE PAST FEW DAYS.

    THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER NATO MEMBERS DID GIVE A CHILLY RECEPTION TO THE LATEST PEACE OFFER BY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC.

    DURING A MEETING WITH RUSSIAN ENVOY VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN, THE YUGOSLAV LEADER SAID HE WAS NOW WILLING TO ACCEPT SOME TYPE OF INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE IN KOSOVO.

    BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK SAID THE OFFER DID NOT MEET NATO DEMANDS.

    // COOK ACT //

    I WOULD SAY ON BEHALF OF ALL THE ALLIES THAT WHAT HAS BEEN OFFERED IS NOT SATISFACTORY. FIRST OF ALL, IT WOULD PROVIDE FOR MILOSEVIC TO KEEP A VERY LARGE VOLUME OF SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO, WHICH NOT ONLY COULD WE NOT ACCEPT BUT I AM QUITE SURE THE REFUGEES WOULD NOT ACCEPT AS A BASIS ON WHICH THEY COULD RETURN. SECOND OF ALL, THE LIMITATION ON WHO WOULD MAKE UP THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY PRESENCE ARE WHOLLY UNACCEPTABLE.

    // END ACT //

    RUSSIA DECIDED NOT TO TAKE PART IN THE NATO SUMMIT SESSION BECAUSE OF ITS OPPOSITION TO NATO'S MILITARY ACTION IN YUGOSLAVIA. BUT MR. CHERNOMYRDIN IS EXPECTED TO BRIEF NATO OFFICIALS ON HIS (ENVOY) MISSION (TO YUGOSLAVIA). AND THE ALLIANCE SAYS IT WANTS RUSSIA TO CONTINUE TO PLAY A ROLE IN THE SEARCH FOR A SOLUTION TO THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/RRM
    23-Apr-99 7:18 PM EDT (2318 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] BLAIR / CHICAGO / L BY MIKE JOYCE (CHICAGO)

    DATE=4/22/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248493
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR SPOKE TO THE ECONOMIC CLUB OF CHICAGO THURSDAY AND ASKED ITS MEMBERS -- 1500 OF THE CITY'S TOP BUSINESS LEADERS -- TO SUPPORT NATO'S MILITARY MISSION IN KOSOVO. V-O-A'S MIKE JOYCE WAS IN THE AUDIENCE AND HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER BLAIR FIRST NOTED THE STRONG ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL TIES BETWEEN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE CITY OF CHICAGO. THEN, HE QUICKLY MOVED ON TO THE TOPIC MOST OF HIS AUDIENCE WAS ANXIOUS TO HEAR ABOUT -- NATO'S ROLE IN KOSOVO.

    //OPTIONAL BLAIR ACTUALITY//

    WHILE WE MEET HERE IN CHICAGO THIS EVENING, HOWEVER, THERE IS NO POINT IN CONCEALING THE FACT THAT TERRIBLE THINGS ARE HAPPENING IN EUROPE. AWFUL CRIMES THAT WE NEVER THOUGHT WE WOULD SEE AGAIN HAVE REAPPEARED -- ETHNIC CLEANSING, SYSTEMATIC RAPE, MASS MURDER... I HOPE THAT NO ONE WHO HAS SEEN WHAT HAS HAPPENED IN KOSOVO TO THOSE REFUGEES CAN DOUBT THAT NATO'S MILITARY ACTION IS JUSTIFIED.

    //END OPTIONAL ACTUALITY//

    THE PRIME MINISTER SAYS THE ALLIANCE HAS NO OPTION BUT TO PREVAIL.

    //BLAIR ACTUALITY//

    JUST AS I BELIEVE THERE WAS NO ALTERNATIVE TO THIS MILITARY ACTION, SO I AM CONVINCED THAT THERE IS NO ALTERNATIVE TO CONTINUING IT UNTIL WE SUCCEED. ON ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY, NATO MUST PREVAIL. MILOSEVIC MAY HAVE BEEN CONVINCED THAT THE ALLIANCE WOULD FALL APART, WOULD DISUNIFY. BUT I AM CERTAIN THAT UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF YOUR PRESIDENT THIS WEEKEND, THIS SUMMIT WILL ONCE AGAIN AFFIRM OUR UNITY AND OUR TOTAL BELIEF AND CONVICTION THAT THE AIMS OF NATO MUST BE PURSUED TO A SUCCESSFUL CONCLUSION. SUCCESS IS THE ONLY EXIT STRATEGY I AM PREPARED TO CONSIDER.(APPLAUSE)

    //END ACTUALITY//

    PRIME MINISTER BLAIR THEN CALLED FOR A COMPREHENSIVE PLAN TO DEAL WITH THE BALKAN COUNTRIES AFTER THE CONFLICT IS OVER.

    //BLAIR ACTUALITY//

    WE NEED TO BEGIN WORK NOW ON WHAT COMES AFTER THAT SUCCESS IN KOSOVO. WE WILL NEED A NEW MARSHALL PLAN FOR KOSOVO, MONTENEGRO, MACEDONIA, ALBANIA, AND SERBIA, TOO, IF TURNS IT TO DEMOCRACY. WE NEED A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR THE SECURITY OF THE WHOLE OF THE BALKANS. AND WE WILL NEED TO ASSIST THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN ITS WORK, TO BRING TO JUSTICE THOSE WHO HAVE COMMITTED THESE APPALLING CRIMES.

    //END ACTUALITY//

    AFTER HIS SPEECH, PRIME MINISTER BLAIR RECEIVED A LONG, STANDING OVATION. THE PRESIDENT OF THE ECONOMIC CLUB OF CHICAGO THEN ASKED ALL TO REMAIN SEATED SO THAT THE PRIME MINISTER AND HIS ENTOURAGE COULD LEAVE QUICKLY FOR THE AIRPORT AND THEIR FLIGHT TO WASHINGTON FOR FRIDAY'S NATO ANNIVERSARY. (SIGNED)
    NEB / EMJ / DWJ / WD
    23-Apr-99 12:01 AM EDT (0401 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] S-E EURO ECON/ KOSOVO BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43220
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ON THE EVE OF THE NATO 50TH ANNIVERSARY OBSERVANCE IN WASHINGTON, SEVERAL EASTERN EUROPE LEADERS STOPPED IN NEW YORK FRIDAY TO DISPEL CONCERNS ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF THE WAR IN KOSOVO AND TO URGE U-S INVESTORS TO CLAIM A GREATER STAKE IN THEIR NATIONS' FREE MARKETS. CORRESPONDENT BARBARA SCHOETZAU REPORTS.

    TEXT: TOP OFFICIALS FROM BULGARIA, ESTONIA, LATVIA, THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC AND ROMANIA DISCUSSED OPPORTUNITIES IN THEIR NATIONS AT A CONFERENCE ON EMERGING MARKETS SPONSORED BY THE EAST WEST INSTITUTE, A PRIVATE GROUP HEADQUARTED IN NEW YORK.

    INTERNATIONAL FINANCIER GEORGE SOROS SAID NATIONS EMERGING FROM YEARS OF COMMUNIST RULE ARE IN PARTICULAR NEED OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT BECAUSE THEY HAVE LITTLE PRIVATE CAPITAL.

    /// SOROS ACT ///

    AS A POLITICAL PHILANTHROPIST, I REALIZE THAT WHAT THESE COUNTRIES NEED EVEN MORE THAN PHILANTHROPY IS INVESTMENT, PARTICULARLY FOREIGN INVESTMENT BECAUSE THEY COME FROM A SITUATION WHERE THERE WAS NO PRIVATE CAPITAL. SO CAPITAL FORMATION IS VERY SLOW AND THERE IS A GREAT NEED FOR FOREIGN CAPITAL. THE COUNTRIES WHICH HAVE DONE THE BEST, IF YOU LOOK AT HUNGARY AND POLAND, HAVE SUCCEEDED LARGELY BECAUSE THEY WERE ABLE TO ATTRACT FOREIGN CAPITAL.

    //// END ACT ////

    BUT MR. SOROS SAYS THE ECONOMIC COLLAPSE OF RUSSIA AND THE STORMCLOUD OF KOSOVO ARE HAVING A NEGATIVE EFFECT, ESPECIALLY ON THE COUNTRIES OF SOUTHEAST EUROPE.

    ALEXANDER BOZHKOV, THE FIRST DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER OF BULGARIA, IS CONSIDERED THE ARCHITECT OF HIS COUNTRY'S RECENT ECONOMIC RECOVERY. IN LESS THAN TWO YEARS, THE CURRENT GOVERNMENT HAS BROUGHT INFLATION UNDER CONTROL, STABILIZED SKYROCKETING INTEREST RATES, PRIVATIZED MOST STATE-OWNED COMPANIES, AND REFORMED THE TAX SYSTEM. MR. BOZHKOV APPEALED TO INVESTORS NOT TO LET WHAT HE CALLS "THE WAR NEXT DOOR" SLOW THE PACE OF REFORM.

    //// BOZHKOV ACT ///

    WE DO NOT WANT AID. WE DO NOT WANT GIFTS. WHAT WE WANT IS THE MEANS TO ALLOW US TO KEEP THE PACE OF REFORM BECAUSE WE INTEND TO BE A MEMBER OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. AND THAT MEANS THAT WE HAVE TO KEEP THE MOMENTUM OF DEVELOPMENT OF OUR COUNTRY. THAT WILL NOT ALLOW US TO LAG BEHIND BECAUSE OF THE KOSOVO WAR. WE HAVE ALREADY ADOPTED A SPECIAL GOVERNMENTAL PROGRAM FOR OFFSETTING THE LOSSES THAT WE INCUR FROM THE TRANSPORTATION AND TRADE DIFFICULTIES. BUT WHAT WE ARE WORRIED ABOUT IS THAT WHEN YOU SIT HERE IN NEW YORK AND WATCH C-N-N NEWS IN THE EVENING ABOUT THE KOSOVO WAR, IT SEEMS KIND OF SCARY FOR INVESTORS TO LOOK AT THIS REGION BECAUSE WE ARE SO NEAR TO THE WAR.

    //// END ACT ////

    PRESIDENT EMIL CONSTANTINESCU OF ROMANIA SAID THE NATIONS OF SOUTHEAST EUROPE ARE PAYING AN ECONOMIC PRICE FOR THEIR PROXIMITY TO YUGOSLAVIA.

    //// CONSTANTINESCU ACT ///

    AN IMMEDIATE COLLECTIVE INTEREST OF MANY EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IS THE NAVIGATION ON THE DANUBE. ROMANIA, BULGARIA, YUGOSLAVIA, HUNGARY, SLOVAKIA, AUSTRIA AND GERMANY ARE THE COUNTRIES CONNECTED BY THIS RIVER. THE DANUBE LINKS THE RHINE TO THE BLACK SEA AND CROSSES FOUR CAPITALS: VIENNA, BRATISALVA, BUDAPEST, BELGRADE. BUCHAREST IS ONLY 40 MILES AWAY FROM THE DANUBE. AT PRESENT, SEVERAL BRIDGES HAVE BEEN DESTROYED BY THE AIR STRIKES AND HAVE LITERALLY BROKEN OFF NAVIGATION UP THE DANUBE. THE BARGES OF MANY ROMANIAN COMPANIES CANNOT RETURN HOME AND MERCHANDISE DESTINED FOR AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY IS OFF LOADED ONTO THE DOCKS OF OUR PORTS.

    //// END ACT ////

    MR. CONSTANTINESCU SAID THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY SHOULD IMMEDIATELY PUT TOGETHER A DETAILED PLAN OF HOW TO REBUILD KOSOVO AND YUGOSLAVIA. SUCH A PLAN, HE SAID, SHOULD RECOGNIZE THE ENTIRE SOUTHEAST EUROPE REGION.

    //// CONSTANTINESCU ACT ////

    THE GOAL OF THE RECONSTRUCTION EFFORT MUST BE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTIRE REGION, NOT JUST THE WAR ZONE. THE CHALLENGE WE FACE IS A REGIONAL CHALLENGE. KOSOVO, SERBIA, BOSNIA, CROATIA, ALBANIA, MACEDONIA ARE PART OF A LARGE GEOPGRAPHIC AREA. THEY ARE EMBEDDED IN A LARGER REGION OF SOUTHEAST EUROPEN, A REGION WHICH STRETCHES FROM THE BLACK SEA TO THE ADRIATIC AND HAS A POPULATION OF OVER 60 MILLION PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CONSTANTINESCU SAID INVESTORS SHOULD RECOGNIZE THAT ROMANIA HAS MUCH TO CONTRIBUTE TO ANY RECONSTRUCTION EFFORT -- MANPOWER, NATURAL RESOURCES SUCH AS OIL AND ITS NEARBY LOCATION WITH ACCESS TO THE DANUBE AND THE BLACK SEA.

    AND FIRST DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER BOZHKOV OF BULGARIA REMINDED THE INVESTORS THAT SOUTHEAST EUROPE STANDS AT THE GATEWAY TO THE SO-CALLED "SILK ROAD" OF CENTRAL ASIA WITH ITS RICHES IN NATURAL GAS AND OIL. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BJS/LSF/
    23-Apr-99 5:47 PM EDT (2147 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] CHINA / NATO (L-ONLY) BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248497
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CHINA'S STATE MEDIA HAVE STEPPED UP THEIR CRITICISM OF NATO BOMBINGS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, AND SAY THE ALLIANCE IS WALKING A DANGEROUS ROAD ON ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY. V-O-A'S STEPHANIE HO REPORTS A CHINESE COMMENTARY IS COMPARING THE NATO AIR STRIKES TO HIGH-PROFILE TERRORIST ACTS AGAINST U-S TARGETS.

    TEXT: CHINA'S OPPOSITION TO THE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST BELGRADE WAS TONED DOWN DURING CHINESE PREMIER ZHU RONGJI'S TRIP TO THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA. BUT, JUST DAYS AFTER MR. ZHU RETURNED TO BEIJING, THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT ONCE AGAIN INTENSIFIED ITS CRITICISM.

    A COMMENTARY IN FRIDAY'S OFFICIAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE NEWSPAPER, THE CHINA DAILY, DREW A PARALLEL BETWEEN NATO'S BOMBING OF SERBIAN GOVERNMENT AND MILITARY SITES AND TERRORIST ATTACKS AGAINST THE U-S EMBASSY IN KENYA AND THE U-S FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BUILDING IN OKLAHOMA.

    THE MAIN COMMUNIST PARTY NEWSPAPER, THE PEOPLE'S DAILY, SAYS THAT NATO IS EMBARKING ON A DANGEROUS NEW STRATEGIC ROAD AS ITS LEADERS BEGIN A THREE-DAY 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT, IN WASHINGTON. THE NEWSPAPER WARNED THAT WHAT IT TERMED NATO'S NEW AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY COULD DESTROY THE EXISTING INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ORDER.

    MOST OF CHINA'S MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE NATO AIR STRIKES HAS FOCUSED LARGELY ON THE PLIGHT OF SERBS SUFFERING WEEKS OF AIR STRIKES AND HAVE GENERALLY IGNORED THE BRUTALITY OF THE SERBS AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND THE RESULTING REFUGEE CRISIS.

    ON TUESDAY, THOUGH, THE CHINA ECONOMIC TIMES PRINTED ONE OF THE FIRST ARTICLES IN CHINA TO ACKNOWLEDGE THAT KOSOVAR ALBANIANS HAD BEEN FORCED TO LEAVE YUGOSLAVIA BY SERB ARMY FORCES, AND WERE NOT FLEEING FROM THE NATO BOMBINGS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/HO/FC
    23-Apr-99 4:58 AM EDT (0858 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] E-U / YUGO OIL EMBARGO (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248518
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS AGREED TO BAN THE SHIPMENT OF OIL TO YUGOSLAVIA. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: THE 15 E-U FOREIGN MINISTERS HAD BEEN EXPECTED TO APPROVE THE EMBARGO NEXT WEEK WHEN THEY MEET IN LUXEMBOURG. BUT OFFICIALS SPEEDED ADOPTION OF THE PROPOSAL THROUGH A LESS FORMAL WRITTEN PROCEDURE.

    AN OFFICIAL SAID THE EUROPEAN UNION WANTED TO MAKE THE DECISION TO COINCIDE WITH THE START OF THE NATO ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON.

    HE SAID THERE WAS NO REASON TO DELAY THE ACTION UNTIL THE FOREIGN MINISTERS MEETING MONDAY. THE OFFICIAL SAID E-U OFFICIALS WANTED TO GET THE EMBARGO IN PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.

    THE OIL EMBARGO ON THE TWO YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS -- SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO -- WILL BE FORMALLY PUT IN PLACE NEXT WEEK ONCE ALL THE LEGAL PROCEDURES HAVE BEEN COMPLETED.

    AN E-U OFFICIAL SAID THE EMBARGO WILL END WHAT HE CALLED AN "ABSURD SITUATION" IN WHICH NATO IS BOMBING REFINERIES AND OTHER OIL INSTALLATIONS IN SERBIA, WHILE THERE IS NOTHING TO PREVENT E-U NATIONS SELLING OIL TO REPLENISH YUGOSLAVIA'S SUPPLIES.

    E-U DIPLOMATS SAY THEY HOPE TO EXTEND THE OIL EMBARGO SO THAT IT IS ALSO SUPPORTED BY BY YUGOSLAVIA'S NEIGHBORS AND OTHER COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE.

    E-U FOREIGN MINISTERS WILL REVIEW A NUMBER OF OTHER SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AT THEIR MEETING ON MONDAY.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THESE INCLUDE TIGHTENING EXISTING VISA RESTRICTIONS AGAINST SERBS TO COVER ALL SENIOR MINISTERS AND OFFICIALS, AND AN EXTENSION OF THE FREEZE ON SERB ASSETS HELD IN E-U COUNTRIES TO COVER ASSOCIATES OF THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT AND COMPANIES CONTROLLED BY HIS GOVERNMENT.

    A SPORTS BAN WILL ALSO BE CONSIDERED, AS WILL TIGHTENING THE EXISTING FLIGHT BAN SO THAT IT COVERS E-U AIRLINES AS WELL AS THE YUGOSLAV AIRLINE. THE BAN ON E-U INVESTMENTS IN SERBIA IS TO BE TIGHTENED, AS WILL THE E-U'S BAN ON EXPORT CREDITS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH/JO
    23-Apr-99 11:44 AM EDT (1544 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] NATO / UKRAINE (L-ONLY) BY JIM RANDLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248544
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UKRAINE'S FOREIGN MINISTER IS PLAYING DOWN (DISMISSING) A VOTE BY THE UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT THAT CONDEMNS NATO'S BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND CALLS FOR REDUCING MILITARY TIES TO WESTERN NATIONS. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE MEASURE APPROVED FRIDAY CALLS FOR LIMITING KIEV'S RELATIONS WITH NATO, AND DEMANDS THAT FUTURE COOPERATION AGREEMENTS WITH THE ALLIANCE BE SUBJECT TO PARLIAMENTARY APPROVAL.

    BUT UKRAINIAN FOREIGN MINISTER BORYS TARASYUK, IN WASHINGTON FOR THE NATO SUMMIT, SAYS THE PARLIAMENT CAN ADVISE THE PRESIDENT IN THESE MATTERS, BUT LACKS THE POWER TO MAKE REAL CHANGES.

    /// TARASYUK ACT 41 ///

    THE RESOLUTION OF THE PARLIAMENT IS A RECOMMENDATION. ACCORDING TO THE CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE, THE PRESIDENT HAS EXCLUSIVE POWERS IN THE AREAS WHERE THE PARLIAMENT HAS NO AUTHORITY. SO WE ARE IN THE SITUATION IN WHICH THE PARLIAMENT INTERFERED INTO THE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE RESOLUTION ALSO CALLS FOR REVISING THE NATION'S MILITARY POLICY, BOOSTING DEFENSE SPENDING AND SUSPENDING EFFORTS TO DISMANTLE NUCLEAR MISSILE SILOS.

    PASSAGE OF THE MEASURE STEMS FROM PARLIAMENT'S DISSATISFACTION WITH UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT LEONOID KUCHMA'S UNSUCCESSFUL EFFORTS TO RESOLVE THE KOSOVO CRISIS THROUGH DIPLOMATIC MEANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/RRM
    23-Apr-99 5:28 PM EDT (2128 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [24] MACEDONIA / NATO (L ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (SKOPJE, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248509
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS NATO CELEBRATES ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY, 12-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS WAIT IN MACEDONIA FOR THE CHANCE TO SERVE A PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN KOSOVO. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT EVE CONANT VISITED SOME OF THE TROOPS NEAR MACEDONIA'S CAPITAL, SKOPJE.

    TEXT: FOR MOST OF THE NATO SOLDIERS IN MACEDONIA, FRIDAY BEGAN LIKE ANY OTHER DAY WITH AN EARLY MORNING ROLL CALL...

    /// COMMAND ACTS ///

    PLATOON SERGEANTS, TAKE CONTROL OF YOUR PLATOONS.

    LEFT, LEFT, LEFT, RIGHT LEFT.

    /// FADE ACT UNDER ///

    AND THEN OFF FOR DAILY TRAINING AND DUTIES.

    THERE ARE 12-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS IN MACEDONIA. ABOUT FIVE PERCENT OF THE TROOPS ARE AMERICAN. THE BIGGEST CONTINGENTS HERE ARE ITALIAN, FRENCH, AND BRITISH. THESE ARE THE SOLDIERS THAT WOULD HAVE ENTERED KOSOVO AS PART OF A PEACEKEEPING MISSION HAD THE YUGOSLAV PEACE TALKS SUCCEEDED.

    A U-S ARMY OFFICER, LIEUTENANT COLONEL JIM SHUFELT, SAYS IT IS DIFFICULT TO KEEP MORALE UP SINCE NO ONE KNOWS WHEN AND IF THESE TROOPS MIGHT EVER GET TO KOSOVO.

    /// SHUFELT ACT ///

    I THINK THERE WAS A BIT OF FRUSTRATION AMONG THE SOLDIERS. BUT WE'VE BEEN TALKING TO THEM AND REITERATING OUR MISSION AND WHAT WE'RE DOING HERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    COLONEL SHUFELT SAYS THEY HAVE INCREASED SECURITY FOR TROOPS FOLLOWING THE KIDNAPPING OF THREE NATO SOLDIERS, AND ALSO BECAUSE MANY MACEDONIANS SYMPATHIZE WITH SERBS.

    /// SHUFELT ACT TWO ///

    THERE HAVE BEEN INCREASES IN THINGS LIKE ROCK THROWING, GRAFITTI, AND PHYSICAL SIGNS TO SAY PEOPLE DON'T LIKE US HERE, BUT NONE OF THAT HAS ESCALATED TO THE POINT OF OVERT DIRECT VIOLENCE AGAINST NATO FORCES AT THE LEVEL WE THOUGHT COULD HAVE HAPPENED. THERE'S BEEN A LOT OF OBVIOUS SIGNS THAT THERE'S A LARGE PERCENTAGE OF FOLKS THAT DON'T LIKE US BEING HERE. AND OF COURSE THERE WERE THREE SOLDIERS THAT WERE CAPTURED.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// OPT ///

    AMERICAN SOLDIER CHRIS GOLDEN SERVED IN THE SAME PLATOON AS HIS FRIEND STEVEN GONZALES, ONE OF THREE U-S NATO SOLDIERS WHO ARE NOW BEING HELD AS PRISONERS OF WAR BY SERB FORCES.

    /// OPT // GOLDEN ACT ///

    I HAVE TO KEEP A POSITIVE ATTITUDE. I'M EXPECTING THEM TO COME BACK EVENTUALLY, HOPING THAT THEY'RE UNHARMED. I'M KEEPING THE FAITH THAT EVERYTHING WILL WORK OUT.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    DESPITE SEVERAL ANTI-NATO PROTESTS IN MACEDONIA, MOST PEOPLE ON THE STREET SAY NATO PROVIDES A STABILIZING FACTOR HERE WHICH MAY HELP PREVENT THE SPREAD OF VIOLENCE INTO MACEDONIA. NATO OFFICIALS SAID FRIDAY THEY PROVIDED AN AIRLIFT FOR THREE MACEDONIAN SOLDIERS INJURED IN A LAND MINE EXPLOSION NEAR THE COUNTRY'S NORTHERN BORDER WITH KOSOVO.

    BUT MOSTLY, NATO FORCES HAVE BEEN BUSY WITH HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE TO DEFUSE THE REFUGEE CRISIS. AS OF FRIDAY, NATO HAS PROVIDED A TOTAL OF FIVE-THOUSAND TONS OF HUMANITARIAN AID FOR ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO. WHILE THEY AWAIT POSSIBLE ORDERS FOR MILITARY ACTION, NATO OFFICIALS HERE SAY THEY WILL CONTINUE TO ASSIST IN THE HUMANITARIAN EFFORT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH
    23-Apr-99 7:52 AM EDT (1152 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [25] THE CONTINUING CRISIS IN KOSOVO

    DATE=04/24/99
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00734 SHORT #1
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT= INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES.
    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE

    ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "THE CONTINUING CRISIS IN KOSOVO" HERE IS YOUR HOST, --------.

    HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    NATO HAS BEGUN ITS SECOND MONTH OF MILITARY ACTION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, AS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S FORCES CONTINUE TO TARGET ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. THE NUMBER OF REFUGEES -- ALREADY IN THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS -- IS GROWING. ACCORDING TO NATO, THE ATTACKS WILL CONTINUE UNTIL A PEACE ACCORD IS ACCEPTED. AS PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON SAID, "WE WANT THE SERB FORCES OUT OF KOSOVO. WE WANT THE REFUGEES TO BE ABLE TO GO HOME, PROTECTED BY AN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCE AS THEY WORK TOWARDS SELF-GOVERNANCE."

    HELMUT SONNENFELDT IS A GUEST SCHOLAR AT THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION AND A FORMER COUNSELOR AT THE U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT. HE SAYS THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN HAS SO FAR FAILED TO ACHIEVE ANY OF NATO'S GOALS:

    SONNENFELDT: "THE BOMBING HASN'T SLOWED DOWN THE CHAOS AND TRAGEDY INSIDE KOSOVO OR OUTSIDE KOSOVO WHERE THE REFUGEES LIVE IN PRETTY MISERABLE CONDITIONS. THE QUESTION IS WHETHER CONTINUATION OF A SUSTAINED BOMBING CAMPAIGN IS GOING TO MOVE THINGS ON THE SERBIAN SIDE, EITHER BECAUSE THEIR CAPABILITIES ARE SERIOUSLY ERODED IN TERMS OF WHAT THEY'RE DOING IN KOSOVO, OR BECAUSE MILOSEVIC MIGHT HAVE A CHANGE OF MIND, IN TERMS OF THE DAMAGE THAT'S BEING DONE TO HIS INFRASTRUCTURE, OR THIRDLY BECAUSE SOMEBODY MAY WANT TO GET RID OF HIM BECAUSE OF THE DISASTER."

    HOST: JOSHUA MURAVCHIK IS RESIDENT SCHOLAR AT THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE. HE SAYS THAT TO SUCCEED, NATO WILL HAVE TO INTRODUCE GROUND FORCES: MURAVCHIK: "THE BOMBING IS REALLY A HOPELESS STRATEGY, THE CHANCE OF BOMBARDING THESE PEOPLE INTO JUST GIVING UP AND GIVING AWAY KOSOVO IS VIRTUALLY NIL AND IN FACT WHAT WE'VE DONE IS WE'VE IMPELLED MORE OF THE SERBS TO RALLY AROUND MILOSEVIC AND THE CONCLUSION THAT THAT LEADS ME TO IS THAT THERE'S NO ESCAPING THE USE OF GROUND FORCES AND FULL-SCALE MILITARY ACTION THERE AND THE SOONER WE FACE UP TO THAT, THE BETTER OFF WE'LL BE."

    HOST: MIHAJLO MIHAJLOV IS A FORMER YUGOSLAVIAN DISSIDENT AND WRITER WHO WAS IMPRISIONED UNDER MARSHAL TITO. HE SAYS THE WEST HAS MISJUDGED PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC: MIHAJLOV: "I BELIEVE EVEN MONTH OF BOMBING WILL NOT CHANGE ANYTHING. YOU CAN KNOW WHAT PRESIDENT CLINTON OR GENERAL WESLEY CLARK USED TO STATE THAT WE ARE GOING TO DESTROY WHAT MILOSEVIC VALUES MOST, BUT HE VALUES POWER, NOTHING ELSE. HE DOESN'T VALUE BRIDGES, ARMIES, EVERYTHING ELSE AND HE NEVER HAD SUCH POWER AS NOW. HE LIQUIDATES ALL OPPOSITION."

    HOST: JOSHUA MURAVCHIK OF THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE SAYS NOTHING LESS THAT NATO'S FUTURE AS AN ALLIANCE IS AT STAKE IN THE WAR OVER KOSOVO. FOR ON THE LINE, THIS IS --------.

    ANNCR: YOU'VE BEEN LISTENING TO "ON THE LINE" -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES. THIS IS --------.
    23-Apr-99 3:09 PM EDT (1909 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [26] FRANCE / GAULLISM (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248504
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THIRTY YEARS AFTER HE LEFT OFFICE IN APRIL 1969, THE LEGACY OF THE LATE FRENCH PRESIDENT CHARLES DE GAULLE IS UNDER REVIEW. JULIAN NUNDY IN PARIS REPORTS THAT WITH FRANCE TAKING PART IN AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA UNDER NATO COMMAND, SOME ANALYSTS NOW CONSIDER DE GAULLE'S BATTLE FOR FRENCH NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE TO BE A DEAD LETTER.

    TEXT: FOR SIX DECADES, SINCE GENERAL CHARLES DE GAULLE BEGAN THE BATTLE IN 1940 TO FIGHT THE NAZI OCCUPATION OF FRANCE, HIS SHADOW HAS HUNG OVER FRENCH POLITICS.

    GENERAL DE GAULLE WAS THE IMMEDIATE POST-WAR FRENCH LEADER. THEN, IN 1958, HE CAME BACK WITH THE BACKING OF THE MILITARY WHEN FRANCE WAS AT WAR IN ITS NORTH AFRICAN COLONY, ALGERIA.

    GENERAL DE GAULLE INTRODUCED THE CONSTITUTION OF THE NEW FIFTH REPUBLIC THAT EXISTS TO THIS DAY. AND, DESPITE A MUTINY IN THE FRENCH ARMY, FINALLY GAVE ALGERIA ITS INDEPENDENCE. THEN, IN 1965,.TO FULFILL HIS AMBITION OF GIVING FRANCE A STRONG AND INDEPENDENT FOREIGN POLICY, HE WITHDREW HIS COUNTRY FROM THE INTEGRATED MILITARY COMMAND OF NATO. HE FORCED THE NORTH ATLANTIC ALLIANCE TO MOVE ITS HEADQUARTERS OUT OF PARIS TO BRUSSELS AND OBLIGED THE UNITED STATES TO CLOSE ITS MILITARY BASES ON FRENCH SOIL.

    AT THE SAME TIME, PRESIDENT DE GAULLE ANNOUNCED THAT FRANCE'S NUCLEAR DETERRENT WOULD BE AIMED IN ALL DIRECTIONS, NOT JUST AT THE COMMUNIST EAST BLOC.

    OVER THE PAST MONTH, HOWEVER, FRENCH AIRCRAFT HAVE BEEN FLYING MISSIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA FOR THE FIRST TIME EVER UNDER NATO COMMAND. IN ADDITION, THE TWO MAIN POLITICIANS WHO HAVE RESISTED EUROPEAN UNION INTEGRATION THAT THEY CLAIM REDUCES FRENCH SOVEREIGNTY HAVE STEPPED DOWN FROM THEIR LEADERSHIP POSTS IN THE GAULLIST RALLY FOR THE REPUBLIC, OR R-P-R, PARTY.

    ONE OF THEM, PHILIPPE SEGUIN, WHO WAS THE PRESIDENT OF THE R-P-R FOR 21 MONTHS UNTIL HE RESIGNED EARLIER THIS MONTH, ATTACKED THE CURRENT GAULLIST HEAD OF STATE JACQUES CHIRAC ON SEVERAL POINTS, INCLUDING HIS MEETINGS WITH POLITICIANS WHO MR. SEGUIN CONSIDERS "FEDERALISTS" WHO ARE UNDERMINING FRANCE'S INDEPENDENCE. IN 1992, MR. SEGUIN LED A NEARLY SUCCESSFUL CAMPAIGN AGAINST FRANCE'S RATIFICATION OF THE MAASTRICHT EUROPEAN UNION TREATY, THAT LED AMONG OTHER THINGS TO THIS YEAR'S CREATION OF A SINGLE CURRENCY.

    A LESS SIGNIFICANT BUT SYMBOLIC GESTURE WAS THAT OF THE ONLY REMAINING CHARLES DE GAULLE, THE LATE LEADER'S GRANDSON. TWENTY-EIGHT YEARS AFTER THE DEATH OF HIS GRANDFATHER, THE YOUNGER CHARLES DE GAULLE ANNOUNCED THAT HE WILL RUN FOR THE EXTREME RIGHT NATIONAL FRONT PARTY IN EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ELECTIONS IN JUNE.,

    THESE DEVELOPMENTS HAVE LED TO A FLURRY OF ANALYSES, ALL CONCLUDING THAT GAULLISM IS NOT WHAT IT USED TO BE. ONE NEWSPAPER, THE POPULAR "FRANCE-SOIR," EVEN CARRIED A BANNER HEADLINE OVER A PORTRAIT OF THE LATE GENERAL, PROCLAIMING THAT "DE GAULLE IS FINISHED." (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/JWH
    23-Apr-99 6:17 AM EDT (1017 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [27] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248540
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE MIXED TODAY (FRIDAY) BUT MANY TECHNOLOGY STOCKS CONTINUED TO SHOW STRENGTH. VOA BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 10 THOUSAND 689, DOWN 37 POINTS. BUT FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 196 POINTS OR ALMOST TWO PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT 13 HUNDRED 56, DOWN TWO POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX GAINED ONE PERCENT REFLECTING CONTINUED ENTHUSIASM FOR MANY TECHNOLOGY STOCKS.

    ///BEGIN OPT///

    ARNOLD KAUFMAN OF THE STANDARD AND POOR'S INVESTMENT RESEARCH COMPANY EXPECTS STOCK PRICES SHOULD AT LEAST PAUSE AFTER THE WEEK'S BIG GAINS.

    ///OPT///KAUFMAN ACT///

    WE HAVE SEEN SUCH A FAST REBOUND, SOME SORT OF "BREATHER" IS DEFINITELY IN ORDER. I WOULD LOOK FOR SOME KIND OF CONSOLIDATION FOR AT LEAST A FEW DAYS.

    ///END ACT///

    END OPT///

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS GIANT A-T AND T HAS LAUNCHED A 58 BILLION DOLLAR TAKEOVER OFFER FOR MEDIA-ONE, A CABLE TELEVISION COMPANY. ANALYSTS SAY THE MOVE IS AN EFFORT BY A-T AND T TO EXPAND ITS STRATEGY OF OFFERING ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES THROUGH CABLE TELEVISION CONNECTIONS. A-T AND T'S BID FOR MEDIA-ONE IS 20 PERCENT HIGHER THAN AN OFFER MADE BY COMCAST, ANOTHER CABLE TELEVISION COMPANY.

    ///REST OPT///

    KELLOGG, ONE OF THE WORLD'S LEADING BREAKFAST CEREAL MAKERS, SAYS ITS QUARTERLY PROFITS FELL 30 PERCENT BUT SALES WERE UP BY SIX PERCENT. THE COMPANY IS INVESTING MILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN MARKETING AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN AN EFFORT TO REVIVE GROWTH IN THE U-S BREAKFAST CEREAL MARKET.

    THE MERCK PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY REPORTED A 12 PERCENT JUMP IN QUARTERLY EARNINGS, IN-LINE WITH EXPECTATIONS.

    FORTUNE BRANDS, THE CONSUMER PRODUCTS COMPANY, REPORTED A 25 PERCENT INCREASE IN PROFITS FOR THE FIRST QUARTER.

    THE MOBIL OIL COMPANY SAYS ITS EARNINGS FELL BY MORE THAN 30 PERCENT BECAUSE OF LOWER OIL PRICES. MOBIL IS CURRENTLY IN THE PROCESS OF BEING ACQUIRED BY EXXON. HYUNDAI, THE LARGEST CONGLOMERATE IN SOUTH KOREA, WILL SPLIT ITSELF INTO FIVE INDEPENDENT COMPANIES IN A RESTRUCTURING MOVE WHICH HAD BEEN URGED BY SOUTH KOREAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. SOME ANALYSTS SAY HUGE SOUTH KOREAN CONGLOMERATES SUCH AS HYUNDAI HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE NATION'S ECONOMIC PROBLEMS BECAUSE OF THE COMPANIES' HUGE DEBTS.

    NORTHWEST AIRLINES CHAIRMAN GARY WILSON ABRUPTLY ENDED THE COMPANY'S ANNUAL STOCKHOLDERS MEETING IN NEW YORK AFTER UNION FLIGHT ATTENDANTS HECKLED HIM OFF THE STAGE. MR. WILSON WAS BOOED AFTER HE INDICATED THE AIRLINE WAS WILLING TO TAKE ANOTHER STRIKE IF IT COULD NOT REACH WHAT IT BELIEVES TO BE A SATISFACTORY AGREEMENT WITH THE FLIGHT ATTENDANTS. AS A SYMBOL OF WHAT THEY CALL "CORPORATE GREED," UNION MEMBERS INFLATED A GIANT RAT OUTSIDE THE BUILDING IN WHICH THE NORTHWEST MEETING WAS HELD.(SIGNED)
    NEB/NY/BA/LSF
    23-Apr-99 5:14 PM EDT (2114 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [28] NATO AT 50 AND THE TEST OF KOSOVO BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=00/23/99
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11256
    TELEPHONE=619-2702
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: LEADERS OF THE 19 NATO COUNTRIES HAVE GATHERED IN WASHINGTON TO MARK THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE ALLIANCE. U-S EDITORIAL WRITERS ARE CONSIDERING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SUMMIT AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF NATO'S ROLE IN KOSOVO. WE GET A SAMPLING OF COMMENTS FROM ____________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS" SAYS THE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA ARE A TEST OF THE ALLIANCE, AND GOES ON TO ADD:

    VOICE: /// OPT /// THE DELEGATES WHO GATHER ... IN WASHINGTON TO MARK NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY SHOULD TAKE PROPER NOTE OF THE ALLIANCE'S CONTRIBUTIONS TO WORLD PEACE, EVEN AS THEY DEFINE A POST-COLD WAR MISSION FOR NATO AND PLOT WAR STRATEGIES IN KOSOVO. /// END OPT /// ... CONTEMPLATING A BETTER FUTURE FOR NATO MAY BECOME IRRELEVANT IF IT FAILS TO WIN THE WAR IN KOSOVO. REPUBLICAN SENATOR CHUCK HAGEL OF NEBRASKA IS ONE OF THE MANY FOREIGN POLICY EXPERTS WHO FORESEE THE ALLIANCE'S DISSOLUTION IF IT FAILS THERE. THE DELEGATES SHOULD FOCUS ON KOSOVO, LEST NATO BECOME ANOTHER FATALITY OF THAT UNFORTUNATE WAR.

    TEXT: IN ITS EDITORIAL ABOUT THE SUMMIT AND KOSOVO, "THE WASHINGTON POST" WRITES THAT "THE KILLING GOES ON" (IN KOSOVO), AND ALTHOUGH "THE EXTENT OF THE SLAUGHTER REMAINS UNCERTAIN... THERE CAN BE NO DOUBT THAT (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN) MILOSEVIC IS RESPONSIBLE FOR TERRIBLE AND MASSIVE CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY IN KOSOVO."

    VOICE: THAT NATO IS TAKING MILITARY ACTION AGAINST MR. MILOSEVIC, AND REMAINING UNIFIED FOUR WEEKS INTO THAT OPERATION CAN BE A SOURCE OF SATISFACTION AS LEADERS OF ITS 19 MEMBER NATIONS GATHER TO MARK THE ALLIANCE'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. BUT NATO'S FAILURE TO STOP OR EVEN SLOW THE SLAUGHTER ,,, MUST BE A CAUSE OF MORTIFICATION AND SELF-QUESTIONING AMONG ALLIANCE LEADERS. ... BUT POLITICAL LEADERS ALSO MUST ALLOW THEIR MILITARY TO PLAN FOR THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE AIR WAR ALONE WON'T BE SUFFICIENT. IF THE GENERALS SAY THEY MAY NEED GROUND TROOPS, U-S AND OTHER LEADERS SHOULDN'T STAND IN THE WAY.

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" CALLS ITS LEAD EDITORIAL ABOUT THE NATO GATHERING, "THE KOSOVO SUMMIT."

    VOICE: THE KOSOVO SUMMIT -- THAT WAS PRECISELY WHAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAD HOPED THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF NATO WOULD NOT TURN OUT TO BE. YET, AFTER ONE MONTH OF BOMBING OVER SERBIA AND KOSOVO, THAT IS PRECISELY WHAT NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY HAS BECOME. AND THE DIFFICULTY OF DEALING WITH THE AGGRESSION OF A TINHORN (EDS: PRETENTIOUS OR BOASTFUL) DICTATOR IN THE HEART OF EUROPE, THIS FROM AN ORGANIZATION THAT HELD THE SOVIET UNION AT BAY FOR 40 YEARS, HANGS LIKE A DARK SHADOW OVER THE CELEBRATIONS. /// OPT /// ... BEFORE CONGRESS VOTES NEXT WEEK ON RESOLUTIONS ON WHETHER OR NOT TO SUPPORT GROUND TROOPS, MEMBERS MUST DEMAND AN ACCOUNTING FROM THE PRESIDENT AS TO THE NATURE OF HIS PLANS. THE PINPRICK AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST SERBIA, THE DEPLORABLE STATE OF OUR MILITARY READINESS, AND THE LACK OF FORESIGHT IN THE REFUGEE CRISIS SHOULD ALL BE CAUTIONARY. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "NEWSDAY" (LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK) ADVISES THAT "ASSEMBLING TROOPS IS THE ONLY WAY TO CONVINCE (MR.) MILOSEVIC THAT NATO MIGHT USE THEM."

    VOICE: /// OPT /// THE PRESSURE ON NATO TO DEPLOY GROUND TROOPS AGAINST SERBIAN FORCES IN KOSOVO IS GROWING DAILY HERE AND ABROAD. AND IF THE AIR CAMPAIGN SHOWS NO SIGNS OF ACCOMPLISHING THE ULTIMATE GOALS OF EXPELLING SERBIAN SOLDIERS FROM KOSOVO AND RESETTLING HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES BEFORE THE SUMMER, THAT POPULAR PRESSURE COULD BECOME A POLITICAL IMPERATIVE BEFORE LONG. /// END OPT /// THIS NEWSPAPER REMAINS UNCONVINCED THAT AN ALL-OUT GROUND WAR IS AN ACCEPTABLE WAY TO BRING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE. BUT IF THE THREAT OF GROUND WAR IS TO BE USED TO PERSUADE (MR.) MILOSEVIC TO TALK PEACE, NATO MUST ACT RAPIDLY TO ASSEMBLE TROOPS AND SUPPLIES. THE RISK, OF COURSE, IS OF BEING DRAWN INTO A CONFLICT THAT INFLICTS MORE HARM ON THE REGION THAN GOOD.

    TEXT: "THE HARTFORD (CONNECTICUT) COURANT" ADVISES THE PRESIDENT AND U-S CONGRESS TO "STOP THE POLITICS ON KOSOVO."

    VOICE: SINCE WE ARE FIGHTING A WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA, CONGRESS MIGHT AS WELL GIVE ITS CONSTITUTIONAL IMPRIMATUR BY OFFICIALLY DECLARING A WAR. A RESOLUTION TO THAT EFFECT IS SCHEDULED FOR A VOTE IN THE HOUSE (OF REPRESENTATIVES) NEXT WEEK. BUT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OPPOSES IT. ... FOR HIS PART, THE PRESIDENT SHOULD SUPPORT A CONGRESSIONAL DECLARATION OF WAR. THAT WOULD NO LONGER MAKE IT MR. CLINTON'S WAR -- AND IT WOULD HONOR A CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE (I.E. THAT ONLY CONGRESS CAN DECLARE WAR) THAT FOR TOO LONG HAS BEEN IGNORED BY PRESIDENTS.

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL COMMENT.
    NEB/GE/KL
    23-Apr-99 1:17 PM EDT (1717 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [29] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/23/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11188
    TELEPHONE=619-2702
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EDT ////

    INTRO: EDITORIAL WRITERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES ARE COMMENTING ABOUT THE NATO 50TH ANNIVERSARY GATHERING IN WASHINGTON AND THE AFTERMATH OF THE MASSACRE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN COLORADO. NOW, HERE WITH SOME EXCERPTS ON THESE AND OTHER COMMENTARIES FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS IS _________________ AND THE EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: LEADERS OF NATO HAVE BEGUN A SERIES OF MEETINGS IN WASHINGTON TO MARK THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE ALLIANCE. THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN "USA TODAY" SUGGESTS THAT "NATO'S CONFUSION OVER KOSOVO TEMPERS (THE) CELEBRATION," AND IT GOES ON TO WRITE THAT NATO LEADERS...

    VOICE: "ARE A TROUBLED LOT -- DIVIDED, LACKING THE COURAGE OF THEIR CONVICTIONS AND SHOWING DANGEROUS SIGNS OF MEANDERING INTO A DANGEROUS WAR. ... EVERY HERKY-KERKY STEP OF NATO'S WAR RESULTS FROM THE LEADERS' UNWILLINGNESS TO MATCH MEANS AND ENDS, TO STATE THEIR PURPOSE FIRST AND THEN FOLLOW THROUGH. ... WITH EACH FAILURE, THE RISK GROWS THAT NATO WILL FEEL COMPELLED TO GO TO WAR TO PROTECT ITS REPUTATION, WHICH SHOULD NOT HAVE BEEN PUT AT RISK WITHOUT RESOLUTE COMMITMENT AT THE OUTSET.

    TEXT: "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" WRITES THAT "NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA HAS GIVEN THE CLEAR IF NOT QUITE EXPLICIT GO-AHEAD TO PLAN FOR GROUND TROOPS IN YUGOSLAVIA." SUCH PLANNING, THE JOURNAL ADDS, INDICATES A NEW DEVELOPMENT:

    VOICE: SO MARK THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ALLIANCE AS THE BIRTHDAY OF A EUROPEAN FOREIGN POLICY. IRONICALLY, IN THE FECKLESSNESS OF AN AMERICAN PRESIDENT, EUROPE MAY HAVE FOUND THE PLUCK (COURAGE) IT HAS SO SELDOM DISPLAYED. ... WHILE HELPING BELEAGUERED REFUGEES IS IMPORTANT, EUROPE IS COMING TO UNDERSTAND THAT WHATEVER SOLUTIONS THE ALLIANCE DESIGNS IN THE BALKANS WILL BE SEEN IN THE REGION AND MORE BROADLY AS A PRECEDENT. /// OPT /// OTHER MILOSEVICS ARE WATCHING, JUST AS (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN) MILOSEVIC LEARNED FROM BOSNIA AND IRAQ THE LIMITS OF WESTERN COMMITMENT TO DEFENDING THE IDEALS IT SO FREELY THROWS ABOUT. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND HAS THIS COMMENT ABOUT NATO AND ITS CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// NEVER WAS A MILITARY ALLIANCE SO SUCCESSFUL. BORN OF FEAR AND STEELY RESOLVE, NATO TRIUMPHED WITHOUT FIRING A SHOT. WHEN EXAMPLES ARE SOUGHT OF MILITARY PREPAREDNESS THAT PREVENTED WAR, NATO IS FIRST. /// END OPT /// ... NATO, AFTER 50 YEARS, IS BOMBING IN ANGER. IT HAS REFRAINED FROM COMMITTING GROUND TROOPS IN COMBAT, FOR FEAR OF THE COST, WHILE CALLS FOR DOING SO INCREASE. SERBIA CONTINUES TO MURDER, RAPE, ROB AND EXPEL ALBANIANS. IF PREVENTING THAT IS THE AIM, NATO IS LOSING. IF REVERSING IT IS THE GOAL, NATO HAS FAR TO GO.

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" ASKS IN IT LEAD EDITORIAL, "HOW MUCH MORE BLOOD?" THE NEWSPAPER IS WRITING ABOUT THE SHOOTING RAMPAGE BY TWO TEENAGERS AT A HIGH SCHOOL IN COLORADO. 15 PEOPLE DIED IN THE INCIDENT.

    VOICE: EVEN IF ALL GUNS WERE LEGALLY BANNED -- AND NO ONE IS PROPOSING THAT -- SOME DANGEROUS PEOPLE WOULD MANAGE TO GET AND USE THEM TO CREATE MAYHEM AND DEATH. BUT IT'S ALSO CLEAR THAT REASONABLE GUN CONTROL LEGISLATION CAN RESULT IN A CRITICAL DIFFERENCE, MAKING IT HARDER (FOR) CRIMINALS TO OBTAIN FIREARMS. AND IT WOULD HELP KEEP WEAPONS OUT OF THE HANDS OF DISTURBED OR UNBALANCED YOUNGSTERS WHO, FOR WHATEVER REASON, SEEK VENGEANCE ON OTHERS -- AS HAPPENED SO TRAGICALLY IN COLORADO ON TUESDAY.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS WRITING ABOUT WHAT IT CALLS, "INDONESIA'S RESPONSIBILITY IN EAST TIMOR."

    VOICE: DEADLY VIOLENCE RETURNED TO EAST TIMOR LAST WEEK, AND MILITIAS BACKED BY INDONESIA'S ARMY ARE CLEARLY TO BLAME. THEIR GOAL IS TO THWART A PLAN BY INDONESIA'S PRESIDENT, B-J HABIBIE, TO LET TIMOR'S PEOPLE CHOOSE BETWEEN AUTONOMY AND INDEPENDENCE. A TENTATIVE CEASE-FIRE SIGNED TUESDAY IS ENCOURAGING, BUT NOT ENOUGH. THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES MUST INSIST THAT MR. HABIBIE DISARM AND DISBAND THE MILITIAS. ... THE AUTONOMY TALKS SHOULD ALSO BE COMPLETED QUICKLY SO THAT U-N MONITORS CAN BE SENT. THESE ARE CRITICAL DAYS FOR EAST TIMOR. A STRONG INTERNATIONAL MESSAGE TO JAKARTA CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE.

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/GE/KL
    23-Apr-99 11:34 AM EDT (1534 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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