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Voice of America, 99-04-21

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [02] ALBANIA / APACHES (S ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)
  • [03] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [04] NATO ATTACKS Q&A BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)
  • [05] YUGO DISPATCH - WEDNESDAY (L-ONLY) BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)
  • [06] ALBANIA / REFUGEE AID (L) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)
  • [07] KOSOVO REFUGEES BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)
  • [08] MACEDONIA / REFUGEES (L) BY EVE CONANT (BLACE, MACEDONIA)
  • [09] U-S/KOSOVO REFUGEES (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [10] CLINTON/KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [11] CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [12] CONGRESS / KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [13] KOSOVO / HILLARY CLINTON BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)
  • [14] BRITAIN/KOSOVO (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [15] BULGARIA-NATO (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [16] RUSSIA/KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [17] ALBANIA / NATO (L-ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)
  • [18] NATO AT 50 BY RON PEMSTEIN
  • [19] EDITORIAL: NATO AT 50 -- CHALLENGE IN THE BALKANS
  • [20] NATO GLUMLY CELEBRATES 50TH ANNIVERSARY BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [21] NATO SUMMIT / STRATEGIC CONCEPT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)
  • [22] NATO/KOSOVO AND NEW NATO MEMBERSHIP BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [23] NATO: TURKEY-GREECE RELATIONS BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTONWASHINGTON)
  • [24] VIEWS OF NATO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [25] BRITTAN / U-S / TRADE BY CANDACE WILLIAMS (WASHINGTON)
  • [26] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [27] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248431
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO BOMBS BLASTED THE POLITICAL PARTY HEADQUARTERS OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC ON WEDNESDAY AS U-S ARMY APACHE HELICOPTERS BEGAN LANDING IN ALBANIA. THE NEW NATO FIRE POWER ARRIVED IN THE REGION AS U-S OFFICIALS IN WASHINGTON EXPRESSED SUPPORT FOR A NEW LOOK AT THE POSSIBLE USE OF GROUND TROOPS IN KOSOVO. FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: AT LEAST ONE NATO MISSILE SLAMMED INTO THE BELGRADE HEADQUARTERS OF THE SERBIAN SOCIALIST PARTY -- TOUCHING OFF A ROARING FIRE IN THE HIGH RISE BUILDING.

    IN ADDITION TO THE HEADQUARTERS OF MR. MILOSEVIC'S RULING POLITICAL PARTY, THE BUILDING ALSO HOUSES A TELEVISION STATION RUN BY HIS DAUGHTER.

    NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA CALLED THE STRUCTURE A HIGH VALUE TARGET AT THE CENTER OF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S POWER STRUCTURE.

    // SHEA ACT //

    WE ARE CERTAINLY TARGETING THE POWER STRUCTURES THAT MAKE HIM WHAT HE IS AND WE WILL CONTINUE TO DO SO. WE HAVE STRUCK AT WHAT I CALL HIGH VALUE TARGETS. BEFORE YOU REMEMBER THE MINISTRIES OF THE INTERIOR A COUPLE OF DAYS BACK WHICH WERE ALSO THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE SECRET POLICE OPERATIONS. WE WILL GO AFTER ANYTHING WHICH IS USED TO PLAN, TO CONCEIVE, TO DIRECT WHAT IS A CAMPAIGN OF REPRESSION IN KOSOVO.

    // END ACT //

    NATO AIR STRIKES ALSO TARGETED THE LAST REMAINING BRIDGE IN NOVI SAD, SERBIA'S SECOND LARGEST CITY. YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS SAY THE AIR STRIKES HAVE CUT ROAD AND RAIL LINKS ACROSS THE DANUBE AND INTERRUPTED WATER SUPPLIES.

    THE LATEST ROUND OF AIR STRIKES CAME AS THE FIRST GROUP OF U-S ARMY APACHE HELICOPTERS BEGAN ARRIVING IN ALBANIA FOLLOWING A SERIES OF EMBARRASSING DELAYS.

    NATO COMMANDER GENERAL WESLEY CLARK ORDERED 24 OF THE TANK KILLING HELICOPTERS. THEY WILL BEEF UP NATO AIR FORCES THAT ARE HAVING LIMITED SUCCESS IN TRYING TO HALT THE SERB OFFENSIVE IN KOSOVO. SERB FORCES HAVE DRIVEN HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM THEIR HOMES IN KOSOVO SINCE THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN BEGAN.

    THE PENTAGON HAS ALSO BEGUN DEPLOYING A BATTALION OF ELITE U-S ARMY RAPID REACTION TROOPS FROM THE 82ND AIRBORNE DIVISION TO ALBANIA. OFFICIALS SAY THE TROOPS WILL GUARD THE NEWLY ARRIVED APACHE HELICOPTERS, BUT ANALYSTS NOTE THERE IS GROWING DISCUSSION OF GROUND TROOPS BEING SENT INTO KOSOVO.

    U-S OFFICIALS NOW SAY THEY WOULD SUPPORT A NATO MOVE TO UPDATE PLANS FOR A POSSIBLE GROUND ATTACK AGAINST SERB FORCES. WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART SAYS THE UNITED STATES FAVORS UPDATING THE PLANS IF THAT IS WHAT NATO COMMANDERS WANT.

    // LOCKHART ACT //

    WE NEED TO PERSIST WITH THIS AIR CAMPAIGN. THIS IS THE OPTION WE BELIEVE, AND ARE HIGHLY CONFIDENT, WILL GET US TO OUR MILITARY OBJECTIVES AND IF WE PERSIST WE WILL PREVAIL. WE HAVE ALSO SAID THERE WAS AN ASSESSMENT DONE LATE LAST YEAR ON GROUND TROOPS IN A NON-PERMISSIVE ENVIRONMENT. THAT ASSESSMENT CAN BE UPDATED BASED ON CHANGES ON THE GROUND AS NEEDED. IF NATO'S SUPREME ALLIED MILITARY COMMANDER AND THE SECRETARY GENERAL WANT TO UPDATE THAT ASSESSMENT, THAT IS SOMETHING WE WOULD SUPPORT.

    // END ACT //

    UP TILL NOW U-S OFFICIALS HAVE INSISTED THEY HAD NO INTENTION OF INTRODUCING GROUND TROOPS WITHOUT A POLITICAL AGREEMENT BY YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. BUT SUPPORT FOR THE IDEA HAS INCREASED TO SOME DEGREE IN RECENT WEEKS FOLLOWING TELEVISION IMAGES OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES STREAMING OUT OF KOSOVO.

    MR. SOLANA SAYS THE MAIN OBJECTIVE FOR THE MOMENT IS TO WEAKEN AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE SERBIA'S MILITARY CAPACITY, AND STOPPING THE BRUTALITY IN KOSOVO. NATO OFFICIALS INSIST THAT THEY CAN DO THAT BY BOMBING BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS THAT SUPPORT THE REGIME OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. SERB OFFICIALS INSIST THEY WILL NEVER BOW TO NATO DEMANDS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PHW
    21-Apr-99 6:22 PM EDT (2222 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBANIA / APACHES (S ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248411
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FIRST OF THE LONG-AWAITED U-S APACHE ATTACK HELICOPTERS HAVE ARRIVED IN ALBANIA. V-O-A'S GIL BUTLER REPORTS FROM TIRANA, MANY ALBANIANS ARE PLACING GREAT HOPES THAT THE NEW WEAPONS CAN SUPPRESS SERBIAN MILITARY ACTIVITY.

    TEXT: TWENTY-FOUR APACHES ALONG WITH SUPPORT HELICOPTERS, MISSILE LAUNCHERS, BRADLEY FIGHTING VEHICLES, AND PROTECTIVE TROOPS WILL BE BASED AT TIRANA'S AIRPORT.

    TIMING OF THE DEPLOYMENT OF THE ATTACK HELICOPTERS, DESIGNED TO DESTROY TANKS AND TROOP CONCENTRATIONS, IS NOT KNOWN. BUT ALBANIANS AND KOSOVARS ARE HOPING THEY WILL BE DECISIVE IN ENDING SERB ATTACKS ALONG THE BORDERS WITH ALBANIA.

    THE TIRANA AIRPORT, WHERE THE FIRST OF THE APACHES LANDED WEDNESDAY, HAS LARGELY BEEN TURNED INTO A NATO FACILITY. ONE END OF A RUNWAY IS KNOWN AS THE AMERICAN SECTOR. THAT IS WHERE AMERICAN MILITARY CARGO PLANES AND HELICOPTERS ARE STATIONED.

    AT THE OTHER END OF THE RUNWAY ARE THE HUMANITARIAN HELICOPTERS OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES AND TONS OF RELIEF SUPPLIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH/WTW
    21-Apr-99 12:52 PM EDT (1652 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248410
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO HAS DEFENDED BOMBING THE HEADQUARTERS OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S SOCIALIST POLITICAL PARTY IN BELGRADE. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: EVERY NIGHT, GOOD WEATHER OR BAD, NATO ESTIMATES THAT WITH THE ADDITIONAL AIRCRAFT IT IS USING, IT IS DROPPING DOUBLE THE AMOUNT OF BOMBS ON YUGOSLAV TARGETS THAN IT DID IN THE FIRST WEEKS OF AIR STRIKES.

    WHILE NATO IS NO CLOSER TO ACHIEVING THE ANNOUNCED GOALS OF ITS AIR CAMPAIGN, IT IS RAISING THE STAKES FOR PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. BUT NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS NATO IS NOT TRYING TO ELIMINATE THE YUGOSLAV LEADER.

    /// SHEA ACT ///

    BUT WE ARE CERTAINLY TARGETING THE POWER STRUCTURES THAT MAKE HIM WHAT HE IS AND WE WILL CONTINUE TO DO SO. WE HAVE STRUCK WHAT I CALL HIGH VALUE TARGETS. BEFORE YOU REMEMBER THE MINISTRIES OF THE INTERIOR A COUPLE OF DAYS BACK WHICH WERE ALSO THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE SECRET POLICE OPERATIONS. WE WILL GO AFTER ANYTHING WHICH IS USED TO PLAN, TO CONCEIVE, TO DIRECT WHAT IS A CAMPAIGN OF REPRESSION IN KOSOVO. IN OTHER WORDS, IF I CAN TAKE THE IMAGE OF THE HUMAN BODY, WE WILL GO FOR THE BRAIN AS MUCH AS WE WILL GO FOR THE FINGERTIPS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE 23 FLOOR SOCIALIST PARTY HEADQUARTERS BUILDING IN NEW BELGRADE ALSO HOUSES THE POLITICAL PARTY OF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S WIFE, MIRA, AS WELL AS THREE RADIO AND TELEVISION STATIONS THAT WERE KNOCKED OFF THE AIR. NATO CALLS THE BUILDING PART OF YUGOSLAVIA'S COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK.

    NATO IS ALSO RAISING THE PROSPECT THAT YUGOSLAVIA MAY BE PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO DISRUPT NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT MEETING THIS WEEKEND IN WASHINGTON. MR. SHEA CITES PRESSURE TACTICS AGAINST THE REPUBLIC GOVERNMENT IN MONTENEGRO, SERBIA'S SISTER REPUBLIC IN YUGOSLAVIA. OTHER NATO SUSPICION FOCUSES ON YUGOSLAV SHELLING INTO NEIGHBORING ALBANIA AND THE YUGOSLAV INCURSION INTO THE UNITED NATIONS DEMILITARIZED ZONE AT PREVLAKA BETWEEN MONTENEGRO AND CROATIA.

    /// SHEA ACT TWO ///

    WE KNOW THAT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IS A MAN WHO THRIVES ON A CRISIS. HE SEEMS TO SORT OF NEED A CRISIS LIKE A CAR NEEDS PETROL QUITE FRANKLY. IN CONTRAST TO MOST OTHER POLITICAL LEADERS WHO DON'T WELCOME CRISES UNLESS THEY ARE THRUST UPON THEM.SO WE HAVE TO BE ON OUR GUARD. WE HAVE TO BE VIGILANT AND WE WILL BE VIGILANT TO ANY ATTEMPT TO CREATE OUT OF A DOMESTIC CRISIS, AN INTERNATIONAL CRISIS.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO DENIES THAT BOMBING A CIGARETTE FACTORY OWNED BY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S SON WAS AN ATTEMPT TO PRESSURE THE YUGOSLAV LEADER OR TO DEPRIVE THE YUGOSLAV PEOPLE OF THEIR CIGARETTES. A MILITARY SPOKESMAN SAYS THE FACTORY PRODUCES AMMUNITION AS WELL AS CIGARETTES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    21-Apr-99 12:58 PM EDT (1658 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] NATO ATTACKS Q&A BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248385
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: *INTRO: PHONE Q&A DONE BY VOA NEWS NOW'S LES CARPENTER IN WASHINGTON WITH FINANCIAL TIMES CORRESPONDENT GUY DINMORE IN BELGRADE AT 3:45AM, EDT, 4/21 ON THE LATEST OVERNIGHT ATTACKS BY NATO ON YUGOSLAVIA. CARPENTER: BELGRADE WAS NOT QUIET LAST NIGHT! DINMORE: THATS RIGHT, THE ANTI-AIRCRAFT FIRE BEGAN JUST AFTER MIDNIGHT (BELGRADE TIME) , QUITE HEAVILY IN THE WEST OF THE TOWN WHICH IS EVENTUALLY WHERE NATO MISSILES HIT A 23 STORY BUILDING WHICH HOUSES THE SERBIAN SOCIALIST PARTY OF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND ALSO TWO RADIO STATIONS AND TELEVISION STATIONS, ONE OF THEM OWNED BY HIS DAUGHTER, MARIA. THE BUILDING WAS ABLAZE, THERE WERE REPORTS THAT THERE WERE SEVERAL CIVILIANS INSIDE WHO WERE KILLED. THAT HAS NOT YET BEEN CONFIRMED. THEY ARE STILL (AT 3:45AM, EDT) FIGHTING THE FIRE. THIS BUILDING IS ON THE BANKS OF THE DANUBE RIVER AND USED TO BE THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY. ITS A SYMBOL OF THE REGIME. IT IS QUITE CLOSE TO THE CENTER OF THE TOWN, NOT FAR FROM THE MAIN HOTEL WHERE MOST OF THE JOURNALISTS ARE STAYING. SO I THINK IT WILL BE SEEN AS A STRIKE AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT , MORE OR LESS SYMBOLIC IN NATURE THAN A REAL THREAT TO THE GOVERNMENT IN ANY WAY BECAUSE WE ALL KNOW MOST OF THE REAL PARTY OPERATIONS ARE NOT CONDUCTED FROM THAT BUILDING ANYWAY. CARPENTER: THEN, WHERE ARE THEY CONDUCTED FROM? DINMORE: WELL, THE PARTY ITSELF DOES NOT MEET SO OFTEN. THERE IS AN INNER CIRCLE OF PEOPLE CLOSE TO MILOSEVIC, SOME OF THEM INSIDE THE PARTY, SOME OF THEM BELONGING TO THE PARTY RUN BY HIS WIFE. THEY MEET IN SMALL GROUPS AND DECIDE ON POLICY WHICH IS LATER RATIFIED BY THE PARTY AND PARLIAMENT WHEN THEY NEED TO DO IT. UNDER THE STATE OF WAR, PARLIAMENT IS RARELY MEETING ANYWAY. CARPENTER: WERE THERE ANY OTHER TARGETS HIT DURING LAST NIGHT'S BOMBING? DINMORE: YES THERE SEEM TO HAVE BEEN FAIRLY EXTENSIVE ATTACKS AROUND THE AREA. A THIRD BRIDGE OVER THE DANUBE IN NOVI SAD, WHICH I BELIEVE WAS PREVIOUSLY DAMAGED, BUT NOT DESTROYED, HAS BEEN HIT AGAIN. I'M NOT SURE THAT THAT BRIDGE IS TOTALLY DESTROYED. IF IT IS, THEN ALL THREE BRIDGES LINKING THE HOUSES OF THAT CITY ON THE DANUBE ARE GONE. THERE HAVE ALSO BEEN ATTACKS REPORTED IN THE SOUTH NEAR UZICE (WHO' ITSAH). I THINK THERE WAS A MILITARY AIRFIELD IN THAT AREA, WHICH ACCORDING TO STATE MEDIA, HAS BEEN ATTACKED. AND VALJEVO, A FACTORY THERE. QUITE A WIDESPREAD NIGHT OF ATTACKS. CARPENTER: YOU SAID THEY ARE STILL FIGHTING THE FIRE AT THE HEADQUARTERS BUILDING IN BELGRADE. THERE IS STILL NO FURTHER WORD ON WHETHER ANYONE WAS INJURED THERE, HAS THE MEDIA THERE SAID ANYTHING ABOUT THAT? DINMORE: WE HAD A REPORT THERE WERE 15 PEOPLE IN THE BUILDING AT THE TIME OF THE ATTACK. BUT IT HASN'T BEEN COMPLETELY CONFIRMED WHETHER THEY MANAGED TO GET OUT OR NOT. WE ARE JUST NOT SURE ABOUT CIVILIAN CASUALTIES LAST NIGHT. CARPENTER: THERE IS SOME CONCERN TODAY GUY THAT THE SITUATION THERE MAY BE EXPANDING INTO SOME OF THE SURROUNDING REGIONS. YUGOSLAV FORCES EXCHANGING GUNFIRE WITH ALBANIAN TROOPS AGAIN. ALSO SOME REPORTED INCURSIONS INTO MONTENEGRO. HAVE YOU HEARD ANYTHING ABOUT THAT? DINMORE: THE SITUATION IN MONTENEGRO IS SOMEWHAT CONFUSING. I'M NOT CONVINCED IT WAS AN INCURSION INTO MONTENEGRO. WHAT IS HAPPENING THERE IS THERE ARE UNITS OF THE YUGOSLAV ARMY, LOYAL TO MILOSEVIC WHO ARE ACTUALLY BASED IN MONTENEGRO. AND ITS POSSIBLE IT WAS THESE UNITS OR IT COULD HAVE BEEN PARAMILITARY THAT ATTACKED A GROUP OF REBELS INSIDE MONTENEGRO. THE YUGOSLAV ARMY IN MONTENEGRO HAS ACTUALLY SAID THAT THEY WERE ATTACKED INSIDE MONTENEGRO BY KLA REBELS AND THEY RESPONDED AND KILLED FOUR OF THEM. MONTENEGRO IS A STRANGE SITUATION. THEIR PRESIDENT IS ONE OF THE HARSHEST CRITICS OF MILOSEVIC. HE IS MORE REFORMIST INCLINED. HE HAS ALOT OF SUPPORT FROM THE WEST AND HE HAS A POLICE FORCE LOYAL TO HIM. BUT AT THE SAME TIME YOU HAVE THE FEDERAL YUGOSLAV ARMY DOWN IN MONTENEGRO WHICH IS LOYAL TO MILOSEVIC AND THERE COULD BE A SITUATION WHERE THESE TWO FORCES BECOME PITTED AGAINST EACH OTHER. AND THE ARMY IS REPORTED YESTERDAY TO HAVE TAKEN OVER A BORDER CROSSING BETWEEN MONTENEGRO AND CROATIA THAT THE MONTENEGRON POLICE HAD BEEN CONTROLLING, NOW IT SEEMS TO BE UNDER ARMY CONTROL. CARPENTER: THERE WERE ALSO REPORTS OF ARMY TROOPS ENTERING INTO CROATIA, HAS THERE BEEN ANYTHING SAID IN BELGRADE ABOUT THAT? DINMORE: NO, THERE HASN'T BEEN ANY COMMENT ON THAT BUT I DO THINK CROATIA HAS CLARIFIED THE SITUATION SAYING THESE TROOPS DIDN'T ACTUALLY CROSS INTO CROATIAN TERRITORY BUT THEY CROSSED INTO AN AREA THAT WAS SUPPOSED TO BE DEMILITARIZED BECAUSE IT IS DISPUTED TERRITORY BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES. AND I THINK THE CROATIANS SHOULD CLARIFY THAT YUGOSLAV TROOPS HADN'T ACTUALLY GONE INTO CROATIA BUT THE TROOPS HAD INSTEAD GONE INTO THIS DE-MILITARIZED ZONE WHICH DOES BREAK THE U-N RESOLUTION. AGAIN, I THINK THIS IS AN INDICATION THAT THE YUGOSLAV ARMY DOWN IN MONTENEGRO IS TRYING TO UNDERMINE THE AUTHORITY OF PRESIDENT DJUKANOVIC THERE. CARPENTER: THATS A STRANGE SITUATION, WHAT CAN BE EXPECTED OF THAT WITH THE YUGOSLAV ARMY THERE? IS THERE A POSSIBILITY THERE COULD BE A REAL FIGHT BETWEEN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO? DINMORE: ITS A VERY COMPLICATED SITUATION. MONTENEGRO IS A VERY SMALL REPUBLIC WITH A POPULATION OF ONLY ABOUT 655-THOUSAND PEOPLE. ALMOST EVERYBODY KNOWS EACH OTHER OR AT LEAST EVERYBODY'S FAMILY, A VERY CLAN-BASED SOCIETY. ALOT OF THE YUGOSLAV ARMY IN MONTENEGRO IS MADE UP OF MONTENEGRON CONSCRIPTS. IT REMAINS TO BE SEEN IF THEY WOULD WANT TO BE FIGHTING THEIR RELATIVES WHO ARE SERVING IN THE POLICE FORCE UNDER THE PRESIDENT. THE SOCIETY IS ALSO DIVIDED ALONG POLITCAL LINES BETWEEN MONTENEGRONS WHO CONSIDER THEMSELVES MONTENEGRON AND THOSE WHO CONSIDER THEMSELVES AS MORE SERB. THE TWO COMMUNITES ARE VERY CLOSE IN TERMS OF RELIGION , LANGUAGE AND HISTORY. IF THERE WAS CONFLICT IN MONTENEGRO IT WOULD BE A VERY MESSY AFFAIR AND PEOPLE WOULD BE VERY RELUCTANT TO GET ENGAGED IN. I THINK 20 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION ARE ETHNIC ALBANIAN AND MUSLIM SLAVS WHO ARE GENERALLY BEHIND THE GOVERMENT OF PRESIDENT DJUKANOVIC AND ACTUALLY HAVE SOME MEMBERS IN HIS COALITION GOVERNMENT. THAT ALSO IS A WORRYING FACTOR FOR BELGRADE. CARPENTER: THAT WOULD HAVE TO BE A CONCERN TO BELGRADE BECAUSE MONTENEGRO IS THEIR ONLY OUTLET TO THE SEA. DINMORE: MONTENEGRO IS VERY STRATEGIC. THERE IS A BIG NAVAL BASE THERE. AND ITS GOT A BIG COMMERICAL HARBOR. SO THE LOSS OF MONTENEGRO WOULD BE VERY COSTLY. CARPENTER: THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
    21-Apr-99 7:07 AM EDT (1107 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] YUGO DISPATCH - WEDNESDAY (L-ONLY) BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248432
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FORMER RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN IS HEADING TO BELGRADE (THURSDAY), BRINGING A POSSIBLE NEW PEACE PROPOSAL TO END THE KOSOVO CONFLICT. MEANWHILE YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS ARE ASSESSING THE LATEST BOMB DAMAGE INFLICTED BY NATO FORCES WEDNESDAY. MISSILES HIT A TOWER BLOCK IN BELGRADE THAT SERVED AS THE HEADQUARTERS OF YUGOSLAVIA'S RULING SERBIAN SOCIALIST PARTY. ONE RADIO AND TWO TELEVISION STATIONS WERE ALSO GUTTED. GUY DINMORE REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE 23-STORY BUILDING ON THE CONFLUENCE OF THE DANUBE AND SAVA RIVERS WAS HIT BY THREE OR FOUR MISSILE JUST BEFORE DAWN (WEDNESDAY). THE EXPLOSIONS COULD BE HEARD ACROSS BELGRADE. THE BLASTS AND SUBSEQUENT FIRE CAUSED SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. // OPT // BUT EARLY REPORTS OF CASUALTIES COULD NOT BE CONFIRMED. // END OPT //

    NATO CLEARLY INTENDED TO SEND A FORCEFUL MESSAGE TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. IT WAS IN THIS BUILDING IN 1986 THAT MR. MILOSEVIC STARTED HIS RISE TO POWER, BECOMING LEADER OF WHAT WAS THEN THE SERBIAN COMMUNIST PARTY. IT WAS LATER RENAMED THE SERBIAN SOCIALIST PARTY AND, UNTIL TODAY, OCCUPIED TWO FLOORS IN THE BUILDING.

    THE MISSILES ALSO DESTROYED A RADIO AND TELEVISION STATION CALLED KOSOVA RUN BY MR. MILOSEVIC'S DAUGHTER MARIJA, AS WELL AS T-V PINK WHICH HAD CLOSE CONNECTIONS TO THE YUGOSLAV LEFT CONTROLLED BY MR. MILOSEVIC'S WIFE, MIRA MARKOVIC. SEVERAL PRIVATE IMPORT-EXPORT FIRMS, BELIEVED TO BE CLOSE TO THE RULING CIRCLES, ALSO USED THE BUILDING.

    GORAN MATIC, A SENIOR OFFICIAL IN THE YUGOSLAV LEFT AND A MINISTER IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LIKENED NATO'S ATTACK TO MONTY PYTHON'S FLYING CIRCUS (SUGGESTING AN ABSURD ACTION). THE TWO TELEVISION STATIONS WORKING THERE HAD PROVIDED AMERICAN MOVIES TO THE SERBIAN PEOPLE. IT WAS CLEAR, HE SAID, THAT NATO FEARED FREEDOM OF THE MEDIA MORE THAN THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY.

    A FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN INSISTED WEDNESDAY THAT YUGOSLAVIA WOULD SOLVE THE KOSOVO CRISIS ON ITS OWN. NEBOJSA VUJOVIC RULED OUT NEGOTIATIONS WITH REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES AND SAID DIALOGUE WOULD CONTINUE WITH IBRAHIM RUGOVA, LEADER OF THE MAIN ETHNIC ALBANIAN PARTY IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. HE DISMISSED REPORTS THAT MR. RUGOVA HAD HELD TALKS IN BELGRADE UNDER DURESS.

    MR. VUJOVIC ALSO SAID 23-THOUSAND REFUGEES HAD RETURNED TO THEIR HOMES IN THE PODUJEVO AREA OF NORTHERN KOSOVO. STATE TELEVISION SHOWED FOOTAGE OF MANY ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN TRACTORS AND TRAILERS GOING BACK TO THEIR VILLAGES.

    THE FORMER RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN IS EXPECTED IN BELGRADE THURSDAY BEARING A FRESH INITIATIVE FROM PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN. MR. CHERNOMYRDIN MAY PROPOSE THAT YUGOSLAVIA ACCEPT AN INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN KOSOVO TO ENSURE THE SAFE RETURN OF SEVERAL HUNDRED THOUSAND REFUGEES. BELGRADE HAS ALREADY REJECTED VARIOUS PROPOSALS THAT WOULD INVOLVE FOREIGN TROOPS ON ITS TERRITORY.(SIGNED)
    NEB/GD/JO
    21-Apr-99 6:50 PM EDT (2250 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] ALBANIA / REFUGEE AID (L) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248415
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE HEAD OF THE U-S FOREIGN AID AGENCY SAYS MORE SITES ARE BEING SOUGHT IN ALBANIA FOR SMALL KOSOVO REFUGEE CAMPS -- AWAY FROM THE ALBANIAN BORDER WITH YUGOSLAVIA. CORRESPONDENT GIL BUTLER REPORTS THE U-S OFFICIAL, BRIAN ATWOOD, MADE THE COMMENT WHILE TOURING A SMALL TENT ENCAMPMENT IN THE ALBANIAN CAPITAL, TIRANA AFTER EARLIER VISITING A HUGE CAMP IN MACEDONIA.

    TEXT: ON A DRIZZLY, CHILLY MORNING, THE DIRECTOR OF THE U-S AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT WALKED THROUGH THE REFUGEE CAMP AT THE OLD SWIMMING POOL IN TIRANA. ABOUT TWO-THOUSAND REFUGEES LIVE IN TENTS AROUND THE SWIMMING POOL.

    MR. ATWOOD SAID THAT WAS A BETTER SIZE THAN A CAMP HE HAD VISITED IN MACEDONIA THAT SHELTERS 25-THOUSAND REFUGEES. AT THE TIRANA CAMP, THERE IS A CENTRAL COOKING FACILITY.

    /// AID WORKER ACT ///

    (WORKER): THEY DO ALL THE COOKING FOR THE PEOPLE, HERE. SO THEY COME WITH THEIR POTS AND GET THEIR FOOD FOR THEIR FAMILIES AND THEN GO BACK TO THEIR TENTS. THEY DO NOT GIVE INDIVIDUAL RATIONS TO THE TENTS. THEY DO ALL THE COOKING IN THOSE TWO BIG (TENTS) (ATWOOD): THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM PROVIDES THE FOOD AND THEY PREPARE IT HERE? (WORKER): YEAH.

    /// END ACT ///

    AS AT ANY OF THE REFUGEE CAMPS, IT IS NOT DIFFICULT TO HEAR OF ATROCITIES COMMITTED BY SERBIAN FORCES IN KOSOVO.

    /// ATWOOD / REFUGEE ACT ///

    (ATWOOD): HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE? (ALBANIAN): THREE WEEKS. (ATWOOD): HOW DID THEY GET YOU OUT OF YOUR VILLAGE? DID THEY COME WITH THE MILITARY AND TELL YOU TO LEAVE? (ALBANIAN): 14 PEOPLE FROM THE VILLAGE WERE BURNED. (ATWOOD): HOW WERE THEY BURNED? (INTERPRETER): THEY PUT OIL ON THEM AND THEN BURNED 14 PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE A-I-D DIRECTOR SAID THE AIM NOW IS TO FIND SITES FOR SMALLER CAMPS THROUGHOUT ALBANIA -- TO MAKE LIFE AS COMFORTABLE AS POSSIBLE FOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE HAD HORRIBLE EXPERIENCES IN BEING DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES.

    /// ATWOOD ACT ///

    PEOPLE CLEARLY ARE STILL SHOCKED BY WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO THEM AND THERE ARE SOME VERY SAD STORIES THAT I HAVE HEARD. SO WE WILL HAVE TO KEEP WORKING TO MAKE THEIR LIVES MORE COMFORTABLE NOW AND GIVE THEM HOPE THAT THEY ARE GOING TO RETURN HOME SOON.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ATWOOD SAID THE UNITED STATES WILL CONTINUE TO PROVIDE FUNDS TO U-N REFUGEE RELIEF AGENCIES AS LONG AS THERE IS A NEED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH/RAE
    21-Apr-99 1:30 PM EDT (1730 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KOSOVO REFUGEES BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-543188
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWO KOSOVAR COMMUNITY ACTIVISTS HAVE ENDED THEIR TRIP TO THE UNITED STATES IN NEW YORK WITH AN APPEAL FOR HELP FOR ETHNIC ALBANIANS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF KOSOVO -- THE PROVINCE OF YUGOSLAVIA THAT IS HEAVILY POPULATED WITH ETHNIC ALBANIANS. CORRESPONDENT BARBARA SCHOETZAU REPORTS.

    TEXT: IN MEETINGS WITH SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, FIRST LADY HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON, AND HUMAN RIGHTS RIGHTS GROUPS, VJOSA DOBRUNA AND AFERDITA KELMENDI HAVE RECOUNTED HARROWING TALES ABOUT THEIR ESCAPES FROM KOSOVO AND THE PLIGHT OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN REFUGEE CAMPS. THEY ALSO TESTIFIED BEFORE THE U-S CONGRESS.

    THE TWO WOMEN SAY ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES NEED FOOD, MEDICINE, VEHICLES AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT. VJOSA DOBRUNA, A PEDIATRICIAN WHO IS ORGANIZING WOMEN'S GROUPS IN THE REFUGEE CAMPS IN MACEDONIA, SAYS IT IS NECESSARY TO CREATE REFUGEE NETWORKS TO HELP THE REFUGEES TAKE CARE OF THEIR OWN NEEDS AND TO EASE TENSIONS WITH THE MACEDONIANS.

    /// DOBRUNA ACT ///

    THERE IS A LOT TO DO. IT IS NOT ONLY FOOD. IT IS NOT THE MOST IMPORTANT THING. IT IS TO KEEP A SPIRIT AMONG REFUGEES AND KEEP THE HOPE THAT WE ARE GOING TO GO BACK, TO DEVELOP CERTAIN ACTIVITIES THAT WILL EMPOWER THEM TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEMSELVES. AND AT THE SAME TIME, TO KEEP OPEN THE DIALOGUE WITH SLAVIC MACEDONIANS AND TO CONVINCE THEM THAT IT IS NOT OUR DECISION AND THAT WE ARE NOT THERE TO DO ANY HARM TO MACEDONIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    DR. DOBRUNA SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY SHOULD HELP THE GOVERNMENT OF MACEDONIA WITH THE BURDEN THE REFUGEES HAVE CREATED ONLY IF THE RIGHTS OF THE REFUGEES ARE RESPECTED.

    AFERDITA KELMENDI, AN INDEPENDENT JOURNALIST WITH RADIO-TELEVISION 21 IN PRISTINA, SAYS THE TWO WOMEN ALSO HAVE TO SPEAK ON BEHALF OF THOSE STILL INSIDE OF KOSOVO. SHE ESTIMATES A HALF-MILLION ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE IN HIDING IN KOSOVO.

    //// KELMENDI ACT ////

    NOW WE ARE "DYING" FOR THE PEOPLE WHO ARE INSIDE AND I AM HERE BECAUSE I HAVE A VOICE. THEY DO NOT HAVE A VOICE. THEY ARE SILENT. IF WE WENT THROUGH THIS HELL, I CAN ONLY IMAGINE WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THEM.

    ////END ACT ////

    MS. KELMENDI SAYS HER OWN ENCOUNTER WITH SERBIAN POLICE BEFORE BEING FORCED OUT OF KOSOVO ENDED A LIFETIME COMMITMENT TO NON-VIOLENCE.

    /// KELMENDI ACT ////

    I WAS TRAINED IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION FOR FOUR YEARS. I TRAINED MORE THAN 90 YOUNG WOMEN IN KOSOVO FOR PEACEFUL CONFLICT RESOLUTION. IN THAT MOMENT, I WANTED A GUN. I WANTED TO HAVE A GUN IN MY HANDS. YOU CANNOT FACE FORCE WITH CONFLICT RESOLUTION. YOU DO NOT HAVE A HUMAN BEING IN FRONT OF YOU, BUT SOMEONE WHO CAN DO TO YOU WHATEVER HE WANTS.

    /// END ACT ////

    ULTIMATELY, BOTH WOMEN SAY, THE REFUGEES WANT TO GO HOME TO KOSOVO. BUT DR. DOBRUNA SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MUST RECOGNIZE THAT ETHNIC ALBANIANS DO NOT WANT TO LIVE UNDER THE RULE OF SERBIA OR YUGOSLAVIA AGAIN.

    //// DOBRUNA ACT ////

    DEMOCRATIC STATES THAT SAY THEY ARE DEMOCRATIC STATES SHOULD REALIZE THAT IT IS OUR WILL AGAIN THAT IS GOING TO BE RESPECTED. AND THE WILL OF KOSOVO IS NOT TO LIVE UNDER SERBIA OR YUGOSLAVIA BECAUSE THEY LOST THEIR CHANCE AND THEY LOST THEIR RIGHT TO HAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH KOSOVO BECAUSE KOSOVO WAS TREATED WITH SO MUCH HATE THAT HUMAN BEINGS DO NOT DESERVE. THEY DESTROYED KOSOVO. WHY DO THEY WANT KOSOVO? THEY DO NOT HAVE A RIGHT ANYMORE TO SPEAK ON BEHALF OF KOSOVARS. KOSOVO IS FOR KOSOVARS.

    //// END ACT ////

    VJOSA DOBRUNA SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ALSO HAS AN OBLIGATION TO INDICT THOSE GUILTY OF GENOCIDE IN KOSOVO.

    THE TWO WOMEN SPOKE TO THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, A PRIVATE FOREIGN POLICY GROUP. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BJS/LSF/RRM
    21-Apr-99 4:35 PM EDT (2035 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] MACEDONIA / REFUGEES (L) BY EVE CONANT (BLACE, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248393
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SEVERAL-THOUSAND MORE ETHNIC-ALBANIAN REFUGEES HAVE CROSSED INTO MACEDONIA IN THE PAST TWO DAYS. INTERNATIONAL AID WORKERS ARE SEARCHING FOR MORE SPACE TO HOUSE REFUGEES AS THE EXISTING CAMPS ARE ALREADY FILLED BEYOND CAPACITY. CORRESPONDENT EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM THE BLACE BORDER POINT IN NORTHERN MACEDONIA.

    TEXT: THE AREA NEAR BLACE, ALONG THE BORDER BETWEEN MACEDONIA AND SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE, IS A WASTELAND. IT WAS HERE THAT MORE THAN 40-THOUSAND REFUGEES WERE HELD IN WHAT BECAME A MUDDY PIT -- WAITING TO BE ACCEPTED INTO REFUGEE CAMPS OR PRIVATE HOMES. THE TRACTORS CLEANING UP THE AREA ROLL OVER SIGNS OF THE REFUGEES WHO CAMPED OUT HERE -- A MUDDY PHOTOGRAPH, A WOMAN'S SHOE.

    INTERNATIONAL AID WORKERS WALK ABOUT THIS SMALL PATCH OF LAND AND DISCUSS PLANS TO SET UP TENTS AND TOILETS. THEY ARE PREPARING FOR A POSSIBLE NEW WAVE OF REFUGEES, AND THERE IS ALMOST NO ROOM LEFT IN EXISTING CAMPS.

    A SITE PLANNER FOR THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, WERNER SCHELLENBERG, SAYS THERE IS A SHORTAGE OF LAND AREA FOR CAMPS.

    /// SCHELLENBERG ACT ONE ///

    ALL THE PRESENT TENTED SITES, ACCORDING TO U-N-H-C-R'S RULES, ARE TOTALLY OVERCROWDED. WE FACE A SEVERE DANGER WITH FIRE, WE FACE A SEVERE DANGER WITH ACCIDENTS DUE TO TRAFFIC.

    /// END ACT ///

    THERE ARE ALREADY MORE THAN 25-THOUSAND REFUGEES PACKED INTO TENTS AT THE NEARBY STENKOVAC REFUGEE CAMP. FARMERS WHO WORK THE LAND SURROUNDING THE CAMP REFUSE TO GIVE MORE TERRITORY TO THE GOVERNMENT FOR CAMP EXPANSION. SO, INTERNATIONAL AID WORKERS HAVE DECIDED TO CLEAN UP AND REDEVELOP THE AREA OF LAND NEAR THE BORDER TO ONCE AGAIN SERVE AS A TRANSIT CAMP.

    THE AID WORKERS SAY THEY DO NOT WANT A REPEAT OF THE DISASTROUS CONDITIONS REFUGEES HAD TO ENDURE BEFORE. THEY SAY REFUGEES WILL BE TRANSPORTED TO PRIVATE HOMES OR A REFUGEE CAMP WITHIN 48-HOURS OF ARRIVAL.

    MR. SCHELLENBERG SAYS IT IS NOT AN IDEAL SOLUTION, BUT THEY ARE DOING THEIR BEST WITH THE LIMITED SPACE GRANTED TO THEM BY THE MACEDONIAN GOVERNMENT.

    /// SCHELLENBERG ACT TWO ///

    WE HAVE TO FIND NEW SITES AND WE HAVE NOT GOT THE SITES. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SITES WILL TAKE TIME AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SITES EARMARKED IS ALREADY LIMITED.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-N-H-C-R SAYS THE MACEDONIAN GOVERNMENT HAS ALLOWED THE DEVELOPMENT OF ONE NEW CAMP, WHICH MAY HOLD UP TO FIVE-THOUSAND PEOPLE. BUT MR. SCHELLENBERG SAYS THAT IS NOT EVEN ENOUGH TO HOUSE THE EXISTING NUMBER OF REFUGEES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH/RAE
    21-Apr-99 6:54 AM EDT (1054 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-S/KOSOVO REFUGEES (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248426
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS DECIDED TO ALLOW KOSOVO REFUGEES TO COME TO THE UNITED STATES FOR SHELTER RATHER THAN SENDING THEM TO THE U-S NAVY BASE AT GUANTANAMO BAY, CUBA. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: THE ANNOUNCEMENT CAME FROM VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE IN A SPEECH AT ELLIS ISLAND IN NEW YORK HARBOR, THE HISTORIC RECEPTION CENTER FOR MILLIONS OF IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES A CENTURY AGO.

    MR. GORE SAID UP TO 20-THOUSAND KOSOVAR REFUGEES -- THOSE WITH U-S FAMILY TIES OR CONSIDERED PARTICULARY VULNERABLE -- WILL BE GIVEN SHELTER IN THE UNITED STATES UNTIL THEY ARE ABLE TO RETURN HOME SAFELY. THEY WILL STAY WITH THE FAMILY MEMBERS OR U-S VOLUNTEERS.

    THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AGREED TO ACCEPT THE 20-THOUSAND KOSOVAR ALBANIANS EARLIER THIS MONTH AS PART OF THE BROADER INTERNATIONAL PLAN TO RELIEVE THE REFUGEE BURDEN ON ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA.

    INITIAL PLANS WERE TO HOUSE THEM AT THE U-S NAVY BASE AT GUANTANAMO BAY, CUBA WHERE CUBAN AND HAITIAN BOAT PEOPLE HAD BEEN SHELTERED IN THE PAST. BUT REFUGEE AND HUMAN RIGHTS ADVOCATES HAD OBJECTED TO USING THE BASE, WHICH THEY SAID IS ISOLATED AND INHOSPITABLE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/PT
    21-Apr-99 5:20 PM EDT (2120 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] CLINTON/KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248423
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS IT WILL SUPPORT NATO LEADERS IF THEY DECIDE TO RE-EVALUATE THE QUESTION OF USING GROUND TROOPS IN THE KOSOVO CONFLICT. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: THE WHITE HOUSE SAYS IT STILL BELIEVES NATO CAN ACHIEVE ITS OBJECTIVES IN KOSOVO THROUGH AIR POWER ALONE. BUT IT ALSO SAYS IT WILL NOT OBJECT IF NATO LEADERS DECIDE TO TAKE A NEW LOOK AT THE ISSUE.

    NATO MILITARY EXPERTS DREW UP CONTINGENCY PLANS FOR GROUND INTERVENTION LAST OCTOBER, AS ONE OF SEVERAL OPTIONS FOR DEALING WITH WHAT WAS THEN AN INTERNAL REFUGEE EXODUS PROMPTED BY A SERB CRACKDOWN ON ETHNIC-ALBANIAN GUERRILLAS.

    BUT THE PLANS WERE SET ASIDE AND NOT RE-VISITED LAST MONTH, WHEN NATO DECIDED TO LAUNCH ITS AIR CAMPAIGN IN RESPONSE TO AN ALL-OUT OFFENSIVE IN KOSOVO BY THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY.

    CLINTON SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART SAYS A DECISION TO RECONSIDER THE ISSUE WILL REST WITH NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND THE SUPREME NATO COMMANDER, U-S ARMY GENERAL WESLEY CLARK.

    /// LOCKHART ACT ///

    WE HAVE SAID ALL ALONG THAT WE NEED TO PERSIST WITH THIS AIR CAMPAIGN -- THAT THIS IS THE OPTION THAT WE BELIEVE, WE ARE HIGHLY CONFIDENT, WILL GET US TO OUR MILITARY OBJECTIVES. AND IF WE PERSIST WE WILL PREVAIL. WE HAVE ALSO SAID THAT THERE WAS AN ASSESSMENT DONE LATE LAST YEAR ON GROUND TROOPS IN A NON-PERMISSIVE ENVIRONMENT. THAT ASSESSMENT CAN BE UPDATED BASED ON CHANGES ON THE GROUND AS NEEDED. IF THE "SACEUR" [NATO'S SUPREME ALLIED COMMANDER, EUROPE], THE MILITARY COMMAND AND THE SECRETARY GENERAL WANT TO UPDATE THAT ASSESSMENT, THAT'S SOMETHING WE WOULD SUPPORT.

    /// END ACT ///

    SOME MEMBERS OF CONGRESS HAVE CRITICIZED THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND NATO FOR NOT HOLDING OUT GROUND INTERVENTION AS, AT LEAST, AN ACTIVE OPTION IN KOSOVO -- SAYING THE CURRENT POLICY MAY BE ENCOURAGING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO TRY TO RIDE OUT THE AIR BOMBARDMENT.

    MEMBERS OF BOTH PARTIES HAVE URGED THE ADMINISTRATION TO PRE-POSITION GROUND TROOPS -- OR THE MATERIAL TO SUPPORT THEM -- IN THE BALKANS REGION TO UNDERLINE ALLIED RESOLVE, AND TO SPEED ACTUAL DEPLOYMENT IF NATO DECIDES IT IS NECESSARY.

    U-S AND NATO OFFICIALS BEEN INSISTING THAT ALLIED GROUND TROOPS WOULD ONLY BE INTRODUCED AS PART OF AN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCE THAT WOULD ENTER KOSOVO AFTER A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE ISSUE OF GROUND TROOPS AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MONTH-LONG NATO AIR CAMPAIGN WILL FIGURE PROMINENTLY IN PRIVATE DISCUSSIONS AMONG NATO LEADERS, WHO ARE GATHERING IN WASHINGTON FOR THE ALLIANCE'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT OPENING FRIDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/ENE/WTW
    21-Apr-99 4:46 PM EDT (2046 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248413
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /////

    NOTE TO ED'S: SECRETARY COHEN TESTIFIES AT 2PM BEFORE A HOUSE COMMITTEE. THIS CR WILL HOLD AFTER HE BEGINS HIS TESTIMONY. EXPECT WRAPS FROM CAPITOL HILL LATER IN THE DAY.

    /////

    INTRO: TOP CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS ARE MAKING FREQUENT TRIPS TO CAPITOL HILL, AS LAWMAKERS CONSIDER THE PRESIDENT'S REQUEST FOR EMERGENCY FUNDING FOR THE MILITARY OPERATION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. CORRESPONDENT PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS THEY ARE COMING UNDER TOUGH QUESTIONING FROM MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE AND SENATE.

    TEXT: HOUSE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN BENJAMIN GILMAN SAYS LAWMAKERS HAVE A WIDE RANGE OF VIEWS ON THE CONFLICT WITH YUGOSLAVIA. HE SAYS THEY ARE NOT RELUCTANT TO SHARE THEM WITH THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION.

    /// GILMAN ACT ///

    LIKE YOU, WE ARE SEARCHING FOR AN ACCEPTABLE SOLUTION THAT CAN COMMAND THE SUPPORT OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE NEW YORK REPUBLICAN TOLD SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT HE SUPPORTS THE MISSION. BUT HE ACKNOWLEDGED HE HAS SOME RESERVATIONS.

    /// GILMAN ACT ///

    CONTINUING TO WAGE A LIMITED WAR, USING LIMITED MEANS IS CERTAIN TO LIMIT THE PROSPECTS FOR SUCCESS.

    /// END ACT ///

    SOME COMMITTEE MEMBERS URGED PRESIDENT CLINTON TO CONSIDER THE USE OF GROUND TROOPS, WHILE OTHERS QUESTIONED THE WISDOM OF ANY U-S INVOLVEMENT. NEBRASKA REPUBLICAN DOUG BEREUTER SAID HE HAS LONG HAD DOUBTS ABOUT U-S MILITARY INTERVENTION IN THE REGION -- DOUBTS HE SHARED WITH ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS IN THE MONTHS LEADING UP TO THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN.

    /// BEREAUTER ACT ///

    MY OBJECTIVE WAS TO TRY TO KEEP US FROM GETTING INTO A MESS. AND I THINK WE ARE IN IT. THERE IS NO EASY WAY OUT OF IT.

    /// END ACT ///

    SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT RESPONDED WITH A DEFENSE OF NATO'S MILITARY STRATEGY. SHE SAID AMERICA AND ITS ALLIES COULD NOT TURN AWAY.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    WE TRIED THE DIPLOMATIC TRACK AS LONG AS IT WAS POSSIBLE. AND AT SOME POINT NEGOTIATION AND DIPLOMACY BECOME APPEASEMENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    // OPT //

    SECRETARY ALBRIGHT CALLED THE REFUGEE CRISIS IN THE BALKANS "A MILOSOVIC PRODUCTION."

    ACROSS CAPITOL HILL, SENATOR MAX CLELAND USED ANOTHER MOVIE ANALOGY TO MAKE A POINT ON THE BALKANS. THE GEORGIA DEMOCRAT LOST AN ARM AND BOTH HIS LEGS WHILE SERVING IN THE VIETNAM WAR.

    /// CLELLAND ACT ///

    I HAVE SEEN THIS MOVIE BEFORE! AND I WLL BE DARNED IF I AM GOING TO PARTICIPATE IN SLIDING DOWN A SLIPPERY SLOPE WHERE NO END IS IN SIGHT, NO VICTORY HAS BEEN ARTICULATED, NO STRATEGIC GOAL HAS BEEN ARTICULATED FOR THE MILITARY TO ACHIEVE, AND THERE IS NO EXIT STRATEGY.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    CONGRESS IS EXPECTED TO TAKE SEVERAL VOTES ON KOSOVO IN THE WEEKS AHEAD. THE HOUSE WILL CONSIDER A DECLARATION OF WAR -- A VOTE THAT WILL OCCUR UNDER TERMS OF THE 1973 WAR POWERS RESOLUTION. THIS CONTROVERSIAL MEASURE DEALS WITH THE PRESIDENT'S POWERS AS COMMANDER IN CHIEF, AND CONGRESS'S CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO DECLARE WAR.

    THE ADMINISTRATION IS LOBBYING AGAINST THE DECLARATION OF WAR...AS IT APPEALS TO LAWMAKERS FOR EMERGENCY FUNDING FOR THE OPERATION. REPUBLICANS HAVE COMPLAINED ABOUT THE SIX-BILLION DOLLAR EMERGENCY REQUEST FROM THE PRESIDENT, SAYING IT IS NOT ENOUGH TO MEET PRESSING MILITARY NEEDS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RAE
    21-Apr-99 1:14 PM EDT (1714 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] CONGRESS / KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248428
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: UPDATES CR 2-248413 WITH COHEN TESTIMONY ///

    INTRO: CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS ARE FACING TOUGH QUESTIONING ON CAPITOL HILL, AS THEY SEEK TO PROMOTE THE PRESIDENT'S BALKAN POLICY. ALTHOUGH THEY HEAR CONSTANT PRAISE FOR U-S TROOPS, THERE ARE ALSO LISTENING TO CONGRESSIONAL CONCERNS ABOUT THE COST, DURATION AND DIRECTION OF THE MILITARY OPERATION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE SECRETARY OF STATE, THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE AND THE NATION'S TOP MILITARY OFFICER ARE CONSTANT VISITORS TO CAPITOL HILL THESE DAYS. AND WITH EACH HEARING, EACH BIT OF TESTIMONY, THE SITUATION GROWS SLIGHTLY MORE TENSE.

    ONE LAWMAKER PUT IT THIS WAY: "THERE ARE NO EASY ANSWERS. WE ARE SEARCHING FOR ACCEPTABLE SOLUTIONS."

    THERE IS NO GREAT POLITICIZATION OF THIS ISSUE, AND DIFFERENCES EXIST IN BOTH POLITICAL PARTIES. SOME ARE URGING THE PRESIDENT TO PREPARE TO DEPLOY GROUND TROOPS, WHILE OTHERS WORRY THAT AMERICAN FORCES ARE ALREADY STRETCHED TOO THIN.

    AT A HEARING CALLED TO DISCUSS THE PRESIDENT'S REQUEST FOR SIX-BILLION DOLLARS IN EMERGENCY FUNDING FOR MILITARY OPERATIONS IN THE BALKANS, DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN GAVE A POSITIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE OPERATION.

    /// COHEN ACT ///

    WE HAVE HAD ALMOST SEVEN-THOUSAND SORTIES. WE HAD ONE AIRCRAFT THAT WAS LOST. THAT IS A RATIO WHICH I THINK VERY FEW COUNTRIES COULD EVER HOPE TO EMULATE.

    /// END ACT ///

    CALIFORNIA REPUBLICAN DUKE CUNNINGHAM SHOOK HIS HEAD. HE CALLED BOTH THE MISSION AND THE UNDERLYING POLICY A FAILURE.

    /// CUNNINGHAM ACT ///

    THE SERBS ARE NOT GOING TO GIVE UP KOSOVO! NOT IN THE PAST 800 YEARS! NOT IN THE FUTURE 800 YEARS!

    /// END ACT ///

    SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT ALSO GOT A MIXED RECEPTION ON CAPITOL HILL -- PRAISE FROM SUPPORTERS OF THE MISSION, AND HARSH WORDS FROM CRITICS..

    IOWA REPUBLICAN JIM LEACH, USUALLY A SOFT-SPOKEN PARTY MODERATE, WAS BLUNT.

    /// LEACH ACT ///

    I FRANKLY DOUBT THE JUDGMENT OF TAKING SIDES IN A CIVIL WAR IN THE BALKANS. I DOUBT THE JUDGMENT OF RELYING ON AIR POWER TO WIN A CONFLICT.

    /// END ACT ///

    OTHER LAWMAKERS ASKED ABOUT THE REFUGEE CRISIS AND THE OUTLOOK FOR A RETURN TO NEGOTIATIONS. THE SECRETARY OF STATE TOLD THEM SERBIA MUST MEET ALL THE CONDITIONS SET BY NATO. AND SHE WENT ON TO WARN BELGRADE AGAINST WIDENING THE CONFLICT INTO MONTENEGRO, SERBIA'S SMALLER PARTNER IN THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    WE ARE VERY CONCERNED ABOUT WHAT IS GOING ON THERE, AND HAVE BEEN IN VERY CLOSE TOUCH WITH PRESIDENT [MILO] DJUKANOVIC, WHO SEEKS TO MAINTAIN A DEGREE OF SELF-GOVERNMENT THERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    CONGRESS IS EXPECTED TO STAGE ITS FIRST VOTES ON THE KOSOVO CONFLICT NEXT WEEK OR SO. IN ADDITION TO THE EMERGENCY FUNDING MEASURE, HOUSE MEMBERS ARE SCHEDULED TO CONSIDER A FORMAL DECLARATION OF WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    THE WHITE HOUSE OPPOSES THIS PIECE OF LEGISLATION. BUT UNDER AN EXISTING LAW, CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS HAD NO CHOICE BUT TO SCHEDULE THE BILL FOR A VOTE. THE LAW IN QUESTION IS THE 1973 WAR POWERS ACT, WHICH LINKS THE PRESIDENT'S POWER TO DEPLOY TROOPS TO CONGRESS'S CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO DECLARE WAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/WTW
    21-Apr-99 6:01 PM EDT (2201 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] KOSOVO / HILLARY CLINTON BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248429
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: WASHINGTON

    INTRO: FIRST LADY HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON IS AGAIN ASKING AMERICANS TO CONTRIBUTE MONEY TO THE U-S FUND AIDING KOSOVAR REFUGEES. CAROL PINEAU REPORTS MRS. CLINTON IS TAKING HER APPEAL TO THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY.

    TEXT: THE FIRST LADY TOLD AMERICAN BUSINESS LEADERS THE UNITED STATES IS DOING A LOT TO EASE THE SUFFERING IN KOSOVO, BUT SAYS SO MUCH MORE IS STILL NEEDED.

    /// RODHAM CLINTON ACT ///

    TO HELP THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO REBUILD THEIR LIVES, WE KNOW WE HAVE TO WORK AS A TEAM AT EVERY LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT, IN INTERNATIONAL RELIEF AGENCIES AND OTHER CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS, IN OUR BUSINESSES, OUR HOUSES OF WORSHIP AND OUR COMMUNITIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MRS. CLINTON NOTED MAJOR U-S CORPORATIONS HAVE DONATED A TOTAL OF 25-MILLION DOLLARS IN CASH AND SERVICES. SHE SAYS THE WHITE HOUSE HAS ALSO BEEN FLOODED WITH CALLS, FAXES AND E-MAILS FROM INDIVIDUALS WHO WANT TO HELP, BUT DON'T KNOW WHAT THEY CAN DO. MRS. CLINTON SAYS CASH DONATIONS ARE THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY TO HELP IN THE CONSTANTLY CHANGING SITUATION IN KOSOVO.

    U-S AID DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR HARRIET BABBIT ADDED CASH DONATIONS ALLOW AID AGENCIES TO WORK MORE EFFICIENTLY.

    /// BABBIT ACT ///

    THE COMPLEXITY AND COST OF TRANSPORTING GOODS FROM THE UNITED STATES MEANS THAT IN KIND CONTRIBUTIONS ARE GENERALLY NOT THE BEST WAY TO HELP IN THESE EMERGENCIES. CASH DONATIONS GIVE THESE FRONT LINE ORGANIZATIONS THE FLEXIBILITY THEY NEED TO PURCHASE RELIEF SUPPLIES AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO WHERE THE REFUGEES ARE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MRS. CLINTON NOTED THE ECONOMIC EFFECT THE CRISIS HAS HAD ON ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA, TWO OF EUROPE'S POOREST COUNTRIES. SHE CALLED ON THE AMERICAN BUSINESS COMMUNITY NOT TO LET ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA SUFFER FOR HAVING ACCEPTED THE THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES WHICH EARLIER THIS MONTH FLOODED INTO THE TWO TINY COUNTRIES.

    /// SECOND RODHAM CLINTON ACT ///

    WE CANNOT LET THIS CONFLICT DERAIL THE SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL PROGRESS THAT MACEDONIA AND ITS NEIGHBORS HAVE STRUGGLED SO LONG AND SO HARD TO ACHIEVE. WE ALSO WANT TO BE SURE THAT IN SO FAR AS POSSIBLE EXISTING CONTRACTS, AND EVEN NEW INVESTMENTS, CONTINUE IN THE REGION.

    /// END ACT ///

    MRS. CLINTON IMPLORED THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY TO LOOK FOR CREATIVE SOLUTIONS TO HELP EASE THE NUMEROUS PROBLEMS WHICH HAVE RESULTED FROM THE CONFLICT. // OPT // SHE SAYS THERE HAVE BEEN RIPPLE EFFECTS THROUGHOUT THE REGION. ONE EXAMPLE IS EDUCATION. SHE SAYS SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN CLOSED IN ORDER TO HOUSE REFUGEES, AND THAT NOT ONLY ARE REFUGEE CHILDREN NOT GOING TO SCHOOL, BUT MACEDONIAN AND ALBANIAN CHILDREN ALSO CANNOT ATTEND CLASSES. // END OPT // LAST WEEK, MRS. CLINTON APPEARED ON A SERIES OF TELEVISED PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS ASKING AMERICANS TO DONATE MONEY TO HELP THE REFUGEES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CP/JO
    21-Apr-99 5:55 PM EDT (2155 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] BRITAIN/KOSOVO (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248397
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH DEFENSE SECRETARY GEORGE ROBERTSON SAYS NATO IS KEEPING CLOSE WATCH ON BELGRADE'S APPARENT EFFORTS TO WIDEN THE WAR BEYOND KOSOVO AFTER THE RECENT SERB MILITARY INCURSIONS INTO CROATIA AND ALBANIA. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN HAS MORE FROM THE DAILY DEFENSE BRIEFING IN LONDON.

    TEXT: DEFENSE SECRETARY ROBERTSON WARNS PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AGAINST EXPANDING THE CONFLICT TO NEIGHBORING REPUBLICS.

    /// ROBERTSON ACT ///

    ANY WIDENING OF THE CONFLICT WOULD BE A SIGN OF WEAKNESS RATHER THAN STRENGTH BY MILOSEVIC AND IT IS NOT SOMETHING THAT HE WILL GET AWAY WITH. THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA IS A MATTER OF CONCERN FOR US.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR ROBERTSON SAYS THE BEST WAY TO STOP MR MILOSEVIC IS TO KEEP STRIKING AT HIS MILITARY NERVE CENTER. NATO ALSO HIT HIS POLITICAL HEADQUARTERS IN BELGRADE.

    /// ROBERTSON ACT TWO ///

    WE ARE NOW STRIKING AT THE VERY HEART OF HIS BLOODSTAINED REGIME, AND WE WILL DO SO AGAIN AND AGAIN AND AGAIN.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE DEFENSE SECRETARY SAYS NATO AIR STRIKES ALSO HAVE HIT THE LAST STANDING BRIDGE ACROSS THE DANUBE IN THE ALLIANCE'S EFFORT TO CUT OFF SERB MILITARY SUPPLY ROUTES.

    //OPT THE REST FOR LONG CR ///

    LIBERAL DEMOCRAT PARTY LEADER PADDY ASHDOWN SPOKE TO THE DAILY BRIEFING BY SATELLITE HOOK-UP FROM MACEDONIA, WHERE HE HAS BEEN VISITING KOSOVAR REFUGEE CAMPS AND BRITISH TROOP UNITS.

    HE SAYS BELGRADE'S EFFORTS TO OPEN UP OTHER FRONTS IS A CLASSIC MILOSEVIC TACTIC.

    /// ASHDOWN ACT ///

    IT IS IN HIS NATURE TO TRY TO MAKE SURE WHEN HE IS UNDER PRESSURE THAT HE SPREADS THE PRESSURE ELSEWHERE. WE HAVE TO TAKE WHATEVER STEPS ARE NECESSARY TO ENSURE THAT DOESN'T HAPPEN.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR ASHDOWN SAYS NEIGHBORING MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA, WHICH ARE NOW SHELTERING HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES, ARE AT SPECIAL RISK.

    /// OPT ASHDOWN ACT TWO ///

    ALBANIA IS TERRIBLY POOR AND THEREFORE CAN BE DESTABILIZED BY EXTRA BURDENS ON IT. AND MACEDONIA IS INHERENTLY, ETHNICALLY IN A RATHER DIFFICULT AND DELICATE BALANCE.

    /// END OPT ACT ///

    THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO IS ALSO RAISING THE ALARM OVER WHAT LEADERS THERE SAY ARE BELGRADE'S MOVES TO DESTABILIZE THE REPUBLIC. MONTENEGRO'S YOUNG REFORM-MINDED PRESIDENT HAS OPPOSED PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S POLICIES, ESPECIALLY TOWARD KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/ALW
    21-Apr-99 8:20 AM EDT (1220 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] BULGARIA-NATO (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248418
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BULGARIA'S PRIME MINISTER IVAN KOSTOV HAS MET WITH NATO AMBASSADORS TO DISCUSS AN ALLIANCE REQUEST TO USE BULGARIAN AIR SPACE DURING AIR STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS, THE COST IS HIGH FOR BULGARIA, BOTH POLITICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER KOSTOV SAYS IF NATO PROVIDES THE EXACT DETAILS OF ITS REQUIREMENT FOR BULGARIAN AIR SPACE, HIS PARLIAMENT COULD GIVE THE ALLIANCE THE APPROVAL IT WANTS AS EARLY AS SUNDAY.

    THE HEAD OF THE BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT HAS GIVEN HIS APPROVAL IN PRINCIPLE, DESPITE OPINION SURVEYS INDICATING MOST BULGARIANS OPPOSE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THEIR WESTERN NEIGHBOR.

    MR. KOSTOV, SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, SAYS NATO AIR STRIKES ARE DISTURBING BULGARIANS.

    /// FIRST KOSTOV / INTERPRETER ACT ///

    THE BULGARIAN PUBLIC IS CONCERNED WITH HUMANITARIAN ASPECTS OF AIR RAIDS ON THE TERRITORY OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA. IT WOULD BE LESS THAN FAIR OF ME IF I DID NOT MAKE THIS POINT. NOBODY LIKES TO HAVE A WAR RAGING NEXT DOOR. // OPT // AND I CAN TELL YOU THAT THE WAR IS BEING HEARD FROM NEXT DOOR BY THE COMMUNITIES CLOSE TO BULGARIA'S WESTERN BORDER, AND THIS CAN NOT BUT CAUSE CONCERN IN PEOPLE, SO CONCERN -- FEARS, INDEED -- IN THE BULGARIAN PUBLIC IS THAT OTHER FACTOR THAT MAKES ANY DECISION INDEED DIFFICULT. // END OPT //

    /// END ACT ///

    PRIME MINISTER KOSTOV CAME HERE TO LEARN WHAT SECURITY GUARANTEES NATO CAN OFFER HIS COUNTRY IF YUGOSLAVIA RETALIATES FOR BULGARIA'S COOPERATION WITH NATO. HE WAS ASSURED THAT BULGARIA WILL RECEIVE THE SAME PROTECTION AS NATO OFFERS TO MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA, TWO OTHER NATO PARTNERS WHO ARE NOT NATO MEMBERS. THAT INCLUDES PROTECTION FROM ANY SECURITY THREAT CAUSED BY THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH NATO.

    BULGARIA WANTS TO BECOME A NATO MEMBER, SO NATO'S REQUEST TO USE ITS AIR SPACE IS A CHANCE TO DEMONSTRATE ITS CREDENTIALS. // OPT

    // ROMANIA IS IN A SIMILAR POSITION (TO BULGARIA) -- AN ASPIRING CANDIDATE FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP THAT NEEDS PARLIAMENTARY APPROVAL TO GIVE NATO ACCESS TO ITS AIR SPACE. // END OPT //

    BULGARIA ALSO FACES AN ECONOMIC CHALLENGE FROM THE AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, PRIME MINISTER KOSTOV SAYS. // OPT // HE ESTIMATES HIS COUNTRY HAS LOST THE EQUIVALENT OF 13-MILLION DOLLARS IN TRANSPORTATION COSTS ALONE SINCE NATO STARTED BOMBING ON MARCH 24TH. HE SAYS BULGARIA SHUT OFF ITS OIL PIPELINE TO SERBIA LAST WEEK, TO COOPERATE WITH NATO'S EFFORT TO RESTRICT FUEL SUPPLIES FOR THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY.PRIME MINISTER KOSTOV SAYS THE ECONOMIC LOSSES ARE STILL MOUNTING. // END OPT //

    /// SECOND KOSTOV / INTERPRETER ACT ///

    SHOULD THE WAR CONTINUE FOR ANYTHING BETWEEN SEVEN OR EIGHT MONTHS, THE DEFICIT ON BULGARIA'S BALANCE OF PAYMENTS WILL EXCEED ONE-THOUSAND-MILLION (ONE-BILLION) U-S DOLLARS, AN ABYSS IN THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS THAT WE COULD NOT POSSIBLY FILL UP OURSELVES.

    /// END ACT ///

    AFTER ONE MONTH OF NATO ACTION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA STRIKES, THE BULGARIAN PRIME MINISTER GIVES HIS OPINION THAT THE AIR STRIKES WILL NOT BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ANY LESS THAN THREE MONTHS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/ALW/WTW
    21-Apr-99 2:02 PM EDT (1802 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] RUSSIA/KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248403
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA HAS DECIDED TO BOYCOTT NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY OBSERVANCE (IN WASHINGTON) TO PROTEST ALLIANCE AIR STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA. BUT AS V-O-A'S PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, THE KREMLIN IS PUSHING AHEAD WITH EFFORTS TO FIND A PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    TEXT: AFTER A MEETING WITH PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN WEDNESDAY, RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV CONFIRMED WHAT OBSERVERS HERE HAD CONSIDERED A FOREGONE CONCLUSION.

    ///IVANOV ACT IN RUSSIAN, THEN FADE TO...///

    HE SAYS "RUSSIA WILL NOT BE REPRESENTED AT EVENTS IN WASHINGTON CONNECTED TO THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF NATO."

    ///OPT///

    THE FOREIGN MINISTRY LATER ISSUED A STATEMENT CALLING AIR STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA "A FLAGRANT VIOLATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER." ///END OPT///

    AT THE SAME TIME, FOREIGN MINISTER IVANOV SAID RUSSIA'S SPECIAL ENVOY ON KOSOVO VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN IS ACCELERATING EFFORTS TO PLAY THE ROLE OF PEACEMAKER BETWEEN THE ALLIANCE AND BELGRADE.

    ///2ND IVANOV ACT IN RUSSIAN, THEN FADE TO...///

    HE SAYS "MR. CHERNOMYRDIN MAY GO THURSDAY TO BELGRADE TO CONTINUE HIS WORK, AND WILL CONTINUE EFFORTS ACTIVELY IN ALL DIRECTIONS."

    ///OPT///

    MR. CHERNOMYRDIN HAS SAID HE HOPES HIS LONGSTANDING RELATIONSHIP WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC CAN HELP IN WORKING OUT A COMPROMISE. ///END OPT///

    THE ENVOY COMPLETED HIS FIRST WEEK ON THE JOB WITH A WHIRLWIND TOUR OF THREE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA AND UKRAINE. ALL THREE ARE NOW MEMBERS OF NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE PROGRAM AND THEIR PRESIDENTS WILL ALL BE ATTENDING THE ALLIANCE SUMMIT BEGINNING FRIDAY. ON HIS RETURN TO MOSCOW, MR. CHERNOMYRDIN SAID HE FOUND ALL THREE COUNTRIES IN AGREEMENT THAT NATO'S AIR STRIKES ARE WHAT HE CALLED "A DEAD END."

    BUT IN A SIGN OF RUSSIA'S RECENT ATTEMPT TO BALANCE ITS POLICY ON THE CONFLICT, THE ENVOY ALSO CRITICIZED YUGOSLAVIA FOR DRIVING KOSOVAR ALBANIANS FROM THEIR HOMES.

    ///CHERNOMYRDIN ACT IN RUSSIAN, THEN FADE TO...///

    HE SAYS "ETHNIC CLEANSING IS UNACCEPTABLE, JUST AS SEPARATISM IS. BOTH RESULT IN EVEN WORSE CONSEQUENCES." IN THE WEEK SINCE MR. CHERNOMYRDIN TOOK OVER AS SPECIAL ENVOY ON KOSOVO, RUSSIA HAS MODERATED ITS ANTI-NATO RHETORIC. IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE CONFLICT, SEVERAL OFFICIALS, INCLUDING FOREIGN MINISTER IVANOV, HAD QUESTIONED, EVEN RIDICULED, REPORTS OF REPRESSION AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/ALW/JO
    21-Apr-99 10:41 AM EDT (1441 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [17] ALBANIA / NATO (L-ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248412
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: MAY BE USED WITH NATO SUMMIT REPORTS LATER THIS WEEK ///

    INTRO: NATO IS PREPARING TO OBSERVE ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY WHILE ENGAGED IN A MAJOR MILITARY OPERATION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. ALBANIA, WHERE 345-THOUSAND REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO ARE LOCATED, IS NOT A NATO MEMBER, BUT IS A SUPPORTER OF THE NATO OPERATIONS. V-O-A'S GIL BUTLER REPORTS FROM THE ALBANIAN CAPITAL, TIRANA.

    TEXT: NOWHERE IS NATO MORE ENTHUSIASTICALLY SUPPORTED THAN HERE IN ALBANIA -- ONCE A COMMUNIST STATE RULED FOR 40 YEARS BY AN ADMIRER OF JOSEF STALIN, ENVER HOXHA.

    ALBANIA'S PRESIDENT, REXHEP MEJDANI, IS TAKING PART IN THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY EVENTS IN WASHINGTON. ACCORDING TO ALBANIAN TELEVISION, HE WILL BE PUSHING FOR THE USE OF NATO GROUND TROOPS IN THE CONFLICT WITH YUGOSLAVIA.

    THE CENTER OF TIRANA, SKENDERBEG SQUARE, IS DOMINATED BY A HUGE BANNER HANGING FROM THE OPERA HOUSE. IT SAYS "NATO NE KOSOVE" -- "NATO IN KOSOVO."

    ON A RECENT AFTERNOON PEOPLE PASSING BY THAT BANNER GAVE THEIR OPINIONS ABOUT NATO.

    /// MAN-ON-THE-STREET ACT IN ALBANIAN -- IN AND UNDER ///

    BESNIK IREXA, A HOTEL MANAGER (FROM DURRES), SAYS THAT BEFORE, ALBANIA WAS PREJUDICED AGAINST NATO. BUT NOW, HE SAYS, ALBANIANS SEE NATO IS DOING A GREAT THING FOR ALBANIA AND FOR KOSOVO. AND HE WISHES NATO WELL ON ITS ANNIVERSARY.

    /// VOX-POP ACT IN ALBANIAN W/ ENGLISH INTERPRETER ///

    [MAN / INTERPRETER] IT'S A VERY GOOD THING. NATO IS HELPING US A LOT. [REPORTER] MA'AM, WHAT DO YOU THINK OF NATO? [WOMAN / INTERPRETER] I THINK NATO IS CARRYING OUT A HUMANITARIAN MISSION. IT IS MAKING IT POSSIBLE TO HELP THE PEOPLE FROM KOSOVO. ... AND NATO ACTIONS FIND SUPPORT THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. [REPORTER] YOU WERE JUST A GIRL WHEN ENVER HOXHA WAS IN CHARGE. WHAT WOULD HE THINK OF THIS? [ALBANIAN] I DON'T KNOW EXACTLY, BUT HE WOULD HAVE BEEN AGAINST IT. ... BUT IN SUCH A SITUATION, EVEN HE MAY HAVE BEEN IN SUPPORT OF NATO.

    // OPT //

    [REPORTER] WHAT IS YOUR NAME? [WOMAN] VIOLETA HOXHA.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE LADY IS NOT RELATED TO THE LATE DICTATOR. MANY PEOPLE HERE IN ALBANIA ARE NAMED HOXHA. // END OPT //

    NATO SUPPORT AMONG ORDINARY ALBANIANS IS A REFLECTION OF THE OFFICIAL ATTITUDE OF THE GOVERNMENT. NOT ONLY IS THE COUNTRY'S PRESIDENT TAKING PART IN THE NATO ANNIVERSARY, ALBANIA HAS TURNED OVER ITS AIRSPACE TO NATO AND THE AIRPORT HERE IN TIRANA IS NOW BASICALLY A NATO FACILITY. THAT ALBANIAN COOPERATION WITH NATO'S HUMANITARIAN AND MILITARY ACTIONS WAS CITED BY YUGOSLAVIA WHEN IT ANNOUNCED A FORMAL SEVERING OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH ALBANIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH/WTW
    21-Apr-99 1:43 PM EDT (1743 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] NATO AT 50 BY RON PEMSTEIN

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43181

    [19] EDITORIAL: NATO AT 50 -- CHALLENGE IN THE BALKANS

    DATE=BRUSSELS
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO HAS UNDERGONE MANY CHANGES SINCE ITS FOUNDING 50 YEARS AGO. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REVIEWS SOME OF THOSE DEVELOPMENTS AS THE ALLIANCE REACHES MIDDLE AGE.

    TEXT: BEFORE 12 COUNTRIES SIGNED THE WASHINGTON TREATY ESTABLISHING NATO IN 1949, BELGIUM, BRITAIN, FRANCE, LUXEMBOURG AND THE NETHERLANDS SIGNED A 50-YEAR DEFENSIVE ALLIANCE KNOWN AS THE BRUSSELS TREATY. ONE OF THE AIMS OF THE BRUSSELS TREATY WAS TO CONVINCE THE UNITED STATES THAT THE EUROPEANS COULD ORGANIZE THEMSELVES TO DEFEND THEIR SECURITY. HOWEVER, IN 1948, POST-WAR ISOLATIONISM WAS STRONG IN THE UNITED STATES. WHAT CHANGED THE AMERICAN ATTITUDE WAS THE SOVIET BLOCKADE OF BERLIN IN JUNE, 1948, AND THE SUBSEQUENT AIRLIFT TO SUPPLY THE CITY. IN THE MIDST OF THAT, THE EUROPEANS WERE ABLE TO NEGOTIATE AN ALLIANCE WITH THE UNITED STATES . CANADA, ICELAND, DENMARK, NORWAY, ITALY AND PORTUGAL JOINED AS WELL, GIVING THE ALLIANCE MORE OF AN ATLANTIC CHARACTER THAN A PURELY CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN ONE.

    /// OPT WHEN THE 12 COUNTRIES SIGNED THE WASHINGTON TREATY IT WAS THOUGHT A DECLARATION OF INTENTIONS WOULD BE ENOUGH TO DETER ANY MORE SOVIET THREATS TO WESTERN EUROPE.

    /// OPT ///

    THE KOREAN WAR CONVINCED NATO PLANNERS THAT SOMETHING MORE THAN A TREATY ON PAPER WOULD BE NEEDED TO PROTECT WEST GERMANY FROM THE SOVIET THREAT. ONE YEAR AFTER THE WASHINGTON TREATY WAS SIGNED, NATO LEADERS RE SHAPED NATO INTO A MILITARY ORGANIZATION WITH AN INTEGRATED COMMAND STRUCTURE AND A SUPREME COMMANDER. THE FIRST ONE WAS AMERICAN GENERAL DWIGHT EISENHOWER. HIS JOB WAS TO CONVINCE THE EUROPEANS THAT THEY NEEDED TO REBUILD THEIR MILITARIES AFTER WORLD WAR TWO. ///
    END OPT /// BY 1952, NATO FORMED A POLITICAL COUNCIL WITH A EUROPEAN SECRETARY-GENERAL. GREECE AND TURKEY WERE ADDED AS MEMBERS TO GIVE NATO A SOUTHERN FLANK.

    THE CURRENT TURKISH AMBASSADOR TO NATO, ONUR OYMEN (PRONOUNCED ER-MEN), SAYS NATO MET TURKEY'S NEEDS DURING THE COLD WAR.

    /// OYMEN ACT ///

    FOR US, NATO IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF EUROPEAN SECURITY. WE HAVE GAINED, NOT ONLY TURKEY, BUT ALL EUROPEAN ALLIES, HAVE GAINED A LOT DURING THE PERIOD OF COLD WAR. AND FOR US, NATO WAS THE MAIN ELEMENT OF DETERRENCE AGAINST THE POSSIBLE AGGRESSOR. SO IF IN THE LAST 50 YEARS, EUROPE LIVES IN PEACE AND SECURITY IN GENERAL IT IS MAINLY DUE TO NATO AND TO THE CONTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT ALLIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    DURING THE 1950'S, NATO WAS MAINLY AN AMERICAN DOMINATED ALLIANCE. THERE WAS AN IMBALANCE BETWEEN THE AMERICAN MILITARY COMMANDER AND A WEAK EUROPEAN SECRETARY-GENERAL. SMALLER EUROPEAN NATIONS COMPLAINED THEIR INTERESTS WERE BEING IGNORED. WITH THE ADDED MEMBERSHIP OF WEST GERMANY, THE SOVIET UNION RESPONDED BY FORMING THE WARSAW PACT ALONG WITH ITS ALLIES IN EASTERN EUROPE.

    THE NUCLEAR SUPPORT OF THE UNITED STATES KEPT EUROPE SECURE THROUGH THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BERLIN WALL AND THE CUBA MISSILE CRISIS. HOWEVER, TENSIONS OVER THE NUCLEAR MISSILES OF FRANCE LED FRENCH PRESIDENT CHARLES DE GAULLE TO TAKE HIS COUNTRY OUT OF NATO'S MILITARY COMMAND. IN 1966, NATO MOVED ITS MILITARY AND CIVILIAN HEADQUARTERS OUT OF PARIS HERE TO BELGIUM.

    THE FRENCH WITHDRAWAL FROM THE MILITARY COMMAND LET THE SMALLER COUNTRIES EXERCISE MORE INFLUENCE IN POLICY MAKING . THEY PUSHED NATO TO BE MORE ACTIVE IN EASING TENSIONS WITH MOSCOW, A POLICY KNOWN AS DETENTE.

    /// OPT ///

    NATO BEGAN TALKS WITH THE WARSAW PACT ABOUT REDUCING CONVENTIONAL FORCES IN EUROPE. EUROPEAN TENSION WITH THE UNITED STATES AROSE ABOUT SUCH ISSUES AS THE NEUTRON BOMB AND MEDIUM RANGE MISSILES. DESPITE SOVIET AND LEFTIST OPPOSITION, NATO DEPLOYED THE PERSHING MISSILES WHILE PLEDGING TO CONTINUE ARMS CONTROL NEGOTIATIONS. /// END OPT ///

    THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL IN 1989 SURPRISED NATO. QUESTIONS WERE RAISED ABOUT THE RELEVANCE OF NATO WHEN THE SOVIET UNION AND THE WARSAW PACT NO LONGER EXISTED. NATO DEVELOPED A NEW CONCEPT OF REGIONAL SECURITY AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND A PROGRAM TO MAKE FORMER ADVERSARIES PARTNERS OF NATO.

    AFTER NOT FIRING A SHOT IN ANGER DURING THE COLD WAR, NATO FINALLY DROPPED BOMBS ON THE BOSNIAN SERBS IN 1995 FOR 11 DAYS TO BRING ABOUT A PEACE AGREEMENT. NATO ORGANIZED THE PEACEKEEPING FORCES THAT PATROL BOSNIA TODAY.

    /// OPT ///

    TURKISH AMBASSADOR OYMEN SAYS BOSNIA REPRESENTED A CHANGE IN ATTITUDE FOR NATO.

    /// OPT // OYMEN ACT TWO ///

    UNTIL THE BOSNIAN CRISIS, TO TALK ABOUT OUT OF AREA IN NATO WAS A SORT OF TABOO. NOBODY WAS TALKING, EVEN THINKING ABOUT NATO'S RESPONSIBILITIES OUT OF AREA. IT MEANS IN THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT OUTSIDE NATO TERRITORIES. BUT WITH BOSNIA, WE UNDERSTAND THAT NATO SHOULD ALSO HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY IN THE MAINTENANCE OF PEACE AND STABILITY IN THE CONTINENT. THEREFORE, NATO WAS ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN BOSNIA, AND WE WERE SUCCESSFUL.

    //// END ACT // END OPT ///

    AFTER SPAIN BECAME A MEMBER IN 1982, NATO'S MEMBERSHIP STAYED FROZEN UNTIL ANOTHER CHANGE, ENLARGING TO FORMER ADVERSARIES IN EASTERN EUROPE.

    LAST MONTH, HUNGARY, POLAND AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC BROUGHT NATO'S MEMBERSHIP TO 19.

    /// OPT ///

    AT THE TIME, CZECH PRIME MINISTER MILOS ZEMAN TOLD NATO HIS COUNTRY'S MEMBERSHIP COINCIDES WITH ANOTHER KEY POINT IN NATO'S HISTORY.

    /// OPT // ZEMAN ACT ///

    THERE ARE STILL REGIONS IN EUROPE WHICH ARE STILL IN THE GRIPS OF THE PAST. THE DEVELOPMENT IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA IS PARTICULARLY TRAGIC. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MUST TAKE A STRONG STAND AGAINST AGGRESSION, VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS, AND SUPPRESSION OF BASIC FREEDOM. THE CZECH REPUBLIC TAKES PART IN THIS EFFORT. THE OPTIONS ARE NEVER EASY AND THEY REQUIRE A LOT OF COURAGE, PATIENCE, PERSEVERANCE AND RESOURCES BUT IT IS MY FIRM CONVICTION THAT THE TIME IS ON OUR SIDE.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    BY LAUNCHING AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA ON MARCH 24TH, NATO OPENED A NEW CHAPTER IN ITS MIDDLE AGE -- AIR STRIKES AGAINST A SOVEREIGN NATION, YUGOSLAVIA, WITH NO END IN SIGHT.

    NATO'S CURRNT MILITARY COMMANDER, WESLEY CLARK, SET OUT THE MISSION IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// CLARK ACT ///

    WE AIM TO PUT HIS MILITARY AND SECURITY FORCES AT RISK. WE'RE GOING TO SYSTEMATICALLY AND PROGRESSIVELY ATTACK, DISRUPT, DEGRADE, DEVASTATE AND ULTIMATELY UNLESS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC COMPLIES WITH THE DEMANDS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WE'RE GOING TO DESTROY THESE FORCES AND THEIR FACILITIES AND SUPPORT. IN THAT RESPECT THE OPERATION WILL BE JUST AS LONG AND DIFFICULT AS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC REQUIRES IT TO BE.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO HAS COME A LONG WAY SINCE THE SIGNING OF THE WASHINGTON TREATY IN APRIL, 1949. WHAT ITS FUTURE MISSION WILL BE IS BEING DETERMINED BY GENERAL CLARK'S SUCCESS IN KEEPING HIS PROMISE IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    21-Apr-99 8:19 AM EDT (1219 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] NATO GLUMLY CELEBRATES 50TH ANNIVERSARY BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE= 04/22/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08271
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    04/22/99.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    LEADERS OF THE NINETEEN COUNTRIES OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- NATO -- WILL COMMEMORATE THE ALLIANCE'S FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY BEGINNING TOMORROW [APRIL 23-25] AT A SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON. BUT EVEN AS THEY CELEBRATE, THEY WILL UNDOUBTEDLY BE FOCUSING ON THE CURRENT WAR IN THE BALKANS. THE CRISIS PROVOKED BY SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC MAY BE THE MOST SERIOUS CHALLENGE TO NATO SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR.

    FORMED AS A DEFENSIVE ALLIANCE IN 1949, NATO HAS BEEN COMMITTED FROM THE START TO AIDING ANY MEMBER THREATENED WITH AGGRESSION. FOR FOUR DECADES, THE ALLIANCE'S GUARANTEE OF COLLECTIVE SECURITY PROTECTED WESTERN EUROPE FROM THE THREAT POSED BY THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. NO LESS IMPORTANT WAS THE FACT THAT THE ALLIANCE ENABLED COUNTRIES THAT HAD BEEN ENEMIES IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR TO RECONCILE AND REBUILD.

    WITH THE COLD WAR NOW JUST A MEMORY, NATO CONTINUES TO PURSUE ITS TRADITIONAL GOAL OF EUROPEAN SECURITY AND STABILITY. THREE NEW MEMBERS -- POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC -- HAVE BEEN ADDED TO THE ALLIANCE, AND THE DOOR REMAINS OPEN TO OTHERS IN THE FUTURE. A NUMBER OF FORMER COMMUNIST STATES HAVE WORKED HARD TO STEP UP INTERNAL REFORMS AND IMPROVE RELATIONS WITH ONE ANOTHER. THIS INCLUDES POLAND AND LITHUANIA, HUNGARY AND ROMANIA, SLOVAKIA AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND, MOST RECENTLY, BULGARIA AND MACEDONIA. UNFORTUNATELY, THE SAME CANNOT BE SAID FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, WHERE SERBIA'S SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS BEEN STIRRING UP TROUBLE FOR THE PAST DECADE. THE INSTABILITY HIS ACTIONS HAVE CAUSED THREATENS THE SECURITY OF A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES IN SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE.

    THE YUGOSLAV CONFLICT IS NOW AT THE TOP OF NATO'S AGENDA, BUT THAT WILL NOT PREVENT DISCUSSION OF LONG-TERM GOALS. INDEED, IT MAKES SUCH DISCUSSION ALL THE MORE IMPERATIVE. CLEARLY, NATO'S TASK IS TO HELP ESTABLISH SECURITY AND STABILITY IN SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE. IN SHORT, NATO SHOULD WORK TO BUILD A REGION WHERE BORDERS ARE OPEN TO PEOPLE AND TRADE AND WHERE NATIONS COOPERATE TO MAKE WAR UNTHINKABLE.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    21-Apr-99 2:46 PM EDT (1846 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] NATO SUMMIT / STRATEGIC CONCEPT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/21/99
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11251
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: TO SAY THE SITUATION IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE IS ABOUT TO CAST A PALL OVER NATO'S LONG-AWAITED 50TH ANNIVERSARY IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEKEND IS PROBABLY AN UNDERSTATEMENT.

    THREE-WEEKS OF CONCENTRATED AIR ASSAULTS ON THE INFRASTRUCTURE AND MILITARY MIGHT OF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S BALKAN NATION HAVE NOT PRODUCED THE GOAL NATO HAS PROCLAIMED IT WANTS. BUT THE BOMBING CONTINUES, AND AS LEADERS OF THE NATO NATIONS GATHER IN WASHINGTON, THERE WILL PROBABLY BE TALK OF LITTLE ELSE IN THE HALLWAYS AND MEETING ROOMS WHERE THE ANNIVERSARY IS CELEBRATED.

    FOR AN IDEA OF HOW THE U-S PRESS IS FEELING ABOUT THE CEREMONY, WE CALL ON _________________ FOR THIS U-S OPINION ROUNDUP WITH A SAMPLING.

    TEXT: WE BEGIN ON FLORIDA'S WEST COAST, WHERE THE RETIRED SENIOR CORRESPONDENT FOR "THE ST. PETERSBURG TIMES," WILBUR LANDREY, SAYS THE ALLIANCE CAN TAKE CREDIT FOR ITS ACCOMPLISHMENTS. BUT HE SAYS NATO MUST TEMPER THE CELEBRATION WITH WHAT HE CALLS "TODAY'S DEFINING MOMENT," REFERRING TO THE BALKAN WAR.

    VOICE: ...BEHIND THE PILE OF EMPTY CHAMPAGNE BOTTLES IN WASHINGTON WILL LIE THEIR REALIZATION THAT THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THAT WESTERN LEADERS ARE FETING, SUDDENLY HAS TO DO WHAT IT SET OUT TO DO TO STOP THE ETHNIC CLEANSING OR SLOWLY DIE.

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" ALSO SUGGESTS THE ALLIANCE FACES THIS WEEK'S CELEBRATION "AT RISK."

    VOICE: NATO HAS OFTEN BEEN CALLED THE MOST SUCCESSFUL ALLIANCE IN HISTORY, BUT THAT CAME IN DETERRING POTENTIAL AGGRESSION FROM THE SOVIET UNION. PROVIDING THE SHIELD THAT ALLOWED WESTERN EUROPE'S SELF-CONFIDENCE TO FLOURISH AND ITS ECONOMIC STRENGTH TO GROW. NOW, IN THE BALKANS, NATO FACES A FAR DIFFERENT TEST OF ITS EFFECTIVENESS AND COHESION. ...THAT NATO'S VIABILITY MAY BE DETERMINED BY WHAT HAPPENS IN AN OBSCURE BALKAN PROVINCE SEEMS ALMOST ABSURD. YET ...[THE] ... BRUTAL CAMPAIGN TO RID KOSOVO OF ITS MAJORITY ALBANIAN POPULACE IS EXACTLY THE KIND OF CHALLENGE TO PEACE AND SECURITY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS IN MIND AS IT SEEKS TO DIRECT NATO TOWARD A NEW STRATEGIC CONCEPT.

    TEXT: NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION DRAWS THIS REFLECTION FROM "THE WASHINGTON POST," WHICH SAYS THE WEIGHTY ISSUES OF FURTHER EXPANSION TO SUCH NATIONS AS UKRAINE AND THE BALTICS, MUST BE PUT ASIDE DUE TO THE PRESENT CRISIS.

    VOICE: NATO'S INTERVENTION IN KOSOVO, THOUGH OFTEN CITED FOR THE PRECEDENTS IT SETS, IN FACT SPEAKS TO CONTINUITY IN THE ALLIANCE. NATO AS BEFORE IS STANDING UP TO DESPOTISM AND REAFFIRMING U-S INTERESTS IN PROMOTING STABILITY AND DEMOCRACY IN EUROPE. BUT THERE IS A CRUCIAL DIFFERENCE, TOO: SO FAR NATO IS NOT WINNING THIS WAR. DESPITE ALLIED UNITY, MR. MILOSEVIC CONTINUES TO CARRY OUT THE KIND OF CRIMES RARELY SEEN IN EUROPE SINCE NAZI TIMES. THE LEADERS WHO GATHER HERE MUST SUMMON THE WILL AND DEPLOY THE MEANS TO STOP HIM, OR THIS WILL BE NATO'S LAST BIRTHDAY AS A MEANINGFUL ALLIANCE.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: FROM BOSTON, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" WHICH CALLS THE EVENT "NATO'S MOMENTOUS 50TH, EXPRESSES THE SAME OPINION AS "THE WASHINGTON POST."

    VOICE: NATO'S 19 MEMBERS TODAY FACE THE HARDEST DECISIONS IN THE ALLIANCE'S HISTORY. THEY HAVE TO KEEP IN MIND THE PRECEDENT THEY ARE SETTING AND THE REVERBERATIONS IN PLACES LIKE RUSSIA. BUT MOST OF ALL THEY HAVE TO CONSIDER THE COST OF NOT CONCLUDING THE KOSOVO UNDERTAKING IN A WAY THAT MAKES IT CLEAR THE MURDEROUS TACTICS EMPLOYED BY MR. MILOSEVIC WILL NOT BE TOLERATED.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, FROM "THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE" THE PAPER TALKS ABOUT HOW FESTIVE THE OCCASION MIGHT HAVE BEEN, AND:

    VOICE: WHAT A DIFFERENCE A MONTH MAKES. NOW NATO IS IN THE THICK OF [MIDDLE OF] A WAR THAT TESTS ITS VAUNTED MILITARY AND THE POLITICAL GLUE HOLDING THE 19 COUNTRIES TOGETHER. ITS NEW MISSION TO CURB ETHNIC VIOLENCE IS PROVING HARDER TO DEFINE THAN THE BIPOLAR BATTLES WITH THE SOVIET EMPIRE. THE BIRTHDAY GATHERING IS SUDDENLY MORE OF A WAR COUNCIL THAN A DIPLOMATIC FETE. IT IS ALSO A CHANCE TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE ALLIANCE HAS A NEW ROLE TO PLAY, NOT JUST A CEREMONIAL REMINDER OF THE COLD WAR'S END. ... NATO SHOULD TAKE PRIDE IN ITS SUCCESSFUL PAST. BUT THIS IS NO TIME FOR SELF-CONGRATULATION. THE HARD NECESSITIES OF AN UGLY WAR DEMAND THAT NATO EXAMINE ITS NEW ROLE AS PROTECTOR OF EUROPEAN ORDER. THIS IS A HUGE JOB, AND ONE THAT IS STILL EVOLVING.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THESE COMMENTS ABOUT THE UPCOMING CELEBRATION IN WASHINGTON OF THE FOUNDING OF NATO 50-YEARS AGO THIS WEEK.
    NEB/ANG/RAE
    21-Apr-99 2:33 PM EDT (1833 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] NATO/KOSOVO AND NEW NATO MEMBERSHIP BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43186
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // EDS : SECOND REPORT ON ISSUES FACING THE NATO LEADERS DURING THE SUMMIT. //

    INTRO: NATO LEADERS GATHER IN WASHINGTON TO CELEBRATE THE ALLIANCE'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY (4/23-4/25), AND TO TRY TO REDEFINE THE ORGANIZATION'S ROLE IN A WORLD NO LONGER DOMINATED BY TWO SUPERPOWERS. IN THIS REPORT FROM WASHINGTON, CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT NATO'S NEW ROLE AS IT TRIES TO FORGE AN UPDATED "STRATEGIC CONCEPT."

    TEXT: THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- OR NATO -- WAS CREATED 50 YEARS AGO ESSENTIALLY AS A RESPONSE TO THE GROWING POWER OF THE SOVIET UNION AND THE MILITARY THREAT IT COULD POSE TO WESTERN EUROPE.

    BUT FOR THE PAST 10 YEARS -- SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR, THE COLLAPSE OF THE BERLIN WALL AND THE DISINTEGRATION OF THE WARSAW PACT -- NATO HAS BEEN IN THE PROCESS OF REINVENTING ITSELF.

    NATO'S MAIN MISSION IS FOUND IN ARTICLE FIVE OF ITS CHARTER WHICH SAYS ANY ATTACK ON ONE NATO NATION IS AN ATTACK ON THE WHOLE WESTERN ALLIANCE.

    ANALYSTS SAY ARTICLE FIVE REMAINS THE CORE OF NATO'S EXISTENCE. BUT AS ANDREW PIERRE -- EUROPEAN EXPERT AT THE (WASHINGTON-BASED) "UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE" SAYS -- IT IS EXTREMELY UNLIKELY THAT ANY NATO COUNTRY WOULD BE ATTACKED.

    // PIERRE ACT //

    SO NATO OVER THE COURSE OF THE LAST DECADE HAS EVOLVED INTO SOMETHING DIFFERENT, SOMETHING IN SOME WAYS MORE AMBITIOUS WHICH IS TO BE READY TO UNDERTAKE MISSIONS OUTSIDE OF THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY -- OR BOUNDARIES -- OF PRESENT NATO COUNTRIES, IN PLACES SUCH AS: BOSNIA AND KOSOVO AND EVENTUALLY SOMEPLACE ELSE.

    // END ACT //

    NATO PLANNERS ARE NOW TRYING TO COME UP WITH A NEW "STRATEGIC CONCEPT" WHICH WOULD DEFINE FUTURE MISSIONS FOR THE WESTERN ALLIANCE SINCE MOSCOW NO LONGER POSES A DIRECT MILITARY THREAT.

    ANALYSTS SAY NATO IS NOW TURNING ITS ATTENTION TO OTHER RISKS THAT COULD DESTABILIZE ITS 19 ALLIES. THESE INCLUDE TERRORISM, THE THREAT OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHES SUCH AS THE ONE IN THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO.

    NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES IN KOSOVO HAS EXPANDED NATO'S SPHERE OF INTEREST. IT HAS NOW ESTABLISHED THE PRECEDENCE FOR THE ALLIANCE TO BE INVOLVED IN A CONFLICT OUTSIDE ITS TRADITIONAL BORDERS -- BUT STILL WITHIN EUROPE. EXPERTS SAY THERE IS A DISCUSSION WITHIN NATO TO DETERMINE WHETHER IT COULD ENLARGE ITS ACTIVITIES TO ALSO INCLUDE A CONFLICT OUTSIDE EUROPE SUCH AS IN THE MIDDLE EAST -- AND UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES NATO COULD INTERVENE.

    FORMER NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBER CHARLES KUPCHIN IS AGAINST THE SO-CALLED GLOBALIZATION OF NATO.

    // KUPCHIN ACT //

    I THINK NATO SHOULD FOCUS EXCLUSIVELY ON EUROPE. THERE IS A PUSH BY SOME ANALYSTS IN THE UNITED STATES - WHICH I BELIEVE HAS SOME SUPPORT IN THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION - TO GO GLOBAL. AND TO PUT FORWARD A BARGAIN WHEREBY THE UNITED STATES SAYS IT WILL REMAIN ENGAGED IN EUROPEAN SECURITY AND IN RETURN, THE EUROPEANS NEED TO GO WITH THE UNITED STATES TO THE MIDDLE EAST, TO THE KOREAN PENINSULA - WHEREVER COMMON INTERESTS ARE THREATENED. I THINK THIS IS A NON-STARTER BECAUSE EUROPEANS ARE FOCUSED ON EUROPE.

    // END ACT //

    MR. KUPCHIN SAYS IT IS PREMATURE TO ASK EUROPEANS TO LOOK ELSEWHERE AT A TIME WHEN THEY ARE STILL WORKING ON A COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY.

    EXPERTS SAY NATO MEMBERS ARE STILL DIVIDED AS TO EXACTLY WHAT ROLE NATO SHOULD PLAY IN A POST COLD WAR WORLD -- AND HOW FAR IT SHOULD VENTURE OUTSIDE ITS TRADITIONAL BORDERS. THEY SAY A NEW "STRATEGIC CONCEPT" IS EXPECTED TO BE UNVEILED AT THE SUMMIT -- BUT IT WILL BE PRESENTED IN BROAD, GENERAL TERMS.

    SIMON SERFATY -- NATO EXPERT WITH THE "CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES" (IN WASHINGTON) -- SAYS IT WILL TAKE A GREAT DEAL OF TIME FOR NATO LEADERS TO COME UP WITH A SPECIFIC AND COMMON "STRATEGIC CONCEPT."

    // SERFATY ACT //

    BUT REMEMBER -- THIS IS ALSO WHAT HAPPENED AFTER 1949. TO SUGGEST FOR A MOMENT THAT THE MEETING OF APRIL 1999 IS THE MEETING WHEN ALL THESE QUESTIONS WILL BE RESOLVED IS TO SUGGEST THAT THE MEETING IN APRIL 1949 IS THE TIME WHEN ALL OF THE QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE WAYS IN WHICH THE COLD WAR HAS TO BE WAGED WOULD BE SETTLED. BUT IN FACT, IT TOOK MANY, MANY MORE YEARS BEFORE THE CONSENSUS GREW THAT LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRATEGY ON THE BASIS OF WHICH THE COLD WAR WAS WAGED AND WON. AND I SUSPECT IT WILL TAKE MANY YEARS - PAST 1999 - FOR THE UNITED STATES AND THE STATES OF EUROPE, TO COMPLETE THAT TASK WHICH THEY WILL INITIATE IN APRIL OF 1999.

    // END ACT //

    MANY ANALYSTS SAY NATO'S NEW "STRATEGIC CONCEPT" WILL BE IN LARGE PART DETERMINED BY THE OUTCOME OF THE KOSOVO CONFLICT.

    MICHAEL O'HANLON FROM THE (PRIVATE WASHINGTON BASED POLICY GROUP) "BROOKINGS INSTITUTION."

    // O'HANLON ACT //

    IT WOULD BE ABSURD, FOR EXAMPLE, FOR NATO TO SAY WE HAVE A MUSCULAR "STRATEGIC CONCEPT," WE WANT TO DO A LOT OF THINGS TO STABILIZE OUR FLANKS. MEANWHILE, WE ARE NOT GOING TO DO ANYTHING ABOUT KOSOVO EXCEPT BOMB FOR A FEW WEEKS AND THEN CALL IT A DAY. SO THIS "STRATEGIC CONCEPT" - I DO NOT KNOW WHERE IT IS GOING TO WIND UP - BUT THERE IS NO POINT IN BEING OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THIS IF WE CAN NOT GET THE KOSOVO PROBLEM RIGHT.

    // END ACT //

    AS NATO CELEBRATES ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY, ANALYSTS SAY THE "LOOK" OF THE WESTERN ALLIANCE IS FAR DIFFERENT NOW THAN IT WAS HALF A DECADE AGO. BUT AS NATO REDEFINES ITS ROLE AND FINDS NEW MISSIONS FOR ITSELF, MANY ANALYSTS ASK WHETHER THAT NEW ROLE AND THOSE NEW MISSIONS WILL BE SUFFICIENT TO MAINTAIN THE WESTERN ALLIANCE INTO THE NEXT 50 YEARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JO
    21-Apr-99 4:27 PM EDT (2027 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] NATO: TURKEY-GREECE RELATIONS BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTONWASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43190
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SINCE NATO'S AIR WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA BEGAN IN MARCH, SEVERAL BALKAN NATIONS WAITING TO BECOME NEW MEMBERS OF THE ALLIANCE HAVE SEEN VIOLENT ANTI-NATO DEMONSTRATIONS IN THEIR CAPITALS. CORRESPONDENT NICK SIMEONE REPORTS HOW FRONTLINE COUNTRIES SUCH AS BULGARIA AND MACEDONIA ARE EAGER TO JOIN THE ALLIANCE BUT ARE HAVING TO WALK A FINE LINE BETWEEN SUPPORTING THE WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WHILE TRYING NOT TO PROVOKE THEIR BIGGER NEIGHBOR.

    TEXT: // TRANSLATOR ACT OF MACEDONIAN FOREIGN MINISTER DIMITROV

    //

    I SUBMITTED A LETTER TO MR. SOLANA CONTAINING AN URGENT REQUEST FOR MEMBERSHIP OF MACEDONIA IN NATO.

    // END ACT //

    THAT'S MACEDONIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER, ALEKSANDAR DIMITROV, SPEAKING THROUGH A TRANSLATOR, JUST DAYS AFTER NATO BOMBS BEGAN FALLING ON YUGOSLAVIA. EVEN THOUGH HIS GOVERNMENT IS PRESSING FOR IMMEDIATE MEMBERSHIP IN THE ATLANTIC ALLIANCE, IT WANTS NO PART OF MILITARY ACTION AGAINST BELGRADE.

    // SECOND ACT OF FOREIGN MINISTER, THEN TRANSLATOR //

    ACT IN MACEDONIAN, THEN ENGLISH . .

    I REITERATED THE POSITION THAT THE TERRITORY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA CAN NOT BE USED FOR OFFENSIVE ACTIVITIES AGAINST ANY OF THE NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES.

    // END ACT //

    AND THAT SEEMING CONTRADICTION ILLUSTRATES THE BIND THAT YUGOSLAVIA'S PRO-WESTERN NEIGHBORS ARE IN. NATO'S WAR AGAINST SERB AGGRESSION IN KOSOVO IS FORCING COUNTRIES SUCH AS MACEDONIA AND BULGARIA TO MAKE SOME HARD DECISIONS. REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THEY ARE PREPARED MILITARILY, BOTH WANT TO BECOME NEW NATO MEMBERS BUT ARE CONCERNED ABOUT STIRRING ANGER AMONG THEIR OWN CITIZENS WHO OPPOSE NATO'S WAR AGAINST BELGRADE.

    TAKE THE CASE OF MACEDONIA, A COUNTRY WITH A SIZABLE ETHNIC SERB MINORITY. HOURS AFTER THE NATO AIR WAR BEGAN, CROWDS TOOK TO THE STREETS OF THE MACEDONIAN CAPITAL SKOPJE, STONING EMBASSIES OF NATO COUNTRIES, FORCING THE AMERICAN EMBASSY TO CLOSE FOR SEVERAL DAYS. ANTI-NATO DEMONSTRATIONS ALSO BROKE OUT IN THE BULGARIAN CAPITAL, SOFIA.

    NATO IS ASKING BULGARIA AS WELL AS NATO HOPEFUL ROMANIA TO GRANT PERMISSION TO USE THEIR AIRSPACE FOR MISSIONS OVER YUGOSLAVIA. THERE'S NO DOUBT BALKAN COUNTRIES WANTING TO JOIN NATO ARE TAKING POLITICAL RISKS THEY NORMALLY WOULD NOT BECAUSE OF THE LURE OF FUTURE MEMBERSHIP IN THE ALLIANCE. BUT THEY AREN'T GOING TO BE REWARDED FOR DOING SO ANY TIME SOON. STEPHEN SESTANOVICH IS SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT'S SPECIAL ADVISOR FOR THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES.

    // SESTANOVICH ACT //

    I THINK THERE IS BROAD AGREEMENT AMONG THE ALLIANCE THAT THIS IS NOT A TIME FOR NEW INVITATIONS.

    // END ACT //

    LEADERS ATTENDING THE NATO SUMMIT HERE IN WASHINGTON WILL SPEND PART OF THEIR TIME DECIDING WHICH NATIONS CAN JOIN AND WHEN. BUT WITH NATO PARTNERS NOW INVOLVED IN WAR, NO NEW TIMETABLE HAS BEEN SET FOR ACCEPTING MEMBERS BEYOND POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC, WHICH WERE ADMITTED EARLIER THIS YEAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/JO
    21-Apr-99 5:33 PM EDT (2133 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [24] VIEWS OF NATO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43185
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY AND GREECE, BOTH NATO MEMBERS, HAVE HAD A LONG HISTORY OF TENSION -- BATTLING FOR SOVEREIGNTY OVER LAND, SEA AND, MORE RECENTLY AIRSPACE. SINCE THEY JOINED NATO, THEY HAVE HAD TO WORK TOGETHER WITHIN THE ALLIANCE, BUT THEIR DISPUTES REMAIN. THE TWO COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN ON THE BRINK OF WAR SEVERAL TIMES IN THE LAST 50 YEARS, AND NEJLA SAMMAKIA EXPLORES NATO'S EFFORTS TO REDUCE TENSION BETWEEN THE SOUTH EUROPEAN NEIGHBORS.

    TEXT: THE LAST TIME TURKEY AND GREECE ALMOST WENT TO WAR WAS IN EARLY 1996, AND IT WAS OVER A NUMBER OF SMALL, UNINHABITED ISLETS IN THE AEGEAN SEA. TENSIONS WERE SO HIGH THEN THAT THE UNITED STATES AND NATO STEPPED IN TO CALM RELATIONS. EIGHTEEN MONTHS LATER, THE TWO COUNTRIES SIGNED A JOINT COMMUNIQUE, PROMISING NOT TO USE FORCE AGAINST EACH OTHER AND TO OBSERVE EXISTING TREATIES.

    BUT OTHER CONFLICTS REMAIN UNSOLVED, SUCH AS: MARITIME BOUNDARIES IN THE AEGEAN SEA, THE DIVIDED ISLAND OF CYPRUS, AND TURKEY'S CLAIM THAT GREECE IS BACKING ITS KURDISH REBELS.

    A NUMBER OF SCHOLARS AND POLICY ANALYSTS SAY NATO HAS BEEN A MAJOR FACTOR IN KEEPING THE LONG-STANDING GREEK-TURKISH DISPUTES FROM ERUPTING INTO VIOLENCE.

    WILLIAM HILL, A PUBLIC POLICY SCHOLAR AT THE WASHINGTON-BASED WOODROW WILSON INTERNATIONAL CENTER, SAYS NATO'S MAIN PURPOSE IS COLLECTIVE SELF-DEFENSE, BUT ONE OF ITS CONCERNS IS TO ALSO PREVENT WHAT HE CALLED "BIG QUARRELS" AMONG ITS ALLIES.

    //HILL ACT//

    WHILE IT HASN'T BEEN A PRIMARY PURPOSE OF NATO TO RESOLVE TENSIONS BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY, THE LONG-STANDING DISPUTES OVER ISSUES, SUCH AS CYPRUS, HAS BEEN OF CONCERN TO NATO IN PARTICULAR THAT THESE DISPUTES MIGHT WEAKEN THE POLITICAL SOLIDARITY AND THUS DEFENSIVE CAPABILITY ON ITS SOUTHEASTERN FLANKS.

    //END ACT//

    HE SAYS NATO HAS BEEN WORKING TO RAISE CONFIDENCE BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES, AND DEVELOP MEASURES THAT, OVER TIME, COULD SOLVE THEIR DISPUTES.

    BOTH COUNTRIES IN FACT SIGNED AN AGREEMENT ON CONFIDENCE BUILDING MEASURES MORE THAN 10 YEARS AGO. NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA HAS BEEN TRYING TO REACTIVATE THESE MEASURES, FEW OF WHICH HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTED.

    //HILL ACT -- OPT//

    DURING TIMES OF GREATER TENSION, OR SOMETIMES DURING GREATEST TENSION IN THE 90S, NATO OFFICIALS HAVE VISITED BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY AND FACILITATED CONTACTS TO REDUCE TENSION -- IN PARTICULAR, NATO SECRETARY GENERAL SOLANA IN 97, I BELIEVE. THIS PROCESS HAS RESULTED IN KEEPING A LID ON THE DISPUTE AND WORKING TOWARD A RESOLUTION.

    //END HILL -- END OPT//

    SECRETARY SOLANA HAS HELD CONFIDENTIAL TALKS WITH THE TWO COUNTRIES TO REVIVE CONIFDENCE-BUILDING MEASURES, WHICH MAINLY ADDRESS THE AEGEAN SEA DISPUTE AND INCLUDE REDUCING PROVOCATIVE MILITARY ACTIVITY. GREEK AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES, ALEXANDER PHILON [FEE-LAHN], ELABORATES:

    //PHILON ACT//

    THE POINT IS TO MAKE SURE THESE IDEAS CAN BE APPLIED PROPERLY IN ALL THEIR ASPECTS, AND POSSIBLY TO EXPAND THEM, IN THE SENSE OF AVOIDING EXERCISES IN THE MIDDLE OF SUMMER, WHEN THE TOURIST SEASON IS AT ITS PEAK, TO GIVE YOU ONE EXAMPLE. BOTH SIDES CAN AGREE TO EXTEND THE PERIOD DURING WHICH THERE WILL BE NO EXERCISES, (THIS) WILL BE HELPFUL AND WOULD INCREASE THE LOW CONFIDENCE BETWEEN THE TWO PARTIES.

    //END ACT//

    THE CONFIDENCE-BUILDING PROCESS HAS NOT BEEN A SMOOTH ONE. ONE MAJOR SETBACK HAS BEEN A PLAN BY THE GREEK CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT TO PURCHASE RUSSIAN MISSILES, FOR SELF-DEFENSE. TURKEY REACTED WITH ALARM AND SAID IT WOULD TAKE WHATEVER MEASURES NECESSARY TO PREVENT THE DEPLOYMENT OF THE MISSILES - A THREAT TO ITS SECURITY. ANOTHER PROBLEM HAS BEEN TURKEY'S BELIEF THAT GREECE IS BACKING KURDISH REBELS, AND USING THE CYPRUS CONFLICT AS A WAY TO KEEP TURKEY OUT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    WOODROW WILSON SCHOLAR HILL SAYS UNFORTUNATELY NATO'S EFFORTS HAVE YET TO PRODUCE LONG-TERM RESULTS TO RESOLVE THEIR FUNDAMENTAL DISAGREEMENTS. BUT, HE SAYS BOTH COUNTRIES WORK DILIGENTLY IN NATO'S POLITICAL AND MILITARY COMMITTEES AND HAVE BEEN ABLE TO SET ASIDE THEIR DIFFERENCES AND FOCUS ON THE GREATER GOALS OF NATO.

    TURKEY'S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES, BAKI ILKIN ASSERTS THAT WHILE TURKEY AND GREECE MAY HAVE BEEN COOPERATING WITHIN NATO, THEIR RELATIONS REMAIN A SEPARATE ISSUE.

    //ILKIN ACT//

    THEY (GREECE AND TURKEY) HAVE SERVED THE CAUSE OF NATO, THEY HAVE BEEN ASSISTING EACH OTHER TO ACHIEVE THE GOALS OF NATO. HAVING SAID THIS, I MUST ALSO UNDERLINE THAT WE DO HAVE A NUMBER OF SERIOUS, BILATERAL PROBLEMS WITH GREECE. BUT THOSE TWO THINGS ARE SEPARATE.

    //END ACT//

    MOST RECENTLY, AND TO THE RELIEF OF NATO, ATHENS AND ANKARA HAVE COOPERATED IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS. TURKEY HAD SOUGHT, AND RECEIVED PERMISSION, TO FLY MILITARY PLANES CARRYING RELIEF THROUGH GREEK AIRSPACE EN ROUTE TO ALBANIA. GREEK AMBASSADOR PHILON SAYS THAT CONTRARY TO EXPECTATIONS, THERE HAS BEEN COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE TWO NATIONS.

    //PHILON ACT//

    THE TWO COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN TALKING TO EACH OTHER AND TRYING TO HELP AS FAR AS THE QUESTION OF REFUGEES, TO HELP THE REFUGEES, THE KOSOVARS WHO MOVED INTO THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA OR ALBANIA. WE ARE BOTH TRYING TO SEE WHAT WE CAN DO AND ALSO TO COORDINATE OUR EFFORTS.

    //END ACT//

    // OPT //

    WHILE ACKNOWLEDGING EXISTING COOPERATION WITH GREECE, TURKISH AMBASSADOR ILKIN DESCRIBES IT AS PART OF A REGIONAL, NATO-BACKED EFFORT.

    //ILKIN ACT -- OPT//

    WE HAVE BEEN WORKING TOGETHER IN NATO., ALTHOUGH I UNDERSTAND THAT OUR APPROACH AND THE GREEK APPROACH ARE SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT, TO SAY THE LEAST. BUT, WE'VE BEEN WORKING IN NATO. THEN WE HAVE BEEN WORKING IN A REGIONAL SETUP, KNOWN AS THE .SOUTHEAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES GROUP, SO WE DO HAVE COOPERATION IN A TASK FORCE, NOT BILATERAL.

    //END ACT -- END OPT//

    INITIALLY THERE WAS CONCERN THAT SPILL OVER FROM THE KOSOVO CRISIS WOULD THREATEN RELATIONS BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY. ATHENS TRADITIONALLY SUPPORTS THE ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN SERBS, AND TURKEY BACKS THE MUSLIM ALBANIANS OF YUGOSLAVIA.

    SCHOLARS AND ANALYSTS, LIKE MR HILL, SAY THE DANGER OF A WIDENED BALKAN CONFLICT -- THAT COULD ENGULF TURKEY AND GREECE -- REMAINS AS LONG AS THE KOSOVO CRISIS IS UNSOLVED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NS/JO
    21-Apr-99 3:45 PM EDT (1945 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [25] BRITTAN / U-S / TRADE BY CANDACE WILLIAMS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43191
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRODUCTION: AS NATO PREPARES TO MARK ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY, THE FUTURE OF THE ALLIANCE IS BEING DEBATED BY FOREIGN POLICY EXPERTS. AT A WASHINGTON DISCUSSION, ONE SPEAKER SAID NATO SHOULD HAVE NO FUTURE, WHILE THREE OTHERS SAID THE ALLIANCE SHOULD BE PRESERVED BUT WITH SOME MAJOR CHANGES. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS ON THE VARIOUS IDEAS FOR NATO ON THE EVE OF THE SUMMIT.

    TEXT: IN ITS PRESENT FORM, NATO IS DANGEROUS TO THE UNITED STATES, SAID TED CARPENTER DURING A DISCUSSION AT WASHINGTON'S CATO INSTITUTE. MR. CARPENTER -- WHO IS VICE PRESIDENT FOR DEFENSE AND FOREIGN POLICY STUDIES AT CATO -- THINKS NATO NO LONGER HAS A CREDIBLE MISSION AND IS OVER-REACHING, AS IN THE BALKANS:

    // CARPENTER ACT //

    NATO PARTISANS UNFORTUNATELY SEEM TO START WITH THE PROPOSITION THAT NATO MUST BE PRESERVED AT ALL COSTS AND THAT THE GREAT TASK FACING POLITICAL LEADERS AND MEMBERS OF THE POLICY COMMUNITY IS TO FIND SOMETHING USEFUL FOR NATO TO DO SO THAT IT REMAINS RELEVANT IN POST COLD WAR EUROPE.

    // END ACT //

    MR. CARPENTER ADDED THAT TOO MANY AMERICANS HAVE BUILT CAREERS AND GAINED STATUS FROM THEIR NATO JOBS AND ARE UNWILLING TO GIVE THEM UP. BUT THIS IS NOT NECESSARILY IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST.

    MICHAEL MANDELBAUM, PROFESSOR OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY AT JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, WANTS TO PRESERVE NATO BUT IN ITS EARLIER MORE MODEST VERSION. HE SAYS IT HAS STRAYED BEYOND ITS ORIGINAL PURPOSE IN GOING TO WAR IN THE BALKANS AND RISKS DISINTEGRATION BY DOING SO.

    MR. MANDELBAUM BELIEVES IT HAS ALSO ALIENATED RUSSIA, WHICH IS KEY TO A STABLE CONTINENT. NATO COUNTRIES MAY DECIDE WHETHER THERE WILL BE WAR OR PEACE IN EUROPE:

    // MANDELBAUM ACT //

    RUSSIA CANNOT. FOR RUSSIA IS NOT AND WILL NOT BE A MEMBER OF NATO. TO FORGET RUSSIA IN DESCRIBING THE EUROPEAN PAST MAY BE BAD HISTORY AND EVEN BAD MANNERS. BUT TO EXCLUDE RUSSIA IN PLANNING THE EUROPEAN FUTURE IS BAD POLICY.

    // END ACT //

    ROBERT MANNING, A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, AGREED NATO IS MISTAKEN TO EXCLUDE RUSSIA FROM PARTICIPATING IN THE POST COLD WAR ORDER. CAST ASIDE, IT ASSUMES THE ROLE OF SPOILER, AS IN SELLING ARMS TO COUNTRIES LIKE IRAN. MEANWHILE, NATO HAS BECOME INVOLVED IN ACTIVITIES THAT HAVE LITTLE TO DO WITH SECURITY, SAID ALAN TONELSON OF THE U-S BUSINESS AND INDUSTRIAL COUNCIL. HE CALLS IT SOCIAL ENGINEERING RUN WILD:

    // TONELSON ACT //

    EVEN IF YOU ARE ONE OF THOSE IN THE FOREIGN POLICY ESTABLISHMENT WITH VERY SWEEPING DEFINITIONS OF COMPREHENSIVE SECURITY, YOU WOULD PROBABLY BE SURPRISED TO KNOW THAT NATO HAS SPONSORED MEETINGS ON "PLANETS OUTSIDE THE SOLAR SYSTEM" AND "PHYSICS OF STAR FORMATION AND EARLY STELLAR EVOLUTION."

    // END ACT //

    MR. TONELSON NOTED THERE ARE OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS THAT CAN DEAL WITH SUCH MATTERS.

    TED CARPENTER SAID A MORE FLUID EUROPE NEEDS MORE FLEXIBLE ARRANGEMENTS:

    // CARPENTER ACT //

    THERE COULD EVEN BE A VARIETY OF SUB-REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO ADDRESS MINOR PROBLEMS, SUCH AS THE POLITICAL TURBULENCE THAT DEVELOPED IN ALBANIA FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE PYRAMID INVESTMENT SCHEMES. ITALY, GREECE AND OTHER COUNTRIES DID ACT TO INTERVENE THERE ON AN AD HOC BASIS, BUT IT MIGHT MIGHT BE WORTHWHILE TO HAVE MORE FORMAL ARRANGEMENTS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. CARPENTER AND THE OTHER SPEAKERS SAID IT IS CRUCIAL FOR EUROPE TO ASSUME MORE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ITS OWN AFFAIRS AND RELY LESS ON THE UNITED STATES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/WFR
    21-Apr-99 6:24 PM EDT (2224 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [26] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT (L-ONLY)
    NUMBER=2-248377
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION'S CHIEF TRADE NEGOTIATOR SAYS THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE SHOULD NOT ALLOW DISAGREEMENTS OVER TRADE TO DISRUPT BILATERAL RELATIONS. EUROPEAN COMMISSION VICE PRESIDENT LEON BRITTAN SPOKE ABOUT TRANS-ATLANTIC TRADE ISSUES TUESDAY AT A FORUM IN WASHINGTON. V-O-A'S CANDACE WILLIAMS WAS THERE.

    TEXT: LEON BRITTAN SAYS EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES SHARE A BILATERAL RELATIONSHIP THAT SHOULD NOT BE CLOUDED BY TRADE DISPUTES. HE SAYS THE TWO SIDES CAN WORK TOGETHER TO ACHIEVE COMMON GOALS, INDEPENDENT OF ANY PROBLEMS THAT MAY STRAIN TIES. MR. BRITTAN MENTIONED THE KOSOVO CRISIS AS AN EXAMPLE.

    /// BRITTAN ACT ///

    THE WAR IN KOSOVO UNDERLINES MORE THAN EVER THE FACT THAT EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES HAVE COMMON VALUES AND COMMON INTERESTS OF THE BROADEST KIND, WHICH WE PURSUE TOGETHER, VIGOROUSLY AND ACTIVELY. WE MUST THEREFORE NOT ALLOW TRADE DISPUTES OR DISAGREEMENTS TO DIVERT US FROM THE PURSUIT OF THOSE BROADER, COMMON OBJECTIVES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BRITTAN WAS REFERRING TO A WAR OF WORDS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE UNITED STATES OVER ISSUES SUCH AS SUBSIDIES FOR BANANA PRODUCERS AND A EUROPEAN BAN ON IMPORTS OF AMERICAN BEEF (FROM CATTLE TREATED WITH GROWTH HORMONES).

    THE TWO SIDES ARE AT ODDS OVER AN E-U PRACTICE OF GRANTING CONCESSIONS TO BANANA EXPORTERS FROM EUROPE'S FORMER COLONIES IN AFRICA, THE CARIBBEAN AND THE PACIFIC. THE UNITED STATES SAYS THIS HURTS U-S FIRMS EXPORTING FROM LATIN AMERICA.

    THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AGREES. EARLIER THIS MONTH, AN ARBITRATION PANEL RULED THE E-U'S BANANA-IMPORT POLICIES VIOLATED INTERNATIONAL TRADE REGULATIONS. AND ON MONDAY, THE TRADE BODY APPROVED THE UNITED STATES' PLAN TO IMPOSE 191-MILLION DOLLARS' WORTH OF RETALIATORY TARIFFS ON EUROPEAN GOODS.

    MR. BRITTAN SAYS THE 15 MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ARE STUDYING THE ARBITRATION REPORT AND RESERVING THEIR RIGHT TO APPEAL AGAINST THE NEW TARIFFS, WHICH ARE SET TO GO INTO EFFECT NEXT MONTH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CAW/WTW
    20-Apr-99 8:26 PM EDT (0026 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [27] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/21/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248425
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP STRONGLY TODAY (WEDNESDAY), WITH THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSING AT A RECORD HIGH. V-O-A BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH 10-THOUSAND-581, UP 132 POINTS, MORE THAN ONE PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 13-HUNDRED-36, UP 30 POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX GAINED MORE THAN THREE PERCENT.

    SOME ANALYSTS SAY MONDAY'S SELL-OFF WAS AN ABERRATION. THEY BELIEVE THE MARKET IS SET TO MOVE TO NEW RECORDS. OTHERS CAUTION THAT A DOWNWARD CORRECTION IS STILL POSSIBLE.

    // OPT //

    ART CASHIN OF THE PAINE WEBBER INVESTMENT COMPANY SAYS WITH MOST CORPORATE EARNINGS REPORTS FOR THE FIRST QUARTER NOW OUT OF THE WAY, TRADERS WILL BE LOOKING TOWARD SECOND QUARTER RESULTS.

    /// CASHIN ACT ///

    PEOPLE WILL SAY, "O.K., THAT WAS LAST QUARTER. HOW ARE YOU GOING TO DO IN THIS QUARTER?" I THINK THE MARKET WILL MAYBE FLATTEN OUT AND GET TESTED AGAIN.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    I-B-M, THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER COMPANY, REPORTED A 50-PERCENT JUMP IN QUARTERLY EARNINGS, AHEAD OF WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS. I-B-M'S RESULTS CAME JUST AFTER THE CLOSE OF TRADING. COCA-COLA, THE WORLD'S LARGEST SOFT-DRINK COMPANY, REPORTS ITS FIRST-QUARTER PROFITS DROPPED 13 PERCENT. THE COMPANY SAYS THE LOWER PROFITS WERE LARGELY THE RESULT OF ECONOMIC WEAKNESS IN MANY INTERNATIONAL MARKETS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE STOCK OF QUALCOMM, THE CELLULAR TELEPHONE MAKER, JUMPED 17 PERCENT AFTER THE COMPANY SAID ITS QUARTERLY PROFIT TRIPLED.

    BUT SHARES OF CADENCE DESIGN SYSTEMS PLUNGED BY 40 PERCENT AFTER THE COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPANY WARNED THAT EARNINGS GROWTH WILL SLOW FOR THE REST OF THIS YEAR. EXXON, THE GIANT OIL COMPANY, REPORTED A 40-PERCENT DROP IN QUARTERLY EARNINGS. HOWEVER, ANALYSTS SAY EXXON'S EARNINGS SHOULD IMPROVE IN THE SECOND QUARTER AS A RESULT OF THE RECENT RISE IN OIL PRICES.

    AIRBUS INDUSTRIES, THE EUROPEAN CONSORTIUM, BEAT OUT THE BOEING COMPANY OF THE UNITED STATES IN AN ORDER FOR JETLINERS. NEW AIR, A LOW-FARE AIRLINE WHICH PLANS TO START U-S OPERATIONS EARLY NEXT YEAR, SAYS IT WILL BUY 25 AIRBUS 320 JETS INITIALLY, WITH OPTIONS TO BUY 50 MORE IN A DEAL WHICH COULD BE WORTH MORE THAN FOUR-BILLION DOLLARS.

    TRANS WORLD AIRLINES IS STILL LOSING MONEY. ITS LATEST QUARTERLY LOSS IS ALMOST 38-MILLION DOLLARS, BUT T-W-A SAYS THE RESULT WAS ITS BEST IN 10 YEARS.

    U-S AIRWAYS, THE SIXTH-LARGEST AMERICAN CARRIER, SAYS ITS FIRST-QUARTER PROFITS DROPPED 53 PERCENT BECAUSE OF WIDESPREAD WEATHER-RELATED FLIGHT CANCELLATIONS AND THE COSTS OF INSTALLING A NEW COMPUTER SYSTEM. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/JC/WTW
    21-Apr-99 5:19 PM EDT (2119 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America DATE=04/21/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11250
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: THE RAMPAGE BY TWO STUDENTS THAT RESULTED IN THE DEATHS OF MORE THAN A DOZEN STUDENTS AT A LARGE SECONDARY SCHOOL IN A DENVER SUBURB IS WIDELY COMMENTED UPON IN THE DAY'S EDITORIALS.

    OTHER TOPICS ALSO INCLUDE THE SITUATION IN THE BALKANS; NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY; THE DISQUIETING OUTCOME OF ELECTIONS IN ALGERIA; AND A REMINDER THAT SADDAM HUSSEIN'S IRAQ REMAINS A THREAT TO REGIONAL PEACE. NOW, HERE IS ______ WITH SOME EXCERPTS AND A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE KILLINGS ON TUESDAY IN A SUBURBAN DENVER HIGH SCHOOL ARE THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF SCHOOL SHOOTINGS IN THE PAST TWO YEARS IN U-S SCHOOLS. "THE DENVER POST" WRITES OF A STATE IN MOURNING:

    VOICE: COLORADANS HAVE NEVER NEEDED EACH OTHER MORE THAN WE DO NOW. .... IF HEALING IS TO COME, IT WILL COME IN OUR CARING FOR EACH OTHER AND OUR DETERMINATION TO GO ON FROM HERE AS A UNITED PEOPLE. ... LET US COMMIT OURSELVES TO A NEW DETERMINATION TO NURTURE EACH OTHER, AND THE CHILDREN COMMITTED TO OUR CARE, IN WAYS MORE MEANINGFUL THAN WE HAVE EVER KNOWN BEFORE.

    TEXT: WHILE ACROSS TOWN, "THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS" LAMENTS:

    VOICE: IRONICALLY, A SCHOOL IS SUPPOSED TO BE A PLACE OF SECURITY AND EVEN TRANQUILITY, YET ONCE AGAIN AMERICA HAS WITNESSED A VIOLENT RAMPAGE ON SCHOOL GROUNDS. IT IS SHOCKING TO REVIEW THE LONG LIST OF SCHOOL SHOOTINGS IN THE PAST TWO YEARS. WHAT, MANY AMERICANS MUST WONDER, IS GOING ON? WE DON'T PROFESS TO KNOW, YET SURELY PART OF THE ANSWER IS A RELATIVELY SIMPLE PHENOMENON: UNBALANCED KIDS IMITATING THE HIGHLY PUBLICIZED ACTIONS OF OTHER UNBALANCED KIDS. .... BUT AS WE SAID, WE DON'T REALLY KNOW WHAT THE EXPLANATION IS, NOR DO WE CARE TO SPECULATE RIGHT NOW. THE MOMENT IS TOO SOLEMN, THE BLOODLETTING TOO EXTENSIVE FOR THE MIND EVEN TO GRASP. FOR THE TIME BEING, OUR THOUGHTS REMAIN FOCUSED SOLELY ON THOSE WHOSE LIVES NOW WILL NEVER BE THE SAME.

    TEXT: THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE EXPRESSES ITS DISMAY OVER KILLINGS THAT HAVE BECOME SHOCKINGLY FAMILIAR:

    VOICE: BY NOW, THE DATELINES OF SCHOOLYARD SHOOTINGS HAVE BECOME TWO-WORD ICONS FOR THE UNSPEAKABLE MADNESS THAT IS POSSIBLE WHEN DEADLY WEAPONS END UP IN DERANGED HANDS. SPRINGFIELD, OREGON; JONESBORO, ARKANSAS, PEARL, MISSISSIPPI; AND, CLOSER TO HOME, STOCKTON, CALIFORNIA, WHERE FIVE CHILDREN WERE KILLED AND 24 WOUNDED IN 1989.

    TEXT: IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, "THE OREGONIAN" ALSO SAYS THAT SUCH INCIDENTS HAVE BECOME TOO COMMON.

    VOICE: FOR OREGON, THE CHILLING NEWS THAT TWO YOUNG MEN HAD OPENED FIRE ... AT A ...COLORADO HIGH SCHOOL WAS ALL TOO FAMILIAR, ALL TOO HORRIFYING. IT WAS THURSTON, [EDITORS: OREGON, WHERE A PREVIOUS SCHOOL SHOOTING OCCURRED] AGAIN. ... AUTHORITIES MUST FIND OUT WHERE THESE YOUNG MEN ACQUIRED THE AUTOMATIC WEAPONS, WHERE THEY LEARNED TO MAKE BOMBS, AND WHERE THEY GATHERED THE MATERIALS FOR THEM. .... THERE'S NO COMFORT IN STATISTICS WHICH SHOW THAT VIOLENCE NATIONWIDE IS ON THE DECLINE, THAT EVEN VIOLENCE AMONG TEEN-AGERS IS DOWN. NOT WHEN SO MANY CHILDREN DIE IN ONE SCHOOL.

    TEXT: FLORIDA'S "ORLANDO SENTINEL" NOTES THAT VIOLENCE IS NOW STALKING THE NATION'S YOUNG PEOPLE FAR FROM THE CRIME-PLAGUED GHETTOS OF THE INNER CITY OF THE INNER CITY .

    VOICE: IT ... WOULD BE FOOLISH FOR ANY SCHOOL DISTRICT TO SHRUG OFF WHAT HAPPENED IN COLORADO AS THOUGH 'IT CAN'T HAPPEN HERE.' IT CAN. LITTLETON, COLORADO, HAS LITTLE IN COMMON WITH THE SOUTH BRONX, SOUTH-CENTRAL LOS ANGELES OR THE OVERTOWN SECTION OF MIAMI, AND YET IT, TOO, HAS BEEN SCARRED BY VIOLENCE.

    TEXT: AND "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" LAMENTS "YOUNG RAGE AND GUNS" THAT BRINGS FORTH SUCH CRIMES.

    VOICE: THE VIOLENCE THAT SWEPT THROUGH A HIGH SCHOOL IN LITTLETON, COLORADO TUESDAY WAS FAR WORSE IN SHEER NUMBERS THAN ANY OF THE LETHAL RAMPAGES THAT HAVE STRUCK CAMPUSES THROUGHOUT THE NATION SINCE 1996. BUT MANY OF THE SAME FRIGHTENING INGREDIENTS WERE PRESENT. ..... WHO KNOWS WHAT WENT ON IN THE MINDS OF THE YOUNG KILLERS? DID THEY THINK THEY WERE AVENGING SOME ADOLESCENT SLIGHT? IN A CULTURE WHERE REAL AND FANTASY VIOLENCE IS BROADCAST 24 HOURS A DAY, DID THEY FULLY REALIZE THE PERMANENCE OF THEIR ACTIONS? ... TO THESE QUESTIONS, THERE ARE NO ANSWERS YET. THERE'S ONLY THE ONGOING FATAL MIX OF HORMONES, HURT FEELINGS AND HIGH-POWERED FIREARMS.

    TEXT: TURNING TO YUGOSLOVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE, "THE MANCHESTER [NEW HAMPSHIRE] UNION LEADER" SAYS THIS COUNTRY NEEDS "A DOSE OF REALITY" ABOUT THE IDEA OF PUTTING GROUND TROOPS IN KOSOVO.

    VOICE: ALL THE HIGH-FLYING TALK ABOUT DISPATCHING GROUND TROOPS TO KOSOVO HAD BETTER COME BACK DOWN TO EARTH. ... THE CLINTON DEFENSE CUTS HAVE SHRUNK THE ACTIVE DUTY ARMY FROM 780-THOUSAND TROOPS TO 490-THOUSAND. TO MOUNT AN OPERATION DESERT STORM TODAY WOULD REQUIRE EVERY LAST SOLDIER IN THE RANKS. SERBIA IS NO SOMALIA AND MOST ANALYSTS BELIEVE THAT A COMBAT MISSION TO KOSOVO WOULD REQUIRE AT LEAST 200-THOUSAND TROOPS AND HEAVY ARMOR. THIS COULD NOT BE ACCOMPLISHED WITHOUT CALLING UP RESERVE UNITS. IT WOULD TAKE ... AT LEAST FOUR MONTHS ... SO NATO IS LEFT WITH BOMBING, WHICH CONTINUES EVEN AS [MR.] MILOSEVIC SHOWS NO SIGN OF SURRENDERING OR LETTING UP HIS CAMPAIGN TO PURGE KOSOVO OF ITS ALBANIAN INHABITANTS.

    TEXT: IN OHIO, "THE AKRON BEACON JOURNAL" SAYS IT IS NOT CORRECT TO COMPARE THE CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO WITH THE U-S INVOLVEMENT IN VIETNAM:

    VOICE: OBVIOUSLY, THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES SHOULD BE CAREFUL ABOUT SLIDING INTO DEEPER ENGAGEMENT. IN TRUTH, THE CARE THEY HAVE SHOWN TO THIS POINT REFLECTS THE VIETNAM EXPERIENCE. POLITICIANS AND GENERALS ARE ADVISED TO RESIST RE-FIGHTING PAST WARS. IN THE CASE OF VIETNAM, THAT HAS PROVED UNDERSTANDABLY DIFFICULT. THE DEBACLE WAS SEARING FOR AMERICANS. AT THE SAME TIME, NATO HAS MADE A COMMITMENT TO STOP THE CAMPAIGN OF TERROR LAUNCHED BY SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. ... THAT KIND OF COMMITMENT SHOULDN'T BE MADE LIGHTLY. ... /// OPT

    /// THE DRUMBEAT ... OF MEDIA SCRUTINY ... CAN BE HEARD... THE VIETNAM POLICIES OF JOHN KENNEDY AND LYNDON JOHNSON DIDN'T RECEIVE THE SAME ATTENTION. TOO BAD. WHAT IS ABHORRENT IN THE BALKANS IS THE CRUEL INHUMANITY, THE SENSELESS SLAUGHTER. IT WOULD BE DREADFUL IF NATO DID NOT ACT. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: IN A CLOSELY RELATED STORY, NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION, NOW MUTED BY KOSOVO, SCHEDULED FOR THIS WEEK IN WASHINGTON, DRAWS THIS REFLECTION FROM "THE WASHINGTON POST," WHICH SAYS THE WEIGHTY ISSUES OF FURTHER EXPANSION TO SUCH NATIONS AS UKRAINE AND THE BALTICS MUST BE PUT ASIDE DUE TO THE PRESENT CRISIS.

    VOICE: NATO'S INTERVENTION IN KOSOVO, THOUGH OFTEN CITED FOR THE PRECEDENTS IT SETS, IN FACT SPEAKS TO CONTINUITY IN THE ALLIANCE. NATO AS BEFORE IS STANDING UP TO DESPOTISM AND REAFFIRMING U-S INTERESTS IN PROMOTING STABILITY AND DEMOCRACY IN EUROPE. BUT THERE IS A CRUCIAL DIFFERENCE, TOO: SO FAR NATO IS NOT WINNING THIS WAR. DESPITE ALLIED UNITY, MR. MILOSEVIC CONTINUES TO CARRY OUT THE KIND OF CRIMES RARELY SEEN IN EUROPE SINCE NAZI TIMES. THE LEADERS WHO GATHER HERE MUST SUMMON THE WILL AND DEPLOY THE MEANS TO STOP HIM, OR THIS WILL BE NATO'S LAST BIRTHDAY AS A MEANINGFUL ALLIANCE.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: FROM BOSTON, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" WHICH CALLS THE EVENT "NATO'S MOMENTOUS 50TH, EXPRESSES THE SAME OPINION AS "THE WASHINGTON POST."

    VOICE: NATO'S 19 MEMBERS TODAY FACE THE HARDEST DECISIONS IN THE ALLIANCE'S HISTORY. THEY HAVE TO KEEP IN MIND THE PRECEDENT THEY'RE SETTING AND THE REVERBERATIONS IN PLACES LIKE RUSSIA. BUT MOST OF ALL THEY HAVE TO CONSIDER THE COST OF NOT CONCLUDING THE KOSOVO UNDERTAKING IN A WAY THAT MAKES IT CLEAR THE MURDEROUS TACTICS EMPLOYED BY MR. MILOSEVIC WON'T BE TOLERATED.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING NOW TO NORTH AFRICA, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE IS SAD THAT A REALLY IMPORTANT "OPPORTUNITY" FOR ALGERIA HAS BEEN "MISSED" WITH THE CONVOLUTED PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, WON BY ABDELAZIZ BOUTEFLIKA, THE ONLY CANDIDATE LEFT RUNNING WHEN ALL OTHER MAJOR CANDIDATES WITHDREW THE DAY BEFORE THE VOTE.

    VOICE: WHAT GAVE THE COUNTRY HOPE WAS THAT THE OUTLAWED ISLAMIC SALVATION FRONT (F-I-S) , PUTATIVE WINNER OF THE OVERTURNED 1992 ELECTION, TOLD PEOPLE TO VOTE, AND TO VOTE FOR MR. [AFHMED TALEB] IBRAHIMI. [WHO CAME IN A DISTANT SECOND] ... BUT THE GENERALS STACKED THE OUTCOME FOR MR. BOUTEFLIKA, WHO WAS ENDORSED BY FOUR POLITICAL PARTIES. ... THE LEGITIMACY HE CRAVES IS NOT THERE.

    TEXT: LASTLY, AS THE NATION MOURNS THE COLORADO STUDENTS AND GRAPPLES WITH THE COMPLEXITIES OF THE BALKANS, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" BEGS FOR SADDAM HUSSEIN'S IRAQ N O T TO BE LOST SIGHT OF.

    VOICE: THE WORLD'S ATTENTION IS FIXED ON THE KOSOVO CONFLICT, BUT THAT OTHER BATTLE BETWEEN WESTERN ALLIES AND A DICTATORIAL NATIONAL LEADER STILL RUMBLES IN THE PERSIAN GULF. /// OPT /// THE LATEST STANDOFF BEGAN LAST DECEMBER, WHEN SADDAM HUSSEIN CHALLENGED THE NO-FLY ZONES OVER HIS COUNTRY. THE ALLIES RESPONDED BY BOMBING IRAQI INSTALLATIONS, WHICH STILL CONTINUES. SADDAM ALSO BOOTED OUT THE UNITED NATIONS ARMS INSPECTORS WHOSE WORK FORMED THE HEART OF A PROCESS DESIGNED, ULTIMATELY, TO BRING IRAQ BACK INTO THE COMMUNITY OF NATIONS. /// END OPT /// THE KEY QUESTION: CAN A CREDIBLE U-N INSPECTION PRESENCE BE REESTABLISHED IN IRAQ, THUS REOPENING A PATH TOWARD SETTLING THE GULF CONFLICT?

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE DAY'S U-S PRESS. NEB/ANG/
    21-Apr-99 12:18 PM EDT (1618 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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