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Voice of America, 99-04-20

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP (L-O) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] YUGO DISPATCH TUESDAY (L-O) BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)
  • [03] NATO-BALKANS (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [04] KOSOVO PENTAGON TUESDAY (L-ONLY) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [05] MACEDONIA / LOCAL REACTION BY EVE CONANT (SKOPJE, MACEDONIA)
  • [06] U-N / CROATIA BORDER (L - ONLY BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [07] KOSOVO WAR OF WORDS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [08] UNICEF / REFUGEE EDUCATION (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [09] CLINTON / KOSOVO (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [10] CLINTON/KOHL (L)) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [11] =CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [12] INVADING KOSOVO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [13] BRITAIN/KOSOVO (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [14] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [15] RUSSIA DIPLOMACY (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [16] BALKAN SUPPORT BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)
  • [17] EDITORIAL: PUNISHING SERBIA'S WAR MACHINE
  • [18] NATO SUMMIT / KOSOVO BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)
  • [19] N-Y ECON WRAP (S&L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [20] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP (L-O) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248366
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO APPEARS TO BE SPREADING. THERE ARE REPORTS OF YET MORE ATROCITIES BEING CARRIED OUT AGAINST KOSOVAR ALBANIANS. AND NATO'S BOMBING OF SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA -- NOW ABOUT TO ENTER ITS SECOND MONTH -- IS NOT STOPPING THE WAR. CORRESPONDENT NICK SIMEONE REPORTS ON THE LATEST IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    TEXT: NATO SAYS IT HAS EVIDENCE THAT THE SERB ARMY IS NOW THREATENING TO PUSH THE BALKAN CONFLICT INTO YUGOSLAVIA'S SMALL REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO -- WHICH IS NOT ALIGNED WITH THE SERB LEADERSHIP IN BELGRADE. NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA.

    // SHEA ACT //

    THE YUGOSLAV ARMY IN MONTENEGRO (IS) BEGINNING ETHNIC CLEANSING OF VILLAGES ALONG THE BORDER BETWEEN MONTENEGRO AND KOSOVO BUT IN MONTENEGRO. THIS IS SOMETHING RATHER NEW AND DISTRESSFUL.

    // END ACT //

    MONTENEGRO'S PRO-WESTERN GOVERNMENT SAYS YUGOSLAV ARMY TROOPS KILLED AT LEAST SIX ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES INSIDE MONTENEGRO'S BORDERS, IN WHAT IT DESCRIBED AS A WAR CRIME.

    CROATIA SAYS SEVERAL HUNDRED YUGOSLAV ARMY TROOPS HAVE CROSSED THE BORDER INTO THE CONTESTED PREVLAKA PENINSULA. CROATIA'S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS IS DEMANDING THEIR IMMEDIATE WITHDRAWAL FROM WHAT IS AN UNITED NATIONS-MONITORED STRIP OF LAND. THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL SAYS IT IS INVESTIGATING.

    IN THE LATEST NATO AIRSTRIKES, ALLIED WARPLANES AGAIN STRUCK TARGETS ACROSS YUGOSLAVIA. // OPT // PENTAGON GENERAL CHARLES WALD SHOWED REPORTERS COCKPIT VIDEO OF AN ATTACK ON A YUGOSLAV WARPLANE.

    // WALD ACT - OPT //

    YOU CAN SEE ON THE TOP PART THE PREVIOUS BOMB THAT DROPPED, THE MIG-21 (FIGHTER JET) STILL BURNING. THERE'S ANOTHER ONE ... THAT ONE WAS ALSO DESTROYED. YOU CAN SEE A LARGE CHUNK OF THE AIRCRAFT FLYING THROUGH THE SCREEN HERE.

    // END ACT -- END OPT //

    BUT DESPITE FOUR WEEKS OF AIR ATTACKS -- AND WHAT WILL SOON BE SOME 1000 AIRCRAFT IN THE REGION -- THE NATO ALLIANCE STILL APPEARS UNABLE TO STOP SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING OF KOSOVO. NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA RELAYED NEW ACCOUNTS FROM ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES ABOUT WHAT THEY SAY SERB FORCES ARE DOING TO CIVILIANS UNABLE TO MAKE IT OUT OF KOSOVO.

    // SHEA ACT //

    REFUGEES ARE CONTINUING TO REPORT THAT SERB FORCES ARE SYSTEMATICALLY SEPARATING MILITARY AGE MEN FROM THE GROUPS THAT ARE SENT TOWARDS THE FRONTIERS. REFUGEES HAVE ALSO REPORTED THAT THE SERBS HAVE TAKEN APPROXIMATELY 700 BOYS AS YOUNG AS 14 YEARS OLD EITHER TO USE AS HUMAN SHIELDS OR AS BLOOD BANKS FOR SERB CASUALTIES.

    // END ACT //

    IN WASHINGTON, CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS CONTINUE TO INSIST THAT LONG STRETCHES OF BAD WEATHER IN THE BALKANS HAVE PREVENTED ALLIED PILOTS FROM STRIKING AS MANY TARGETS AS THEY'D LIKE. BUT NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR SANDY BERGER WARNED NATO WILL NOT ALLOW THE WEATHER TO BECOME AN ASSET FOR PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC.

    // BERGER ACT //

    I AM CONFIDENT THAT NATO CAN, MUST AND WILL ACHIEVE ITS OBJECTIVES.

    // END ACT //

    WITH NO INDICATION THAT BELGRADE IS READY TO CONSIDER PEACE ON NATO'S TERMS, TOP CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS HAVE DROPPED TALK OF ANY SOLUTION SHORT OF MILITARY VICTORY. INSTEAD, EMPHASIS IS SHIFTING TO THIS WEEK'S NATO SUMMIT WHERE DISCUSSION WILL BE OF OIL EMBARGOES AND NEW STRATEGIES FOR STEPPING UP PRESSURE ON YUGOSLAVIA SINCE THE CURRENT MILITARY STRATEGY SHOWS NO SIGN OF BRINGING BELGRADE TO ITS KNEES (TO SURRENDER). (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/JO
    20-Apr-99 6:08 PM EDT (2208 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] YUGO DISPATCH TUESDAY (L-O) BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248356
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE WAR OVER KOSOVO PROVINCE, IN YUGOSLAVIA'S SERBIAN REPUBLIC, THREATENED TO SPILL OVER FRONTIERS TUESDAY -- WITH ALLEGATIONS THAT YUGOSLAV TROOPS HAD KILLED ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES INSIDE THE SMALL (YUGOSLAV) REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO AND CROSSED INTO TERRITORY CONTESTED BY CROATIA. GUY DINMORE REPORTS.

    TEXT: DESPITE WARNINGS BY NATO NOT TO EXTEND THE CONFLICT, FEARS ARE GROWING THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WILL TRY TO SEIZE POWER FROM THE PRO-WESTERN GOVERNMENT IN THE SMALL REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO. DRAGISA BURZAN, A DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER IN MONTENEGRO, SAID TROOPS OF THE YUGOSLAV ARMY HAD KILLED AT LEAST SIX ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES INSIDE MONTENEGRO'S BORDERS. HE CALLED THE KILLINGS A WAR CRIME AND DEMANDED THE SOLDIERS BE HANDED OVER FOR TRIAL.

    IN A SEPARATE DEVELOPMENT, YUGOSLAV ARMED FORCES BASED IN MONTENEGRO AND LOYAL TO MR. MILOSEVIC, CLOSED A BORDER CROSSING WITH CROATIA. THE FRONTIER POST, JUST EAST OF THE CROATIAN TOWN OF DUBROVNIK, HAD BEEN CONTROLLED BY MONTENEGRIN POLICE LOYAL TO THEIR WESTERN-LEANING REPUBLIC PRESIDENT, MILO DJUKANOVIC. CROATIA'S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS ALLEGED THAT UP TO 300 TROOPS OF THE YUGOSLAV ARMY HAD CROSSED INTO THE CONTESTED PREVLAKA PENINSULA. THE STRIP OF LAND IS DEMILITARIZED AND MONITORED BY A SMALL UNITED NATIONS FORCE. THE AMBASSADOR DEMANDED THEIR IMMEDIATE WITHDRAWAL.

    MONTENEGRO'S PRESIDENT IS A FIERCE CRITIC OF MR. MILOSEVIC AND HAS ON OCCASION THREATENED TO HOLD A REFERENDUM ON INDEPENDENCE. IF MONTENEGRO WERE TO SECEDE FROM YUGOSLAVIA THEN LAND-LOCKED SERBIA WOULD LOSE ITS ONLY OUTLET TO THE ADRIATIC SEA.

    NATO'S AIR OFFENSIVE AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, INCLUDING STRIKES INSIDE MONTENEGRO, HAS WEAKENED MR. DJUKANOVIC WHO HAS TRIED TO STAY NEUTRAL IN THE CONFLICT. MONTENEGRO IS DEEPLY DIVIDED BETWEEN CLANS AND ALONG POLITICAL LINES. AN ATTEMPT BY THE YUGOSLAV ARMY TO OVERTHROW MR. DJUKANOVIC AND HIS POLICE FORCE COULD PLUNGE THE REPUBLIC OF ABOUT 600,000 PEOPLE INTO CIVIL WAR.

    IN BELGRADE TUESDAY, THOUSANDS OF SERBS GATHERED TO HEAR A LITURGY GIVEN BY THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX PATRIARCH ALEXEI THE SECOND. HE APPEALED TO NATO TO STOP ITS AIR CAMPAIGN AND LATER APPEARED ON YUGOSLAV STATE TELEVISION WITH MR. MILOSEVIC. THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT EXPRESSED HIS APPRECIATION FOR RUSSIA'S SUPPORT. THE FORMER RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER, VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN, APPOINTED AS SPECIAL ENVOY BY PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN, IS EXPECTED IN BELGRADE LATER THIS WEEK CARRYING NEW PROPOSALS TO END THE CONFLICT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GD/JO
    20-Apr-99 3:26 PM EDT (1926 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] NATO-BALKANS (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248350
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO IS ASKING TWO OF YUGOSLAVIA'S BALKAN NEIGHBORS FOR PERMISSION TO USE THEIR AIRSPACE IN CONNECTION WITH ITS AIR STRIKES. AS V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS, THE REQUEST RAISES THE ISSUE OF NATO'S RESPONSIBILITY TO THESE COUNTRIES IN CASE OF YUGOSLAV RETALIATION.

    TEXT: BULGARIAN PRIME MINISTER IVAN KOSTOV IS MEETING WITH THE NATO AMBASSADORS (WEDNESDAY) TO DISCUSS WHAT PROTECTION THE ALLIANCE CAN OFFER HIS COUNTRY AGAINST YUGOSLAV RETALIATION FOR OFFERING BULGARIAN AIR SPACE TO NATO AIR STRIKES.

    THE BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT HAS RECOMMENDED ITS PARLIAMENT APPROVE NATO'S REQUEST. STILL, THE PRIME MINISTER WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO SAY THAT THE ALLIANCE WILL PROTECT BULGARIA AGAINST ANY YUGOSLAV ACTION THAT STEMS FROM ITS COOPERATION WITH NATO.

    NATO HAS GIVEN SUCH ASSURANCES TO ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA, TWO OTHER NEIGHBORS OF YUGOSLAVIA THAT FEAR RETALIATION FOR THEIR COOPERATION WITH NATO TROOPS. THIS IS NOT QUITE THE SECURITY PROTECTION THAT NATO PROVIDES TO ITS 19 MEMBERS BUT IT IS MEANT TO BE SIMILAR IF YUGOSLAVIA'S NEIGHBORS ARE THREATENED BECAUSE OF THEIR COOPERATION.

    THE ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT IS EXPECTED TO APPROVE ITS GOVERNMENT'S REQUEST TO ALLOW THE USE OF ITS AIRSPACE TO NATO ON THURSDAY.

    NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS BOTH COUNTRIES WANT NATO MEMBERSHIP.

    ///SHEA ACT///

    THESE TWO COUNTRIES ARE PARTNER COUNTRIES. THEY ARE ALSO COUNTRIES THAT HAVE EXPRESSED THEIR DESIRE TO JOIN NATO IN DUE COURSE.

    ///END ACT///

    WHILE NOTING BOTH PARLIAMENTS MUST APPROVE THEIR GOVERNMENT'S DECISION , MR. SHEA SAYS NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA HAS WRITTEN THE LEADERS OF BOTH BULGARIA AND ROMANIA TO ASSURE THEM THAT NATO HAS A "DIRECT AND MATERIAL" INTEREST IN THEIR SECURITY.

    ///SHEA ACT///

    WE GENERALLY WELCOME THE MANY INDICATIONS OF SOLIDARITY THAT WE HAVE RECEIVED FROM THE STATES OF THE REGION AND AS I SAID, IT'S A COMMON TASK, IT'S NOT SIMPLY A NATO TASK. THOSE COUNTRIES WILL PROBABLY BENEFIT IN THE MOST DIRECT AND IMMEDIATE WAY FROM AN END TO THIS CRISIS AND FROM THE EMERGENCE OF A MORE COOPERATIVE AND MORE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY STRUCTURE IN THE REGION.

    ///END ACT///

    AS NEIGHBORS OF YUGOSLAVIA, BOTH ROMANIA AND BULGARIA ARE ALREADY SUFFERING ECONOMIC DISLOCATIONS FROM NATO'S AIR STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA. THE BOMBING OF DANUBE RIVER BRIDGES IN NOVI SAD HAS BLOCKED THEIR RIVER COMMERCE TO WESTERN EUROPE. NATO IS ALSO URGING BULGARIA TO CLOSE ITS OIL PIPELINE TO YUGOSLAVIA AS THE ALLIANCE LOOKS FOR WAYS TO CUT OFF THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY'S ACCESS TO FUEL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/ALW/WFR
    20-Apr-99 12:11 PM EDT (1611 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] KOSOVO PENTAGON TUESDAY (L-ONLY) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248375
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TOP PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY SERBIAN OR RUSSIAN SCIENTISTS PROBABLY DID NOT LEARN VERY MUCH FROM THE U-S STEALTH FIGHTER THAT CRASHED EARLY IN THE AIR WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. THAT ASSESSMENT CAME TUESDAY FROM A U-S GENERAL WHO SAYS NEW U-S STEALTH PLANES ARE BEING BUILT WITH MORE ADVANCED WAYS OF HIDING FROM RADAR. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: SERB-LED YUGOSLAV FORCES SAY THEY SHOT DOWN THE F-117 STEALTH FIGHTER THE NIGHT OF MARCH 27TH. THE WRECKAGE OF THE "NIGHTHAWK" JET WAS SHOWN ON SERB TELEVISION, AND NEWS REPORTS SAY SOME PARTS OF THE ADVANCED PLANE MAY HAVE BEEN SHIPPED TO RUSSIA. SINCE MOST SERBIAN AIR-DEFENSE EQUIPMENT IS RUSSIAN MADE, THE STORIES RAISED FEARS THAT SECRETS OF STEALTH TECHNOLOGY MIGHT BE LOST.

    AVIATION EXPERTS SAY THE PLANE'S ODD SHAPE MAKES RADIO WAVES BOUNCE OFF ITS SURFACE IN WAYS THAT ARE HARD FOR RADAR TO DETECT. THE SKIN OF THE PLANE IS MADE OF SPECIAL MATERIALS THAT ABSORB RADAR SIGNALS, WHICH ALSO HAMPERS DETECTION.

    U-S AIR FORCE GENERAL BRUCE CARLSON SAYS NEWER GENERATIONS OF STEALTH PLANES, LIKE THE B-2 BOMBER AND THE F-22 FIGHTER, USE MUCH LESS OF THE SPECIAL RADAR-ABSORBING MATERIAL.

    /// CARLSON ACT ///

    IF IT WENT OVER THERE [IF THE SECRETS OF THE PLANE'S SKIN BECAME KNOWN] WE THINK THAT THE LOSS IS MINIMAL.

    /// END ACT ///

    MEANTIME, U-S OFFICIALS SAY AFTER WEEKS OF DISCUSSION AND LOGISTICAL WORK, TWO DOZEN APACHE HELICOPTERS ARE EXPECTED TO ARRIVE IN ALBANIA WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY.

    GENERAL CHARLES WALD SAYS THE HELICOPTERS ARE DESIGNED TO KILL TANKS AND ARE PERFECT FOR HUNTING DOWN SERB GROUND FORCES ACCUSED OF ATTACKING ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO.

    /// WALD ACT ///

    WE ARE GOING TO ATTACK THE ENEMY IN THE FIELD -- THAT COULD BE HIDDEN IN TREE LINES, HIDDEN BY BUILDINGS, THEY COULD BE IN SEMI-POPULATED AREAS, POSSIBLY, [WHERE] THEY ARE HARDER TO FIND. THIS IS THE TYPE OF MISSION THE APACHE IS GOOD FOR.

    /// END ACT ///

    EARLIER, U-S OFFICIALS SAID THEY WOULD SEND TWO-THOUSAND SOLDIERS TO FLY, FIX AND PROTECT THE APACHES, BUT THAT DEPLOYMENT HAS BEEN GROWING AND GROWING. SIX-HUNDRED PARATROOPERS ARE THE LATEST ADDITION, AND THEY WILL SWELL THE TOTAL APACHE FORCE TO ABOUT 33-HUNDRED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/PHW/WTW
    20-Apr-99 6:31 PM EDT (2231 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] MACEDONIA / LOCAL REACTION BY EVE CONANT (SKOPJE, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43166
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MACEDONIA HAS ACCEPTED BOTH NATO PEACEKEEPING TROOPS AND MORE THAN 150-THOUSAND ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT EVE CONANT IN SKOPJE REPORTS THE MACEDONIAN PEOPLE ARE OVERWHELMED WITH THE INFLUX AND MANY SAY THE COUNTRY IS TOO POOR TO COPE WITH THE REFUGEE PROBLEM.

    TEXT: THE ETHNIC POPULATION OF MACEDONIA IS A FRAGILE MIX. TWO-THIRDS OF THE PEOPLE IN THIS FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF TWO MILLION ARE MACEDONIAN -- SLAVIC AND ORTHODOX LIKE THE SERBS. THE OTHER ONE-THIRD IS ETHNIC ALBANIAN, AND MUSLIM. THERE ALSO ARE 40-THOUSAND SERBS. AND NOW, WITH THE INFLUX OF MORE THAN 150-THOUSAND ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES INTO MACEDONIA, MANY MACEDONIANS FEAR THEIR FRAGILE BALANCE WILL BE DESTROYED.

    MACEDONIANS ON THE STREET, LIKE BLAGOJA STEJKOVSKI ('BLA'-GO-HA STEY-'KOV'-SKI), SAY THEIR COUNTRY SHOULD HELP THE REFUGEES, BUT THAT THERE IS A LIMIT TO HOW MUCH MACEDONIA CAN DO.

    /// STEJKOVKSI ACT - IN MACEDONIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    THE REFUGEE FLOW IN MACEDONIA IS HURTING OUR ECONOMY, HE SAYS. WE ARE ALREADY A POOR A COUNTRY.

    POLITICAL ANALYST AND FORMER PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE LUBSHA GIORGEVSKY ('LUB'-SHA GI-OR-'GEV'-SKEE) SAYS THE NATO STRIKES AND THE ENSUING FLOW OF REFUGEES PUTS MACEDONIA IN A DIFFICULT POSITION.

    /// GIORGEVSKY ACT ONE ///

    IT IS ALMOST (AN) IMPOSSIBLE POSITION FOR MACEDONIAN ETHNICALITY IN MACEDONIA BECAUSE WE ARE TRADITIONALLY LINKED WITH SERBS. BUT REGARDING OUR MUTUAL INTERESTS, THE INTERESTS OF OUR GOVERNMENT, WE SHOULD BE NEUTRAL, AND WE SHOULD BE WITH NATO.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. GIORGEVSKY ADMITS THE INITIAL TREATMENT OF REFUGEES BY MACEDONIAN POLICE AT THE BLACE HOLDING CAMP WAS NOT ACCEPTABLE. BUT HE SAYS THE WORLD MUST UNDERSTAND HOW DIFFICULT IT IS FOR MACEDONIA TO COPE WITH THE REFUGEES.

    /// GIORGEVSKY ACT TWO ///

    IT WOULD BE LIKE FOR THE UNITED STATES TO RECEIVE IN ONE NIGHT MORE THAN 14-MILLION REFUGEES. AND CONSIDERING OUR MEANS OF ORGANIZATION, OUR TECHNOLOGICAL LEVELS, AND ALSO OUR RESERVED EMOTIONS TOWARDS ALBANIANS, WHICH WE MUST RECOGNIZE, YOU GET THIS RESULT.

    /// END ACT ///

    WHILE THE REACTION OF MOST ETHNIC MACEDONIANS RESEMBLES A GRUDGING ACCEPTANCE OF THE INEVITABLE, THE SEVERAL THOUSAND WHO ATTENDED AN ANTI-NATO RALLY AND CONCERT WERE MORE VOCAL ABOUT WHERE THEIR LOYALTIES LIE.

    /// CROWD CHANTING "YUGOSLAVIA!" AND CHEERING ///

    PEOPLE IN THE CROWD WEAR THE "TARGET" SYMBOL IN SUPPORT OF WHAT THEY CALL THEIR ORTHODOX BROTHERS -- THE SERBS. OTHERS HOLD SIGNS ASKING WHO THE NEXT TARGET WILL BE, REFLECTING FEARS THAT THE CONFLICT COULD SPREAD.

    STUDENT BRANKETSA GRISC ('BRAN'-KET-SA GRIS) SAYS THERE ARE ALREADY TOO MANY ALBANIANS IN MACEDONIA.

    /// GRISC ACT ///

    WE HAVE ENOUGH ALBANIAN REFUGEES HERE AND THE BORDER SHOULD BE CLOSED.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONE LOCAL SONGWRITER, IGOR XHAMBAZOV HAS PUT AN IRONIC TWIST TO WHAT HE DESCRIBES AS THE "INVASION" OF MACEDONIA BY REFUGEES, NATO TROOPS, FOREIGN OBSERVERS, JOURNALISTS, AND THE LIKE.

    /// SONG "HOTEL MACEDONIA" - FADE UNDER ///

    HIS REMAKE OF THE SONG "HOTEL CALIFORNIA" -- NOW DUBBED "HOTEL MACEDONIA" -- HAS BECOME A HUGE HIT, ESPECIALLY FOR THOSE WHO DO NOT WANT ANY MORE REFUGEES TO ENTER MACEDONIA. THE SONG TOUCHES ON THE ETHNIC BALANCE HERE AND THE FEAR THAT VIOLENCE COULD SPREAD. ONE PART OF THE SONG PLEADS, "HERE ONE IS FOR GOD, ONE IS FOR ALLAH, BUT WE ARE STILL UNITED. JUST PLEASE, GOD, SAVE US FROM THE SHOOTING." AND THE CHORUS OF THE SONG -- THAT ONCE YOU ARRIVE, YOU'LL NEVER LEAVE -- REFLECTS A WIDESPREAD FEAR IN MACEDONIA THAT THE REFUGEES ARE HERE TO STAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH/KL
    20-Apr-99 7:01 AM EDT (1101 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] U-N / CROATIA BORDER (L - ONLY BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248362
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL SAYS IT IS INVESTIGATING REPORTS THAT YUGOSLAV TROOPS HAVE CROSSED INTO A U-N--MONITORED DEMILITARIZED ZONE IN CROATIA. V-O-A'S UNITED NATIONS CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE U-S REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONS PETER BURLEIGH SAYS THE COUNCIL HAS ASKED THE U-N SECRETARIAT TO URGENTLY LOOK INTO REPORTS OF YUGOSLAV TROOPS MOVEMENTS IN CROATIA. MR. BURLEIGH SAYS IF THE REPORTS ARE TRUE, THEY WOULD REPRESENT A VIOLATION OF THE U-N-MONITORED DEMILITARIZED ZONE.

    THE COUNCIL RESPONSE FOLLOWS A REPORT FROM THE CROATIAN STATE NEWS AGENCY SAYING BETWEEN 200 AND 300 YUGOSLAV SOLDIERS ENTERED THE PREVLAKA PENINSULA ON CROATIA'S SOUTHERNMOST BORDER WITH MONTENEGRO. THE COUNCIL WAS ALSO RESPONDING TO A LETTER FROM CROATIA'S U-N REPRESENTATIVE CONCERNING THE ALLEGED INCURSION.

    THE COUNCIL'S ACTION CAME AS IT RECEIVED A BRIEFING FROM THE U-N SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR NEIGHBORING BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, ELIZABETH REHN. MS. REHN SAYS SHE IS DOING HER BEST TO MAINTAIN WHAT SHE CALLS A "BUSINESS AS USUAL" APPROACH TO HER WORK IN THE TERRITORY, DESPITE INCREASED TENSION AND REFUGEE FLOWS FROM THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    MS. REHN SAYS THE EVENTS IN KOSOVO HIGHLIGHT THE IMPORTANCE OF HER MISSION TO HELP REFORM, RESTRUCTURE AND TRAIN THE POLICE AND JUDICIAL WORKERS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA.

    MS. REHN SAYS HER WORK IS NOW FOCUSSED ON DEALING WITH THE INCREASED FLOW OF REFUGEES INTO BOSNIA, SOME OF WHOM WERE MISTREATED BY LOCAL POLICE IN THE REPUBLICA SPRSKA.

    /// REHN ACT ///

    THEY WERE QUITE ROUGHLY DEALT WITH BY LOCAL POLICE, THAT WAS REPUBLICA SPRSKA POLICE IN THAT CASE, AND PERHAPS A LITTLE BIT FROM OTHER CITIZENS. THEY WERE NOT SO POPULAR, NOT SO WELCOME. BUT THIS IS SOMETHING WE HAVE NOW MADE THEM AWARE OF THAT WE WILL NOT TOLERATE. AND WE HAVE NOT HAD MORE REPORTS AFTER THE FIRST INCIDENTS AND IT IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR US TO REALLY MAKE IT CLEAR THAT WE WILL NOT TOLERATE ANYTHING LIKE THIS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MS. REHN SAYS THE INFLUX OF NEW REFUGEES POSES SPECIAL PROBLEMS AS BOSNIA WAS ALREADY HOME TO MORE THAN 800-THOUSAND DISPLACED PERSONS. MANY OF THE NEW REFUGEES, SHE SAYS, ARE YOUNG SERBIAN MEN WHO DO NOT WANT TO SERVE AS SOLDIERS IN THE MILITARY OPERATIONS AGAINST KOSOVO. SHE SAYS SHE EXPECTS THE SITUATION TO WORSEN FURTHER IN THE NEAR FUTURE WITH PREDICTIONS THAT THE YUGOSLAV ECONOMY WILL DETERIORATE. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/WFR
    20-Apr-99 4:52 PM EDT (2052 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KOSOVO WAR OF WORDS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43172
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BATTLE OVER KOSOVO IS BEING FOUGHT NOT JUST IN THE AIR OR ON THE GROUND. IT IS ALSO BEING FOUGHT ON THE AIRWAVES AND IN NATO BRIEFING ROOMS. LONDON CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN TAKES A LOOK AT THE PROPAGANDA WAR OVER KOSOVO.

    TEXT: NATO SAYS IT IS CRIPPLING BELGRADE'S ABILITY TO CARRY OUT ETHNIC CLEANSING IN KOSOVO. BUT THE AIR STRIKES DO NOT SILENCE THE WAR OF WORDS FROM BELGRADE AND NATO CAPITALS. AS THE WAR HEATS UP SO DOES THE RHETORIC.

    YUGOSLAVIA'S DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER VUK DRASKOVIC NEVER MISSES AN OPPORTUNITY TO DEMONIZE NATO WHEN HE IS INTERVIEWED BY WESTERN MEDIA.

    /// DRASKOVIC ACT ///

    I KNOW WHO IS PRODUCING THIS DISASTER. NATO FORCES. WE ARE VICTIMS OF ATROCITIES ALL OVER THE STATE AND NATO STARTED AGGRESSION

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO OFFICIALS LIKE BRITISH DEFENSE SECRETARY GEORGE ROBERTSON NOW REFER TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AS A VILE DICTATOR AND A SERIAL ETHNIC CLEANSER. HE ALSO ACCUSES THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT OF LYING TO HIS OWN PEOPLE ABOUT THE ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO IN ORDER TO SHORE UP HIS OWN POWER.

    /// ROBERTSON ACT ///

    WHILE MILOSEVIC IS ALL TOO AWARE OF THESE FACTS, THE SUFFERING SERB PEOPLE ARE BEING KEPT IN THE DARK. THE SERB PEOPLE ARE BEING SYSTEMATICALLY MISLED BY PROPAGANDA FROM THE GOVERNMENT CONTROLLED MEDIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ROBERTSON CITED ONE EXAMPLE OF PHONY SERB ANNOUNCEMENTS THAT SEVEN NATO FIGHTER JETS HAD BEEN SHOT DOWN. BUT LATER BELGRADE TOOK WESTERN REPORTERS INTO KOSOVO TO SEE THE REMAINS OF A REFUGEE CONVOY IT SAID NATO BOMBED.

    NATO'S DELAY IN PROVIDING ITS OWN DETAILS ONLY BOLSTERED BELGRADE'S ACCUSATIONS AND PROVOKED SHARP CRITICISM FROM FRUSTRATED JOURNALISTS TRYING TO SIFT THROUGH THE RHETORIC.

    /// OPT // REPORTERS' QUESTIONS ACT ///

    (REPORTER): I KNOW YOU WANT TO PUT THIS SETBACK BEHIND YOU AS YOU SAY, BUT THE SIMPLEST WAY TO DO THAT IS TO SHARE WITH US AS MUCH INFORMATION AS YOU HAVE. (REPORTER): SAME ISSUE, I AM AFRAID, CAN YOU DENY THAT NATO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCIDENT OR INCIDENTS THAT ARE BEING SHOWN ON SERBIAN TELEVISION AND TO WHICH WESTERN CORRESPONDENTS WERE INVITED TO GO AND LOOK AT?

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    BRITISH AUTHOR PHILIP KNIGHTLEY HAS TRACED THE HISTORY OF WARTIME MEDIA MANIPULATION IN HIS BOOK 'THE FIRST CASUALTY'. HE SAYS GOVERNMENTS HAVE ALWAYS TRIED TO MANIPULATE THE FLOW OF INFORMATION TO BUILD PUBLIC SUPPORT.

    /// KNIGHTLEY ACT ///

    THAT IS IMPORTANT TO HAVE THE PUBLIC BEHIND YOU BECAUSE ARMIES FIGHT AS NATIONS THINK. AND IF SOLDIERS FEEL THEY ARE THERE WITHOUT NATIONAL SUPPORT, THEY ARE NOT AS EFFECTIVE AS IF THEY FEEL THEY ARE INVOLVED IN A JUST WAR.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. KNIGHTLEY SAYS MEDIA MANIPULATION HAS BECOME MORE SOPHISTICATED AS THE MILITARY MACHINERY BECOMES MORE HI-TECH. SO TOO HAS THE LANGUAGE OF WAR, WHICH MR KNIGHTLEY CALLS ANTISEPTIC.

    /// KNIGHTLEY ACT ///

    COLLATERAL DAMAGE SOUNDS A LOT BETTER THAN CIVILIAN CASUALTIES. HITTING THE TARGET WITH PINPOINT ACCURACY. LASER GUIDED WEAPONS. IT IS ALL THE TECHNOLOGY OF THE NEW AGE. THE REMOVING OF THE MISTER AND THE DEMONIZATION OF MILOSEVIC IS AS OLD AS WAR CORRESPONDENTS AND THE BLACK ART OF PROPAGANDA. IT IS MUCH EASIER TO MUSTER PUBLIC OPINION BEHIND THE WAR WHEN YOU CAN DEMONIZE THE ENEMY AND MAKE HIM APPEAR LESS THAN HUMAN.

    /// END ACT ///

    CENSORSHIP ALSO PLAYS A KEY ROLE. BELGRADE, UNLIKE NATO, HAS NO OPEN NEWS BRIEFINGS ABOUT ITS MILITARY OPERATIONS. THE AUTHORITIES TIGHTLY CONTROL THE MEDIA, RESTRICT THE MOVEMENT OF FOREIGN JOURNALISTS, SOMETIMES HARASSING THEM OR EXPELLING THEM FROM THE COUNTRY. BELGRADE ALSO HAS SHUT DOWN CRITICAL NEWS OUTLETS, LIKE THE INDEPENDENT RADIO B-92.

    /// B-92 ANNOUNCEMENT - FADE UNDER ///

    THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT NOW HAS HELPED PUT B-92 ON THE INTERNET TO KEEP ITS CRITICAL VIEWS FLOWING BACK INTO YUGOSLAVIA.

    BUT BRITISH AUTHOR KNIGHTLEY SAYS IT IS THE LACK OF INDEPENDENT MEDIA ACCESS TO THE WAR ZONE THAT LETS THE PROPAGANDA WAR CONTINUE UNCHECKED.

    ONE FRUSTRATED REPORTER WROTE IN A BRITISH NEWSPAPER LAST WEEK ABOUT WHAT HE CALLS THE RAREST OF JOURNALISTIC PRIZES -- FACTS NOT GATHERED FROM A MILITARY BRIEFING OR BELGRADE'S STATE-RUN MEDIA. HE SAYS HE WAS REWARDED LAST WEEK WHEN HE SAW A GRUESOME THREE-MINUTE VIDEO OF VICTIMS OF A MASSACRE IN KOSOVO. IRONICALLY, IT WAS NOT TAKEN BY A JOURNALIST, BUT BY A KOSOVAR ALBANIAN REFUGEE WHO WANTED TO SHOW THE WORLD WHAT THE WORLD COULD NOT SEE FOR ITSELF. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/RAE
    20-Apr-99 1:17 PM EDT (1717 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] UNICEF / REFUGEE EDUCATION (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248345
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UNICEF, THE UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND, IS PLANNING TO OPEN FIVE SCHOOLS THIS WEEK FOR ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEE CHILDREN IN MACEDONIA. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS THE AGENCY SAYS IT ALSO PLANS TO SET UP SIMILAR SCHOOLS FOR THOUSANDS OF REFUGEE CHILDREN IN ALBANIA.

    TEXT: UNICEF OPENED ITS FIRST SCHOOL FRIDAY IN THE STENKOVIC 11 CAMP IN MACEDONIA. THREE-HUNDRED-20 STUDENTS AGE SEVEN TO 15 ARE BEING TAUGHT IN TWO SHIFTS.

    UNICEF COMMUNICATIONS OFFICER PATRICK MC CORMACK SAYS EDUCATION IS INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT FOR CHILDREN, ESPECIALLY FOR REFUGEE CHILDREN. HE SAYS GOING TO SCHOOL MAKES THEIR LIVES LESS MISERABLE AND GIVES THEM A SENSE THAT LIFE SOME DAY MAY GET BACK TO NORMAL.

    MR. MC CORMACK SAYS THESE HOPES ARE ALREADY BEING REALIZED.

    /// MC CORMACK ACT ONE ///

    THE REACTION TO THIS FIRST SCHOOL WAS OVERWHELMING. FOR THE FIRST TIME, WE SAW CHILDREN LAUGHING AND PLAYING AND LOOKING ENTHUSIASTIC AND NOT JUST SITTING AROUND IN MUD AND LOOKING DESPERATE. IT'S A VERY VERY POSITIVE STEP FOR THEM AND A NECESSARY ONE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE TEACHERS -- FROM THE CAMP ITSELF -- ARE TEACHING MATHEMATICS, THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE, ART, AND MUSIC.

    MR. MC CORMACK SAYS UNICEF WILL OPEN SCHOOLS IN FIVE MORE REFUGEE CAMPS IN MACEDONIA, DESPITE SOME PROBLEMS. HE SAYS THE MAIN PROBLEM IS A LACK OF SPACE AND THE NEED FOR TENTS TO HOUSE THE CHILDREN.

    HE SAYS PLANS ARE AFOOT TO GET SIMILAR SCHOOL PROGRAMS RUNNING IN ALBANIA. A UNICEF EDUCATION EXPERT IS CURRENTLY IN KUKES, ALBANIA, ASSESSING THE SITUATION. MR. MC CORMACK SAYS SCHOOLS IN ALBANIA WILL OPERATE SOMEWHAT DIFFERENTLY FROM THOSE IN MACEDONIA.

    /// MC CORMACK ACT TWO ///

    WE WANT TO INTEGRATE THE CHILDREN WITH THE LOCAL POPULATION AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. IT'S OBVIOUSLY MUCH MORE POSSIBLE DOING THAT IN ALBANIA THAN IN MACEDONIA. AND, IT'S ALREADY BEEN DONE TO A BIG EXTENT. HALF OF THE REFUGEE POPULATION HAVE ALREADY MOVED INTO SOUTH AND CENTRAL ALBANIA AND THE MAJORITY ARE WITH HOST FAMILIES. SO THIS WILL EXTEND ALSO TO THE SCHOOLING OF CHILDREN.

    /// END ACT ///

    UNICEF SAYS TWO PRIVATE AID AGENCIES ARE SETTING UP PLAY GROUPS FOR YOUNGER CHILDREN IN A COUPLE OF REFUGEE CAMPS IN MACEDONIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    20-Apr-99 9:34 AM EDT (1334 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] CLINTON / KOSOVO (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248352
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SENIOR CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS SAY THEY'RE NOT DISAPPOINTED WITH RESULTS OF THE AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND THAT NO CONSIDERATION IS BEING GIVEN TO USING GROUND TROOPS. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: THE KOSOVO CRISIS IS CASTING A SHADOW OVER THE NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT THAT OPENS IN WASHINGTON FRIDAY. BUT AT A PRE-SUMMIT BRIEFING, MEMBERS OF MR. CLINTON'S NATIONAL SECURITY TEAM INSISTED THE ALLIED CONSENSUS FOR THE AIR WAR REMAINS ROCK-SOLID, AND THERE IS NO NEED TO CONSIDER GROUND FORCES. DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN REJECTED A SUGGESTION THAT THE ALLIES HAD EXPECTED THE AIR CAMPAIGN TO HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED WELL IN ADVANCE OF THE SUMMIT:

    ///COHEN ACTUALITY///

    WE HAD PLANNED FOR A PHASED AIR CAMPAIGN FOR HOWEVER LONG WAS NECESSARY. THERE WAS NEVER ANY TIME LIMIT OUT ON IT. THERE WAS NEVER ANY LIMITATION SAYING IT WILL BE OVER BY THE SUMMIT. WE INTENDED TO CARRY IT OUT AS LONG AS NECESSARY. AND THAT'S THE ONLY BRIEFING I'VE EVER RECEIVED OR GIVEN.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. COHEN SAID WHILE THE AIR CAMPAIGN HAS BEEN UNDER WAY NOW FOR FOUR WEEKS, THERE HAD ONLY BEEN 10 DAYS OF CLEAR WEATHER FOR NATO PILOTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/KL
    20-Apr-99 12:47 PM EDT (1647 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] CLINTON/KOHL (L)) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248363
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS GIVEN FORMER GERMAN CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL AMERICA'S HIGHEST CIVILIAN AWARD -- THE MEDAL OF FREEDOM -- IN A CEREMONY FULL OF REFERENCES TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: THE PRESIDENT SAYS THE FORMER CHANCELLOR DESERVES A PLACE IN HISTORY ALONGSIDE SUCH 20TH CENTURY GIANTS AS WINSTON CHURCHILL, FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT AND CHARLES DE GAULLE FOR HIS ROLE IN RE-UNIFYING GERMANY, AND OPENING THE WAY TO A NEW ERA OF EUROPEAN COOPERATION.

    AND IN AN EMOTIONAL CEREMONY IN THE WHITE HOUSE EAST ROOM, MR. CLINTON SAID IT IS IN THE INTEREST OF THE UNITED DEMOCRATIC EUROPE -- THAT MR. KOHL SOUGHT AS CHANCELLOR -- THAT NATO IS INVOLVED IN KOSOVO:

    /// CLINTON ACTUALITY///

    IT IS TO PROTECT THAT VISION THAT THE NATO ALLIES ARE IN KOSOVO TODAY. TO DEFEAT THE CYNICAL VISION EMBODIED BY MR. MILOSEVIC IN WHICH THE MOST PRIMITIVE HATRED AND BRUTAL REPRESSION ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAT MUTUAL RESPECT AND COMMON PROGRESS. ANYONE WHO RESPECTS THE LEGACY OF HELMUT KOHL KNOWS THAT FOR PEACE TO SURVIVE IN EUROPE, OUR ALLIANCE OF DEMOCRACIES MUST STAND, AND STAND TOGETHER AGAINST DICTATORS WHO EXPLOIT HUMAN DIFFERENCES TO EXTEND POWER.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. KOHL'S 16 YEARS IN OFFICE SAW THE COLLAPSE OF THE BERLIN WALL AND THE FORGING OF NEW RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EAST AND WEST. BUT HE TOLD THE CROWD NO ONE SHOULD BE DELUDED INTO THINKING THAT THE WORLD FUNDAMENTALLY CHANGED IN THOSE YEARS. HEARD THROUGH AN INTERPRETER HE SAID NATO -- AN ALLIANCE OF FREE NATIONS -- MUST ALSO REMAIN AN ALLIANCE OF SOLDIERS:

    ///KOHL ACTUALITY///

    IT IS QUITE TRUE THAT A FEW YEARS AGO WE MAY HAVE BELIEVED THAT WAR WAS A THING OF THE PAST. BUT NOW EVERY EVENING, WHEN WE WATCH TELEVISION, AND WE SEE THE NEWS, WE SEE IMAGES OF REFUGEES, OF PEOPLE WHO WERE DISPLACED FROM THEIR HOMES, PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN SLAUGHTERED, WOMEN WHO HAVE BEEN RAPED, AND LIVES THAT HAVE BEEN CRUSHED. AND WE ARE AWARE YET AGAIN OF THE FACT FREEDOM AND ALL THE POWER AND STRENGTH THAT IT ENTAILS IS SO IMPORTANT AND NEED TO BE UPHELD AND GUARANTEED BY THE NATIONS THAT FEEL COMMITTED TO IT.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. KOHL, WHO DEALT WITH THREE U-S PRESIDENTS IN HIS TENURE AS CHANCELLOR, ALSO SAID AN INCREASINGLY UNITED EUROPE MUST NOT LET THE TRANSATLANTIC BRIDGE WITH THE UNITED STATES FALL INTO RUIN.

    HE BECAME THE FIRST FOREIGN LEADER TO RECEIVE THE MEDAL OF FREEDOM SINCE 1991, WHEN THE THEN-PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH AWARDED IT TO FORMER BRITISH PRIME MINISTER MARGARET THATCHER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/PHW/JO
    20-Apr-99 5:07 PM EDT (2107 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] =CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248374
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS APPEALING TO CONGRESS FOR PATIENCE AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR THE AIR CAMPAIGN IN YUGOSLAVIA, AND IS RECEIVING SOME UNSOLICITED BACKING FOR THE POSSIBLE USE OF GROUND TROOPS IN THE BALKANS. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS ON TODAY'S (TUESDAY) DEVELOPMENTS ON CAPITOL HILL.

    TEXT: AS THE AIR WAR SLIPS INTO ITS SECOND MONTH, U-S OFFICIALS ARE TRYING TO PREPARE THE PUBLIC FOR A CONFLICT THAT MAY LAST A GOOD DEAL LONGER. SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT URGED SENATORS NOT TO FORMALLY DECLARE WAR ON YUGOSLAVIA, BUT TO HAVE FAITH IN NATO'S EFFORTS.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    AS THE PRESIDENT AND OUR MILITARY LEADERS HAVE WARNED, THIS STRUGGLE MAY BE LONG. WE CAN EXPECT DAYS OF TRAGEDY FOR US AS WELL AS FOR THE PEOPLE OF THE REGION. BUT WE MUST NOT FALTER AND WE CAN NOT FAIL.

    /// END ACT ///

    WHILE MANY ON CAPITOL HILL SHARE THE ADMINISTRATION'S GOALS IN KOSOVO, THERE ARE DOUBTS AND FRUSTRATION ABOUT NATO'S PLANS FOR ACHIEVING THEM. A BIPARTISAN GROUP OF SENATORS IS OFFERING SUPPORT FOR STRONGER ACTION, INCLUDING THE POSSIBLE DEPLOYMENT OF GROUND TROOPS TO DRIVE THE SERBS OUT. DEMOCRAT JOSEPH LIEBERMAN ARGUES THE ALLIES HAVE NO CHOICE BUT TO WIN.

    /// LIEBERMAN ACT ///

    THUGS, RENEGADE REGIMES AND POWER-HUNGRY MANIACS EVERYWHERE IN THE WORLD ARE WATCHING OUR ACTIONS IN THE BALKANS AND GAUGING OUR RESOLVE. THEY MUST RECEIVE AN UNEQUIVOCAL MESSAGE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. LIEBERMAN AND OTHERS ARE SPONSORING A RESOLUTION THAT, IF APPROVED, WOULD SIMPLY AUTHORIZE MR. CLINTON TO USE WHATEVER MEANS HE DEEMS NECESSARY. BUT AS CRITICS POINT OUT, THE PRESIDENT HAS NOT ASKED FOR SUCH AUTHORITY. MAJORITY LEADER TRENT LOTT CALLS THE MEASURE PREMATURE AND POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS.

    /// LOTT ACT ///

    SO ONE OF TWO THINGS CAN HAPPEN AND THEY COULD BOTH BE BAD. ONE: SUCH A RESOLUTION MIGHT PASS. THEN YOU'VE GIVEN THE PRESIDENT FULL AUTHORITY TO DO ANYTHING HE WANTS TO AT ANY TIME IN THIS REGION. OR TWO: IT MIGHT FAIL. AND THAT COULD BE INTERPRETED IN A VERY NEGATIVE WAY BY MR. MILOSEVIC.

    /// END ACT ///

    OTHERS ARE SKEPTICAL ABOUT DEEPENING U-S INVOLVEMENT IN WHAT SO FAR LOOKS LIKE A FAILED MISSION. REPUBLICAN SENATOR ROBERT BENNETT SAYS THE ONLY OPTIONS ARE TOTAL MILITARY COMMITMENT OR WITHDRAWAL.

    /// BENNETT ACT ///

    I THINK THOSE ARE YOUR TWO CHOICES: ALL [THE WAY] IN OR ALL [THE WAY] OUT. AND UNLESS SOMEONE CONVINCES ME THAT "ALL IN" IS A GOOD IDEA, I DON'T SEE ANY ALTERNATIVE TO "ALL OUT." UNDERSTANDING, AGAIN, THAT "ALL OUT" DOES NOT MEAN ABANDONING THE REFUGEES.

    /// END ACT ///

    BESIDES THE LONG-TERM BALKAN STRATEGY, CONGRESS MUST ALSO DEAL WITH THE PRESIDENT'S REQUEST FOR SIX-BILLION DOLLARS IN EMERGENCY FUNDS FOR THE AIR WAR AND HUMANITARIAN AID. IT IS NOT CLEAR HOW SOON THAT MEASURE MIGHT REACH THE HOUSE OR SENATE FLOOR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/PHW/WTW
    20-Apr-99 6:17 PM EDT (2217 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] INVADING KOSOVO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43176
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRODUCTION: WHILE THERE IS MUCH TALK OF USING NATO GROUND TROOPS IN KOSOVO, HOW THEY WOULD INVADE AND THEN OPERATE HAS NOT BEEN SPELLED OUT. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS ON WHAT SOME EXPERTS BELIEVE MAY BE INVOLVED.

    TEXT: "THE FACT IS THAT THE PRACTICAL RESTRAINTS ON AN EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION OF GROUND TROOPS AND THE COSTS INVOLVED ARE SO ENORMOUS THEY ARE NEARLY PROHIBITIVE."

    THAT IS THE OPINION OF PATRICK THEROS OF THE WESTERN POLICY CENTER WRITING IN "THE WASHINGTON TIMES." A FORMER U-S AMBASSADOR TO QATAR, MR. THEROS SAYS INVASION ROUTES TO KOSOVO FROM THE SOUTH PRESENT HUGE OBSTACLES. ALBANIA'S ROADS, PORTS AND AIRFIELDS COULD NOT SUPPORT THE DEPLOYMENT OF A SINGLE U-S DIVISION.

    A BETTER ROUTE THROUGH MACEDONIA MEANS BRINGING TROOPS AND SUPPLIES FROM THE GREEK PORT OF THESSALONIKI. MR. THEROS SAYS THAT WOULD SEVERELY STRAIN THE PORT AND EFFECTIVELY SHUT DOWN ITS NORMAL COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS.

    BEYOND THAT IS A POLITICAL OBSTACLE, SAYS BALKAN ANALYST PETER SPATHARIS, WHO HAS RECENTLY RETURNED FROM A VISIT TO GREECE:

    // SPATHARIS ACT //

    EVEN THOUGH GREECE IS A MEMBER OF NATO AND IS PARTCIPATING IN THIS EFFORT, THEY DO NOT PARTICIPATE IN THE MILITARY SIDE OF THE EFFORT, AND THE GREEK PEOPLE ARE NOT VERY MUCH FOR THIS TYPE OF OPERATION. SO ANYTHING THAT INVOLVES TROOPS COMING THROUGH THESSALINIKI TO BE TAKEN THROUGH THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA INTO KOSOVO - THERE IS GOING TO BE SOME RESISTANCE FROM THE PEOPLE.

    // END ACT //

    INVASION FROM THE NORTH ALONG THE LEVEL PLAINS USED BY THE GERMANS IN WORLD WAR TWO WOULD BE MUCH EASIER. BUT MR. THEROS THINKS THE EIGHT DIVISIONS THAT ARE CONTEMPLATED FOR THE OPERATION WOULD NOT BE ENOUGH. THE NAZIS NEEDED FAR MORE.

    HE NOTES AIR ATTACKS HAVE DESTROYED THE BRIDGES NATO FORCES WOULD NEED TO REACH KOSOVO FROM THE NORTH. ONCE IN SERBIA, THEY WOULD FACE GUERRILLA TACTICS FROM SOME 300 THOUSAND YUGOSLAVS TRAINED TO DEFEND AGAINST A POSSIBLE WARSAW PACT INVASION. LIKE GUERRILLAS EVERYWHERE, SAYS MR. THEROS, THEY WOULD AVOID COMBAT WITH MAIN UNITS AND STRIKE REAR AREA FORCES.

    MR. SPATHARIS SAYS THE SERBS COULD PROVE FORMIDABLE AT THAT TYPE OF WARFARE:

    // SPATHARIS ACT //

    THEY KNOW THE TERRAIN IN KOSOVO MUCH, MUCH BETTER THAN NATO FORCES DO. THEY HAVE LIGHTER TROOPS WHICH THEY CAN USE MUCH MORE EFFECTIVELY IN MOUNTAIN WARFARE. NATO HAS IN PRINCIPLE FAIRLY HEAVY DIVISIONS. THE UNITED STATES HAS VERY HEAVY DIVISIONS WHICH ARE DIFFICULT TO MOVE IN THAT KIND OF TERRAIN. SO IT IS NOT AN ISSUE OF HOW GOOD THE ARMY IS, BUT RATHER HOW EFFICIENTLY IT IS USED.

    // END ACT //

    JAMES GOW, AN ANALYST OF YUGOSLAVIA AT THE WOODROW WILSON CENTER IN WASHINGTON, SAYS THE SERBS' MILITARY PROWESS IS MUCH EXAGGERATED, ESPECIALLY IN WORLD WAR TWO. UNLIKE SOME OTHER COMMENTATORS, HE BELIEVES THE GERMAN FORCES WERE NOT SO EXTENSIVE IN YUGOSLAVIA IN WORLD WAR TWO:

    // GOW ACT //

    THERE IS A CONSIDERABLE DEGREE OF SALACIOUS, QUASI-MYTHOLOGY ABOUT THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN THE TERRITORIES OF WHAT WAS YUGOSLAVIA. THE MAJORITY OF THAT WAR WAS FOUGHT AS AN INTRA-YUGOSLAV WAR AND PRIMARILY IN BOSNIA-HERZOGOVINA AND PARTS OF CROATIA.

    // END ACT //

    MR. GOW SAYS TO OPERATE SUCCESSFULLY, GUERRILLAS NEED A SYMPATHETIC POPULATION, AS FISH NEED WATER. BUT IN KOSOVO, THE WATER IS ABSENT. THE ALBANIAN POPULATION IS HOSTILE TO SERBIA AND WOULD HARDLY HELP OUT.

    IN THE REST OF SERBIA, MR. GOWS SAYS PEOPLE WOULD FIGHT FOR THEIR HOMELAND WITH THE NECESSARY GUERRILLA TACTICS. HE THINKS NATO SHOULD BE PREPARED FOR THE SERBS' TALENT FOR MANEUVER IN THE FACE OF SUPERIOR FORCE:

    // GOW ACT //

    WE HAVE ALREADY SEEN WHAT THEY DO FACED WITH A DIRECT ATTACK IS TO TRY TO SHIFT THE GROUND, NOT TO TRY TO ENGAGE THE ENEMY DIRECTLY ON THE ENEMY'S OWN TERMS: FOR EXAMPLE, THE STRATEGIC PRACTICE TO DATE IN THIS CONFLICT OF NOT USING THE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS SIGNIFICANTLY BECAUSE THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN PLAYING INTO THE HANDS OF NATO. SO WHAT COULD YUGOSLAVIA TRY TO DO TO COUNTER A NATO GROUND FORCE WITHOUT GOING INTO DIRECT COMBAT?

    // END ACT //

    MR. GOW SAYS THE AIR CAMPAIGN MAY EVENTUALLY WEAKEN SERBS ENOUGH SO THAT NATO CAN TAKE KOSOVO WITHOUT TOO MUCH TROUBLE. BUT THEN TROUBLE MAY BEGIN, AS SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC PRODUCES ONE OF HIS SURPRISES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/WFR
    20-Apr-99 5:59 PM EDT (2159 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] BRITAIN/KOSOVO (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248343
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK SAYS HIS GOVERNMENT WILL HAND OVER INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION ABOUT ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO TO THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN HAS MORE FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: FOREIGN SECRETARY COOK HAS NAMED A SPECIAL ENVOY TO COORDINATE THE GATHERING OF EVIDENCE OF WAR CRIMES IN KOSOVO TO PASS ON TO WAR CRIMES PROSECUTOR LOUISE ARBOUR. HE SAYS THE EVIDENCE INCLUDES HIGHLY SENSITIVE INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION.

    /// COOK ACT ///

    WE HAVE AUTHORIZED THE HANDOVER OF BRITISH INTELLIGENCE TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. IT IS A RARE STEP TO RELEASE THE INFORMATION. BUT WE HAVE TAKEN IT BECAUSE WE ARE DETERMINED THAT THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR TURNING KOSOVO INTO A SLAUGHTERHOUSE SHOULD BE BROUGHT TO JUSTICE. TAKEN WE ARE DETERMINED.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. COOK SAYS THERE IS EVIDENCE OF 50 SEPARATE ATROCITIES WITH DETAILS OF THE SERB MILITARY UNITS AND THE COMMANDERS ACCUSED OF CARRYING THEM OUT. FOREIGN SECRETARY COOK DESCRIBES THEM AS PART OF A PERSISTENT PATTERN OF TERROR.

    /// OPT THE REST FOR LONG CR ///

    INTERNATIONAL AID WORKERS ARE ALSO COLLECTING EVIDENCE FROM KOSOVAR REFUGEES WHO CROSSED INTO MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA. WAR CRIMES PROSECUTOR LOUISE ARBOUR TOLD THE LONDON NEWS BRIEFING HER INVESTIGATORS ARE WORKING WITH THEM NOW.

    /// ARBOUR ACT ///

    WE ARE ALSO ENGAGED ALREADY IN TAKING FIRST HAND ACCOUNTS FROM PERSONS WE BELIEVE WILL BE AVAILABLE TO BE WITNESSES IN COURT.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE WAR CRIMES PROSECUTOR DOES NOT RULE OUT AN EVENTUAL CASE AGAINST YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, IF IT IS WARRANTED.

    /// ARBOUR ACT ///

    NOT ONLY DO I HAVE NO HESITATION, BUT I BELIEVE THE MANDATE OF THE TRIBUNAL IS IN FACT TO SCRUTINIZE PERSONAL CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR WAR CRIMES AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL. I BELIEVE THAT IS WHY WE WERE CREATED AND NOT MERELY TO BRING TO ACCOUNT LOW-KEY PERPETRATORS.

    /// END ACT //

    BUT MS ARBOUR SAYS ANY CASE BROUGHT TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL MUST BE BASED ON CREDIBLE, SUBSTANTIATED EVIDENCE THAT SUPPORTS THE CHARGES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/ALW/RAE
    20-Apr-99 9:05 AM EDT (1305 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248342
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR SAYS HE IS OPTIMISTIC ON THE COURSE OF THE AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS MR. BLAIR MADE THE COMMENT AFTER TALKS AT NATO HEADQUARTERS WITH MILITARY COMMANDER GENERAL WESLEY CLARK.

    TEXT: THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER WAS EAGER TO PASS ON TO REPORTERS WHAT HE LEARNED HERE ABOUT THE 27TH DAY OF NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// BLAIR ACT ONE ///

    OUR MAIN EFFORT REMAINS CONCENTRATED UPON GROUND FORCES WITHIN KOSOVO. AT LEAST 13 DIFFERENT MILITARY TARGETS WERE ATTACKED BY A RANGE OF AIRCRAFT. SEVERAL GROUPS OF VEHICLES, INCLUDING AT LEAST FIVE TANKS AND FOUR OTHER ARMORED VEHICLES AND UP TO 20 OTHER MILITARY VEHICLES WERE HIT. IN ADDITION, WE ATTACKED A TROOPS ASSEMBLY AREA, A SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILE SYSTEM, AS WELL AS AMMUNITION DEPOTS, ARMY HEADQUARTERS AND AIRFIELDS IN OTHER PARTS OF THE SERB MILITARY MACHINE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER WENT ON TO GIVE NATO'S ESTIMATE OF WHAT FOUR WEEKS OF AIR STRIKES HAVE ACCOMPLISHED AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA'S AIR FORCE.

    /// BLAIR ACT ///

    WE HAVE DESTROYED 50 PERCENT, THAT IS HALF, OF SERBIA'S BEST FIGHTER, THE MIG 29 FULCHRUM. THEY NO LONGER CONFRONT US WITH FIGHTER AIRCRAFT AS THEY DID INITIALLY. WE'VE DESTROYED ABOUT 25 PERCENT OF THE MIG 21 AND ABOUT 30 PERCENT OF THE SUPER GALEB WHICH THE SERBS HAVE USED TO ATTACK CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO. SO THIS IS SPECIFICALLY DESTRUCTION AIMED AT PART OF THEIR KILLING MACHINE IN KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    PRIME MINISTER BLAIR SAYS NATO HAS DESTROYED 25 PERCENT OF YUGOSLAVIA'S FUEL SUPPLIES AND CRIPPLED ALL OF ITS OIL REFINING CAPABILITY.

    BUT MR. BLAIR REFUSES TO SAY IF NATO WILL STOP YUGOSLAVIA FROM RECEIVING REFINED FUEL FROM ABROAD THROUGH ITS PORT OF BAR IN MONTENEGRO. IN RESPONSE TO REPEATED QUESTIONS, THE PRIME MINISTER SAYS ONLY ALL COUNTRIES SHOULD COOPERATE IN MAKING SURE ECONOMIC MEASURES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA ARE EFFECTIVE.

    AS FOR INTRODUCING GROUND TROOPS INTO KOSOVO, PRIME MINISTER BLAIR SAYS AIR STRIKES SHOULD BE GIVEN SUFFICIENT TIME TO FORCE YUGOSLAVIA TO AGREE TO NATO'S TERMS FOR AN END TO THE BOMBING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    20-Apr-99 8:54 AM EDT (1254 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] RUSSIA DIPLOMACY (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248349
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA IS PUSHING AHEAD WITH EFFORTS TO ACT AS A MEDIATOR BETWEEN YUGOSLAVIA AND NATO, WITH A SUBTLE POLICY SHIFT AND FRESH INITIATIVES ON SEVERAL FRONTS. V-O-A MOSCOW CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS RUSSIAN OFFICIALS ARE MODERATING THEIR ANTI-NATO TONE AND STEPPING UP CRITICISM OF ETHNIC CLEANSING IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S NEWLY-NAMED ENVOY ON THE KOSOVO CRISIS, VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN, LEFT TUESDAY ON A TWO-DAY MISSION TO REGIONAL CAPITALS TO GATHER SUPPORT FOR A STILL VAGUELY DEFINED RUSSIAN PEACE PLAN. HIS FIRST STOP WAS TBILISI FOR TALKS WITH ANOTHER WOULD-BE PEACEMAKER, FORMER SOVIET FOREIGN MINISTER, NOW GEORGIAN PRESIDENT EDUARD SHEVARDNADZE.

    FROM GEORGIA, MR. CHERNOMYRDIN FLEW TO AZERBAIJAN AND UKRAINE. ALL THREE OF THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS ARE NOW MEMBERS OF NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE PROGRAM, AND THEIR PRESIDENTS ARE GOING TO WASHINGTON THIS WEEK FOR THE ALLIANCE'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY OBSERVANCE.

    AT THE SAME TIME, THE HEAD OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH, PATRIARCH ALEXY THE SECOND, WAS IN BELGRADE FOR A SHOW OF SOLIDARITY WITH ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS IN SERBIA. NEWS AGENCIES REPORT THE PATRIARCH MADE A VEILED CRITICISM OF ETHNIC CLEANSING, URGING YUGOSLAVS TO "ENSURE THAT KOSOVO IS NOT DEFILED ANY MORE WITH FRATRICIDE."

    RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV ALSO EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT THE TREATMENT OF KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS. MR. IVANOV PREVIOUSLY CONFINED HIS CRITICISMS ABOUT THE YUGOSLAV CONFLICT MOSTLY TO NATO ACTIONS. BUT AFTER A MEETING WITH A VISITING DELEGATION FROM ISLAMIC COUNTRIES, THE FOREIGN MINISTER NOTED THAT ETHNIC CLEANSING IN KOSOVO HAD BEGUN AT THE TIME OF THE AIR STRIKES, ADDING "ALL FORMS OF REPRESSION MUST BE HALTED."

    RUSSIA'S EARLY SUPPORT FOR THE SERBS, AND TALK OF A PAN-SLAVIC BROTHERHOOD, HAD RAISED SHARP OBJECTIONS AMONG MUSLIMS, WHO MAKE UP ONE-SEVENTH OF THE COUNTRY'S POPULATION.

    THE NEW TONE COMING FROM MOSCOW CONTRASTS SHARPLY WITH THE REFLEXIVE, UNCONDITIONAL SUPPORT OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC EVIDENT IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE CONFLICT. THE CHANGE IS NOWHERE MORE PRONOUNCED THAN IN THE STYLE OF VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN.

    THE NEZAVISIMAYA GAZETA NEWSPAPER THIS WEEK REPORTED MR. CHERNOMYRDIN IS CHANGING MOSCOW'S TACTICS IN DEALING WITH NATO -- CONSULTING WASHINGTON FIRST AND EUROPEAN LEADERS SECOND. NEWSPAPERS SAY PRIME MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV POINTEDLY USED THE OPPOSITE APPROACH EARLIER AS A WAY OF EXPRESSING DISPLEASURE WITH WHAT HE SEES AS WASHINGTON'S SELF-APPOINTED ROLE AS THE WORLD'S POLICEMAN.

    THE CLOSER COOPERATION BETWEEN WASHINGTON AND MOSCOW WAS SYMBOLIZED BY PRESIDENT CLINTON'S PHONE CALL MONDAY TO RUSSIAN LEADER BORIS YELTSIN. IT WAS THEIR FIRST CONVERSATION SINCE THE AIR STRIKES BEGAN. AFTERWARD, MR. YELTSIN'S SPOKESMAN SIGNALED THE NEW THINKING IN THE KREMLIN, QUOTING THE RUSSIAN LEADER AS SAYING "WE CANNOT BREAK OFF RELATIONS WITH THE WORLD'S LEADING POWERS." (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH/JO
    20-Apr-99 12:09 PM EDT (1609 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] BALKAN SUPPORT BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43175
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: RE-SENDING WITH CORRECT NUMBER ///

    INTRO: THE NATO MILITARY CAMPAIGN IN YUGOSLAVIA AND THE ACCOMPANYING REFUGEE CRISIS HAS TRIGGERED AN OUTPOURING OF DONATIONS FROM PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES, SOME WITH RELATIVES IN THE BALKANS, AND MANY MORE WITH NO SUCH TIES. SOME OF THE AID EFFORTS ARE BEING ORGANIZED BY ETHNIC CHURCH GROUPS, SOME BY TRADITIONAL LARGER AID ORGANIZATIONS, ARE THE RESULT OF MUCH SMALLER-SCALE EFFORTS. FROM CHICAGO, V-O-A'S MICHAEL LELAND OFFERS A LOOK AT WHAT IS BEING DONE.

    TEXT: AT THE HOLY RESURRECTION SERBIAN ORTHODOX CATHEDRAL IN CHICAGO, FATHER DENNIS PAVICHEVICH SAYS DONATIONS TO HELP THOSE HARMED BY THE NATO ACTION STARTED POURING IN SHORTLY AFTER THE BOMBS BEGAN FALLING.

    /// FIRST PAVICHEVICH ACT ///

    THE FIRST DAY WE RAISED 40-THOUSAND DOLLARS, JUST IN THE BEGINNING. NOW, WE ARE GOING TO BE COLLECTING EVERY SUNDAY AFTER CHURCH SERVICES.

    /// END ACT ///

    CHICAGO IS HOME TO AN ESTIMATED 350-THOUSAND ETHNIC SERBS, AND FATHER PAVICHEVICH SAYS MANY HAVE CLOSE RELATIVES IN THE BALKANS.

    /// SECOND PAVICHEVICH ACT ///

    I WOULD SAY OVER HALF OF MY CONGREGATION HAVE PEOPLE BACK IN THE OLD COUNTRY, HAVE PEOPLE IN YUGOSLAVIA, SERBIA, IN MONTENEGRO.

    /// END ACT ///

    NEAR THE MIDWEST U-S CITY OF DETROIT, HOME TO THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS, THE ST. PAUL ALBANIAN CATHOLIC CHURCH RAISED AN ESTIMATED 300-THOUSAND DOLLARS ON A RECENT SUNDAY. TONY JUNCAI IS ONE OF THE ORGANIZERS OF THE "HOMELAND IS CALLING" FUND.

    /// JUNCAI ACT ///

    THE MONEY WILL BE USED FOR WHATEVER THEY SEE FIT. WE ARE GENERATING MONEY BOTH FOR HELPING THE REFUGEES AND ALSO FOR HELPING THE K-L-A [KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY]. WHATEVER THEY NEED: BLANKETS, SLEEPING BAGS, MEDICAL SUPPLIES, OR WHATEVER THEY NEED. WE ARE REALLY IN NO POSITION TO TELL THEM HOW TO SPEND IT.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONE OF THE BEST-KNOWN NAMES IN DISASTER RELIEF HERE IN THE UNITED STATES IS THE SALVATION ARMY. ITS CENTRAL UNITED STATES DISASTER SERVICES DIRECTOR, MAJOR THOMAS BOWERS, SAYS FIVE EXPERTS IN FEEDING LARGE GROUPS OF DISPLACED PEOPLE WILL ARRIVE IN NORTHERN ALBANIA THIS WEEK WITH THEIR EQUIPMENT.

    /// BOWERS ACT ///

    TWO MOBILE FEEDING KITCHENS. INSIDE EACH KITCHEN ARE ADDITIONAL FIELD KITCHENS THAT CAN BE SET UP. ALL OF THE EQUIPMENT TOGETHER CAN HANDLE UP TO 20-THOUSAND MEALS A DAY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MAJOR BOWERS SAYS THE SALVATION ARMY HAS RECEIVED AN OUTPOURING OF MONEY AND OTHER OFFERS OF AID FROM THOUSANDS OF AMERICANS SINCE THE NATO ACTION IN THE BALKANS BEGAN IN MARCH. AT THE MECHANICS GROVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL NORTH OF CHICAGO, PRINCIPAL PAUL MIKULCIK SAYS HELPING THE BALKAN REFUGEES HAS BECOME PART OF THE SCHOOL'S RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP PROGRAM. TWO KETTLES HAVE BEEN PLACED IN THE SCHOOL TO COLLECT MONEY FOR THE RED CROSS KOSOVO RELIEF FUND. MR. MIKULCIK SAYS THE COLLECTIONS HELP THE STUDENTS FEEL MORE DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THE RELIEF EFFORT.

    /// MIKULCIK ACT ///

    THEY SEE THE REFUGEES MORE THAN THEY SEE WHAT IS HAPPENING IN BELGRADE AND SO FORTH, BECAUSE THAT IS WHAT HAS BEEN ON THE NEWS. THE TEACHERS TELL ME THAT MANY OF THE CHILDREN HAVE NOTICED THAT THOSE REFUGEES TEND TO BE EITHER OLDER PEOPLE, AS THEIR GRANDPARENTS WOULD BE, OR CHILDREN.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MIKULCIK SAYS THE STUDENTS AND SCHOOL STAFF HAVE ALREADY DONATED ABOUT 400 DOLLARS. THE KETTLES WILL STAY OUT UNTIL THE MIDDLE OF MAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MJL/PT/WTW
    20-Apr-99 7:23 PM EDT (2323 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] EDITORIAL: PUNISHING SERBIA'S WAR MACHINE

    DATE= 04/21/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08270
    CONTENT= THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    04/21/99.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE: NATO IS STEPPING UP ITS AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC REGIME IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. FLYING MORE THAN FIVE-HUNDRED SORTIES OVER THE WEEKEND, NATO AIRCRAFT ATTACKED FUEL SUPPLY FACILITIES, AMMUNITION FACTORIES, AND OTHER TARGETS IN BELGRADE, NOVI SAD, AND ELSEWHERE.

    NATO BOMB AND MISSILE STRIKES HAVE HAD A DEVASTATING EFFECT ON SERBIA'S MILITARY MACHINE. ITS ABILITY TO REFINE PETROLEUM HAS BEEN DESTROYED. OVER SEVENTY PERCENT OF ITS FUEL STORAGE FACILITIES HAVE BEEN WRECKED. AMMUNITION PRODUCTION HAS BEEN CRIPPLED.

    MAJOR TRANSPORTATION LINKS AND BRIDGES ARE BEING SYSTEMATICALLY DEMOLISHED BY NATO BOMBS AND MISSILES. THAT INCLUDES THE RAILWAY BRIDGE AT RASKA -- THE MAIN RAIL LINK TO KOSOVO.

    MILOSEVIC'S SECURITY FORCES CONTINUE TO TARGET CIVILIANS. AT LAPUSNIK IN KOSOVO, SERBIAN FORCES RECENTLY SHELLED A LARGE CONCENTRATION OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES, KILLING AS MANY AS ONE HUNDRED. THROUGHOUT KOSOVO, THE ETHNIC CLEANSING PROCESS CONTINUES. COUNTLESS REFUGEES -- MOST THEM WOMEN AND CHILDREN -- HAVE TOLD GRIM TALES OF ATROCITIES AT THE HANDS OF SERB FORCES.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN IS TO STOP THE MILOSEVIC REGIME'S WAR ON THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO. THAT REGIME WILL CONTINUE TO PAY A HIGH PRICE FOR ITS PERSECUTION OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS. AS PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON SAID, "WE WANT THE SERB FORCES OUT OF KOSOVO. WE WANT THE REFUGEES TO BE ABLE TO GO HOME, PROTECTED BY AN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCE AS THEY WORK TOWARDS SELF-GOVERNANCE."

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    20-Apr-99 5:21 PM EDT (2121 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] NATO SUMMIT / KOSOVO BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5- 43171
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // EDS: FIRST IN A SERIES OF REPORTS ON NATO ISSUES IN ADVANCE OF THE SUMMIT HERE IN WASHINGTON. //

    INTRO: NATO LEADERS WILL GATHER HERE IN WASHINGTON TO MARK THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE. BUT AS CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM WASHINGTON, NATO'S MILITARY CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WILL BE A FOCUS OF DISCUSSION.

    TEXT: THE NATO SUMMIT IS EXPECTED TO CELEBRATE THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE PAST 50 YEARS INCLUDING THE ACCESSION OF THREE NEW MEMBERS : POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    BUT THE SUMMIT WILL INEVITABLY BE OVERSHADOWED BY NATO'S ONGOING AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AS IT ATTEMPTS TO STOP YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC FROM CONTINUING HIS BRUTAL CAMPAIGN AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO.

    SIMON SERFATY -- NATO EXPERT WITH THE "CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES" (IN WASHINGTON) -- SAYS LOOKING BACK, NATO'S ACHIEVEMENTS OVER THE PAST 50 YEARS ARE REMARKABLE. HE SAYS ONE HAS TO REMEMBER NATO NOT ONLY HELPED WIN THE COLD WAR AGAINST THE SOVIET UNION.

    // SERFATY ACT //

    BUT IN ADDITION, QUITE FRANKLY, NATO HELPED ATTEND TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CIVIL AND DEMOCRATIC AND PROSPEROUS AND INTEGRATED SPACE ON HALF OF THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT, WITHIN WHICH THERE HAVE BEEN RECURRING AND TOTAL WARS DURING THE PREVIOUS HUNDREDS OF YEARS. AND THUS AS A CELEBRATION OF THE PAST, THIS ANNIVERSARY IS JUST REMARKABLE AND SHOULD NOT BE DEFLATED IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CIRCUMSTANCES.

    // END ACT //

    BUT MANY ANALYSTS SAY THE CURRENT CIRCUMSTANCES IN KOSOVO POSE A DIRECT CHALLENGE TO NATO AS IT BEGINS ITS NEXT 50 YEARS. ONE OF THOSE IS FORMER ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH WHO DIRECTED NATO'S 1995 AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    // SMITH ACT //

    I THINK THE FUTURE OF NATO IS DEFINITELY IN THE BALANCE RIGHT NOW. IF WE DO NOT WIN IN KOSOVO, IF WE DO NOT ACHIEVE THE OBJECTIVES WE SET OUT TO ACHIEVE, I THINK NATO, ITS FUTURE WILL BE SEVERELY JEOPARDIZED. AND CERTAINLY ITS ABILITY TO INFLUENCE EVENTS AND SHAPE THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE FUTURE WILL MOST ASSUREDLY BE IN SOME WAY UNDERMINED.

    // END ACT //

    ADMIRAL SMITH QUESTIONS WHETHER IT IS PRUDENT TO HOLD CELEBRATIONS AT A TIME WHEN NATO IS DROPPING BOMBS ON YUGOSLAVIA.

    RETIRED COLONEL RALPH PETERS IS A MILITARY STRATEGIST AND BALKAN EXPERT. HE SAYS WHETHER NATO WINS OR LOSES, THE WESTERN ALLIANCE WILL BE DRAMATICALLY CHANGED AS A RESULT OF ITS INTERVENTION IN KOSOVO.

    // PETERS ACT //

    IF NATO SUMMONS THE COURAGE AND STRENGTH OF WILL TO SEE THIS THROUGH TO A POSITIVE CONCLUSION, WE MAY SEE A STRONGER NATO, THOUGH A SOMEWHAT STREAMLINED ONE PERHAPS -- CERTAINLY A NEW NATO, A NATO WITH A SENSE OF ITSELF, A REBORN PHOENIX-LIKE NATO. IF NATO DOES NOT SUMMON THAT COURAGE AND DETERMINATION AND BOTCHES THIS, NATO COULD TURN INTO A HOLLOW SHELL.

    // END ACT //

    HOWEVER FORMER NATIONAL SECURITY MEMBER CHARLES KUPCHIN DOES NOT BELIEVE NATO'S DAYS ARE NUMBERED -- EVEN IF THE KOSOVO CAMPAIGN ENDS BADLY.

    // KUPCHIN ACT //

    I THINK THE U-S / EUROPEAN LINK IS ON REASONABLY FIRM GROUND AND THAT EVEN IF MILOSEVIC PREVAILS - AND THAT MEANS HE EFFECTIVELY EXPELS MOST OF THE ALBANIANS FROM KOSOVO -- I DO NOT THINK NATO WILL COME APART. I THINK IT WILL BE A VERY SUBSTANTIAL SETBACK -- BUT NOT A DEATH KNELL. THE OTHER POINT I WOULD MAKE -- AND THIS IS A SORT OF SILVER LINING -- IS THAT THE NATO INTERVENTION IN KOSOVO AT LEAST DEMONSTRATES THAT NATO IS ATTEMPTING TO DEAL WITH NEW THREATS TO SECURITY. IT IS NOT SIMPLY STICKING ITS HEAD IN THE SAND AND PRETENDING TO BE A TRADITIONAL MILITARY ALLIANCE AGAINST RUSSIA.

    // END ACT //

    ONE OF THE THEMES WHICH WILL BE DISCUSSED AT THE SUMMIT IS WHAT ROLE NATO SHOULD PLAY NOW THAT THE THREAT OF THE SOVIET UNION NO LONGER EXISTS? LEADERS WILL EXPAND ON A NEW "STRATEGIC CONCEPT" FOR THE WESTERN ALLIANCE -- A CONCEPT MANY ANALYSTS BELIEVE WILL LEAVE THE DOOR OPEN FOR NATO INVOLVEMENT IN FUTURE MILITARY OPERATIONS SUCH AS KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/KL
    20-Apr-99 3:16 PM EDT (1916 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] N-Y ECON WRAP (S&L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/20/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248365
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (TUESDAY) AND TECHNOLOGY STOCKS MADE A STRONG RECOVERY FROM MONDAY'S SELL-OFF. V-O-A BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 10-THOUSAND-448, UP EIGHT POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 13-HUNDRED-SIX, UP 16 POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX, WHICH LOST ALMOST SIX PERCENT ON MONDAY, GAINED ALMOST THREE PERCENT.

    ALTHOUGH THERE WAS AN OVERALL POSITIVE TONE TO THE MARKET, ANALYSTS SAY STOCK PRICES SEEM TO BE GROPING FOR A DIRECTION AFTER LAST WEEK'S STRONG RALLY AND MONDAY'S HUGE SELL-OFF IN THE TECHNOLOGY SECTOR.

    // OPT //

    AL GOLDMAN OF THE A-G EDWARDS INVESTMENT COMPANY, BELIEVES THAT, DESPITE RECENT VOLATILITY, THE "BULL," OR RISING, STOCK MARKET WILL CONTINUE.

    /// GOLDMAN ACT ///

    THE ECONOMY REMAINS IN GOOD SHAPE. THE OUTLOOK FOR INFLATION IS POSITIVE AND INTEREST RATES ARE BENIGN. SO, THE FUEL FOR THIS "BULL" MARKET REMAINS VERY MUCH IN PLACE.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTS THE U-S TRADE DEFICIT SOARED TO A RECORD 19-POINT-FOUR-BILLION DOLLARS IN FEBRUARY. THE FIGURE IS HIGHER THAN EXPECTATIONS. U-S COMMERCE SECRETARY WILLIAM DALEY SAYS THE TRADE DEFICIT REFLECTS THE STRENGTH OF THE U-S ECONOMY AS AMERICANS CONTINUE TO BUY MORE IMPORTS. AT THE SAME TIME, HOWEVER, HE SAYS U-S EXPORTS CONTINUE TO BE HURT BY WEAK INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIES.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE MICROSOFT COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPANY REPORTED BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED QUARTERLY EARNINGS. MICROSOFT STOCK WAS UP AHEAD OF THAT REPORT, WHICH WAS ISSUED AFTER THE CLOSE OF TRADING.

    THE STOCK OF CITIGROUP ROSE, AS THE LARGEST BANKING AND FINANCIAL SERVICES COMPANY IN THE UNITED STATES ANNOUNCED A THREE-FOR-TWO STOCK SPLIT AND AN INCREASE IN ITS QUARTERLY DIVIDEND.

    TWO MAJOR U-S AIRLINES REPORTED DISAPPOINTING QUARTERLY RESULTS, BUT BOTH BEAT WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS. U-A-L, THE PARENT COMPANY OF UNITED AIRLINES, SAYS ITS PROFITS FELL BY 14 PERCENT. NORTHWEST AIRLINES REPORTED A 29-MILLION-DOLLAR LOSS.

    COCA-COLA ENTERPRISES, THE LARGEST BOTTLER OF COCA-COLA PRODUCTS, REPORTED A 61-MILLION-DOLLAR QUARTERLY LOSS. BUT THE COMPANY SAYS IT IS NOW ABLE TO CHARGE HIGHER PRICES, AND THAT SHOULD HELP FUTURE RESULTS.

    JOHNSON AND JOHNSON, THE HEALTH CARE PRODUCTS COMPANY, REPORTED AN ALMOST 12 PERCENT QUARTERLY PROFIT INCREASE, HIGHER THAN WALL STREET EXPECTED. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/WTW
    20-Apr-99 5:14 PM EDT (2114 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/20/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11248
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: THE FALL OF INDIA'S COALITION GOVERNMENT IN A VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE HAS, TEMPORARILY AT LEAST, SHOULDERED ASIDE EDITORIALS IN THE U-S PRESS ON THE WAR IN THE BALKANS. HOWEVER, THERE REMAIN MANY EDITORIALS ON THE BALKAN CONFLICT.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: NATO'S 50TH BIRTHDAY, ABOUT TO BE WIDELY CELEBRATED HERE IN WASHINGTON; THE OTHER DICTATOR IN EUROPE; THE STRUGGLE TO MAKE CIVILIAN AIR TRAVEL IN THIS COUNTRY SAFER. /// OPT /// LASTLY, THE POSSIBILITY OF CLIMBING INTEREST RATES, AND A FOND FAREWELL TO ONE OF THE GREATEST ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS EVER.

    /// END OPT ///

    NOW, HERE IS __________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK.

    TEXT: INDIA'S HINDU NATIONALIST BHARATIYA JANATA PARTY, THE B-J-P, HAS FAILED TO MAINTAIN ITS MAJORITY IN PARLIAMENT, AND MANY AMERICAN PAPERS ARE CASTING AN ANXIOUS GLANCE TOWARD THE WORLD'S LARGEST DEMOCRACY." THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS" SAYS ANY NEW GOVERNMENT MUST MUST TAKE STEPS TO UNDO THE RECENT BUILD-UP OF "HOME-GROWN" NUCLEAR MISSILES IN THE ASIAN SUBCONTINENT.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// A PARTICULAR WEAKNESS OF PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACIES IS THAT THEY OFTEN PRODUCE FRAGILE COALITION GOVERNMENTS - - ESPECIALLY, AS IN INDIA'S CASE, WHEN THE COALITIONS HOLD NEARLY A SCORE OF PARTIES. NONETHELESS, INDIA'S HINDU-NATIONALIST BHARATIYA JANATA PARTY THOUGHT IT HAD HIT ON [FOUND] A WINNING FORMULA: INCREASE NUCLEAR TENSIONS WITH NEIGHBORS PAKISTAN AND CHINA. THE FORMULA WORKED FOR A WHILE. ... [BUT] SUCCESS WAS SHORT-LIVED. THE 13-MONTH-OLD [PRIME MINISTER ATAL BEHARI] VAJPAYEE GOVERNMENT FELL ANYWAY OVER THE WEEKEND ... /// END OPT /// INDIA DESERVES A GOVERNMENT THAT CAN ATTEND TO THE COUNTRY'S LEGITIMATE DEFENSE NEEDS WITHOUT RESORTING TO IGNOMINIOUS RULE BY NUCLEAR BRINKMANSHIP. SO DOES THE REST OF THE WORLD, WHICH HAS AN EQUALLY LEGITIMATE STAKE IN PEACE IN SOUTH ASIA.

    TEXT: "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE WORRIES ABOUT WHAT IT CALLS, IN TODAY'S LEAD EDITORIAL HEADLINE, "INDECISION IN INDIA AFTER [THE] GOVERNMENT'S FALL," WHILE "THE NEW YORK TIMES" ASSAILS SOME OF MR. VAJPAYEE'S DECISIONS. THE PAPER WRITES:

    VOICE: MR. VAJPAYEE SPENT 45 YEARS IN THE OPPOSITION AND BARELY 13 MONTHS IN POWER, BUT HE MADE A SINGULAR MARK. HE SENT HIS COUNTRY DOWN A SELF-DESTRUCTIVE PATH OF TESTING NUCLEAR WEAPONS. MORE RECENTLY, HOWEVER, HE MET ... THE PAKISTANI PRIME MINISTER, NAWAZ SHARIF. THERE WAS REASON TO HOPE THAT, IN SPITE OF THE MISSILE TESTS, INDIA AND PAKISTAN COULD MAKE MORE PROGRESS TOWARD HALTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MISSILES AND WEAPONS-GRADE NUCLEAR MATERIAL. MRS. GANDHI AND THE CONGRESS PARTY HAVE NOT BEEN AS SUPPORTIVE OF THESE EFFORTS AS THEY SHOULD HAVE BEEN.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE BALKANS, MAINE'S "PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" SAYS "THE KOSOVO CONFLICT [IS] A WAR" AND SHOULD BE TREATED AS SUCH.

    VOICE: IN WAR, IT IS SAID, THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR VICTORY. STILL, THE AMERICAN PEOPLE HAVE NOT BEEN GIVEN A FULL DESCRIPTION OF WHAT THAT WOULD LOOK LIKE. PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD IMMEDIATELY LAY IT OUT [EXPLAIN IT]. IT IS ALSO VITAL FOR CONGRESS TO CLEARLY STATE ITS SUPPORT FOR THE ADMINISTRATION. .... IF THIS WAR IS LOST, IT COULD SPELL THE DISSOLUTION OF NATO AND CONTINUED CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS FOR DECADES. IT WOULD ALSO PROVIDE ENCOURAGEMENT FOR PETTY TYRANTS ALL OVER THE WORLD WHO ARE NOW MEASURING U-S AND NATO DETERMINATION VERY CAREFULLY INDEED. IN THIS WAR, AS IN ALL OTHERS, THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR VICTORY.

    TEXT: IN ITS LEAD TUESDAY EDITORIAL, "THE LOS ANGLES TIMES" PLEADS "DO MORE FOR [THE] REFUGEES."

    VOICE: THE TRAGEDY OF KOSOVO ADDS UP TO DIMINISHING NUMBERS. SOME 600-THOUSAND REFUGEES HAVE CROSSED THE YUGOSLAV BORDER, PRIMARILY INTO ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA. ... IN WASHINGTON, PRESIDENT CLINTON [SAYS] ... HE WOULD ASK CONGRESS FOR FIVE-POINT-45 BILLION DOLLARS TO CONTINUE FUNDING THE AIR WAR AND 491-MILLION FOR HUMANITARIAN AID. CONSIDERING THE CRISIS AT HAND, THOSE NUMBERS COULD STAND SOME REVISION.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE RELATED TOPIC OF NATO'S 50TH BIRTHDAY, ABOUT TO BE CELEBRATED HERE IN WASHINGTON, "THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE" PREDICTS A "SUBDUED SUMMIT" BECAUSE OF KOSOVO. THE PAPER WRITES:

    VOICE: WHY DOES IT MATTER WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS FOR NATO? THAT ANSWER, AT LEAST, IS EASY. AMERICAN TAXPAYERS ARE SPENDING BILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO CARRY OUT THE NATO ENFORCEMENT ACTION NOW UNDER WAY IN THE BALKANS. AMERICAN LIVES ARE ALSO ON THE LINE, AND MAY BE MORE SO, IF AND WHEN NATO GROUND FORCES ARE SENT INTO KOSOVO. NATO UNDENIABLY HELPED WIN THE COLD WAR AND MAKE THE WORLD SAFER FOR DEMOCRACY. WHETHER IT CAN EFFECTIVELY HELP WIN THE HOT PEACE THAT HAS FOLLOWED STILL IS OPEN TO QUESTION ..... IT'S A VERY IMPORTANT QUESTION INDEED.

    TEXT: TODAY'S "WASHINGTON POST" IS CASTING AN ANXIOUS EYE TOWARD A PLACE IN EUROPE NOT THAT FAR FROM KOSOVO, WHERE THE MAN IT CALLS "EUROPE'S OTHER DICTATOR" RULES.

    VOICE: IT IS EASY, TOO EASY, TO DISMISS BELARUS PRESIDENT ALEXANDER LUKASHENKO AS A ... JOKE. ... BUT IT WOULD BE A MISTAKE TO UNDERESTIMATE MR. LUKASHENKO AND THE MENACE HE REPRESENTS. ... MR. LUKASHENKO'S TYRANNY EXERTS A BALEFUL INFLUENCE ON THE YOUNG DEMOCRACIES SUCH AS UKRAINE, LITHUANIA AND POLAND THAT SURROUND HIS NATION. ... JUST AS ... FASCISTS AND ULTRANATIONALISTS DO NOT SPEAK FOR MOST RUSSIANS, SO MR. LUKASHENKO CAN NO LONGER CLAIM TO SPEAK FOR HIS NATION.

    TEXT: BACK HOME, "USA TODAY," THE NATIONAL DAILY PUBLISHED JUST OUTSIDE WASHINGTON, D-C, IS STILL NOT HAPPY WITH THE GOVERNMENT'S PROGRESS IN MAKING CIVILIAN AIR TRAFFIC SAFER.

    VOICE: THIS WEEK, THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION [F-A-A] WILL ANNOUNCE A NEW SCHEDULE FOR UPGRADING ITS AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM. ... [BUT] ... ONE THING IS CLEAR: BADLY NEEDED MODERNIZATION, ALREADY YEARS BEHIND SCHEDULE, WILL BE PUSHED EVEN FURTHER OFF INTO THE FUTURE. /// OPT /// FOR PASSENGERS, THIS MEANS MORE TIME SPENT WAITING ... WHEN THE OUTDATED ... EQUIPMENT FAILURES KEEP PLANES GROUNDED. /// END OPT /// ... ALREADY, THE F-A-A IS FALLING BEHIND OTHER COUNTRIES THAT AREN'T MERELY REPLACING OLD EQUIPMENT BUT ARE MOVING TOWARD THE NEXT GENERATION IN FLIGHT CONTROL. AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND TODAY EMPLOY TECHNOLOGY THAT THE F-A-A TREATS AS LITTLE MORE THAN A FAR-OFF DREAM. THE F-A-A MIGHT BE SATISFIED WITH THE SNAIL'S PACE OF ITS MODERNIZATION ... BUT THE FLYING PUBLIC CANNOT AFFORD TO BE.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: IN BALTIMORE, "THE SUN" IS WORRIES ABOUT RUMORS THAT U-S INTEREST RATES MIGHT RISE, AND SAYS TO THE FEDERAL RESERVE IN ITS HEADLINE: "NO RATE HIKE NEEDED NOW."

    VOICE: THOUGH LITTLE EVIDENCE SUGGESTS ... THE ECONOMY IS OVERHEATING AND INFLATION IS REIGNITING, THE CHORUS FOR RAISING INTEREST RATES IS GETTING LOUDER. FEDERAL RESERVE CHAIRMAN ALAN GREENSPAN SHOULD IGNORE THOSE CALLS AND LEAVE RATES WHERE THEY ARE. ... WHY RISK DAMAGING THIS RECOVERY TO STEM INFLATION THAT HAS YET TO SURFACE?

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THERE ARE MORE GOOD BYES, WITH FONDNESS, FOR A MAN REGARDED BY MANY AS THE GREATEST ICE HOCKEY PLAYER WHO EVER LIVED, WAYNE GRETZKY. HE RETIRED FROM THE PROFESSIONAL NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUE'S NEW YORK RANGERS SUNDAY, TO THE CHEERS OF ICE HOCKEY FANS EVERYWHERE. FOR THOSE UNFAMILIAR WITH ICE HOCKEY, THE COMPARISON OF GRETZKY TO FOOTBALL'S [SOCCER'S] PELE, IS APT. AND IN PHILADELPHIA, WHERE HE WAS ALWAYS PART OF THE OPPOSITION, " THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" CALLS HIM:

    VOICE: THE BABE RUTH AND MICHAEL JORDAN OF HIS GAME... 'THE GREAT ONE' MANAGED TO WIN NOT ONLY CHAMPIONSHIPS AND SCORING CROWNS ... FOUR TIMES HE WON HIS ROUGH SPORT'S TROPHY FOR SPORTSMANSHIP. ... IT [THAT ACHIEVEMENT] SPEAKS TO THE WAY THIS STAR ATHLETE COMBINED CHARISMA AND MODESTY, A LINK TOO OFTEN MISSING FROM THE BEST PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS IN EVERY SPORT OF THE MODERN ERA.

    /// OPT ///

    MR. GRETZKY ENJOYED NOT JUST 15 MINUTES, BUT MORE THAN 15 YEARS OF FAME WITHOUT EVER SEEMING BOASTFUL OR SELF-IMPORTANT, WITHOUT TRANSGRESSING THE BOUNDARIES OF SPORTSMANSHIP OR THE LAW.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF TUESDAY'S DAILY PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    20-Apr-99 11:57 AM EDT (1557 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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