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Voice of America, 99-04-19

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP/MONDAY (L ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] KOSOVO/OIL EMBARGO (CQ) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [03] NATO ATTACKS Q&A BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)
  • [04] NATO-KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [05] ALBANIA REFUGEES (L) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)
  • [06] KUKES / WATER (L ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (KUKES)
  • [07] MACEDONIA-VILLAGE BY EVE CONANT (MALINA, MACEDONIA)
  • [08] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [09] CLINTON/KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [10] CLINTON/KOSOVO-UPDATE (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [11] CLINTON/YELTSIN (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [12] CLINTON/YELTSIN (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [13] CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [14] KOSOVO TRIP (L-ONLY) BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)
  • [15] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [16] CHINA/YUGOSLAVIA BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)
  • [17] RUSSIA/YUGOSLAVIA (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [18] RUSSIA / YUGOSLAVIA (L UPDATE) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [19] UN/ANNAN/MOSCOW (L-ONLY) BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)
  • [20] SERBIAN IMMIGRANTS/NATO BOMBING (L-ONLY) BY MIKE O'SULLIVAN (LOS ANGELES)
  • [21] NATO: CELEBRATION AMID A WAR BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [22] TURKEY ELECTION (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [23] TURKEY/ELECTIONS (L-UPDATE) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [24] EURO DOWN (S-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [25] NORTHERN IRELAND (L-O) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [26] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [27] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP/MONDAY (L ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248323
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY GENERAL KOFI ANNAN PLANS TO TRAVEL TO RUSSIA NEXT WEEK FOR TALKS ON THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO. MEANWHILE, NATO OFFICIALS ARE DISCUSSING WAYS OF PREVENTING FUEL SUPPLIES FROM REACHING YUGOSLAV FORCES CARRYING OUT ETHNIC CLEANSING INSIDE KOSOVO. CORRESPONDENT JIM MALONE HAS A WRAP-UP OF MONDAY'S DEVELOPMENTS IN THE BALKANS.

    TEXT: SPEAKING TO REPORTERS IN NEW YORK, U-N SECRETARY GENERAL ANNAN SAYS HE IS TACKING ON A VISIT TO MOSCOW NEXT WEEK IN ADDITION TO A STOPOVER IN GERMANY WHERE HE WILL DISCUSS POSSIBLE WAYS OF ENDING THE CONFLICT OVER KOSOVO.

    /// ANNAN ACT. ///

    I WILL BE EXCHANGING VIEWS WITH THE RUSSIAN AUTHORITIES WHO HAVE BEEN VERY ACTIVE IN THIS ISSUE, HAVING ENGAGED THE YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES AND EXPLORE WITH THEM WHERE WE GO FROM HERE TO GET TO ACHIEVE THE OBJECTIVES WE HAVE SET FOR OURSELVES.

    /// END ACT. ///

    NATO MEANWHILE IS LOOKING TO STEP UP ITS EFFORTS TO PREVENT YUGOSLAV FORCES FROM GETTING FUEL SUPPLIES. NATO AIR ATTACKS HAVE TARGETED FUEL REFINERIES FOR WEEKS NOW, BUT U-S OFFICIALS WANT TO RESTRICT FUEL DELIVERIES TO YUGOSLAVIA BY SHIP. A STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN SAYS NATO MEMBERS HAVE NOT YET AGREED ON A SPECIFIC STRATEGY BUT ARE NOT CONSIDERING A NAVAL BLOCKADE.

    /// OPT ///

    FINANCIAL TIMES REPORTER GUY DINMORE IS BASED IN BELGRADE. HE SAYS SO FAR YUGOSLAVS HAVE BEEN ABLE TO COPE WITH FUEL SHORTAGES.

    /// DINMORE ACT. ///

    YES, PETROL IS RUNNING OUT HERE BUT I MUST SAY IN BELGRADE THERE IS STILL ALOT OF TRAFFIC. EVERYONE IS SAYING THIS IS NOT GOING TO LAST MUCH LONGER.

    /// END ACT & OPT///

    IN BRUSSELS MONDAY, NATO MILITARY OFFICIALS SOUGHT TO REFUTE YUGOSLAV CLAIMS THAT ALLIANCE FORCES ATTACKED REFUGEE COLUMNS LAST WEEK IN SOUTHWESTERN KOSOVO. NATO BRIGADIER GENERAL DAN LEAF SAYS MILITARY VEHICLES MAY HAVE MIXED WITH CIVILIAN VEHICLES IN THE TWO CONVOYS IN QUESTION.

    /// LEAF ACT. ///

    NATO AIRCRAFT STRUCK THE FIRST TARGET AREA WITH TWO BOMBS AND MAY HAVE HIT A CIVILIAN-TYPE VEHICLE, A VEHICLE ASSOCIATED WITH THE BURNING OF HOUSES. IN THE SECOND TARGET AREA, THEY STRUCK THE LEAD ELEMENTS OF THE CONVOY, VEHICLES THAT APPEARED TO BE MILITARY. SOME OF THEM MAY HAVE BEEN CIVILIAN-TYPE VEHICLES AND IT IS POSSIBLE THERE WERE CIVILIAN CASUALTIES AT BOTH LOCATIONS.

    /// END ACT. ///

    /// OPT ///

    IN WASHINGTON MONDAY, PRESIENT CLINTON HAD A 45-MINUTE PHONE CONVERSATION WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN TO DISCUSS THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO. WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART DESCRIBED THE TALK AS CONSTRUCTIVE BUT WITHOUT ANY MAJOR BREAKTHROUGHS.

    /// LOCKHART ACT. ///

    WE CONTINUE TO DISAGREE ON THE ISSUE OF THE NATO CAMPAIGN AND A NATO-LED INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCE TO IMPLEMENT A PEACEFUL AGREEMENT.

    /// END ACT. ///

    IN MOSCOW, A KREMLIN SPOKESMAN SAID MR. YELTSIN URGED A QUICK END TO NATO AIRSTRIKES. EARLIER ON RUSSIAN TELEVISION, PRESIDENT YELTSIN SAID HE WOULD TELL PRESIDENT CLINTON THAT HE BELIEVES SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WILL NEVER SURRENDER.

    ///YELTSIN RUSSIAN ACT & FADE///

    PRESIDENT CLINTON MEANWHILE SAYS HE WILL ASK CONGRESS FOR AN ADDITIONAL SIX-BILLION DOLLARS TO FUND THE MILITARY CAMPAIGN IN THE BALKANS AND TO HELP REFUGEES DISPLACED BY THE CONFLICT.

    /// OPTIONAL CLINTON ACT. ///

    SO I HOPE THAT THE CONGRESS WILL ACT ON THIS. THE NEED FOR THIS FUNDING IS URGENT, IMMEDIATE, CLEARLY IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST. THERE ARE LITERALLY LIVES HANGING IN THE BALANCE AND SO I HOPE IN A SPIRIT OF GENUINE BIPARTISANSHIP THE CONGRESS WILL MOVE THE PACKAGE RIGHT AWAY.

    /// END OPTIONAL ACT. ///

    ON THE REFUGEE FRONT, YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES ARE APPARENTLY ONCE AGAIN PREVENTING ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM LEAVING KOSOVO. JOURNALISTS AND AID WORKERS REPORT VIRTUALLY NO REFUGEES ENTERED ALBANIA OR MACEDONIA ON MONDAY. NATO OFFICIALS SAY HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES REMAIN STUCK INSIDE KOSOVO, UNABLE TO LEAVE.

    IN THE MEANTIME, THE AIR WAR CONTINUES. THE LATEST NATO TARGETS INSIDE YUGOSLAVIA INCLUDED A MILITARY BARRACKS, A RADIO RELAY STATION AND AN OIL REFINERY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JBM/WFR
    19-Apr-99 5:11 PM EDT (2111 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO/OIL EMBARGO (CQ) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248317
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: FIXING DROPPED WORDS IN INTRO ///

    INTRO: AFTER WEEKS OF NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV OIL REFINERIES AND STORAGE DEPOTS, U-S OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE NOW ALSO LOOKING AT WAYS OF CUTTING OFF THE SHIPMENT OF OIL SUPPLIES TO YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: NATO JETS HAVE BEEN POUNDING YUGOSLAV OIL REFINERIES AND STORAGE SITES IN AN EFFORT TO CUT OFF VITAL SUPPLIES TO SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO.

    BUT DELIVERIES OF OIL TO LAND-LOCKED SERBIA CONTINUE TO FLOW THROUGH ADRIATIC SEA PORTS IN THE SMALLER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS CUTTING OFF THAT FLOW HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT OBJECTIVE FOR THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES.

    /// RUBIN ACT ///

    LET ME JUST SAY, I THINK ALL OF OUR ALLIES BELIEVE IT IS IMPORTANT TO WORK TO PREVENT THE YUGOSLAV WAR MACHINE FROM BEING FUELED, WHETHER BY INTERNAL RESOURCES OR EXTERNAL RESOURCES, AND THAT IS WHY WE ARE LOOKING AT WAYS TO PURSUE THAT THROUGH NATO.

    /// END ACT ///

    BECAUSE NATO IS NOT TECHNICALLY AT WAR WITH YUGOSLAVIA, OFFICIALS HAVE REFRAINED FROM ANY DISCUSSION OF A NAVAL BLOCKADE, WHICH WOULD BE CONSIDERED AN ACT OF WAR.

    OFFICIALS ALSO WANT TO PREVENT ANY ACTION THEY TAKE FROM HAVING A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON THE DEMOCRATICALLY-ELECTED GOVERNMENT IN MONTENEGRO.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN RUBIN SAYS ONE IDEA BEING DISCUSSED IS SOME TYPE OF SELECTIVE INSPECTION OF SHIPS.

    /// RUBIN ACT ///

    I THINK AN EXAMPLE OF A WAY TO GO ABOUT THIS IS A REGIME OF SOME KIND OF VISITED SEARCH OF SHIPS, WHICH WOULD ENABLE ONE TO DISTINGUISH PRODUCTS THAT WOULD FUEL THE YUGOSLAV WAR MACHINE AND OTHER KINDS OF PRODUCTS. THAT IS AN EXAMPLE OF THE WAY TO GO ABOUT IT, BUT WE HAVE NOT SETTLED ON THE EXACT APPROACH.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE NEW YORK TIMES [NEWSPAPER] REPORTS FRENCH OFFICIALS HAVE RAISED CONCERNS ABOUT THE IDEA OF STOPPING OIL TANKERS AT SEA, AND QUESTIONED WHETHER THE ACTION WOULD REQUIRE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL APPROVAL. FRENCH OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE AWARE THAT A WAY MUST BE FOUND TO HALT THE FLOW OF OIL, BUT THEY SAY IT MUST BE LEGAL.

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTIONS ALREADY BAN THE IMPORT OF MILITARY SUPPLIES TO YUGOSLAVIA, AND PETROLEUM IS AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT COVERED UNDER U-N RESOLUTIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PHW/WTW
    19-Apr-99 4:11 PM EDT (2011 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] NATO ATTACKS Q&A BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248276
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: VOA NEWS NOW'S VICTOR BEATTIE IN WASHINGTON CONDUCTED A Q&A WITH FINANCIAL TIMES REPORTER GUY DINMORE IN BELGRADE AT 3:15 AM, EDT, 4/19 CONCERNING THE LATEST NATO AIR ATTACKS ON YUGOSLAVIA DURING THE LATE NIGHT OF 4/18 AND THE EARLY MORNING OF 4/19. BEATTIE: WHAT IS THE LATEST INFORMATION YOU HAVE WITH REGARD TO THE LATEST NATO ATTACKS. DINMORE: LAST NIGHT THE AIR RAID SIREN WASN'T SOUNDED UNTIL ONE O'CLOCK IN THE MORNING (BELGRADE TIME) AND THE ALL CLEAR WAS GIVEN A COUPLE OF HOURS AGO (7:00 AM, BELGRADE TIME) BUT WE DIDN'T HEAR ANY EXPLOSIONS IN BELGRADE ITSELF. WE HAD A FAIRLY RESTFUL NIGHT BUT THE STATE MEDIA IS REPORTING AN ATTACK IN THE NORTHERN CITY OF NOVI SAD, A PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT BUILDING THERE. NOVI SAD IS ONE OF THE MOST HISTORIC CITIES IN YUGOSLAVIA, GOING BACK TO THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE WITH ALOT OF ELEGANT BEAUTIFUL BUILDINGS THERE. ALSO STRIKES ON MLADENOVAC WHICH IS ABOUT 20 KILOMETERS TO THE SOUTH OF BELGRADE AND THE CENTRAL CITY OF PARACIN. AS USUAL, NO REAL DETAILS GIVEN ABOUT STRIKES ON MILITARY TARGETS, EMPHASIZING MORE THE NON-MILITARY INFRASTRUCTURE THAT HAS BEEN HIT BY NATO. BEATTIE: WEATHER AGAIN WAS SOMEWHAT OF A FACTOR I GUESS IN NATO'S PLANS OVERNIGHT. DINMORE: YES, LAST NIGHT IN BELGRADE IT WAS PRETTY WINDY AND WET, CLOUDY BUT TODAY IT'S MUCH CLEARER AND THE WIND HAS BLOWN MOST OF THE BAD WEATHER AWAY. BEATTIE: SO I WOULD IMAGINE THE PEOPLE LOOK TO THE SKYS AND SAY, "OOPS , IT'S A NICE, SUNNY DAY, WE CAN LOOK FOR NATO TO COME BACK TONIGHT." DINMORE: YEH, PEOPLE ARE INDEED WATCHING THE WEATHER REPORTS ON TELEVISION, MUCH MORE THAN NORMAL. BEATTIE: NOW , WE UNDERSTAND THAT THE BORDER BETWEEN YUGOSLAVIA AND ALBANIA HAS BEEN CLOSED. IS THE GOVERNMENT TALKING ABOUT THAT AT ALL? DINMORE: NO, I HAVEN'T HEARD THAT. I THOUGHT THAT YESTERDAY (SUNDAY, 4/18) THE REFUGEES WERE STILL GOING ACROSS. I CAN'T CONFIRM THAT I'M AFRAID. BEATTIE: YOU ALSO MENTIONED THERE IS AN INTERESTING ALLEGED CONVERSATION BETWEEN NATO MILITARY PERSONEL WHO WERE AIRBORNE. YUGOSLAV STATE MEDIA LATER BROADCAST THE CONVERSATION. DINMORE: YES, THIS MORNING THERE HAS BEEN THE PUBLISHING OF A TRANSCRIPT BETWEEN WHO THEY SAY IS AN F-16 PILOT, WHOSE CODE NAME IS "CHARLIE BRAVO" AND AN AWACS , ONE OF THESE BIG ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE PLANES. HE (THE F-16) IS SAID TO BE FLYING AT ABOUT THREE-THOUSAND FEET (900 METERS) AND THE AWACS PLANE IS FLYING IN THE AREA SOMEWHERE. THE F-16 PILOT IS QUOTED AS SAYING THAT HE CAN SEE A COLUMN OF VEHICLES BELOW HIM IN KOSOVO, THIS WAS A FEW DAYS AGO, AND HE SAYS THE COLUMN IS COWS AND TRACTORS, APPARENTLY A CIVILIAN COLUMN. AND HE ASKS THE AWACS WHAT HE SHOULD DO. ALLEGEDLY THE REPLY COMES: "THE SERB ARMY IS DISGUISING THEMSELVES AS CIVILIANS" AND HE (THE F-16) SHOULD GO IN AN ATTACK, BUT THE PILOT (OF THE F-16) SAYS , "NO, I THINK THIS IS A CIVILIAN COLUMN, I SHOULDN'T." THE AWACS COMES BACK SAYING, "YES, GO IN AND ATTACK." AND THE LAST WORDS FROM THE F-16, CHARLE BRAVO PILOT, ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN, "TARGET LOCKED." A BRIEF CONVERSATION. I HAVE HEARD THAT THIS CONVERSATION IS BEING BROADCAST ON STATE TELEVISION THOUGH I HAVEN'T ACTUALLY HEARD IT MYSELF. I HAVE READ THE TRANSCRIPT. BEATTIE: HAS ANYONE TRIED TO VERIFY THE AUTHENTICITY OF THIS CONVERSATION? DINMORE: WELL, I' M SURE AS SOON AS NATO WAKES UP THIS MORNING IN BRUSSLES, THAT WILL BE ONE OF THE QUESTIONS THEY WILL BE ASKING THEM. THERE IS STILL A MYSTERY SURROUNDING WHAT HAPPENED TO THIS REFUGEE COLUMN THAT DOES APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN HIT IN SEVERAL PLACES LAST WEDNESDAY AND NATO REALLY HASN'T COME UP WITH A CREDIBLE EXPLANATION OF WHAT THEIR PILOTS WERE DOING AT THAT TIME. BEATTIE: WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT HOW DAILY LIFE IS BEING AFFECTED BY THESE ATTACKS, NOW THERE IS A NEW REPORT THAT SAYS THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES MAY TRY TO CUT OFF THE SEAWARD IMPORT OF OIL TO YUGOSLAVIA AND ALSO WE UNDERSTAND THERE IS SOMEWHAT OF A FOOD SHORTAGE THERE. WHAT CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT THAT? DINMORE: CONCERNING THE OIL SITUATION, YES, I'VE HEARD THAT ALL THE COUNTRIES SURROUNDING SERBIA ARE BEING ASKED BY NATO TO CHECK OFF OIL SUPPLIES AND THE F-4 PEACEKEEPING TROOPS IN BOSNIA ARE TYRING TO STOP A FLOW OF OIL COMING THRU FROM THE SERB-CONTROLLED PART OF BOSNIA INTO SERBIA. HUNGARY, WHICH IS A NEW NATO MEMBER, IS ALSO UNDER PRESSURE TO STOP THE OIL COMING THRU AND OF COURSE THE MONTENEGRON COAST IS PRETTY EASY FOR NATO TO BLOCK ALONG THE ADRIATIC. YES, PETROL IS RUNNING OUT HERE BUT I MUST SAY IN BELGRADE THERE IS STILL ALOT OF TRAFFIC. EVERYONE IS SAYING THIS IS NOT GOING TO LAST MUCH LONGER. ON THE FOOD FRONT, THERE IS STILL PLENTY OF FOOD IN THE SHOPS. THE SPRING CROPS ARE COMING IN SO THERE IS PLENTY OF SALADS AND SPINACH AND RADISHES AND THAT KIND OF FOOD. THERE IS A SHORTAGE OF IMPORTED FOOD. I WENT TO THE MARKET THE OTHER DAY AND THERE ARE NO BANANAS , NO ORANGES , NO TOMATOES AND MY FRIENDS TELL ME THE SHOPS SEEM TO BE GETTING QUITE SHORT NOW OF SUGAR AND COOKING OIL. BUT FOR THE MOMENT THE GOVERNMENT HAS QUITE LARGE RESERVES AND I THINK THIS COUNTRY, WHICH IS VERY RICH IN FOOD, SHOULD NOT HAVE A PROBLEM ON THAT FRONT FOR MONTHS TO COME. BEATTIE : THANK YOU GUY.
    19-Apr-99 4:22 AM EDT (0822 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] NATO-KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248306
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AFTER GIVING PARTIAL AND INCOMPLETE ANSWERS FOR FIVE-DAYS, NATO HAS FINALLY LAID OUT THE DETAILS OF ITS INVESTIGATION INTO THE MISTAKEN BOMBING OF REFUGEES IN KOSOVO LAST WEEK. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS THAT SOME DETAILS MAY NEVER BE KNOWN.

    TEXT: NATO'S CREDIBILITY HAS BEEN HURT BY ITS INABILITY TO RESPOND DEFINITELY TO SERBIAN TELEVISION PICTURES OF ALBANIAN REFUGEES BOMBED LAST WEDNESDAY IN WESTERN KOSOVO. NATO REGRETTED THE MISTAKEN BOMBING OF A CONVOY THAT RESULTED IN THE DEATHS OF SCORES OF REFUGEES.

    BUT NATO'S DESCRIPTION OF WHERE IT BOMBED AND WHAT IT BOMBED WERE SO INCOMPLETE AND CONFUSING, LITTLE WAS CLEAR ABOUT NATO'S RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE DAMAGE.

    IN A PUBLIC RELATIONS MOVE, NATO BROUGHT THE HEAD OF THE INVESTIGATION FROM AVIANO AIR BASE IN ITALY TO NATO HEADQUARTERS TO EXPLAIN WHAT HAPPENED. THE CONCLUSION FROM AMERICAN GENERAL DAN LEAF IS THAT SOME FACTS REMAIN CONFUSED.

    /// LEAF ACT ///

    THERE WERE TWO SEPARATE INCIDENTS SEPARATED GEOGRAPHICALLY AND IN TIME. SECOND, WE ARE NOW CONVINCED THAT IN THE FIRST INCIDENT WE STRUCK A VALID MILITARY TARGET. IT WAS A VEHICLE DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THE BURNING OF HOMES. IN THE SECOND INCIDENT THE ONE WE HAVE BEEN REFERRING TO ALL ALONG, THERE WAS A CONFUSED PICTURE. WE ENGAGED A LARGE CONVOY WITH A MIXTURE OF SERB MILITARY AND CIVILIAN VEHICLES. IN THAT SECOND INSTANCE, WE MAY HAVE WELL HAVE CAUSED DAMAGE TO A CIVILIAN VEHICLE AND UNINTENTIONAL HARM TO CIVILIAN LIVES.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL LEAF HAS NO WAY OF KNOWING HOW MANY LIVES WERE LOST TO NATO BOMBS. FROM HIS EXHAUSTIVE INVESTIGATION, HE HAS DETERMINED THERE WERE SERBIAN MILITARY VEHICLES MIXED IN WITH THE REFUGEE CONVOY. HE BELIEVES SERBIAN TELEVISION DID NOT SHOW DESTROYED YUGOSLAV MILITARY VEHICLES AND THOSE VEHICLES WERE APPARENTLY REMOVED BY THE TIME WESTERN REPORTERS VISITED THE SCENE.

    FROM THE MISSION CONVERSATIONS AND FILMS, IT BECOMES CLEAR THAT THE AMERICAN PILOTS BEGAN TO REALIZE YUGOSLAV ARMY TROOPS DO NOT TRAVEL IN SUCH LONG CONVOYS AND THE SECOND ATTACK WAS ABORTED. GENERAL LEAF DESCRIBES THE FACTS AVAILABLE TO THE PILOTS.

    /// LEAF ACT ///

    THIS WAS A NEW OCCURRENCE. AGAIN, IT IS MOVING EAST SOUTHEAST TOWARDS PRIZREN, NOT THE SHORTEST DIRECTION TOWARDS THE BORDER. AS THIS STORY BROKE, THEY DEALT WITH THE TACTICAL SITUATION. THEY SOUGHT ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND CLARIFICATION. THEY TOOK TIME TO LOOK AT THE TARGET, ANALYZE THE NATURE OF IT AND PICK THOSE MILITARY CHARACTERISTICS AND STRIKE THOSE. AS SOON AS THERE WAS ANY DOUBT, THEY STOPPED ATTACKING.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL LEAF CONCEDES THERE COULD HAVE BEEN CIVILIAN CASUALTIES AT BOTH LOCATIONS NATO BOMBED LAST WEDNESDAY IN WESTERN KOSOVO. HIS APPEARANCE AT NATO HEADQUARTERS, COMPLETE WITH AIR FORCE CODE NAMES FOR THE AIRPLANES INVOLVED, DID MANAGE TO REPAIR SOME OF NATO'S CREDIBILITY IN THE REFUGEE BOMBING FIVE-DAYS LATER -- EVEN IF IT DOES NOT MANAGE TO ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW THE CIVILIANS DIED IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/ALW/RAE
    19-Apr-99 12:49 PM EDT (1649 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] ALBANIA REFUGEES (L) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248302
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FLOW OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES INTO ALBANIA INEXPLICABLY HALTED AGAIN MONDAY. BUT AS V-O-A'S GIL BUTLER REPORTS FROM THE ALBANIAN CAPITAL, TIRANA, AID WORKERS ARE STILL DEALING WITH THE PREVIOUS INFLUX.

    TEXT: INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS REPORT NO MOVEMENT OF REFUGEES ACROSS THE BORDER SINCE EARLY SUNDAY AFTERNOON. BUT THE PREVIOUS DAY'S RENEWED REFUGEE FLOOD HAS BROUGHT THE TOTAL NUMBER IN ALBANIA TO 345-THOUSAND. ALMOST HALF OF THOSE ARE STILL IN THE NORTHERN TOWN OF KUKES.

    /// REFUGEE CENTER SOUNDS - FADE UNDER ///

    HERE IN TIRANA, A BASKETBALL CENTER IS BEING USED AS TEMPORARY SHELTER FOR THE KOSOVARS UNTIL THEY LEAVE FOR MORE PERMANENT FACILITIES.

    SOME OF THE NEWEST ARRIVALS AT THE SPORTS PALACE ARE FROM DRENICA.

    /// SOUND OF BABY CRYING AND WOMAN SPEAKING - FADE UNDER ///

    AS IS A DISTRAUGHT WOMAN WITH A YOUNG BABY ON HER LAP WHO ARRIVED HERE THREE DAYS AGO. SHE SAYS SHE DOES NOT KNOW WHERE THREE OF HER CHILDREN ARE. HER HUSBAND IS FIGHTING WITH THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY.

    /// MORE REFUGEE CENTER SOUNDS - FADE UNDER ///

    AT THE OTHER END OF TOWN, A MORE ORDERLY TENT CITY HAS BEEN ERECTED AT THE MUNICIPAL SWIMMING POOL. SOME OF THESE REFUGEES HAVE BEEN IN TIRANA FOR THREE WEEKS.

    THERE HAS BEEN NO HUGE OUTBREAK OF DISEASE AMONG THE KOSOVO REFUGEES. THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT NOTES THAT ALMOST 55-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE BEEN GIVEN HEALTH CHECKUPS IN HOSPITALS AND HEALTH CENTERS SINCE MARCH 26TH. MEANWHILE, THE HUMANITARIAN FLIGHTS BY PLANES AND HELICOPTERS CONTINUE. THERE WERE 44 FLIGHTS MONDAY CARRYING FOOD, MEDICINE AND BLANKETS TO KUKES. THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT HAS ASKED ALL THE DONOR COUNTRIES AND HUMANITARIAN INSTITUTIONS TO START WORKING ON NEW REFUGEE CAMP CONSTRUCTION TO RELIEVE THE PRESSURE ON KUKES. ALBANIA ALSO ASKED THAT HELP FOR THE THOUSANDS OF PRIVATE FAMILIES SHELTERING REFUGEES BE SPEEDED UP. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH
    19-Apr-99 12:25 PM EDT (1625 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] KUKES / WATER (L ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (KUKES)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248280
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RAINY, WINDY WEATHER MADE A DIFFICULT SITUATION EVEN WORSE THE PAST FEW DAYS FOR ABOUT 40-THOUSAND REFUGEES WHO HAVE CROSSED FROM KOSOVO INTO ALBANIA. AS TIM BELAY REPORTS FROM THE ALBANIAN BORDER DISTRICT OF KUKES, ALBANIA, OFFICIALS ALSO HAVE WATER CONCERNS OF ANOTHER KIND.

    TEXT: NON-STOP RAIN ACCOMPANIED A DRAMATIC UPTURN IN THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE FLED THEIR HOMES TO THE RELATIVE SAFETY OF ALBANIA DURING THE PAST THREE DAYS. WHILE THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT AND RELIEF AGENCIES SCRAMBLED THROUGH THE MUD TO KEEP UP WITH THE FLOW, THERE WERE CRITICAL CONCERNS ABOUT LIMITED LOCAL SUPPLIES OF CLEAN WATER FOR DRINKING AND COOKING. AT LEAST 100-THOUSAND KOSOVARS HAVE MADE THIS REGION THEIR TEMPORARY HOME, NOT COUNTING THE RECENT INFLUX, AND THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY HAS PLEADED FOR MORE OF THEM TO MOVE AWAY FROM THE BORDER AREA.

    PETER SWEETNAM OF OXFAM IS THE WATER AND SANITATION PROGRAM MANAGER FOR THE REFUGEE RELIEF EFFORT IN KUKES. MR. SWEETNAM SAYS HE HAS NO WORRIES ABOUT THE QUALITY OF WATER IN KUKES.

    /// SWEETNAM ACT ///

    ITS CHLORINATED, ITS CLEAN AND I DRINK IT RIGHT OUT OF THE TAP. I PREFER IT TO THE BOTTLED WATER. THE PROBLEM IS THE FACT THAT THERE ARE TOO MANY PEOPLE COMING IN AND WE ARE OVERLOADING THE SYSTEM. WE ARE USING ALL THE AVAILABLE WATER RESOURCES SO NOW WE ARE LOOKING AT BRINGING ON SHORT TERM NEW SOURCES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SWEETNAM SAYS THE PROBLEM IS FINDING NEW WATER SOURCES, GETTING PERMISSION TO USE THEM, AND RUNNING PIPES AND PUMPS AND TANK SYSTEMS OUT OF THEM. HE SAYS THAT SOLVING WATER PROBLEMS IS ESPECIALLY CRUCIAL, GIVEN THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF THE LATEST ARRIVALS.

    /// SWEETNAM ACT ///

    WATER IS ALWAYS UP THERE ON THE LIST. I MEAN HUNGRY PEOPLE ARE FED UP, AND THEY ARE ANNOYED AND THEY ARE WEAK. THIRSTY PEOPLE ARE FRIGHTENED AND A MASS OF PEOPLE WHO ARE FRIGHTENED CAN BE A DANGEROUS THING, SO WATER HAS TO BE TAKEN VERY, VERY SERIOUSLY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SWEETNAM SAYS DESPITE THE CHALLENGES, RELIEF WORKERS HAVE BEEN ABLE TO PROVIDE ABOUT 25 LITERS A PERSON EACH DAY IN THE KUKES DISTRICT FOR DRINKING, COOKING AND WASHING. HE SAYS THAT IS A LARGE AMOUNT IN REFUGEE SITUATIONS.

    THE WET WEATHER ENDED WITH SOME GOOD NEWS. FOLLOWING FOUR DAYS OF NEGOTIATIONS WITH LOCAL PROPERTY OWNERS, RELIEF AGENCIES WERE ABLE TO SECURE PERMISSION TO TAP INTO A NEW SPRING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TB/JWH
    19-Apr-99 6:57 AM EDT (1057 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] MACEDONIA-VILLAGE BY EVE CONANT (MALINA, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43161
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES CONTINUE TO POUR INTO MACEDONIA, FILLING REFUGEE CAMPS TO CAPACITY AND OVERFLOWING INTO PRIVATE HOMES. CORRESPONDENT EVE CONANT VISITS MALINA, A VILLAGE IN MACEDONIA WHOSE SHEPHERDER POPULATION IS TRYING TO COPE WITH THE TRAUMATIZED NEWCOMERS. .

    TEXT: LAST WEEK, THIS SMALL VILLAGE IN THE NORTHEAST MOUNTAINS OF MACEDONIA WAS HOME TO LESS THAN 300 PEOPLE. NOW, ABOUT 36-HUNDRED KOSOVAR REFUGEES HAVE MADE IT THEIR TEMPORARY HOME.

    ENTIRE KOSOVO VILLAGES HAVE BEEN TRANSPORTED HERE. THERE ARE PEOPLE EVERYWHERE. THE ONE NARROW DIRT ROAD IS FILLED WITH REFUGEES, THE MUD AND STRAW HOUSES PACKED WITH BETWEEN 50 TO 80-PEOPLE.

    /// NAT CROWDED ROOM, BABIES CRYING/ AND COUGHING ///

    THE VILLAGE SCHOOL IS NOW HOME TO 250 EXHAUSTED REFUGEES -- MANY WITH TERRIBLE COUGHS AFTER DAYS OF HIKING THROUGH THE MOUNTAINS TO REACH THE BORDER. THEY STAND SHOULDER TO SHOULDER, SQUEEZING PAST EACH OTHER TO VISIT THEIR FAMILIES IN SEPARATE ROOMS.

    CHILDREN SLEEP IN ROWS OF 10 UNDERNEATH CHALKBOARDS AND MAPS OF EUROPE. THEY HAVE ALL ARRIVED IN THE PAST TWO DAYS. MANY ARE SLEEPING AFTER CARRYING THEIR CHILDREN THROUGH THE MOUNTAINS, THOSE WHO ARE WIDE AWAKE STILL HAVE A LOOK OF TERROR ON THEIR FACES.

    MANY SNEAKED ACROSS FROM THE VILLAGE OF LUBISHTA ('LU'-BISH-TA) AND SHARE THE SAME STORIES. ONE WOMAN TALKS OF THREE VILLAGE MEN BEING MURDERED. A MAN ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE VILLAGE, 28-YEAR-OLD HAIRIE HAZIRI (HAI-'RI'-YEH HA-'ZI'-RI), TELLS THE SAME STORY.

    /// ACT HAZIRI IN ALBANIAN IN FULL AND FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS -- SOLDIERS BEAT THE MEN AND ASKED THEM WHERE THE K-L-A WERE HIDING THEN THEY TOOK THEM DOWN TO THE STORE, GOUGED OUT THEIR EYES, SHOT THEM AND THREW THEM IN THE RIVER.

    IN THE DARK BASEMENT OF ONE VILLAGE HOUSE, A FAMILY OF 17 WARMS ITSELF AROUND AN ANCIENT FIREPLACE. OVER THE FIRE HANGS A LARGE BLACK POT. THEY ARE BOILING WATER TO WASH THEIR CLOTHES. IN THE DARK, DAMP AIR AN OLD WOMAN IN WHITE ROCKS A BABY TO SLEEP IN A WOODEN CRADLE. HER DAUGHTER. XHEZIDE HASIMI (JEH-'ZI'-DE 'HA'-SI-MI), STOKES THE FIRE AND TALKS OF HER JOURNEY TO MALINA.

    /// ACT HASIMI IN ALBANIAN IN FULL AND FADE UNDER ///

    SHE SAYS -- WHEN THE POLICE FORCED US TO LEAVE TWO PEOPLE GATHERED THE WHOLE VILLAGE TOGETHER. WE WAITED UNTIL MIDNIGHT BECAUSE WE WERE SCARED, THEN WE SNEAKED THROUGH THE BORDER. SHE SAYS -- THREE BABIES DIED ON THE WAY AND ONE OLD MAN GOT LOST IN THE DARK.

    THE NEW VILLAGERS OF MALINA ARE DOING THEIR BEST TO GATHER STRENGTH BEFORE THEY MOVE ON. MEN BRAVE THE CHILLY MOUNTAIN WIND TO CHOP AND COLLECT WOOD FOR FIRES. THE MOUNTAINS SURROUNDING THEM ARE STILL COVERED IN SNOW.

    /// TAKE NAT SOUND UP AND UNDER WATER/ROOSTER IN BACKGROUND ///

    IN ONE MUDDY YARD, A BOY PILES POTATOES INTO A POT, USING A LARGE WOODEN STICK TO STIR AND WASH THEM. THE MOST WIDESPREAD FORM OF ENTERTAINMENT FOR THE CHILDREN IS TO CHASE CHICKENS AROUND THE MUD HOUSES -- ADDING TO THE NOISE AND HAVOC IN THIS ONCE SLEEPY VILLAGE.

    INTERNATIONAL AIDE WORKERS HAVE DISCOVERED MALINA, BUT ROUGH ROADS AND A RECENT RAINFALL MAKES TRANSPORTING BLANKETS AND FOOD HERE NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE. MOST CARS CANNOT TRAVERSE THE MUDDY HILLS AND SMALL RIVERS TO GET HERE.

    INSIDE THE VILLAGE, THERE IS NO (HOUSING) SPACE. SCHOOL DESKS AND FURNITURE ARE PILED OUTSIDE TO MAKE ROOM. FAMILIES OF 20 AND 30 PEOPLE CAN BE SEEN WALKING AWAY FROM MALINA ON THE MUDDY, STEEP PATHS THAT LEAD TO NEARBY VILLAGES.

    BUT EVEN AS THE REFUGEES SLOWLY DEPART, EACH NIGHT AFTER MIDNIGHT MORE REFUGEES ARRIVE -- AND NO ONE HERE IN THIS TINY, OVERWHELMED VILLAGE IS TURNING THEM AWAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/ALW/RAE
    19-Apr-99 9:10 AM EDT (1310 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248288
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, U-N-H-C-R, SAYS YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES ARE ONCE AGAIN PREVENTING ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM LEAVING KOSOVO. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS THE REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS BORDER CROSSINGS FROM THE SERBIAN PROVINCE INTO ALBANIA, MACEDONIA, AND MONTENEGRO WERE APPARENTLY CLOSED OVERNIGHT.

    TEXT: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS THE KOSOVO BORDER IS THEORETICALLY OPEN. BUT, NO ONE IS COMING ACROSS.

    U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS SERB SECURITY FORCES ARE TURNING KOSOVAR REFUGEES AROUND AND PREVENTING THEM FROM CROSSING THE BORDER. HE SAYS THE SERBS APPEAR TO BE DOING WHAT THEY DID MORE THAN TWO WEEKS AGO WHEN THEY SUDDENLY STOPPED PUSHING THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS OUT OF THE PROVINCE.

    /// JANOWSKI ACT ONE ///

    WE DON'T KNOW WHAT CAUSED IT. WE ARE EXTREMELY CONCERNED, SINCE THE PEOPLE ARE TERRIFIED. WE ARE ABSOLUTELY SURE THAT IT'S NOT THAT THE PEOPLE TURNED AROUND THEMSELVES. THEY ARE FORCIBLY BEING PREVENTED FROM LEAVING KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY ESTIMATES 31-THOUSAND REFUGEES ARRIVED IN ALBANIA, MACEDONIA, AND MONTENEGRO IN THE PAST FEW DAYS. MR. JANOWSKI SAY NEWLY ARRIVING REFUGEES TOLD AID WORKERS THERE WERE TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE BEHIND THEM. THEY SAID THE PEOPLE WERE EITHER IN THE PROCESS OF BEING EXPELLED FROM TOWNS AND VILLAGES IN KOSOVO OR THEY WERE ALREADY EN ROUTE.

    /// OPT ///

    THE U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN SAYS ONE WOMAN WHO ARRIVED AT BLACE, MACEDONIA ON SUNDAY SAID SHE HAD BEEN FORCED TO PAY 17-HUNDRED GERMAN MARKS -- OR 930 U-S DOLLARS -- TO SERB FORCES BEFORE BEING ALLOWED TO CROSS THE BORDER. /// END OPT
    ///

    MR. JANOWSKI SAYS HE CONSIDERS THE SUDDEN STOP IN THE FLOW OF REFUGEES VERY STRANGE.

    /// JANOWSKI ACT TWO ///

    CONSIDERING THAT HOURS OR JUST BEFORE THE BORDER WAS CLOSED, OR JUST BEFORE THE FLOW OF REFUGEES WAS STOPPED, THERE WERE THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE CROSSING AND ALL OF A SUDDEN EVERYTHING STOPPED. PLUS, THE TESTIMONY OF THE WOMAN WHO SAID THAT TWO BUSES WITH MITROVICA LICENSE PLATES WERE TURNED AROUND AND THE TRAIN WAS TURNED AROUND. IT ALL SOUNDS FAIRLY OMINOUS AND WE DON'T KNOW TO WHAT END THEY ARE DOING IT.

    /// END ACT ///

    EVEN BEFORE THE BORDER WAS CLOSED, MACEDONIAN AUTHORITIES SAID THEY COULD NOT TAKE ANY MORE REFUGEES.

    THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY IS SENDING ITS NUMBER TWO OFFICIAL TO MACEDONIA TO WORK WITH THE GOVERNMENT TO ENSURE THAT IT KEEPS ITS BORDERS OPEN. THE OFFICIAL WILL ALSO HELP PLAN THE EVACUATION OF THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS WHO MAY BE AIRLIFTED TO THIRD COUNTRIES TO EASE THE REFUGEE CRISIS IN MACEDONIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    19-Apr-99 8:01 AM EDT (1201 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] CLINTON/KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248301
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS ASKING CONGRESS TO APPROVE MORE THAN SIX-BILLION DOLLARS IN EMERGENCY FUNDING FOR THE U-S SHARE OF THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN AND KOSOVO REFUGEE AID. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: THE EMERGENCY REQUEST HAD BEEN EXPECTED -- BUT WAS LARGER THAN ANTICIPATED, WITH ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS OPENLY SUGGESTING NATO MIGHT HAVE TO CONTINUE ITS AIR CAMPAIGN FOR MONTHS TO ACHIEVE ITS OBJECTIVES.

    ANNOUNCING THE PACKAGE AT A WHITE HOUSE EDUCATION EVENT, MR. CLINTON SAID IT INCLUDES FUNDING FOR CRITICALLY-NEEDED KOSOVO RELIEF AID, AND HELP TO KOSOVO'S NEIGHBORS, WHO ARE STRUGGLING TO DEAL WITH THE REFUGEE FLOW:

    /// CLINTON ACTUALITY ///

    THIS IS PUTTING AN ENORMOUS BURDEN ON ALBANIA -- THE POOREST COUNTRY IN THE REGION -- TAKING ALL THOSE REFUGEES, STRUGGLING TO MAINTAIN A DEMOCRACY. IT IS PUTTING ENORMOUS BURDENS ON MACEDONIA, A VERY SMALL COUNTRY TRYING TO MANAGE ITS OWN ETHNIC DIFFERENCES, NOW HAVING THESE REFUGEES LOADED ON TOP OF THEM. IT CAUSES REAL PROBLEMS FOR BULGARIA AND ROMANIA. THIS IS A DIFFICULT THING FOR THE NEIGHBORHOOD.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE PRESIDENT URGED CONGRESS TO ACT QUICKLY ON THE SUPPLEMENTAL SPENDING PACKAGE, SAYING THERE ARE -- LITERALLY -- LIVES HANGING IN THE BALANCE.

    THERE IS NO PROVISION IN THE BUDGET REQUEST FOR THE USE OF GROUND TROOPS, THOUGH SOME MEMBERS OF CONGRESS HAVE BEEN PRESSING THE ADMINISTRATION TO AT LEAST PRE-POSITION SUPPLIES FOR GROUND FORCES IN THE REGION, IN CASE THEY ARE NEEDED LATER.

    THE ADMINISTRATION COULD FACE PRESSURE FOR AN EVEN BIGGER SUPPLEMENTAL KOSOVO PACKAGE. ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS SAY CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS MAY TRY TO USE THE CRISIS AS A BACK-DOOR WAY TO BOOST THE OVERALL PENTAGON BUDGET.

    CLINTON SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART SAYS THE ADMINISTRATION PROJECTS A 100-BILLION-DOLLAR RISE IN THE DEFENSE BUDGET DURING THE NEXT FIVE-YEARS, AND WILL RESIST ATTEMPTS TO INCREASE IT FURTHER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/LTD/RAE
    19-Apr-99 12:39 PM EDT (1639 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] CLINTON/KOSOVO-UPDATE (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248320
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: *INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS ASKING CONGRESS TO APPROVE MORE THAN SIX BILLION DOLLARS IN EMERGENCY FUNDS TO HELP PAY FOR NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND AID TO THE KOSOVO REFUGEES. THE REQUEST WAS EXPECTED, BUT LARGER THAN ANTICIPATED. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: OFFICIALS HERE SAY THE CONFLICT COULD GO ON FOR MONTHS MORE AND THAT THE MORE THAN SIX BILLION DOLLAR SPENDING REQUEST WILL BE ENOUGH TO KEEP THE AIR CAMPAIGN GOING UNTIL THE END OF THE U-S GOVERNMENT FISCAL YEAR SEPTEMBER 30TH.

    AT A WHITE HOUSE EDUCATION EVENT, PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID THE NEED FOR THE MONEY IS IMMEDIATE AND URGENT WITH LIVES LITERALLY HANGING IN THE BALANCE. HE EXPRESSED HOPE CONGRESS WILL ACT ON THE PROPOSAL RIGHT AWAY IN A SPIRIT OF BIPARTISANSHIP.

    NEARLY A HALF BILLION DOLLARS IS EARMARKED FOR KOSOVO REFUGEE AID AND ASSISTANCE TO THE COUNTRIES AROUND KOSOVO, WHICH THE PRESIDENT SAID ARE STRUGGLING TO DEAL WITH THE REFUGEE EXODUS:

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY///

    THIS IS PUTTING AN ENORMOUS BURDEN ON ALBANIA, THE POOREST COUNTRY IN THE REGION TAKING ALL THOSE REFUGEES, STRUGGLING TO MAINTAIN A DEMOCRACY. IT'S PUTTING ENORMOUS BURDENS ON MACEDONIA, A VERY SMALL COUNTRY TRYING TO MANAGE ITS OWN ETHNIC DIFFERENCES, NOW HAVING THESE REFUGEES LOADED ON TOP OF THEM. IT CAUSES REAL PROBLEMS FOR BULGARIA AND ROMANIA.

    ///END ACT///

    OFFICIALS HERE SAY MR. CLINTON HAD TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS SUNDAY WITH THE LEADERS OF ALBANIA, HUNGARY, ROMANIA AND BULGARIA TO DISCUSS THE REFUGEES -- AND WAYS TO REBUILD AND INTEGRATE THE SOUTHERN BALKANS REGION INTO EUROPE AFTER THE HOSTILITIES ARE OVER.

    HE ALSO TALKED FOR 45-MINUTES MONDAY MORNING WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN, WHOSE GOVERNMENT HAS BITTERLY OPPOSED THE AIR WAR AGAINST ITS TRADITIONAL YUGOSLAV ALLY.

    WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART SAID THEY DIFFERED ON THE AIRSTRIKES AND ON THE U-S INSISTENCE THAT NATO HEAD UP A PROPOSED PEACE FORCE FOR KOSOVO. BUT HE SAID THE CALL, ON BALANCE, WAS CONSTRUCTIVE, AND THAT MR. YELTSIN MADE CLEAR RUSSIA HAD NO INTENTION OF INTERVENING ON BELGRADE'S SIDE:

    ///LOCKHART ACTUALITY///

    PRESIDENT YELTSIN REAFFIRMED HIS PUBLIC STATEMENTS THAT THE RUSSIANS WON'T BE DRAWN INTO THIS CONFLICT. THEY ALSO TALKED ABOUT THE AREAS THAT WE AGREE ON. AND THE PRESIDENT REITERATED THAT WE THINK THAT RUSSIA CAN PLAY AN IMPORTANT AND CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE IN THIS PROCESS.

    //END ACT///

    MR. YELTSIN IS SAID TO HAVE TOLD THE PRESIDENT RUSSIA WILL CONTINUE TRYING TO BE A GO-BETWEEN WITH BELGRADE, AND THAT FORMER RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER VICTOR CHERNOMYRDIN WILL LIKELY BEGIN A MISSION TO NATO COUNTRIES AND YUGOSLAVIA SOON.

    THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES SAY THERE IS NOTHING TO NEGOTIATE, AND THAT MR. MILOSEVIC MUST EITHER ACCEPT THE PRECEPTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE PLAN FOR KOSOVO, OR SEE AIRSTRIKES DESTROY HIS ABILITY TO CONTROL THE PROVINCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/PHW/WFR
    19-Apr-99 4:15 PM EDT (2015 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] CLINTON/YELTSIN (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248295
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS HAD A TELEPHONE CONVERSATION ON KOSOVO WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN. IT WAS THEIR SECOND SUCH TALK SINCE THE START OF THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN, WHICH RUSSIA BITTERLY OPPOSES. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: THE CALL WAS PRECEDED BY SOME TOUGH RHETORIC ON KOSOVO BY MR. YELTSIN, WHO SAID RUSSIA WOULD NOT ALLOW THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES TO CONTROL YUGOSLAVIA -- WHICH HE SAID IS OF STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE TO MOSCOW.

    BUT THE WHITE HOUSE SOUNDED A CONCILIATORY NOTE, WITH SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART SAYING THE PRESIDENT BELIEVES MOSCOW CAN PLAY A CONSTRUCTIVE DIPLOMATIC ROLE IN THE CRISIS, DESPITE THE FUNDAMENTAL DISAGREEMENT OVER THE AIR STRIKES.

    THE TWO POWERS HAVE MAINTAINED EXTENSIVE CONTACTS ON KOSOVO, INCLUDING SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT'S OSLO MEETING LAST WEEK WITH FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV. SPOKESMAN LOCKHART SAID THE PRESIDENT, WHO PLACED THE CALL TO MR. YELTSIN, FEELS IT IMPORTANT TO KEEP THE DIALOGUE GOING.

    WHILE MR. YELTSIN SAID BEFORE THE CALL THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL NOT CAPITULATE IN THE FACE OF NATO ATTACKS, MR. LOCKHART SAID NATO IS "HIGHLY CONFIDENT" THE AIR CAMPAIGN WILL ACHIEVE ITS OBJECTIVES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/LTD/RAE
    19-Apr-99 11:29 AM EDT (1529 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] CLINTON/YELTSIN (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248316
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS HAD WHAT THE WHITE HOUSE SAYS WAS A "QUITE CONSTRUCTIVE" TELEPHONE CONVERSATION ON KOSOVO WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: THE CALL -- PLACED BY PRESIDENT CLINTON -- WAS PRECEDED BY SOME TOUGH TALK FROM MR. YELTSIN, WHO SAID YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WOULD NEVER CAPITULATE TO NATO, AND URGED THE QUICKEST POSSIBLE END TO NATO BOMBING. BUT CLINTON SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART STRESSED THE POSITIVE IN THE 45-MINUTE CONVERSATION, ESPECIALLY WHAT HE SAID WAS MR. YELTSIN'S RENEWED PLEDGE THAT RUSSIA WILL NOT INTERVENE ON THE SIDE OF BELGRADE:

    ///LOCKHART///

    PRESIDENT YELTSIN REAFFIRMED HIS PUBLIC STATEMENTS THAT THE RUSSIANS WOULD NOT BE DRAWN INTO THIS CONFLICT. THEY ALSO TALKED ABOUT THE AREAS THAT WE AGREE ON. AND THE PRESIDENT REITERATED THAT WE THINK RUSSIA CAN PLAY AN IMPORTANT AND CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE IN THIS PROCESS.

    ///END ACT///

    U-S OFFICIALS SAID MR. YELTSIN TOLD THE PRESIDENT RUSSIA WILL NOT SEND ADDITIONAL WARSHIPS TO THE BALKANS REGION, AND IS READY TO CONTINUE ACTING AS A DIPLOMATIC GO-BETWEEN WITH THE YUGOSLAV LEADERSHIP. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/PT
    19-Apr-99 2:56 PM EDT (1856 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248329
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS SAY THEY HOPE TO ACT FAST ON PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SIX-BILLION DOLLAR EMERGENCY BUDGET REQUEST FOR THE WAR IN KOSOVO. HOWEVER, THE MEASURE THREATENS TO TOUCH OFF A PARTISAN FIGHT ABOUT THE NATION'S OVERALL DEFENSE POLICY. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: OPPOSITION LAWMAKERS ARGUE THE PRESIDENT'S SUPPLEMENTAL SPENDING BILL DOES NOT GO NEARLY FAR ENOUGH. HOUSE SPEAKER DENNIS HASTERT, THE TOP REPUBLICAN IN CONGRESS, SAYS THE MEASURE SHOULD NOT JUST REPLACE BULLETS AND BOMBS SPENT IN KOSOVO. THE HOUSE APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN, CONGRESSMAN BILL YOUNG,ECHOED THE STATEMENT.

    // YOUNG ACT //

    AND WE'RE GOING TO DO THE BEST WE CAN TO MAKE SURE THAT WE COVERALL THE BASES AND NOT JUST A BAND-AID APPROACH TO THE IMMEDIATE PROBLEM IN KOSOVO.

    // END ACT //

    THE CONFLICT HAS REIGNITED REPUBLICAN CHARGES THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS OVERSTRETCHED, UNDERFUNDED AND WEAKENED THE ARMED FORCES.

    SENATOR FRANK MURKOWSKI SAYS THE YUGOSLAV AIR WAR,COUPLED WITH YEARS OF NEGLECT, HAVE LEFT THE PENTAGON CRITICALLY SHORT OF A KEY WEAPON, THE CRUISE MISSILE.

    // MURKOWSKI ACT //

    WHAT GREATLY CONCERNS ME, HOWEVER, IS THAT WHILE THE SERBIAN WAR MACHINE CONTINUES TO ROLL SOUTH (KOSOVO) UNIMPEDED, IT IS THE AMERICAN MILITARY THAT HAS BEEN SUBSEQUENTLY DEGRADED BY THE SHORTSIGHTED POLICIES OF THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION.

    // END ACT //

    REPUBLICANS WOULD LIKE TO ADD UP TO TEN-BILLION DOLLARS TO THE KOSOVO SUPPLEMENTAL SPENDING BILL TO STRENGTHEN U-S FORCES ELSEWHERE AND RAISE MILITARY PAY. THE WHITE HOUSE HOPES TO PUT OFF THESE ISSUES UNTIL LATER, AND IS CALLING FOR BIPARTISANSHIP IN A TIME OF CRISIS.

    SENATE DEMOCRATIC LEADER TOM DASCHLE WARNS THE MONEY FOR KOSOVO SHOULD NOT BE TIED TO OTHER THINGS.

    // DASCHLE ACT //

    IF YOU BURDEN ANY VEHICLE, ULTIMATELY THAT VEHICLE STOPS. AND I'M AFRAID THAT IF WE OVERBURDEN THAT VEHICLE IT TOO WILL STOP. WE'VE GOT TO BE VERY CAREFUL. WE WANT TO PASS THIS SUPPLEMENTAL (SPENDING BILL) EXPEDITIOUSLY.

    // END ACT //

    WHILE LAWMAKERS MAY DISAGREE ABOUT SPENDING, THERE IS A GROWING AWARENESS THE UNITED STATES AND NATO MAY BE FACING MONTHS OF WAR. REPUBLICAN SENATOR TED STEVENS SAYS HE CHANGED HIS VIEWS AFTER TOURING THE REGION LAST WEEKEND, AND MEETING WITH REFUGEES AND ALLIED COMMANDERS.

    // STEVENS ACT //

    I THOUGHT, AS A (WORLD WAR TWO) PILOT, WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE MAP THAT THIS SMALL AREA OF KOSOVO WOULD BE SORT OF WHAT THE BRITISH WOULD CALL "A PIECE OF CAKE" FOR AN AIR WAR. IT IS NOT.

    // END ACT //

    THE HOUSE (OF REPRESENTATIVES) AND SENATE ARE EXPECTED TO ACT ON THE PRESIDENT'S BUDGET REQUEST IN THE NEXT TWO WEEKS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/PT
    19-Apr-99 6:17 PM EDT (2217 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] KOSOVO TRIP (L-ONLY) BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248313
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWO LAWMAKERS FROM THE MIDWEST U-S STATE OF ILLINOIS WERE AMONG A DELEGATION OF 21 OFFICIALS VISITING THE BALKAN REGION THIS PAST SATURDAY. U-S SENATOR DICK DURBIN AND CONGRESSMAN ROD BLAGOJEVICH (BLAH-GOY-A-VICH) OF CHICAGO WERE PART OF THE FIRST CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATION TO ASSESS THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO. VOA'S MICHAEL LELAND HAS MORE.

    TEXT: DEMOCRATIC SENATOR DICK DURBIN SAYS HIS DELEGATION VISITED A REFUGEE CAMP OF MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND PEOPLE NEAR SKOPJE, MACEDONIA.

    // FIRST DURBIN ACT ///

    FIRST, IMAGINE TRUDGING THROUGH A SEA OF MUD, AND PEOPLE STANDING IN LINE FOR HOURS EACH DAY, WAITING FOR A LOAF OF BREAD, A HANDFUL OF FOOD AND SOME DISPOSABLE DIAPERS TO TAKE BACK TO THEIR TENTS. AS YOU WALK BACK TO THE TENT CITIES YOU CAN SEE THE MOTHERS AND GRANDMOTHERS TRYING TO MAINTAIN A HOME IN A TEN BY TEN (FOOT) (THREE METERS BY THREE METERS) TENT.

    // END ACT //

    THE SENATOR SAYS HE SPOKE TO MANY OF THE REFUGEES AND ALL SAID THEY HAD NOT FLED KOSOVO BECAUSE OF THE NATO BOMBING, BUT HAD BEEN DRIVEN OUT BY THEIR SERB NEIGHBORS. SENATOR DURBIN SAYS THE TRIP CONVINCED HIM THAT THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST SERB TARGETS MUST BE CONTINUED, BUT THAT AMERICANS MUST BE PATIENT AND DETERMINED, BECAUSE SUCCESS WILL NOT COME QUICKLY.

    HE REMAINS OPPOSED TO SENDING U-S GROUND TROOPS INTO THE REGION.

    // SECOND DURBIN ACT //

    THIS IS VERY DIFFICULT TERRAIN, MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN, UNPREDICTABLE WEATHER. SERBIANS ARE DUG IN AND PREPARED TO FIGHT FOR THEIR HOMELAND. WE ARE RESTRAINED BY LIMITED ACCESS FOR OUR FORCES TO PREPARE AND INVADE. IT WOULD TAKE MONTHS, AS IT DID IN THE PERSIAN GULF, FOR US TO PREPARE A LANDING SOMEWHERE IN THAT REGION.

    // END ACT //

    CONGRESSMAN ROD BLAGOJEVICH HAS OPPOSED U-S MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN KOSOVO, AND SAYS HE IS MORE CONVINCED THAN EVER THE NATO MISSION IS ONE FRAUGHT WITH PERIL. HE HAS SERIOUS DOUBTS THAT AIR POWER ALONE WILL DEFEAT SERB FORCES, AND FEARS NATO SOLIDARITY MIGHT NOT ENDURE IF THE CAMPAIGN BECOMES A LENGTHY ONE.

    SENATOR DURBIN SAYS HE OPPOSES ANY CEASEFIRE NOT ENFORCED BY PEACE KEEPERS, FOR FEAR YUGOSLAVIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WOULD USE THE PAUSE TO REBUILD HIS MILITARY. HE ALSO EXPRESSED HOPE THAT THE RUSSIANS WILL BE A PART OF AN EVENTUAL END TO THE CONFLICT.

    // THIRD DURBIN ACT //

    THE RUSSIANS HAVE A CHANCE HERE: THEY CAN PLAY AN IMPORTANT, POSITIVE ROLE, OR THEY CAN PLAY A DIVISIVE ROLE. I HOPE THEY WILL PLAY THAT POSITIVE ROLE AND HELP US MOVE TOWARD A PEACEFUL RESOLUTION.

    // END ACT //

    THE SENATOR SAYS AFTER SEEING THE REFUGEE CAMPS AND MEETING WITH MILITARY OFFICIALS IN THE BALKANS, HE WILL VOTE IN FAVOR OF AN EMERGENCY FUNDING PACKAGE FOR THE INTERVENTION, AND WILL VOTE FOR IT GLADLY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MJL/ENE/KL
    19-Apr-99 2:22 PM EDT (1822 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248286
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH OFFICIALS ARE REFUSING TO TALK ABOUT THE MISTAKEN NATO AIR STRIKE AGAINST A REFUGEE CONVOY LAST WEEK IN KOSOVO, SAYING ONLY THAT AN INVESTIGATION IS UNDERWAY TO DETERMINE WHAT WENT WRONG. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN IN LONDON REPORTS THE BRITISH BRIEFERS FOCUSSED INSTEAD ON HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS IN ALBANIA.

    TEXT: BRITISH DEFENSE SECRETARY GEORGE ROBERTSON INSISTS THERE IS NO COVER-UP OF THE NATO STRIKE AGAINST THE REFUGEE CONVOY IN KOSOVO. BUT HE SAYS HE CANNOT COMMENT UNTIL THE INVESTIGATION IS FINISHED. INSTEAD, MR. ROBERTSON BLAMES YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC FOR THE VIOLENCE OF KOSOVO.

    /// ROBERTSON ACT ///

    IT IS MILOSEVIC'S FORCES THAT ARE MIXING UP CIVILIAN WITH MILITARY CONVOYS. IT IS MILOSEVIC'S FORCES THAT HAVE CREATED THE REFUGEE COLUMNS IN THE FIRST PLACE. HE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE VIOLENCE THAT IS GOING IN KOSOVO AND THE SOONER HE STOPS IT, THE SOONER THERE WILL BE NO NECESSITY FOR AIR ATTACKS OR ANYTHING ELSE.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO HAS BEEN CRITICIZED FOR NOT OFFERING AN IMMEDIATE EXPLANATION FOR THE ATTACK. CONFUSING REPORTS FROM DIFFERENT NATO CAPITALS HAS ONLY FUELED THE CRITICISM. IN LONDON, THE MONDAY BRIEFING TRIED TO FOCUS ON BRITISH CONTRIBUTIONS TO REFUGEE RELIEF OPERATIONS IN ALBANIA WHERE OFFICIALS ESTIMATE THERE ARE ALREADY 360-THOUSAND KOSOVAR REFUGES.

    GENERAL JOHN REITH, THE NEW BRITISH COMMANDER OF THE NATO RELIEF OPERATIONS, KNOWN AS ALLIED HARBOR, EXPLAINED HIS MISSION BY SATELLITE HOOK-UP FROM TIRANA.

    /// REITH ACT ///

    WE'RE LOOKING AT UPGRADING 500 KILOMETERS OF ROAD AND PROVIDE THE TRANSPORT TO MOVE TOPPING UP (EXTRA SUPPLIES FOR) THE U-N-H-C-R RESOURCES. MY OTHER TASK IS VERY CLEARLY TO HELP BUILD THE CAMPS TO GET SHELTER TO THE REFUGEES.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL REITH SAYS NATO HAS TAKEN CHARGE OF THE AIRPORT AND REORGANIZED FLIGHTS IN AND OUT. AS A RESULT, HE SAYS, FLIGHTS HAVE INCREASED TENFOLD.

    GENERAL REITH INSISTS THE UNITS UNDER HIS CONTROL ARE NOT AN ADVANCE TEAM FOR A GROUND INVASION OF KOSOVO. NATO INSISTS THERE ARE NO PLANS FOR SENDING IN GROUND TROOPS EXCEPT TO ESCORT REFUGEES BACK HOME WHEN IT IS SAFE TO DO SO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    19-Apr-99 7:55 AM EDT (1155 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] CHINA/YUGOSLAVIA BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43159
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CHINA HAS BEEN OUTSPOKEN IN ITS CRITICISM OF NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. VOA'S STEPHANIE HO REPORTS FROM BEIJING, THAT FOR THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT, THE NATO ACTION SETS THE WORRYING PRECEDENT OF INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION IN A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY, OVER WHAT BEIJING SEES AS AN INTERNAL ETHNIC CONFLICT.

    TEXT: FROM THE TIME THE NATO AIR STRIKES BEGAN AT THE END OF MARCH, CHINA'S OPPOSITION HAS BEEN CONSISTENT. AT FIRST, CRITICISM WAS SHARP. BUT DURING CHINESE PREMIER ZHU RONGJI'S VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, OFFICIALS, SUCH AS FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN SUN YUXI, TONED DOWN THEIR REMARKS.

    // SUN YUXI INTERPRETER ACT //

    WE HAVE ALL ALONG BEEN OF THE VIEW THAT NATO SHOULD STOP AIR STRIKES SO AS TO AVOID FURTHER COMPLICATIONS IN THE DETERIORATION OF THE SITUATION SO THAT THE KOSOVO QUESTION CAN RETURN TO THE TRACK OF POLITICAL SETTLEMENT AT AN EARLY DATE.

    // END ACT //

    IN AN INTERVIEW WITH C-N-N LAST WEEK, THE CHINESE PREMIER MADE IT CLEAR THAT BEIJING OPPOSES THE NATO AIR STRIKES -- BUT NOT OUT OF IDEOLOGY NOR BECAUSE IT SUPPORTS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. MR. ZHU SAID CHINA'S MAIN CONCERN IS WITH THE WORLD COMMUNITY MILITARILY INTERVENING IN YUGOSLAVIA'S INTERNAL AFFAIRS.

    BECAUSE CHINA IS AN ETHNICALLY-DIVERSE COUNTRY, WITH RESTIVE POPULATION GROUPS IN AREAS SUCH AS TIBET AND XINJIANG, CHINESE LEADERS SEE AN ANALOGY BETWEEN THE PROBLEMS IN KOSOVO AND THEIR OWN. BEIJING ALSO WORRIES ABOUT TAIWAN, WHICH THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT REGARDS AS A RENEGADE PROVINCE, AND WHERE IT FIGHTS HARD TO PREVENT WHAT IT SEES AS FOREIGN INTERFERENCE.

    CHINA REGULARLY DEFLECTS QUESTIONS ABOUT TIBET, XINJIANG AND TAIWAN FROM FOREIGN REPORTERS -- SAYING THEY ARE ALL INTERNAL CHINESE MATTERS.

    CHINESE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES SENIOR FELLOW, YANG DAZHOU, HAS SPENT TIME IN YUGOSLAVIA AND IS A YUGOSLAVIAN AFFAIRS EXPERT. PROFESSOR YANG SAYS WHEN MR. ZHU WAS IN THE UNITED STATES, HE SHOULD HAVE LAID MORE EMPHASIS ON THE QUESTION OF KOSOVO AND THE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    // YANG CHINESE ACT -- IN FULL, FADE OUT //

    THE CHINESE PROFESSOR SAYS HE KNOWS OF MANY YOUNG CHINESE WHO ARE REFUSING TO EAT AT U-S FAST FOOD OUTLETS, SUCH AS MCDONALDS, UNTIL THE NATO BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA HAS STOPPED. HE ADDED THAT THE YUGOSLAV EMBASSY IN BEIJING HAS SHOWED HIM HUNDREDS OF LETTERS IT HAS RECEIVED FROM CHINESE PEOPLE WHO WROTE TO SHOW THEIR SUPPORT FOR THE YUGOSLAV PEOPLE.

    PROFESSOR YANG SAYS HE THINKS IT IS JUSTIFIABLE FOR A GOVERNMENT TO CRACK DOWN ON ILLEGAL TERRORIST ACTIVITY. BUT HE ADDS THAT CHINESE NEWS AGENCIES ARE NOT FULLY REPORTING THE POSSIBILITY THAT SERB POLICEMEN AND MILITARY MAY HAVE BEEN TOO EXTREME.

    // YANG ENGLISH ACT //

    NOT DISCUSSED IN CHINESE MEDIA, BUT I THINK IT'S POSSIBLE.

    // END ACT //

    WHILE CHINESE LEADERS HAVE MADE CLEAR THEIR OPPOSITION TO THE NATO ACTIONS, THEY HAVE ALSO SHOWN THEIR RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES ARE TOO IMPORTANT TO BE DISRUPTED BY THE AIR STRIKES. PROFESSOR YANG SAYS BEIJING'S RELATIONSHIP WITH BELGRADE IS NOT AS CLOSE AS ITS TIES TO WASHINGTON.

    THE CHINESE PROFESSOR SAYS HE FEELS CHINA SHOULD BACK UP ITS CRITICISM OF U-S POLICY TOWARD YUGOSLAVIA BY OFFERING HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE TO BOTH SERB AND ETHNIC ALBANIAN VICTIMS OF THE CONFLICT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/HO/FC/PLM
    19-Apr-99 6:26 AM EDT (1026 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] RUSSIA/YUGOSLAVIA (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248294
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS WARNED RUSSIA WILL NOT ALLOW THE WEST TO ESTABLISH CONTROL OVER YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS RUSSIA IS PUSHING AHEAD WITH PLANS FOR A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE CONFLICT OVER KOSOVO.

    TEXT: MR. YELTSIN SAID MONDAY HE PLANS TO TELL PRESIDENT CLINTON BY TELEPHONE THAT RUSSIA CONSIDERS YUGOSLAVIA A STRATEGIC ZONE, AND WILL NOT PERMIT IT TO FALL INTO WESTERN HANDS.

    /// YELTSIN ACT IN RUSSIAN, THEN FADE TO...///

    HE SAYS -- WE CANNOT ALLOW THAT. IN TELEVISED REMARKS, THE RUSSIAN LEADER SAID NATO MUST UNDERSTAND YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WILL NEVER SURRENDER.

    /// YELTSIN ACT IN RUSSIAN, THEN FADE TO...//

    HE SAYS -- MR. MILOSEVIC IS NOT THAT KIND OF MAN. HE WILL NOT GIVE UP.

    AT THE SAME TIME, MR. YELTSIN MADE A RARE CRITICISM OF THE YUGOSLAV LEADER FOR REFUSING TO BUDGE FROM "HARDLINE" POSITIONS.

    HE MADE THE COMMENT AFTER MEETING RUSSIA'S TOP YUGOSLAVIA POLICY MAKERS TO MAP OUT STRATEGY FOR A FRESH DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVE TO END THE CONFLICT OVER KOSOVO.

    RUSSIA HAS REPEATEDLY DENOUNCED NATO AIRSTRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA, BUT HAS MADE CLEAR IT WILL NOT GET MILITARILY INVOLVED IN THE CONFLICT.

    THE ITAR-TASS NEWS AGENCY (MONDAY) QUOTED MR. YELTSIN AS SAYING NO MORE NAVY SHIPS ARE TO JOIN THE LONE RUSSIAN RECONNAISSANCE VESSEL DISPATCHED TO THE ADRIATIC THIS MONTH.

    BUT AT THE SAME TIME, DEFENSE SECRETARY IGOR SERGEYEV WAS QUOTED AS SAYING RUSSIA HAS INFORMATION THAT NATO IS PREPARING TO SEND GROUND TROOPS TO YUGOSLAVIA. FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV MADE A SIMILAR STATEMENT IN AN INTERVIEW PUBLISHED SUNDAY IN A SPANISH NEWSPAPER. NEITHER MAN GAVE ANY SOURCE FOR HIS STATEMENT.

    NATO HAS SAID IT HAS NO INTENTION OF SENDING GROUND TROOPS TO YUGOSLAVIA, EXCEPT AS A PEACEKEEPING FORCE AFTER THE CURRENT CONFLICT ENDS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/ALW/RAE
    19-Apr-99 10:30 AM EDT (1430 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] RUSSIA / YUGOSLAVIA (L UPDATE) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248308
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: THIS REPORT UPDATES CR 2-248294 ///

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS URGED PRESIDENT CLINTON TO END THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. BUT AS V-O-A'S PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, MR. YELTSIN ALSO MADE A RARE PUBLIC CRITICISM OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    TEXT: PRESIDENTS CLINTON AND YELTSIN SPOKE BY TELEPHONE MONDAY FOR THE FIRST TIME IN NEARLY ONE MONTH. A KREMLIN SPOKESMAN GAVE FEW DETAILS OF THE 50-MINUTE CONVERSATION, EXCEPT TO SAY THE RUSSIAN LEADER URGED A QUICK END TO NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    BUT IN TELEVISED COMMENTS BEFORE THEIR TALK, THE RUSSIAN LEADER SAID HE PLANNED TO WARN MR. CLINTON THAT RUSSIA WOULD NOT PERMIT A WESTERN TAKEOVER IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// YELTSIN ACT ONE - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS "WE CANNOT ALLOW THAT, BECAUSE THE BALKANS REGION IS A STRATEGIC PLACE."

    MR. YELTSIN SAID HE WANTED TO IMPRESS UPON PRESIDENT CLINTON HIS BELIEF THAT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WILL NEVER SURRENDER.

    /// YELTSIN ACT TWO - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS "MR. MILOSEVIC IS NOT THAT KIND OF MAN. HE WILL NOT GIVE UP."

    AT THE SAME TIME, PRESIDENT YELTSIN MADE AN UNUSUALLY SHARP CRITICISM OF THE YUGOSLAV LEADER FOR REFUSING TO BUDGE FROM WHAT HE CALLED HARDLINE POSITIONS. THE ITAR-TASS NEWS AGENCY QUOTED MR. YELTSIN AS SAYING THE MAIN TASK AHEAD WOULD BE GETTING BELGRADE TO COMPROMISE ON THE ISSUE OF A PEACEKEEPING FORCE.

    THE RUSSIAN LEADER ALSO SIGNALED A MORE CONCILIATORY ATTITUDE TOWARD NATO. AFTER A MEETING WITH HIS NEWLY NAMED ENVOY ON THE KOSOVO CRISIS VICTOR CHERNOMYRDIN AND OTHER TOP POLICY MAKERS, MR. YELTSIN ANNOUNCED THAT NO MORE RUSSIAN NAVY SHIPS WOULD BE SENT TO JOIN THE ONE RECONNAISSANCE VESSEL MONITORING NATO MOVEMENTS IN THE ADRIATIC. MEANWHILE, THE KREMLIN APPEARS TO BE PREPARING A FRESH DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVE. PRESIDENTIAL CRISIS ENVOY VICTOR CHERNOMYRDIN MONDAY SAID HE IS IN REGULAR COMMUNICATION WITH BELGRADE AND NATO CAPITALS.

    IN ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT, THE HEAD OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH, PATRIARCH ALEXY THE SECOND, WILL LEAVE TUESDAY FOR THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL. ON THE EVE OF HIS TRIP, THE PATRIARCH MET MR. CHERNOMYRDIN AND U-S AMBASSADOR TO MOSCOW JAMES COLLINS.

    WHILE IN BELGRADE, THE CHURCH LEADER IS EXPECTED TO TALK WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. HE ALSO WILL DISCUSS POSSIBLE CHURCH INVOLVEMENT IN DISTRIBUTING HUMANITARIAN AID TO VICTIMS OF THE CONFLICT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH
    19-Apr-99 1:14 PM EDT (1714 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] UN/ANNAN/MOSCOW (L-ONLY) BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248319
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN SAYS HE HAS ACCEPTED AN INVITATION FROM RUSSIAN AUTHORITIES TO DISCUSS THE KOSOVO CRISIS IN MOSCOW NEXT WEEK CORRESPONDENT BARBARA SCHOETZAU REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: MR. ANNAN SAYS HE WILL VISIT RUSSIA AT THE END OF A PREVIOUSLY-PLANNED TRIP TO GERMANY FROM APRIL 26TH THROUGH APRIL 28TH.

    THE U-N SECRETARY GENERAL SAYS RUSSIA HAS PLAYED A CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS, AND HE WANTS TO PURSUE THAT EFFORT AND FIND OUT HOW THE UNITED NATIONS CAN HELP RESOLVE THE SITUATION.

    /// ANNAN ACT ///

    ON THE TRIP TO MOSCOW I WILL BE EXCHANGING VIEWS WITH THE RUSSIAN AUTHORITIES WHO HAVE BEEN VERY ACTIVE IN THIS ISSUE. [I] HAVE ENGAGED THE YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES, AND [I WILL] EXPLORE WITH THEM WHERE WE GO FROM HERE TO GET TO ACHIEVE THE OBJECTIVES WE HAVE SET OURSELVES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ANNAN SAYS HE WILL SOON APPOINT A SPECIAL ENVOY TO ASSIST HIM ON THE KOSOVO CRISIS. HE SAYS HE APPEALED TO SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS TO PRESENT A UNITED FRONT ON THE KOSOVO ISSUE BECAUSE PROGRESS CAN ONLY BE MADE WHEN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WORKS TOGETHER.

    THE FIVE PERMANENT MEMBERS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL REMAIN SHARPLY DIVIDED OVER KOSOVO, WITH BRITAIN, FRANCE AND THE UNITED STATES SUPPORTING MILITARY ACTION, AND CHINA AND RUSSIA OPPOSING BOMBING. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BJS/LSF/WTW
    19-Apr-99 3:55 PM EDT (1955 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] SERBIAN IMMIGRANTS/NATO BOMBING (L-ONLY) BY MIKE O'SULLIVAN (LOS ANGELES)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248328
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A NUMBER OF SERBIAN-AMERICANS ARE SPEAKING OUT AGAINST THE NATO BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA. FROM LOS ANGELES, V-O-A'S MIKE O'SULLIVAN REPORTS THE PROTESTERS INCLUDE A PROMINENT FIGURE FROM THE SPORTS WORLD.

    TEXT: THE BASKETBALL STAR VLADE DIVAC [PRON: 'VLAD-UH 'DEE-VAHK] IS A NATIVE OF YUGOSLAVIA WHO RECENTLY BECAME A U-S CITIZEN. HE JOINED A NUMBER OF SERBIAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY LEADERS (MONDAY) TO CHARGE THAT THE NATO CAMPAIGN IS HURTING CIVILIANS MORE THAN THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT.

    /// FIRST DIVAC ACT ///

    THEY [THE LEADERS OF NATO] HAVE A PROBLEM WITH [YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC. WE HAVE 11-MILLION PEOPLE WHO LIVE THERE WITH HIM. HE IS NOT THE ONLY ONE. YOU ARE BOMBING ALL.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE LOCAL SERBIAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY ASKED SEVERAL HOLLYWOOD ACTORS TO JOIN THEM IN DEMANDING A HALT TO THE NATO BOMBING. IN THE END, NONE CAME TO THEIR MEETING WITH REPORTERS. SPEAKERS, HOWEVER, READ LETTERS OF SUPPORT FROM PROMINENT SERBIAN-AMERICANS, AND ALSO ONE FROM CALIFORNIA STATE SENATOR TOM HAYDEN. MR. HAYDEN IS BEST KNOWN AS A ONE-TIME ACTIVIST AGAINST THE VIETNAM WAR. HIS WRITTEN COMMENTS, PRESENTED AS AN OPEN LETTER TO PRESIDENT CLINTON, CALL THE NATO CAMPAIGN A REMINDER OF VIETNAM.

    // OPT //

    A SERBIAN-AMERICAN RESTAURATEUR, DAN TANA, ECHOED THE COMMENTS OF OTHER SPEAKERS, SAYING NATO'S BOMBING VIOLATES THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF YUGOSLAVIANS.

    /// TANA ACT ///

    THEY HAVE A RIGHT TO LIVE IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY, UNDER THEIR OWN SYSTEM. THEY HAVE THE RIGHT TO TAKE CARE OF THEIR INTERNAL PROBLEMS, JUST LIKE US. NO ONE SHOULD BE ALLOWED -- INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, THE MOST POWERFUL COUNTRY IN THE WORLD -- TO MIX IN THE OTHER COUNTRY'S AFFAIRS.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    THE SPEAKERS RESPONDED IN VARIOUS WAYS WHEN QUESTIONED BY REPORTERS ABOUT THE PLIGHT OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO, WHO ARE, BY MOST ACCOUNTS, VICTIMS OF WIDESPREAD "ETHNIC CLEANSING." HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS HAVE FLED TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. SOME SPEAKERS SAID THE REFUGEES' CONDITION IS NO WORSE THAN THAT OF BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN SERBS WHO WERE ALSO FORCED FROM THEIR HOMES. OTHERS SPEAKERS SAID THE DISPLACEMENT OF REFUGEES IS A RESULT OF THE NATO BOMBING.

    SPORTS STAR VLADE DIVAC SAYS HE FEELS SYMPATHY FOR KOSOVAR REFUGEES, BUT THEY ARE NOT THE ONLY PEOPLE IN THE BALKANS WHO ARE SUFFERING.

    /// SECOND DIVAC ACT ///

    THIS IS A CONFLICT, A CIVIL WAR. EVERYBODY IS DOING THE SAME THING. IT'S TERRIBLE. I'M AGAINST ALL THOSE THINGS. THIS IS TERRIBLE WHAT'S HAPPENING TO THE ALBANIAN PEOPLE. BUT IT'S ALSO TERRIBLE FOR THE SERBIAN PEOPLE. ALL PEOPLE ARE LOSING HERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    SERBIAN-AMERICAN VLADE DIVAC BELIEVES THE NATO BOMBING HAS ONLY SOLIDIFIED SUPPORT FOR YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, AND SAYS IT HAS RALLIED EVEN OPPONENTS TO STAND BEHIND HIM IN OPPOSING NATO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MO/PHW/WTW
    19-Apr-99 6:29 PM EDT (2229 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] NATO: CELEBRATION AMID A WAR BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43165
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///EDS: RERUNNING WITH CHANGES TO GRAF 4 OF TEXT///

    INTRO: NATO'S WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA HAS NOT DETERRED IT FROM MOVING AHEAD WITH PLANS TO HOLD THREE DAYS OF CELEBRATIONS IN WASHINGTON LATER THIS WEEK TO MARK THE ALLIANCE'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. IN AN IRONIC TWIST OF HISTORY, CORRESPONDENT NICK SIMEONE REPORTS THE ALLIANCE WILL BE MARKING 50 YEARS OF KEEPING THE PEACE IN EUROPE WHILE ENGAGED IN ITS BIGGEST MILITARY TEST YET.

    TEXT: NATO AIR ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA ARE NOT STOPPING SERB FORCES FROM CARRYING OUT ETHNIC CLEANSING IN KOSOVO. NOR IS THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN FORCING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE.

    SO FOUR WEEKS INTO THE WAR AND WITH NO VICTORY IN SIGHT, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO POLITICAL SCIENCE PROFESSOR JOHN MEARSHEIMER EXPECTS THIS WEEK'S NATO ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT TO BE ANYTHING BUT CELEBRATORY.

    // MEARSHEIMER ACT //

    UNLESS PRESIDENT CLINTON IS ABLE TO PULL A RABBIT OUT OF A HAT AND COME UP WITH A MAGIC SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM IN KOSOVO, IT LOOKS LIKE THE 50TH BIRTHDAY PARTY IS GOING TO BE MUCH MORE OF A FUNERAL THAN A CELEBRATION

    // END ACT //

    THAT IS BECAUSE EVEN NATO ADMITS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MAY SOON SUCCEED IN EMPTYING KOSOVO OF ITS ETHNIC ALBANIAN POPULATION -- THE VERY PEOPLE THAT THE ALLIANCE INTENDED TO PROTECT WHEN IT AUTHORIZED AIRSTRIKES FOUR WEEKS AGO.

    // SECOND MEARSHEIMER ACT //

    I THINK WHAT THEY'LL PRIMARILY BE TALKING ABOUT IS WHAT A GIANT FIASCO THE KOSOVO WAR HAS TURNED INTO. THE FACT OF THE MATTER IS THAT THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES HAVE BLUNDERED INTO A WAR THAT THEY HAVE NO STRATEGY OF WINNING AND THEY REALLY HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THEY'RE DOING AND IF ANYBODY HAD ANY DOUBTS BEFORE THIS 50TH BIRTHDAY PARTY ABOUT WHETHER NATO HAD A FUTURE, THOSE DOUBTS ARE GOING TO BE EXACERBATED TO THE EXTREME BY WHAT'S HAPPENED IN KOSOVO.

    // END ACT //

    //OPT//

    HOWEVER, THE WHITE HOUSE CONTINUES TO INSIST THAT NATO'S STRATEGY WILL PREVAIL, AND CREATE A KOSOVO IN WHICH ETHNIC ALBANIANS WILL BE ABLE TO SAFELY RETURN. BUT EVEN SOME OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SUPPORTERS IN CONGRESS ARE WONDERING WHY THE ALLIANCE WAS NOT BETTER PREPARED FOR THE CONSEQUENCES OF ITS AIR ASSAULT. AMONG THEM IS SENATOR ROBERT TORRICELLI.

    // TORRICELLI ACT //

    APPARENTLY, THE C-I-A DID A FORECAST SIX MONTHS AGO INDICATING THAT MILOSEVIC WOULD HAVE A SPRING CAMPAIGN WHICH WOULD RESULT IN THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES OUT OF KOSOVO. SOMEHOW, THAT DIDN'T MAKE ITSELF INTO THE PLANNING. THESE PEOPLE ARRIVED WITH NO PREPARATION. IN THE MIDDLE OF A MILITARY CAMPAIGN, I READ THAT THE PRESIDENT IS SENDING HELICOPTERS AND IT'S GOING TO TAKE WEEKS TO GET THEM READY (WHICH) MEANS SOMEONE IS NOT ANTICIPATING.

    // END ACT & OPT//

    WITH NATO BOMBS FALLING ON SERB TARGETS -- AND TELEVISION SCREENS FILLED WITH IMAGES NOT SEEN SINCE THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO -- SOME MIGHT ASK WHAT IS THERE TO CELEBRATE?

    THAT QUESTION HAS NOT BEEN LOST ON NATO WHICH IS CONCERNED THAT ALLIANCE LEADERS COULD FIND THEMSELVES IN AN EMBARRASSING SITUATION IF PICTURES OF NATO PARTIES AND RECEPTIONS ARE SHOWN ON TELEVISION ALONGSIDE IMAGES OF HOMELESS REFUGEES. A NUMBER OF EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUMMIT HAVE BEEN CANCELLED -- INCLUDING A FLY OVER BY ALLIED AIRCRAFT -- TO KEEP THE FOCUS ON THE WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA. NATO SPOKESMAN NICK FIORENZA

    // NATO ACT //

    THE FACT THAT NATO IS INVOLVED IN AN AIR OPERATION OVER KOSOVO AND OVER YUGOSLAVIA HAS BROUGHT MAYBE A VERY PRESSING ISSUE THAT WAS NOT EXPECTED WHEN THE SUMMIT WAS FIRST PLANNED. IT'S DIFFICULT TO CELEBRATE WHEN IN FACT NATO IS INVOLVED IN AN OPERATION AND WHEN OF COURSE WE HAVE THIS EXTREMELY SERIOUS REFUGEE AND DISPLACED PERSONS SITUATION IN KOSOVO AND THE BORDERING COUNTRIES.

    // END ACT //

    THE THREE DAY NATO SUMMIT WILL BE THE LARGEST GATHERING OF WORLD LEADERS IN WASHINGTON SINCE THE FUNERAL OF PRESIDENT KENNEDY 35 YEARS AGO. BUT THE GATHERING WILL BE TAKING PLACE AMID MUCH UNCERTAINTY ABOUT NATO'S FUTURE. MOST IMMEDIATELY -- WHETHER THE FIRST EVER ATTACK BY THE ALLIANCE AGAINST ANOTHER COUNTRY WILL BE ABLE TO END SERB AGGRESSION IN KOSOVO SHORT OF THE NEED FOR HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF TROOPS ON THE GROUND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/WFR
    19-Apr-99 5:18 PM EDT (2118 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] TURKEY ELECTION (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248281
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S INTERIM PRIME MINISTER -- BULENT2 ECEVIT -- APPEARS SET TO REMAIN IN POWER AS VOTE COUNTING DRAWS TO A CLOSE FOLLOWING SUNDAY'S GENERAL ELECTIONS. AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS MR. ECEVIT'S WIN WAS WIDELY PREDICTED.

    TEXT: EARLY RESULTS SHOW MR. ECEVIT'S PARTY FIRMLY IN THE LEAD WITH AROUND 21-PERCENT OF THE VOTES.

    MR. ECEVIT'S REPUTATION FOR PROBITY COMBINED WITH THE CAPTURE OF KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN DURING HIS THREE-MONTH STINT AS INTERIM PRIME MINISTER GAVE HIS CAMPAIGN A HUGE BOOST.

    ISLAMISTS WHO WON THE ELECTIONS IN 1995 AND WERE WIDELY TIPPED AS MR. ECEVIT'S CHIEF RIVAL IN THIS ELECTION SUFFERED A HUGE DEFEAT WITH THEIR SHARE OF THE VOTE DIPPING TO 16-PERCENT. ANALYSTS SAY THE ISLAMISTS AILING FORTUNES ARE DIRECTLY LINKED TO THEIR ANTAGONISTIC STAND TOWARD TURKEY'S POPULAR ARMED FORCES.

    MANY CONSERVATIVE VOTERS ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE SHIFTED TO THE RIGHT-WING "NATIONALIST ACTION PARTY", M-H-P, WHICH FINISHED A SURPRISING SECOND BEHIND MR. ECEVIT. SEVERAL FACTORS ARE CITED FOR THE PARTY'S DRAMATIC RISE IN POPULARITY -- MORE THAN DOUBLING THE EIGHT-PERCENT IT GOT IN 1995.

    ANALYSTS SAY THE MAJOR REASON IS THE DEEP DISILLUSIONMENT FELT BY MANY TURKS WITH THE MAIN CENTER-RIGHT PARTIES, MESUT YILMAZ'S "MOTHERLAND" AND TANSU CILLER'S "TRUE PATH". BOTH PARTIES SUFFERED A SHARP DECLINE IN SUNDAY'S ELECTION.

    THEY SAY OTHER FACTORS IN THE NATIONALISTS' GAINS ARE THE PARTY'S HARD LINE ON THE KURDISH ISSUE AND THE RESENTMENT FELT BY MANY TURKS TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN UNION'S REJECTION OF TURKEY'S MEMBERSHIP BID.

    ANALYSTS SAY THE NATIONALIST ACTION PARTY'S LEADER, DEVLET BAHCELI, ALSO GAINED SUPPORT BECAUSE HE PURGED THE PART OF ITS EXTREME ELEMENTS AND MOVED THE PARTY CLOSER TO THE CENTER-RIGHT SINCE TAKING OVER LAST YEAR.

    IN TURKEY'S MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEAST REGION, THE PRO-KURDISH "PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY PARTY" WON SEVERAL MAYORAL SEATS, INCLUDING THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL, DIYARBAKIR. BUT THE PARTY DID POORLY IN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS, GETTING ONLY FOUR PERCENT OF THE NATIONAL VOTE.

    A LEFTIST PARTY, "THE SOCIAL DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN PEOPLE'S PARTY", FAILED TO SECURE THE MINIMUM 10 PERCENT OF THE VOTE REQUIRED TO BE REPRESENTED IN THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT. THAT LEAVES MR. ECEVIT AS THE SOLE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE TURKISH LEFT. (SIGNED) NEB/AZ/JWH/KL/RAE
    19-Apr-99 7:19 AM EDT (1119 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] TURKEY/ELECTIONS (L-UPDATE) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248312
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL HAS ASKED LEFTIST LEADER BULENT ECEVIT TO REMAIN CARETAKER PRIME MINISTER UNTIL THE FORMATION OF A NEW GOVERNMENT IN THE WAKE OF SUNDAY'S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: AS BALLOT COUNTING DRAWS TO A CLOSE, MR. ECEVIT, OF THE "DEMOCRATIC LEFT PARTY" STILL LEADS WITH ABOUT 21-PERCENT OF THE VOTE. BUT AN ULTRA-NATIONALIST GROUP KNOWN AS THE "M-H-P" IS FOLLOWING CLOSELY ON HIS HEELS WITH 18-PERCENT.

    MR ECEVIT'S REPUTATION FOR PROBITY COMBINED WITH THE CAPTURE OF KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN DURING HIS THREE-MONTH STINT AS INTERIM PREMIER GAVE HIS CAMPAIGN A HUGE BOOST. BUT POLITICAL OBSERVERS SAY THAT SAME NATIONALIST SENTIMENT HAS ALSO HELPED THE M-H-P.

    ANALYSTS SAY THAT WITH NO PARTY COMMANDING A MAJORITY IN THE 550-MEMBER TURKISH PARLIAMENT, THE MOST LIKELY OUTCOME OF THE ELECTION IS ANOTHER COALITION GOVERNMENT.

    THE ISLAMISTS, WHO WON THE ELECTIONS IN 1995, WERE WIDELY TIPPED AS MR. ECEVIT'S CHIEF RIVAL THIS TIME. INSTEAD THE ISLAMISTS SUFFERED A HUGE DEFEAT, WITH THEIR SHARE OF THE VOTE DIPPING TO 16-PERCENT. ANALYSTS SAY THE ISLAMISTS' AILING FORTUNES ARE DIRECTLY LINKED TO THEIR TROUBLED RELATIONS WITH TURKEY'S HUGELY POPULAR ARMED FORCES.

    MANY CONSERVATIVE VOTERS ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE SHIFTED TO THE M-H-P, WHICH HELPED PUSH IT INTO A SURPRISE SECOND PLACE TO MR. ECEVIT. SEVERAL FACTORS ARE CITED FOR THE PARTY'S DRAMATIC RISE IN POPULARITY, WHICH SAW IT MORE THAN DOUBLING THE EIGHT-PERCENT OF THE NATIONAL VOTE IT COLLECTED IN THE 1995 ELECTION.

    ANALYSTS SAY THE MAJOR REASON IS THE DEEP DISILLUSIONMENT FELT BY MANY TURKS WITH THE MAIN CENTER-RIGHT PARTIES, MESUT YILMAZ'S "MOTHERLAND" AND TANSU CILLER'S "TRUE PATH". BOTH PARTIES HAVE BEEN DOGGED BY ALLEGATIONS OF CORRUPTION AND, AS A RESULT, SUFFERED A SHARP DECLINE IN SUNDAY'S VOTE.

    ANALYSTS SAY OTHER FACTORS IN THE NATIONALISTS' GAINS WERE ITS HARD LINE ON THE KURDISH ISSUE AND THE RESENTMENT FELT BY MANY TURKS TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN UNION DUE TO ITS REJECTION OF TURKEY'S MEMBERSHIP BID. THEY SAY M-H-P LEADER DEVLET BAHCELI ALSO GAINED SUPPORT BECAUSE HE HAS MOVED IT TOWARD THE CENTER RIGHT SINCE TAKING OVER LAST YEAR.

    THE ISLAMISTS PERFORMED WELL IN LOCAL ELECTIONS, AND THEY ALSO RETAINED CONTROL OVER ISTANBUL, TURKEY'S LARGEST CITY. MEANWHILE, IN TURKEY'S MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEAST REGION, THE PRO-KURDISH "PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY PARTY" WON SEVERAL MAYORAL SEATS, INCLUDING THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL DIYARBAKIR. BUT THE PARTY DID POORLY IN THE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS, WINNING ONLY FOUR-PERCENT OF THE NATIONAL VOTE, ACCORDING TO PRELIMINARY RETURNS. "THE SOCIAL DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN PEOPLE'S PARTY" FAILED TO SECURE THE MINIMUM 10-PERCENT OF THE VOTE REQUIRED TO BE REPRESENTED IN THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT, LEAVING MR. ECEVIT AS THE SOLE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE TURKISH LEFT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/ALW/RAE
    19-Apr-99 2:23 PM EDT (1823 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [24] EURO DOWN (S-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248314
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NEW EURO CURRENCY MONDAY EXPERIENCED ITS SHARPEST ONE DAY DROP AGAINST THE DOLLAR IN FIVE WEEKS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THE LATEST DECLINE IS BLAMED ON PESSIMISM ABOUT THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY AND THE WAR IN KOSOVO.

    TEXT: THE EURO CLOSED BELOW ONE DOLLAR SIX CENTS FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE ITS LAUNCH JANUARY FIRST. THE CURRENCY--A COMPOSITE MONEY OF 11 EUROPEAN ECONOMIES INCLUDING FRANCE AND GERMANY--HAS DROPPED NEARLY TEN PERCENT IN ITS FIRST THREE AND A HALF MONTHS.

    ITALIAN TREASURY MINISTER CARLO CIAMPI SAYS HE WORRIES THAT THE WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA WILL CURB ALREADY SLUGGISH GROWTH IN THE EURO AREA. THE COST OF THE WAR IS PUTTING NEW PRESSURES ON GOVERNMENT FINANCES AND DISCOURAGING BUSINESS INVESTMENT. CURRENCY TRADERS IN FRANKFURT AND LONDON EXPECT THE EURO TO FALL FURTHER. BY TODAY'S CLOSE, THE GERMAN MARK HAD FALLEN AGAINST THE DOLLAR TO ONE MARK 84 PHENNIGS.

    THE HEAD OF THE NEW EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK SAYS FOR NOW HE DOES NOT ADVOCATE ACTION TO REVERSE THE EURO'S DECLINE. FINANCE MINISTERS FROM THE MAJOR INDUSTRIAL POWERS WILL HOLD A PREVIOUSLY SCHEDULED MEETING IN WASHINGTON IN LESS THAN ONE WEEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PT
    19-Apr-99 2:27 PM EDT (1827 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [25] NORTHERN IRELAND (L-O) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248296
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ROMAN CATHOLIC AND PROTESTANT NEGOTIATORS ARE IN LONDON TO MEET WITH THE BRITISH AND IRISH PRIME MINISTERS IN AN EFFORT TO BREAK THE IMPASSE OVER WEAPONS DECOMMISSIONING. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS.

    TEXT: SO FAR NEITHER SIDE IS SHOWING ANY SIGNS OF COMPROMISE. SO BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR AND IRISH PRIME MINISTER BERTIE AHERN ARE AT IT AGAIN, DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THE TALKS TO TRY TO REACH A COMPROMISE THAT WILL BREAK THE DEADLOCK.

    AFTER HIS TALKS IN LONDON WITH THE TWO PRIME MINISTERS, PROTESTANT FIRST MINISTER DAVID TRIMBLE SAID THERE IS STILL TIME FOR THE IRISH REPUBLIC ARMY TO MAKE A GESTURE AND START HANDING OVER WEAPONS.

    /// TRIMBLE ACT ///

    WE HAVE REVIEWED THE SITUATION. ALL OF US -- OURSELVES AND BOTH PRIME MINISTERS -- ARE ANXIOUS TO ACHIEVE PROGRESS IN THIS MATTER. WE ARE NOT IN FAVOR OF PARKING THIS PROCESS AT THE MOMENT. WE BELIEVE THE BEST THING TO DO IS CONTINUE WORKING AT THIS PROBLEM IN THE HOPES OF SEEING OUR WAY THROUGH IT.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT THE I-R-A'S POLITICAL WING, SINN FEIN, SAYS IT CANNOT PUSH THE REPUBLICAN PARAMILITARY GROUP TO TURN OVER ANY WEAPONS. SINN FEIN LEADER GERRY ADAMS SAY SINN FEIN'S PARTICIPATION IN NORTHERN IRELAND'S14 PEACE GOVERNMENT CANNOT BE HELD HOSTAGE TO DECOMMISSIONING.

    /// ADAMS ACT ///

    I THINK THE AGREEMENT IS IN FREE FALL.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ADAMS SAYS THE COMPROMISE PROPOSAL PUT FORTH LAST MONTH BY THE BRITISH AND IRISH PRIME MINISTERS STILL LINKS PARTICIPATION IN THE GOVERNMENT WITH AN I-R-A HANDOVER OF WEAPONS. SINN FEIN HAS REJECTED THE PROPOSAL AND INSISTS THE "GOOD FRIDAY PEACE AGREEMENT" SIGNED LAST YEAR HAS NO PRECONDITIONS TO SINN FEIN TAKING TWO CABINET POSTS IN THE NEW GOVERNMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MLK/ALW/RAE
    19-Apr-99 11:27 AM EDT (1527 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [26] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248326
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (MONDAY) WITH HEAVY SELLING OF MANY TECHNOLOGY-RELATED ISSUES. V-O-A BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 10-THOUSAND-440, DOWN 53 POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 12-HUNDRED-89, DOWN 29 POINTS. AND THE NASDAQ INDEX LOST ALMOST SIX PERCENT, REFLECTING WIDESPREAD WEAKNESS IN TECHNOLOGY STOCKS.

    SEVERAL INFLUENTIAL ANALYSTS HAVE ISSUED WARNINGS ABOUT MANY TECHNOLOGY STOCKS, SAYING THEY ARE CURRENTLY OVERVALUED.

    // OPT //

    MICHAEL DONAHUE OF THE COWAN INVESTMENT COMPANY SAYS THE WARNINGS COVER A LOT OF WELL-KNOWN COMPANIES.

    /// DONAHUE ACT ///

    IF YOU ARE INTO COMPUTER STOCKS SUCH AS DELL, COMPAQ, GATEWAY AND THAT GROUP, YOU ARE GOING TO HAVE A LOT OF TROUBLE. I WOULD INCLUDE INTEL IN THAT GROUP ALSO.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    IT WAS AN EXTREMELY VOLATILE DAY FOR THE MARKET IN GENERAL. THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE, WHICH WAS UP 270 POINTS MID-WAY INTO THE SESSION, STEADILY LOST ALL OF ITS GAINS AND TURNED NEGATIVE IN THE LAST HOUR OF TRADING. ANALYSTS SAY SUCH A SUDDEN AND DRASTIC REVERSAL IS A BAD TECHNICAL SIGN, AND COULD SIGNAL A MORE SEVERE DOWNWARD CORRECTION LATER IN THE WEEK.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    TOP OFFICIALS AT TELECOM ITALIA AND DEUTSCHE TELECOM ARE CONSIDERING A MERGER. IF THE DEAL INVOLVING THE ITALIAN AND GERMAN COMPANIES IS CONCLUDED, IT WOULD BE WORTH AN ESTIMATED 200-BILLION DOLLARS, THE LARGEST CORPORATE MERGER IN HISTORY.

    INDUSTRY ANALYSTS ARE GLOOMY ABOUT THE EARNINGS PROSPECTS FOR MAJOR U-S TOBACCO COMPANIES. THE ANALYSTS SAY A 206-BILLION-DOLLAR SETTLEMENT WITH STATE GOVERNMENTS, HIGHER PROMOTIONAL COSTS, ONGOING LAWSUITS AND WEAKNESS IN MANY INTERNATIONAL MARKETS WILL CONTINUE TO HURT EARNINGS. MOST MAJOR AMERICAN TOBACCO FIRMS WILL REPORT THEIR QUARTERLY EARNINGS RESULTS LATER THIS WEEK.

    WEAKNESS IN MANY ASIAN MARKETS WAS OVERCOME BY STRENGTH IN THE UNITED STATES FOR MASTERCARD INTERNATIONAL, THE U-S-BASED CREDIT CARD NETWORK. THE COMPANY SAYS TOTAL CHARGES ON ITS CARDS ROSE EIGHT PERCENT LAST YEAR, TO 650-BILLION DOLLARS. C-N-B-C, THE FINANCIAL NEWS TELEVISION NETWORK, IS CELEBRATING ITS 10TH ANNIVERSARY WITH A RECORD OF SOLID GROWTH. AT FIRST VIEWED PRIMARILY BY FINANCIAL MARKET PROFESSIONALS, C-N-B-C IS NOW WATCHED BY MILLIONS OF AMERICANS AND MILLIONS MORE AROUND THE WORLD WHO WANT TO KEEP TRACK OF THEIR INVESTMENTS. THE NETWORK'S SUCCESS HAS ALSO SPAWNED SEVERAL COMPETITORS AS THE APPETITE FOR BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL COVERAGE ON TELEVISION CONTINUES TO GROW. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PHW/WTW
    19-Apr-99 5:46 PM EDT (2146 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [27] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/19/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11246
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: KOSOVO AND THE NATO AIR WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA ARE THE MAJOR TOPICS IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS MONDAY. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: THE MISSILE CONTEST IN THE ASIAN SUBCONTINENT; NATO'S 50TH BIRTHDAY; TRADE RELATIONS WITH CHINA; THE GLOOMY FUTURE FACING HAITI; AND JUSTICE IN MALAYSIA. NOW, HERE WITH SOME EXCERPTS AND A CLOSER LOOK IS _________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" IS TALKING ABOUT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S PHILOSOPHICAL VIEW OF THE WAR IN THE BALKANS. THE PAPER SUGGESTS THAT HE IS EQUATING IT WITH THE BATTLE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS FOR BLACKS IN THIS COUNTRY, AND TO OTHER CONFLICTS ABROAD.

    VOICE: .[MR.] CLINTON IS APPPLYING THE SAME ANALYSIS THAT UNDERLIES HIS CONVICTIONS ON RACE TO HIS THINKING ON THE CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS. HE IS PORTRAYING THE NATO POLICE ACTION THERE AS OF A PHILOSOPHICAL PIECE WITH AMERICA'S CIVIL-RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND EFFORTS IN PLACES SUCH AS NORTHERN IRELAND TO OVERCOME ANCIENT ENMITIES ROOTED IN RELIGION, RACE OR ETHNICITY. IT IS A WINNING ORATORICAL GAMBIT AND HAS SUBSTANTIAL INTELLECTUAL VALIDITY, BUT IT REMAINS TO BE SEEN WHETHER IT IS RELIABLE AS A GUIDE TO FOREIGN POLICY -- ESPECIALLY WHEN THAT POLICY INVOLVES COMMITTING THIS NATION TO WAR.

    TEXT: IN WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA, "THE PITTSBURGH TRIBUNE-REVIEW" QUESTIONS BOTH THE COST OF THE BALKAN CAMPAIGN AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS SO FAR.

    VOICE: U-S TAXPAYERS REPORTEDLY HAVE BEEN BILLED AT LEAST 500 MILLION DOLLARS TO BOMB BELGRADE INTO ACCEPTANCE OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN SELF-DETERMINATION IN THE REBEL PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. YET WEEKS OF SUSTAINED AIR ATTACKS HAVEN'T BROKEN YUGOSLAV STRONGMAN SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S DEFIANCE OR MODERATED HIS GOVERNMENT'S PERSECUTION OF KOSOVO ALBANIANS. THE BOMBINGS AND MISSILE STRIKES HAVE SPARKED A SURGE IN REFUGEES AND CLAIMED THE LIVES OF SCORES OF NONCOMBATANTS. THAT'S IRONIC, CONSIDERING APOLOGISTS FOR INTERVENTION DEFENDED THE ACTION AS A HUMANITARIAN IMPERATIVE.

    TEXT: MOVING ON TO THE SUBJECT OF NATO'S 50TH BIRTHDAY, ABOUT TO BE CELEBRATED WITH GREAT FANFARE HERE IN WASHINGTON, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS THE TREATY ORGANIZATION FACES THE CELEBRATION "AT RISK."

    VOICE: NATO HAS OFTEN BEEN CALLED THE MOST SUCCESSFUL ALLIANCE IN HISTORY, BUT THAT CAME IN DETERRING POTENTIAL AGGRESSION FROM THE SOVIET UNION, PROVIDING THE SHIELD THAT ALLOWED WESTERN EUROPE'S SELF-CONFIDENCE TO FLOURISH AND ITS ECONOMIC STRENGTH TO GROW. NOW, IN THE BALKANS, NATO FACES A FAR DIFFERENT TEST OF ITS EFFECTIVENESS AND COHESION. .... THAT NATO'S VIABILITY MAY BE DETERMINED BY WHAT HAPPENS IN AN OBSCURE BALKAN PROVINCE SEEMS ALMOST ABSURD. YET ...[THE] ... BRUTAL CAMPAIGN TO RID KOSOVO OF ITS MAJORITY ALBANIAN POPULACE IS EXACTLY THE KIND OF CHALLENGE TO PEACE AND SECURITY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS IN MIND AS IT SEEKS TO DIRECT NATO TOWARD A NEW STRATEGIC CONCEPT.

    TEXT: ON TO YET ANOTHER AREA OF THE GLOBE CAUSING RISING ANXIETY, THE ASIAN SUBCONTINENT, WHERE INDIA AND PAKISTAN HAVE TEST-FIRED NEW MISSILES CAPABLE OF CARRYING NUCLEAR WARHEADS INTO EACH OTHER'S TERRITORY. SAYS MONDAY'S "MIAMI HERALD":

    VOICE: LAST SPRING, INDIA DEMONSTRATED TO THE WORLD AND ITS NEIGHBORS A CAPACITY TO BUILD AND EXPLODE NUCLEAR BOMBS.... INDIA'S AGGRESSIVE POSTURING FOLLOWS PAKISTAN'S SIMILAR DEMONSTRATION OF NUCLEAR CAPACITY AND THE UNITED STATES'S INCREASINGLY COZY RELATIONSHIP WITH CHINA, WHICH IS BELIEVED TO HAVE STOLEN U-S NUCLEAR SECRETS. GIVEN INDIA'S HISTORIC ENMITY WITH PAKISTAN AND CHINA, ITS LURCH FOR A NUCLEAR-DEFENSE OPTION IS UNDERSTANDABLE - - AS UNDERSTANDABLE, THAT IS, AS JOINING A SUICIDE PACT. IN A WORLD THAT ALREADY HAS FAR TOO MANY NUCLEAR WEAPONS, INDIA'S PUSH FOR NUCLEAR COMPETENCE IS DISTURBING.

    TEXT: AND SPEAKING OF CHINA, THERE ARE SEVERAL EDITORIALS TODAY DEALING WITH U-S TRADE RELATIONS WITH THAT NATION, IN THE WAKE OF PREMIER ZHU RONGJI'S RECENT VISIT. "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS" IS UNHAPPY WITH THE PRESIDENT'S HANDLING OF CHINA'S BID FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION.

    VOICE: PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD NEVER HAVE LET CHINA'S PRIME MINISTER LEAVE WASHINGTON WITHOUT FINALIZING THE PROVISIONAL DEAL THAT WOULD HAVE OPENED ITS MARKETS IN EXCHANGE FOR U-S SUPPORT FOR ITS APPLICATION TO JOIN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION. ... MR. CLINTON HESITATED BECAUSE OF THE ANTI-CHINA MOOD ON CAPITOL HILL, WHICH STEMS FROM CHINA'S ALLEGED THEFT OF U-S NUCLEAR SECRETS, ITS DISRESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, AND ITS ATTEMPTS TO INFLUENCE THE 1996 U-S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION ... BUT THE WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY IS NARROW, AND BY THE TIME MR. CLINTON IS READY TO PROCEED, IT MAY BE CLOSED.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA "THE SAN JOSE MERCURY NEWS" ALSO WANTS THE TRADE AGREEMENT TO GO FORWARD, DESPITE THE VARIOUS PROBLEMS.

    VOICE: AN AGREEMENT WITH CHINA MUSTN'T BE PUSHED TO A BACK BURNER WHILE THE BALKAN WAR BOILS. [MR.] CLINTON MUST PURSUE IT NOW, BEFORE [PREMIER] ZHU GETS FRUSTRATED AND PRESIDENTIAL POLITICKING GETS NASTY. AND HE MUST STRONGLY ARGUE ON BEHALF OF AN AGREEMENT BEFORE CONGRESS, NOTWITHSTANDING LEGITIMATE BUT SEPARABLE CONCERNS OVER HUMAN RIGHTS AND NUCLEAR ESPIONAGE. NOT ONLY TRADE RELATIONS BUT ALSO THE DIRECTION OF ECONOMIC MODERNIZATION WITHIN CHINA IS AT STAKE.

    TEXT: IN THIS HEMISPHERE'S AFFAIRS, "THE FLORIDA TIMES-UNION" IN THE CITY OF JACKSONVILLE LAMENTS THE WORSENING AFFAIRS IN HAITI, AN APPARENT FAILURE OF PRESIDENT'S CLINTON'S EFFORT AT NATION-BUILDING.

    VOICE: .HAITI WANTED NO PART OF DEMOCRACY. ONLY FIVE PERCENT OF THE ELECTORATE TURNED OUT FOR THE MOST RECENT ELECTION, IN APRIL 1997, AND THE RESULTS WERE NEVER VALIDATED BECAUSE OF FRAUD. ALSO, AFTER A LONG PERIOD OF STALEMATED GOVERNMENT, THE PRESIDENT SUSPENDED PARLIAMENT AND BEGAN RULING BY DECREE. STABILITY ALSO WAS EVASIVE, EVEN THOUGH THE UNITED STATES SPENT 95-MILLION TO TRAIN 6-THOUSAND-6-HUNDRED HAITIAN POLICE OFFICERS. VIOLENT CRIME, INCLUDING ASSASSINATIONS, CONTINUES UNABATED -- ON BUSY CITY STREETS, IN BROAD DAYLIGHT. /// OPT /// THE COMMANDER OF U-S FORCES WANTS ALL TROOPS WITHDRAWN BECAUSE HE SAYS GROWING TURMOIL PUTS THEM IN TOO MUCH DANGER. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ONCE AGAIN, TO ASIA, WHERE SEVERAL PAPERS ARE CRITICIZING MALAYSIA'S CONVICTION OF THE FORMER DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER, ANWAR IBRAHIM, ON WHAT SOME U-S PAPERS SAY WERE TRUMPED UP CHARGES OF SEXUAL IMPROPRIETY. "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE CALLS IT A "SHAM TRIAL" ADDING:

    VOICE: ALMOST NO ONE IN OR OUT OF MALAYSIA BELIEVES THAT FORMER DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER ANWAR IBRAHIM WAS JUSTLY CONVICTED OR CORRUPTION. MOST DOUBT HE WILL SERVE THE SIX-YEAR PRISON TERM FOLLOWED BY FOUR YEARS OF INELIGIBILITY FOR PUBLIC OFFICE. MANY HAVE FAITH HE WILL SUCCEED THE 73-YEAR-OLD, AILING, AUTOCRATIC AND ECCENTRIC PRIME MINISTER OF THE PAST 18 YEARS, MAHATHIR MOHAMAD, WHO FIXED THE TRIAL. ... MR. ANWAR ... GOES OFF TO PRISON SECURE IN THE KNOWLEDGE THAT MOST MALAYSIANS AND FOREIGN OBSERVERS BELIEVE HE WILL SOON BE CALLED - - PREFERABLY DEMOCRATICALLY - - TO LEAD THE ONCE-BOOMING COUNTRY OUT OF THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND ETHNIC CRISES INTO WHICH MR. MAHATHIR DRAGGED IT.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING BRIEFLY TO THE MIDDLE EAST, MONDAY'S "MANCHESTER [NEW HAMPSHIRE] UNION LEADER" IS DISCOURAGED ABOUT RECENT DEVELOPMENTS SURROUNDING THE BOMBING OF A PAN AM JETLINER OVER SCOTLAND TEN YEARS AGO, DESPITE THE NEWS THAT TWO LIBYAN SECURITY AGENTS ARE ABOUT TO BE TRIED FOR THEIR ROLE IN THE BOMBING.

    VOICE: THESE TWO FORMER INTELLIGENCE AGENTS ARE SMALL FRY [U-S SLANG FOR MINOR PLAYERS]; THE BIG ONES ARE GOING TO SLIP THROUGH THE NET. AMERICAN AND BRITISH INVESTIGATORS LONG HAVE BEEN CONVINCED THAT IRAN CONTRACTED WITH LIBYA TO CARRY OUT THE PAN AM BOMBING IN RETRIBUTION FOR THE MISTAKEN DESTRUCTION OF A CIVILIAN IRANIAN AIRBUS OVER THE PERSIAN GULF BY THE U-S-S VINCENNES. IT IS INCONCEIVABLE THAT TWO LIBYAN AGENTS UNDERTOOK THE OPERATION WITHOUT THE KNOWLEDGE AND CONSENT OF [MR.] GADHAFI. ... UNTIL WE BEGIN TO MAKE THE GODFATHERS OF (THE PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE FOR) TERRORISM PAY A PRICE FOR THEIR BLOODY WORK, IT WILL REMAIN OPEN SEASON ON AMERICANS.

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, A TRIBUTE TO THE MAN MANY PAPERS AND FANS ARE CALLING THE GREATEST ICE HOCKEY PLAYER WHO EVER LIVED, WAYNE GRETZKY, WHO PLAYED HIS LAST GAME FOR THE NEW YORK RANGERS OF THE NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUE IN NEW YORK, AND THEN SKATED AROUND THE ICE, TO A STANDING OVATION, IN A RETIREMENT FAREWELL. "THE OREGONIAN" IN PORTLAND SAYS OF GRETZKY:

    VOICE: SOMETIMES, SOMEONE PLAYS A SPORT SO WELL FOR SO LONG THAT HE SIMPLY BECOMES THAT SPORT. SO IT WAS WITH WAYNE GRETZKY, WHO RETIRED SUNDAY AFTER 20 YEARS AND 61 RECORDS IN THE NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUE. GRETZKY W A S HOCKEY. ... NOW, THE GAME IS GOING TO NEED SOME WAY TO GO ON WITHOUT THE MAN WHO WAS HOCKEY.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM SOME OF TODAY'S U-S NEWSPAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    19-Apr-99 11:41 AM EDT (1541 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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