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Voice of America, 97-04-16

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] RUSSIA / GERMANY / ART BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)
  • [02] ALBANIA / VRANITZKY (L) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)
  • [03] IRAN, RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES BY JOAN BEECHER (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] U-S/E-U/MEAT DISPUTE (L ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] COHEN / BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [06] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [08] EDITORIAL: HUMAN RIGHTS IN EASTERN EUROPE
  • [09] "EUROPE, A HISTORY" BY NORMAN DAVIES BY ZLATICA HOKE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] LIBRARIES, COURTING, ARCHAEOLOGY, PRICES BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [11] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] RUSSIA / GERMANY / ART BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/16/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36190
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN IS IN GERMANY, WHERE HE WILL HOLD TALKS THURSDAY IN THE CITY OF BADEN-BADEN WITH CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL. AS V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, THE TWO LEADERS WILL DISCUSS A HOST OF ISSUES, BUT ONE IS VERY SENSITIVE IN RUSSIA -- THE RETURN OF ARTWORK TAKEN BY SOVIET FORCES FROM THE NAZIS DURING WORLD WAR TWO.

    TEXT: RUSSIAN OFFICIALS SAY PRESIDENT YELTSIN AND GERMAN CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL WILL FOCUS ON SEVERAL ISSUES, INCLUDING THE EASTWARD ENLARGEMENT OF NATO, EXPANDING TRADE BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES AND THE EVENTUAL INTEGRATION OF RUSSIA WITHIN EUROPEAN POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS.

    BUT PERHAPS MORE SIGNIFICANTLY, THE TWO LEADERS WILL DISCUSS AN ISSUE THAT HAS CLOUDED RUSSIAN-GERMAN RELATIONS AND THAT HAS GENERATED SOMETIMES ACRIMONIOUS EXCHANGES IN THE RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT. THAT ISSUE IS WHETHER OR NOT TO RETURN TO GERMANY ART TREASURES SEIZED BY SOVIET TROOPS FROM THE NAZIS DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

    AT STAKE ARE AN ESTIMATED 300-THOUSAND ARTIFACTS -- SOME OF THEM EXHIBITED IN RUSSIAN MUSEUMS BUT MOST OF THEM PACKED UP IN CRATES. THE MOST PRIZED AMONG ALL OF THE ARTWORKS TAKEN FROM GERMAN MUSEUMS AND PRIVATE GALLERIES IS KING PRIAM'S TREASURE, RECOVERED FROM THE RUINS OF ANCIENT TROY LAST CENTURY BY GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGIST HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN AND DISPLAYED IN MOSCOW'S PUSHKIN MUSEUM. //OPT// RUSSIA ALSO HOLDS A GUTENBURG BIBLE AND THOUSANDS OF PAINTINGS, INCLUDING WORKS BY FRENCH IMPRESSIONIST MASTERS MONET AND MATISSE AS WELL AS WORKS BY "OLD MASTERS" -- REMBRANDT, RUBENS, RAPHAEL AND DELACROIX. //END OPT//

    THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT WANTS THOSE ART TREASURES BACK, SAYING THEY ARE PART OF THE COUNTRY'S NATIONAL HERITAGE. HOWEVER, NATIONALIST AND COMMUNIST LAWMAKERS HERE IN MOSCOW SAY RUSSIA HAS A RIGHT TO THE GERMAN ARTIFACTS IN COMPENSATION FOR THE MILLIONS OF LIVES LOST IN WORLD WAR TWO -- AND BECAUSE OF THE HARDSHIPS THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE ENDURED DURING THE GERMAN WORLD WAR TWO INVASION. THEY REGARD THE OBJECTS NOW IN RUSSIA AS LEGITIMATELY THEIRS.

    //OPT//

    SOME RUSSIAN HISTORIANS SAY ONE CANNOT FORGET THAT NAZI GERMANY WAS THE AGGRESSOR IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR AGAINST THE SOVIET UNION. THEY POINT OUT THE NAZIS SIGNED AN UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER IN 1945 -- AND HISTORIANS HERE SAY SUCH DOCUMENTS DO NOT IMPLY ANY CONSEQUENT CLAIMS BY THE DEFEATED SIDE ON THE VICTORS.

    OTHER EXPERTS SAY NAZI TROOPS ALSO SEIZED HUGE QUANTITIES OF ART DURING THEIR ATTACK ON THE SOVIET UNION. BUT THEY SAY MOST OF THESE WORKS HAVE BEEN LOST, DESTROYED OR FOUND THEIR WAY INTO PRIVATE COLLECTIONS -- SO A SIMPLE EXCHANGE IS NOT POSSIBLE.

    //END OPT//

    EARLIER THIS YEAR, BOTH HOUSES OF THE RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT PASSED LEGISLATION DECLARING THE ARTWORK RUSSIAN PROPERTY. RUSSIAN PRESIDENT YELSTIN VETOED THE LAW, SAYING IT HAMPERS HIS ABILITY TO CONDUCT FOREIGN POLICY AND CONTRAVENES INTERNATIONAL LAW. BUT THE LOWER HOUSE, THE DUMA, OVERRODE THE PRESIDENT'S OBJECTIONS.

    IRONICALLY, THE PARLIAMENT'S UPPER HOUSE WAS TO VOTE ON THE PRESIDENT'S VETO WEDNESDAY -- THE DAY MR. YELSTIN ARRIVED IN GERMANY FOR HIS TALKS WITH CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL. BUT LAWMAKERS DECIDED TO POSTPONE THEIR ACTION UNTIL THEIR NEXT MEETING, IN MID-MAY. ONE LAWMAKER SAID A VOTE AGAINST MR. YELTSIN WOULD HAVE SERIOUSLY DAMAGED THE UPCOMING TALKS WITH CHANCELLOR KOHL. HOWEVER, ANALYSTS BELIEVE WHEN THE UPPER HOUSE RECONVENES, LAWMAKERS WILL VOTE WITH THEIR DUMA COLLEAGUES AND OVERRIDE MR. YELTSIN'S VETO. THEN THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENT WILL HAVE A CHOICE -- EITHER SIGN A LAW HE STRONGLY OPPOSES OR REFER THE WHOLE MATTER TO THE COUNTRY'S CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/PCF
    16-Apr-97 12:49 PM EDT (1649 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBANIA / VRANITZKY (L) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212990
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S SPECIAL ENVOY FOR ALBANIA SAYS HE IS PLEASED WITH THE START OF THE MULTI-NATIONAL SECURITY MISSION TO THE BALKAN NATION. KYLE KING REPORTS FORMER AUSTRIAN CHANCELLOR FRANZ VRANITZKY MADE THE COMMENTS IN TIRANA, WHERE HIS LATEST VISIT QUICKLY RAN INTO CRITICISM FROM SUPPORTERS OF PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA.

    TEXT: /// 32 SOUNDS OF DEMO, ESTABLISH AND FADE... ///

    MR. VRANITZKY WAS JUST HEADING INTO SEPARATE TALKS WITH PRIME MINISTER BASHKIM FINO AND PRESIDENT BERISHA WHEN A SMALL GROUP OF DEMONSTRATORS GATHERED TO URGE HIM NOT TO MEET WITH REBEL LEADERS IN THE SOUTH OF THE COUNTRY.

    /// 31 PROTESTER IN ALBANIAN, ESTABLISH AND FADE... ///

    THIS MAN SAYS WE ARE HERE TO SAY TO MR. VRANITZKY NOT TO MEET WITH THE REBELS IN THE SOUTH.

    THE PROTESTERS, WHO WERE DESCRIBED BY LOCAL RESIDENTS AS MEMBERS OF PRESIDENT BERISHA'S FEARED SECRET POLICE, WERE NOT THE ONLY CRITICS OF MR. VRANITZKY'S TRAVEL PLANS.

    EDITORIALS IN NEWSPAPERS THAT SUPPORT PRESIDENT BERISHA SAID MR. VRANITZKY WAS WALKING ON A MINEFIELD BY MEETING REBEL LEADERS AND HE COULD UNDERMINE THE NEUTRALITY OF HIS MISSION.

    MR. VRANITZKY SAID HE HOPED HIS TWO-DAY TRIP WOULD HELP PROMOTE POLITICAL DIALOGUE THAT WOULD INCLUDE THE REBELS, WHO BLAME PRESIDENT BERISHA FOR THE COUNTRY'S PROBLEMS.

    MR. VRANITZKY SAID THE REBELS NEED TO BE BROUGHT INTO THE COUNTRY'S POLITICAL PROCESS.

    NIKOLL LESI, THE OWNER OF ONE OF ALBANIA'S FEW INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPERS ("KOHA JONE"), SAID THAT IDEA DOES NOT SIT WELL WITH THE PRESIDENT'S SUPPORTERS.

    /// LESI ACT IN ALBANIAN, ESTABLISH AND FADE... ///

    MR. LESI SAYS BASED ON WHAT PRESIDENT BERISHA'S DEMOCRATIC PARTY HAS BEEN SAYING ABOUT MR. VRANITZKY'S TRIP TO ALBANIA, HE BELIEVES THE PARTY IS TRYING TO SABOTAGE EFFORTS TO RESTORE ORDER IN ALBANIA. MR. LESI SAYS WITHOUT ORDER ELECTIONS PLANNED FOR JUNE WILL BE IMPOSSIBLE.

    MR. VRANITZKY SAYS HE IS PLEASED WITH THE START OF THE MULTI-NATIONAL SECURITY MISSION FOR ALBANIA, WHERE ABOUT 15-HUNDRED OF THE SIX-THOUSAND TROOPS LANDED TUESDAY.

    HE SAID THE MULTI-NATIONAL FORCE BEING DEPLOYED IN ALBANIA WILL NOT BE ABLE TO SOLVE ALL THE COUNTRY'S PROBLEMS, BUT HE SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WILL TRY TO HELP ALBANIA HELP ITSELF.

    MANY ALBANIANS ARE HOPING THE MULTI-NATIONAL FORCE WILL HELP ARREST CRIMINALS TERRORIZING THE COUNTRY AND ROUND UP SOME OF THE WEAPONS LOOTED FROM MILITARY WAREHOUSES. BUT MR. VRANITZKY SAID THE U-N SANCTIONED FORCE HAS NO MANDATE TO DO THAT.

    BUT DESPITE POSSIBLE SHORTCOMINGS, THERE SEEMS TO BE WIDESPREAD RELIEF THE SECURITY MISSION HAS FINALLY BEGUN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/RAE
    16-Apr-97 1:36 PM EDT (1736 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] IRAN, RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES BY JOAN BEECHER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/16/97
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09698
    TELEPHONE=619-3422
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: IN THE WAKE OF LAST WEEK'S GERMAN COURT VERDICT LINKING TOP IRANIAN LEADERS TO THE MURDER OF KURDISH DISSIDENTS IN BERLIN FIVE YEARS AGO, ALL EUROPEAN UNION NATIONS EXCEPT GREECE HAVE WITHDRAWN THEIR AMBASSADORS TO IRAN. MEANWHILE, RUSSIAN LEADERS HAVE VOWED TO IMPROVE TIES WITH IRAN, FOLLOWING THE FIVE-DAY VISIT TO RUSSIA OF IRAN'S PARLIAMENTARY SPEAKER, ALI AKBAR NATEQ-NOORI. BUT AS VOA CORRESPONDENT JOAN BEECHER REPORTS, SOME OBSERVERS BELIEVE RUSSIA HAS REASON TO WELCOME THE INCREASING ISOLATION OF IRAN.

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES HAS LONG ARGUED THAT EUROPE'S POLICY OF "CRITICAL DIALOGUE" WITH IRAN IS MISTAKEN. NOW, EUROPE MAY INDEED RE-THINK THAT POLICY, AT A TIME WHEN THE OFFICIAL U.S. POLICY OF ISOLATING IRAN HAS BEEN INCREASINGLY CHALLENGED AT HOME.

    SOME CRITICS, LIKE FORMER NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR ZBIGNIEW BRZESINSKI, HAVE ARGUED THAT THE U-S POLICY NO LONGER SERVES U-S INTERESTS. OTHERS HAVE COMPLAINED THAT THE POLICY ACTUALLY SERVES RUSSIAN INTERESTS. MOST SPECIFICALLY, IT SERVES THE RUSSIAN INTEREST IN MAINTAINING CONTROL OVER CENTRAL ASIA AND AZERBAIJAN, ACCORDING TO FREDERICK STARR, WHO HEADS THE CENTRAL ASIA INSTITUTE OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.

    MR. STARR DESCRIBES RUSSIA'S POLICY TOWARDS THOSE REGIONS AS "ENERGY-DRIVEN." AND THE AIM OF RUSSIA'S POLICY, HE SAYS, IS TO MAINTAIN CONTROL OF ITS NEIGHBORS' ABUNDANT ENERGY SUPPLIES.

    TAPE: CUT #1 STARR "THEY DO TRY TO DICTATE TO CENTRAL ASIANS AND AZERIS THAT THEY SHOULD EXPORT ALL THEIR OIL AND GAS THROUGH RUSSIAN LINES. AND IF THEY DON'T SUCCEED AT THAT, THEN [THEY] MAKE SURE THAT RUSSIANS OWN A STAKE IN ANY COMPETITOR LINES. AND THEY'VE TRIED TO PUT RUSSIAN FIRMS INTO ANY INTERNATIONAL CONSORTIA PUT TOGETHER BY AZERBAIJAN OR CENTRAL ASIA; [THEY] FORCE THE CENTRAL ASIANS TO ALLOCATE ENERGY TO C-I-S COUNTRIES, MOST OF WHOM DON'T PAY THEIR BILLS. AS A RESULT, A COUNTRY LIKE TURKMENISTAN REALLY REMAINS POOR. IF IT WERE EXPORTING IN A NORMAL WAY, IT WOULD ALREADY BE WEALTHY. AND IT [RUSSIA] CLAIMS THAT CENTRAL ASIAN DEBTS TO RUSSIA -- MOST OF WHICH ARE QUITE ARTIFICIAL -- ARE ADEQUATE BASIS FOR [GIVING RUSSIA] SHARES IN REFINERIES AND PROCESSING FACILITIES THERE. THAT'S BEEN PARTICULARLY TRUE IN KAZAKHSTAN."

    TEXT: AND IF ALL ELSE FAILS, MR. STARR SAYS, THE RUSSIANS SUPPORT COUPS AGAINST LOCAL LEADERS, AS THE RECENT HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN DEMONSTRATES. IT PUZZLES HIM THAT THE RUSSIANS GET AWAY WITH IT.

    TAPE: CUT #2 STARR "NOW, I THEN ASK MYSELF, WHAT'S REALLY GOING ON HERE? AND THE ASTONISHING CONCLUSION IS THAT ALL OF THIS IS POSSIBLE BECAUSE THERE IS A PECULIAR RUSSIAN-AMERICAN COLLUSION GOING ON. THE UNITED STATES HAS HAD A POLICY OF COMPLETELY ISOLATING IRAN. IT'S BEEN OF ONLY LIMITED SUCCESS. AND IMPOSING THAT POLICY, IT HAS TAKEN THE POSITION THAT IF THIS MEANS CENTRAL ASIANS AND AZERIS EXPORTING THEIR ENERGY LARGELY THROUGH RUSSIA -- IN OTHER WORDS, RUSSIAN CONTROL -- SO BE IT. THAT DIRECTLY CONTRADICTS THIS COUNTRY'S STATED SUPPORT FOR THE INDEPENDENCE AND SOVEREIGNTY OF THESE NEW NATIONS. I DON'T THINK IT IS APPROPRIATE FOR THE UNITED STATES TO MAKE CENTRAL ASIA AND AZERBAIJAN HOSTAGE TO ITS IRAN POLICY. "

    //BEGIN OPT//

    TEXT: FOR EXAMPLE, THE BEST ROUTE FOR THE EXPORT OF TURKMENISTAN'S GAS IS THROUGH IRAN -- BUT THE UNITED STATES HAS BLOCKED THAT. THAT LEAVES TURKMENISTAN NO CHOICE BUT TO USE RUSSIAN LINES. MR. STARR SAYS THIS GIVES RUSSIA ALL THE LEVERAGE IT NEEDS TO PRESSURE THAT COUNTRY INTO COMPLIANCE.

    TAPE: CUT #3 STARR "WHEN TURKMENISTAN BEHAVED INDEPENDENTLY, RUSSIA SIMPLY CLOSED OFF THE GAS EXPORT, EVEN THOUGH TURKMENISTAN HAD LEGAL EXPORT CONTRACTS. BUT RUSSIA, AS THE MONOPOLIST EXPORTER, PUT THE SCREWS ON UNTIL THEY SUBMITTED. AND THEY DID THIS TWICE. AND THEY'VE DONE THE SAME THING WITH REGARD TO KAZAKHSTAN. AND THE MESSAGE IS CLEAR: YOU DO IT OUR WAY -- OR NO WAY."

    //END OPT//

    TAPE: MEANWHILE, RUSSIA AND IRAN FORGING WHAT SOME OBSERVERS SEE AS A TACTICAL ALLIANCE.

    RUSSIA AND IRAN HAVE CERTAIN INTERESTS IN COMMON. FOR EXAMPLE, THEY TAKE A SIMILAR POSITION ON THE CASPIAN SEA -- NAMELY, THAT IT IS A LAKE, AND THAT ITS OIL RICHES ARE THEREFORE THE COMMON PROPERTY OF ALL THE LITTORAL STATES (I.E. THOSE STATES THAT BORDER ON THE CASPIAN SEA). RUSSIA HAS SUPPLIED IRAN WITH SUBMARINES AND OTHER WEAPONS, AS WELL AS WITH OIL EQUIPMENT, AND IT WILL BE CONSTRUCTING A NUCLEAR REACTOR IN IRAN. EXPANDED ECONOMIC TIES ARE ENVISIONED BY THE AGREEMENTS SIGNED BY THE IRANIANS AND RUSSIANS THIS WEEK. BUT IN MR. STARR'S VIEW, NONE OF THIS ADDS UP TO AN ALLIANCE.

    TAPE: CUT #4 STARR "THE FACT IS IN MANY RESPECTS THESE COUNTRIES ARE AND ALWAYS HAVE BEEN COMPETITORS. THEY HAVE A LONG HISTORY OF THE MOST INTRICATE RELATIONSHIP. AND I THINK IF THEY HAVE BEEN COLLABORATING IN CERTAIN RESPECTS TODAY, WHICH IS QUITE NORMAL, WE CAN EXPECT THEM TO BE COMPETING IN MANY RESPECTS ALSO, WHICH IS EVEN MORE NORMAL."

    TEXT: POSSIBLE COMPETITION OVER PIPELINES FOR CENTRAL ASIAN AND AZERI OIL AND GAS ALREADY WORRIES THE RUSSIANS. DURING A VISIT TO TEHRAN LAST DECEMBER, RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV EXPLICITLY WARNED IRAN AGAINST PROVIDING ALTERNATIVE PIPE LINES FOR CENTRAL ASIA. WHAT DISTURBS MR. STARR IS THAT U-S POLICY, IN EFFECT, PROTECTS THE RUSSIANS FROM IRANIAN COMPETITION.

    SUPPORTERS OF THE U-S POLICY OF ISOLATING IRAN AGREE THAT IT HAS BEEN HARD ON CENTRAL ASIA AND AZERBAIJAN. BUT THEY DO NOT THINK THIS IS SUFFICIENT REASON FOR RELAXING THAT POLICY, ESPECIALLY SINCE THERE ARE PIPELINE OPTIONS THAT BYPASS BOTH RUSSIA AND IRAN. THEY ARGUE THAT IT WOULD BE COUNTERPRODUCTIVE TO REWARD IRAN BEFORE IT HAS ACTUALLY CHANGED ITS BEHAVIOR. AND CRITICS LIKE MR. STARR AGREE WITH U-S POLICY-MAKERS THAT TIES CANNOT BE RENEWED WITH IRAN UNTII ITS LEADERS RENOUNCE INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM.

    THE GERMAN COURT VERDICT CONCERNS ASSASSINATIONS THAT TOOK PLACE FIVE YEARS AGO, BUT EVIDENCE HAS ALSO SURFACED ABOUT POSSIBLE IRANIAN INVOLVEMENT IN MORE RECENT ACTS OF TERRORISM, NOTABLY THE BOMBING OF A U-S MILITARY COMPOUND IN SAUDI ARABIA LAST YEAR. SO AT THIS POINT, BOTH CRITICS AND SUPPORTERS OF U-S POLICY TOWARDS IRAN AGREE IT IS UNLIKELY TO BE RE-EXAMINED SOON. [SIGNED]
    16-Apr-97 12:59 PM EDT (1659 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] U-S/E-U/MEAT DISPUTE (L ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/15/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212955
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-RUNNING W/AD THE WORD "OPTIMISTIC" IN 5TH GRAPH ///

    INTRO: NEGOTIATIONS RESUME LATER TODAY (WEDNESDAY) IN WASHINGTON BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN UNION OVER A DISPUTE CONCERNING FOOD SAFETY STANDARDS THAT NEARLY RESULTED IN A TRANS-ATLANTIC TRADE WAR. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS, FOR NOW, A DEADLINE FOR REACHING AN UNDERSTANDING HAS BEEN EXTENDED TO APRIL 30TH:

    TEXT: THE U-S AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT'S SENIOR TRADE NEGOTIATOR, PAUL DRAZEK, HAS ANNOUNCED THAT WASHINGTON IS DELAYING ITS PLAN TO TAKE MORE THAN 100 EUROPEAN MEAT AND POULTRY PACKING PLANTS OFF ITS LIST OF APPROVED EXPORTERS OVER A DISPUTE CONCERNING MEAT INSPECTION RULES. IF THE ACTION IS TAKEN, IT COULD RESULT IN HALTING THE FLOW OF ABOUT 300-MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF E-U MEAT SHIPMENTS TO THE U-S MARKET, MOSTLY ITALIAN HAM AND DANISH PORK PRODUCTS.

    THE APRIL FIRST DEADLINE FOR AGREEMENT PASSED AND THE TALKS CONTINUED THROUGH FRIDAY. MR. DRAZEK SAYS CONTACTS OVER THE WEEKEND PRODUCED NEW PROPOSALS THAT RESULTED IN THE U-S DEADLINE EXTENSION:

    /// DRAZEK ACTUALITY ///

    WE HAVE NOT NAILED DOWN REALLY ANY PART OF THE AGREEMENT. WE'RE MUCH CLOSER IN RED MEAT THAN POULTRY, BUT WE HAVE REMAINING ISSUES SOME KIND OF TECHNICAL, I ADMIT, BUT EVEN TECHNICAL ISSUES CAN BE VERY IMPORTANT IF NOT FULLY UNDERSTOOD ON BOTH SIDES.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    SINCE APRIL FIRST, U-S POULTRY EXPORTS TO EUROPE HAVE BEEN BLOCKED BECAUSE OF NEW E-U INSPECTION RULES AFFECTING A 50-MILLION DOLLAR PART OF THE AMERICAN POULTRY INDUSTRY. THE ISSUE IS THE DECONTAMINATION PROCESS OF CARCASSES USING A CHLORINE SOLUTION WHICH AN E-U OFFICIAL CALLS DUBIOUS FROM A HEALTH STANDPOINT.

    THE U-S POULTRY INDUSTRY INSISTS THE PRACTICE IS SAFE AND ECONOMICAL.

    MR. DRAZEK SAYS HE IS NOT, AT PRESENT, O/P/T/I/M/I/S/T/I/C THE DIFFERENCES ON THE ISSUE CAN BE BRIDGED:

    /// DRAZEK ACTUALITY ///

    I WOULD SAY IT'S FAIR TO SAY THAT WE'RE FARTHER APART ON POULTRY EVEN NOW. WE'RE STILL FAR APART ON THE ISSUE OF USING ANTI-MICROBIAL TREATMENTS. ON OUR SIDE IT'S FRUSTRATING BECAUSE IN DEALING WITH POULTRY ISSUES BECAUSE WE BELIEVE FIRMLY THAT OUR POULTRY PROCESSING SYSTEM IS THE SAFEST IN THE WORLD, OR PRODUCES THE SAFEST, CLEANEST PRODUCT IN THE WORLD.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    E-U AGRICULTURE MINISTER FRANZ FISCHLER SAYS THE E-U WILL INSIST THE UNITED STATES END ITS USE OF CHLORINATED WATER AND IS PREPARED TO TAKE THE ISSUE TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION IF WASHINGTON GOES AHEAD WITH ITS THREAT TO BLOCK E-U MEAT IMPORTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/VB/LWM
    15-Apr-97 7:36 PM EDT (2336 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] COHEN / BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212995
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS THE NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN BOSNIA WILL HAVE BEEN A SUCCESS -- EVEN IF FIGHTING RESUMES AFTER U-S AND OTHER FORCES DEPART NEXT YEAR. HE SAYS THE BOSNIAN PARTIES AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS CONTINUE TO LAG IN IMPLEMENTING CIVILIAN ASPECTS OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS. MORE FROM V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST AT THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: MR. COHEN SAYS THE BOSNIAN PARTIES MAY NOT WANT TO HEAR THE MESSAGE, BUT THE NATO FORCE WILL LEAVE ON SCHEDULE IN JUNE OF NEXT YEAR AND THE BURDEN WILL SHIFT TO THEM TO MAINTAIN THE PEACE THAT HAS PREVAILED SINCE THE END OF 1995.

    THE DEFENSE SECRETARY, A FORMER SENATOR, HAS BEEN WARNING SINCE HE TOOK OFFICE IN JANUARY THAT THE U-S CONGRESS WILL NOT SUPPORT ANOTHER EXTENSION OF THE PEACEKEEPING OPERATION.

    AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN TAMPA, FLORIDA, MONITORED HERE, MR. COHEN SAID THE PARTIES WILL HAVE ONLY THEMSELVES TO BLAME IF THEY CANNOT TURN THE THREE-YEAR RESPITE PROVIDED BY NATO INTO A LASTING PEACE:

    ///COHEN ACTUALITY///

    WE HAVE ALLOWED THEM THREE SUCCESSIVE SEASONS TO PURSUE THE PATH OF PEACE. AND WE ARE GOING TO LEAVE AT THAT POINT. AND WE WILL LEAVE HAVING SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED THE MILITARY MISSION. AND FOR ANYONE TO SUGGEST THERE HAS BEEN A FAILURE, I THINK, IS A MIS-CHARACTERIZATION.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. COHEN RULED OUT ANY EXPANSION OF THE MISSION OF THE NATO FORCE IN ITS LAST 15-MONTHS IN BOSNIA, SAYING IN PARTICULAR IT WILL NOT BE DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT -- OR THE APPREHENSION OF WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/RRM
    16-Apr-97 3:10 PM EDT (1910 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=4/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212986
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES CLOSED MOSTLY HIGHER ON MAJOR WEST EUROPEAN MARKETS WEDNESDAY. V-O-A'S PAUL FRANCUCH IN LONDON HAS THE CLOSING FIGURES.

    TEXT: GAINS POSTED ON WALL STREET TUESDAY WERE A FACTOR MANY ANALYSTS CITED WEDNESDAY FOR THE HIGHER PRICES IN FRANKFURT, LONDON AND PARIS. BUT THE GAINS WERE NOT SIGNIFICANT, AND WORRIES ABOUT CURRENCY RATES AND POSSIBLY HIGHER INTEREST CHARGES IN THE UNITED STATES KEPT EUROPEAN PRICES IN CHECK.

    ON THE MAJOR EXCHANGES, THE FRANKFURT "DAX 30" INDEX POSTED A GAIN OF 26 POINTS FOR THE DAY. A MORE MODERATE EIGHT POINT GAIN WAS ENJOYED BY BRITISH INVESTORS, WHOSE STOCKS ARE TRACKED BY THE "FOOTSIE" 100 INDEX. IN PARIS, THE "CAC 40" INDEX ADDED ONLY ONE-THIRD OF A POINT IN VALUE AT WEDNESDAY'S CLOSE.

    IN THE CURRENCIES, THE DOLLAR LOST A HALF CENT TO THE MARK AND REMAINED ALMOST UNCHANGED AGAINST THE POUND. GOLD CONTINUES TO TARNISH (PERFORM POORLY) AS AN INVESTMENT, WITH THE PRECIOUS METAL DOWN ANOTHER TWO-DOLLARS-10 CENTS IN THE CLOSING LONDON FIX, SELLING AT 339-DOLLARS-65-CENTS AN OUNCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF /MMK
    16-Apr-97 1:11 PM EDT (1711 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213005
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP STRONGLY TODAY (WEDNESDAY) AS THE RALLY CONTINUED INTO ITS THIRD STRAIGHT SESSION. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 66-HUNDRED-79, UP 92 POINTS, MORE THAN ONE PERCENT. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 763, UP EIGHT POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY MANY TRADERS NOW BELIEVE THE RECENT DOWNWARD CORRECTION OF ALMOST 10 PERCENT IS OVER AND STOCK PRICES WILL RESUME A SUSTAINED UPWARD MOMENTUM. HOWEVER, SOME ANALYSTS, ESPECIALLY THOSE WHO STUDY THE STOCK MARKET'S INTERNAL FACTORS, SAY THE POTENTIAL FOR ANOTHER DOWNWARD MOVE IS STILL STRONG.

    TWO GOVERNMENT REPORTS INDICATE THE U-S ECONOMY CONTINUES TO EXPAND. FACTORY OUTPUT GREW BY AN UNEXPECTEDLY STEEP NINE-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT LAST MONTH. HOUSING CONSTRUCTION FELL IN MARCH. BUT ANALYSTS SAY MUCH OF THE DECREASE WAS WEATHER-RELATED AND THAT HOUSING STARTS IN THE FIRST-QUARTER OF THIS YEAR WERE HIGHER THAN IN THE FINAL THREE MONTHS OF LAST YEAR.

    TOBACCO STOCKS ROSE SHARPLY ON NEWS THAT THE CIGARETTE COMPANIES ARE NEGOTIATING A DEAL THAT COULD GRANT THEM IMMUNITY FROM HEALTH-RELATED LAWSUITS. ALTHOUGH AN AGREEMENT REPORTEDLY COULD COST THE COMPANIES UP TO 300-BILLION DOLLARS IN COMPENSATION PAYMENTS, ANALYSTS SAY A DEAL WOULD REMOVE MUCH OF THE PERCEIVED RISK IN TOBACCO COMPANY STOCKS.

    ///REST OPT///

    QUARTERLY CORPORATE EARNINGS REPORTS CONTINUE TO BE GENERALLY VERY STRONG. THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY ENJOYED A MORE THAN 100 PERCENT PROFIT INCREASE, THE COMPAQ COMPUTER COMPANY SAYS ITS EARNINGS JUMPED BY 66 PERCENT AND THE COLGATE-PALMOLIVE CONSUMER PRODUCTS COMPANY HAS RECORD QUARTERLY EARNINGS, DESPITE THE NEGATIVE EFFECT OF THE STRONG U-S DOLLAR ON INTERNATIONAL SALES.

    THE MOTOROLA ELECTRONICS COMPANY HAS SIGNED A 200-MILLION-DOLLAR CONTRACT TO EXPAND THE CELLULAR TELEPHONE SYSTEM IN CHINA. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/RRM
    16-Apr-97 4:55 PM EDT (2055 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] EDITORIAL: HUMAN RIGHTS IN EASTERN EUROPE

    DATE= APRIL 17, 1997
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07236
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    APRIL 17, 1997.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    AS NANCY RUBIN, HEAD OF THE UNITED STATES DELEGATION TO THE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, SAID, THE U.S. REMAINS DEEPLY CONCERNED ABOUT THE SITUATION IN THE BALKANS. WHILE RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS IN BOSNIA HAS IMPROVED DRAMATICALLY, SERIOUS PROBLEMS REMAIN. REFUGEES HAVE NOT BEEN ALLOWED TO RETURN HOME IN MANY AREAS. INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS CONTINUE TO BE PROTECTED BY LOCAL GOVERNMENTS. AND THE PEOPLE OF BOSNIA DO NOT ENJOY FULL FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT.

    THE DETERIORATION OF CONDITIONS IN ALBANIA POSES A MAJOR THREAT TO THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS. THE U.S. STRONGLY SUPPORTS EFFORTS TO STEM THIS CRISIS BY THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, THE EUROPEAN UNION, AND THE ITALIAN-LED MULTINATIONAL FORCE.

    IN SERBIA, THE GOVERNMENT CONTINUES TO RESIST DEMOCRATIC REFORM. IT DENIES BASIC RIGHTS TO THE ALBANIAN MINORITY IN KOSOVO AND REFUSES EVEN TO ADDRESS THIS ISSUE. IN ADDITION, THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT CONTINUES TO PROTECT INDIVIDUALS ACCUSED OF CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY.

    IT IS INCUMBENT UPON CROATIA TO ENSURE THE PEACEFUL REINTEGRATION OF EASTERN SLAVONIA WHILE RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF ALL RESIDENTS. THE U.S. CONTINUES TO PRESS CROATIA TO APPREHEND ALL PERSONS INDICTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. THE U.S. IS ALSO PRESSING CROATIA TO PROTECT FREEDOM OF THE PRESS, TO GUARANTEE REPRESENTATION FOR LOCAL SERBS AT ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT, AND TO PROTECT THEIR CIVIL RIGHTS.

    IN EASTERN EUROPE, BELARUS STANDS IN SAD CONTRAST TO THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF NEIGHBORS LIKE POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND THE BALTIC STATES. THE SEVERE RESTRICTIONS WHICH THE GOVERNMENT OF ALEKSANDR LUKASHENKO HAS IMPOSED ON ECONOMIC REFORM, DEMOCRATIC OPPOSITION, AND THE MEDIA CAN ONLY LIMIT THE COUNTRY'S HOPES FOR DEVELOPMENT.

    AS U.S. DELEGATE NANCY RUBIN SAID, NO COUNTRY SHOULD LIE BEYOND THE SCRUTINY OF THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION. ONLY BY SPEAKING OUT CAN WE PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF EVERY INDIVIDUAL. FOR SILENCE IS EVIL'S BEST COMPANION, AND LIGHT THE STRONGEST ENEMY OF DARK DESIGNS.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    16-Apr-97 3:56 PM EDT (1956 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] "EUROPE, A HISTORY" BY NORMAN DAVIES BY ZLATICA HOKE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4-16-97
    TYPE=BOOK WORLD (TTA)
    NUMBER=3-27135
    TELEPHONE=619-0935
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=(INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM SOD)

    INTRO: A NEW BOOK ON EUROPEAN HISTORY COVERS THE VAST PERIOD FROM THE ICE AGE UNTIL THE PRESENT TIME IN ONE VOLUME. ITS AUTHOR NORMAN DAVIES, (BEGIN OPT) WHO WAS A RECENT GUEST ON VOA'S TALK TO AMERICA, (END OPT) SAYS HE HAS NOT FOLLOWED THE USUAL CONVENTION OF GIVING PROMINENCE TO WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. ZLATICA HOKE REPORTS.

    TEXT: NORMAN DAVIES IS A PROFESSOR EMERITUS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. HE HAS WRITTEN SEVERAL BOOKS ON EUROPEAN HISTORY AND TAUGHT AT UNIVERSITIES IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES. MR. DAVIES SAYS UNTIL RECENTLY MOST BOOKS AND COURSES ON EUROPEAN HISTORY WERE FOCUSED ON WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, WITH RUSSIA AS AN EXCEPTION.

    TAPE CUT ONE DAVIES: "IT'S A VERY STRANGE CONVENTION OF WRITING EUROPEAN HISTORY AS THOUGH EASTERN EUROPE AND THE SLAVS AND THE OTHER NATIONS OF EASTERN EUROPE SOMEHOW DON'T COUNT. I SHOULD SAY THAT RUSSIA GETS MUCH BETTER COVERAGE THAN MANY OF THE OTHER COUNTRIES SIMPLY BECAUSE ANOTHER CONVENTION HAS BEEN TO WRITE EUROPEAN HISTORY EXCLUSIVELY IN RELATION TO GREAT POWERS AND AS THOUGH THE RELATIONS OF GREAT POWERS IS THE ONLY THING THAT COUNTS IN EUROPEAN HISTORY."

    TEXT: IN HIS NEW BOOK, "EUROPE: A HISTORY", PUBLISHED BY OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, NORMAN DAVIES IS TRYING TO AVOID THAT CONVENTION BY GIVING SPACE TO SLAVS, THE LARGEST GROUP OF PEOPLE IN EUROPE, AND ALSO TO MINORITY COMMUNITIES, FROM MUSLIMS, JEWS AND ROMANIES TO HERETICS AND LEPERS.

    TAPE CUT TWO DAVIES: "ONE OF MY AIMS IN WRITING A HISTORY OF EUROPE WAS TO EMPHASIZE THE ROLE OF, IF YOU LIKE, THE SMALLER COUNTRIES, BUT WHICH IN SOME WAYS ARE MORE TYPICAL THAN THE GREAT POWERS. THERE'S A LOT MORE OF THEM AND DIVERSITY IS ONE OF THE MOST OUTSTANDING CHARACTERISTICS OF EUROPE."

    TEXT: NORMAN DAVIES SAYS MOST PEOPLE FEEL THE URGE TO DISCOVER THEIR ROOTS. BUT HE SAYS, HISTORIANS HAVE FREQUENTLY APPROACHED THEIR SUBJECT AS NARCISSUS APPROACHED THE POOL -- LOOKING ONLY FOR A REFLECTION OF HIS OWN BEAUTY. THUS, SAYS MR. DAVIES, MOST HISTORY BOOKS OF EUROPE WRITTEN BY WESTERN EUROPEANS NEGLECT THE IMPORTANCE OF THE INTERACTION OF WESTERN EUROPEAN CULTURE WITH THAT OF ITS NEIGHBORS IN AFRICA AND ASIA.

    TAPE CUT THREE DAVIES: "I THINK IT'S CLEAR THAT THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN WAS THE FIRST HOME OF CIVILIZATIONS -- ADVANCED CIVILIZATION AS WE KNOW IT. BUT THE MEDITERRANEAN IS NOT EXCLUSIVELY EUROPEAN. THE ROMAN EMPIRE, WHICH OF COURSE TOOK OVER THE WHOLE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN, WAS BOTH AS AFRICAN A NATION AS WELL AS EUROPEAN. I THINK IT'S ONLY AT A LATER STAGE THAT THE EUROPEAN PENINSULA BECOMES THE BASIS OF A RECOGNIZABLE, SEPARATE EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION."

    TEXT: NORMAN DAVIES SAYS HE THINKS OF HISTORY AS A COLLECTIVE MEMORY. JUST AS AN INDIVIDUAL CANNOT FUNCTION WITHOUT A MEMORY OF WHAT HAPPENED IN THE PAST, SO NATIONS CAN'T SEE WHERE THEY ARE TODAY UNLESS THEY KNOW WHERE THEY HAVE COME FROM. HE SAYS HISTORY DOES NOT SOLVE THE FUTURE, BUT IT CAN INFORM PEOPLE OF THE MISTAKES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE AND OFFER A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE PATH TO FOLLOW. (BEGIN OPT) RECENT ETHNIC CLASHES IN THE BALKANS HAVE MADE SOME PEOPLE QUESTION THIS BELIEF. NORMAN DAVIES POINTS OUT THAT EUROPE HAS UNDERGONE SOME MAJOR CHANGES IN THE LAST FEW DECADES -- THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION, THE DIVISION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA, THE UNIFICATION OF GERMANY -- AND MOST OF THEM HAPPENED RELATIVELY PEACEFULLY. HE ALSO ARGUES THAT NATIONALISM IN ITS AGGRESSIVE FORM, SUCH AS IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AND NORTHERN IRELAND, HAS BEEN DISCREDITED AND IS NOT TYPICAL OF MODERN DAY EUROPE.

    TAPE CUT FOUR DAVIES: "NATIONALISM IS NOT PAST, BUT I THINK THAT NATIONALISM HAS BEEN DISCREDITED, AT LEAST NATIONALISM IN ITS AGGRESSIVE FORM, I.E. THE BRAND OF NATIONALISM WHICH PREACHED THAT THE SELFISH INTEREST OF INDIVIDUAL NATIONS, THE SACRED EGOISM AS A FRENCHMAN ONCE PUT IT, HAS ABSOLUTE PRIORITY -- THAT FORM OF NATIONALISM IS PASSING. AND THE EUROPEAN MOVEMENT IS DEVELOPING, I THINK, NOT TO DESTROY SEPARATE NATIONS AND NATIONAL IDENTITY BUT TO FORGE A NEW SENSE OF SOLIDARITY WITHIN THE DIVERSITY." (END OPT)

    TEXT: NORMAN DAVIES SAYS BASED ON HISTORY, SOME EVENTS ARE PREDICTABLE AND SOME ARE NOT. THUS HE SAYS, THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION WAS PREDICTABLE BECAUSE NONE OF THE GREAT EMPIRES FROM THE PAST HAVE SURVIVED. BUT HE SAYS THE ULTIMATE CONSEQUENCES OF THIS COLLAPSE ARE FAR FROM CLEAR.

    TAPE CUT FIVE DAVIES: "I THINK SOME OF THE FORMER MEMBERS OF THE SOVIET BLOCK LIKE POLAND AND HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC ARE LIKELY TO BE INCORPORATED IN THE WESTERN INSTITUTIONS. WHETHER THE OTHER REPUBLICS, IN PARTICULAR THE FORMER REPUBLICS OF THE SOVIET UNION WILL BE -- IS BY NO MEANS CLEAR. ABOVE ALL, IT'S BY NO MEANS CLEAR WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN IN RUSSIA, WHETHER RUSSIA WILL STAY TOGETHER AS THIS COLOSSAL STATE TRYING TO ESTABLISH DEMOCRACY, BUT BEING QUITE A LONG WAY FROM IT, OR WHETHER RUSSIA MAY POSSIBLY DISINTEGRATE WHICH WOULD BE THE NATURAL FATE OF GREAT UNWIELDY EMPIRES. (BEGIN OPT) I OFTEN THINK OF THE FUTURE OF RUSSIA ON THE ANALOGY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. SIBERIA IS LIKE CANADA: IT'S A HUGE EXPANSE WHICH IS ALMOST BEYOND THE EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF MOSCOW AND CERTAINLY IN PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES MANY RUSSIANS THEMSELVES ARGUE THAT THE STRONG -- WHAT THEY CALL STRONG -- I.E. NON-DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT, IS NECESSARY TO DEAL WITH THIS COLOSSAL LAND MASS. BUT IF THAT HAPPENS, AND THEN OF COURSE, THE DEMOCRATIC EXPERIMENT FAILS IN RUSSIA THEN WE MAY SEE A REVIVAL OF RUSSIAN IMPERIALISM AND AN ATTEMPT TO REBUILD THE EMPIRE THAT IS DISINTEGRATED. AND THAT WOULD BE BAD NEWS, NOT ONLY FOR RUSSIA'S NEIGHBORS IN THE WEST, BUT ALSO FOR RUSSIA'S NEIGHBORS IN ASIA." (END OPT)

    TEXT: BRITISH HISTORIAN NORMAN DAVIES SAYS HIS NEW HISTORY BOOK GIVES GLIMPSES INTO DIFFERENT PARTS OF EUROPE AT DIFFERENT TIMES IN THE PAST. IN HIS OPINION, THE ENTIRE HISTORY OF EUROPE CAN NEVER BE RECOVERED IN ITS ENTIRETY. HIS ONE-VOLUME WORK IS, AS HE PUTS IT, "THE VIEW OF ONE PAIR OF EYES, FILTERED BY ONE BRAIN AND TRANSLATED BY ONE PEN."
    16-Apr-97 3:56 PM EDT (1956 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] LIBRARIES, COURTING, ARCHAEOLOGY, PRICES BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/16/97
    TYPE=COMPUTER DIGEST
    NUMBER=3-27132
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: ON THIS EDITION OF COMPUTER DIGEST:

    HIGH-TECH LIBRARIES,

    COURTING BY COMPUTER,

    DEVELOPMENTS IN ARCHEOLOGY,

    AND, LOWER PRICES FOR PC'S. *****

    LIBRARIES

    TEXT: THIS IS NATIONAL LIBRARY WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES. THE THEME THIS YEAR IS A CELEBRATION OF THE WAY LIBRARIES SERVE AMERICAN CHILDREN. ONE OF THE ACTIVITIES WAS A LOG ON @ (AT) THE LIBRARY EVENT TO DEMONSTRATE HOW HIGH TECHNOLOGY IS FITTING IN WITH THE MORE TRADITIONAL LIBRARY FARE OF BOOKS, PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS. THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION HAS COME OUT WITH WHAT THE GROUP CALLS ITS "CYBRARIAN'S MANUAL," TO TEACH USERS HOW TO NAVIGATE IN CYBERSPACE. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR NOTES THAT DESPITE THE TOPIC, THE MANUAL IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN PRINT FORM. *****

    COURTING

    TEXT: BOY STILL MEETS GIRL IN THE UNITED STATES, BUT INSTEAD OF COMMUNICATING BY TELEPHONE, MANY AMERICAN TEENAGERS ARE GETTING TOGETHER VIA THEIR HOME COMPUTERS. USA TODAY SAYS THAT NEARLY 19-MILLION AMERICAN KIDS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE HAVE ACCESS TO PC'S. BONNIE DETERDING OF HOUSTON, TEXAS, SAYS THAT SHE EXCHANGES E-MAIL WITH A MALE FRIEND WHO IS AWAY AT COLLEGE. SHE ADDS THAT "IT'S MUCH MORE EXCITING TO GET E-MAIL THAN A PHONE CALL." *****

    ARCHAEOLOGY

    TEXT: THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR REPORTS THAT "FROM THE INITIAL SEARCH FOR SITES TO THE PRESENTATION OF FINDS TO COLLEAGUES AND THE PUBLIC, COMPUTERS ARE IMPROVING NEARLY EVERY ASPECT OF ARCHEOLOGY." FOR EXAMPLE, COMPUTER PROGRAMS DESIGNED FOR DRAFTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ARE ALLOWING RESEARCHERS TO FIGURE OUT SUBTLE DETAILS IN ANCIENT BUILDINGS. VINCENT PIGOTT, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR NEW TECHNOLOGIES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA'S MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY, TOLD THE NEWSPAPER THAT "OUR WILDEST DREAMS ARE BEING FULFILLED." SUCH DEVICES AS LAPTOPS, PORTABLE SATELLITE RECEIVERS, AND LASER-BASED SURVEYING EQUIPMENT "HAVE JOINED HAND TOOLS, SUN BLOCK, AND A PAIR OF STURDY BOOTS ON ARCHAEOLOGISTS' SUPPLY LISTS." *****

    PRICES

    TEXT: SEVERAL AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS -- LIKE COMPAQ -- ARE COMING OUT WITH PERSONAL COMPUTERS THAT SELL FOR UNDER $1000. WHILE THE LOWER PRICED MODELS HAVE FEWER FEATURES, NEWSWEEK MAGAZINE SAYS THAT THEY "ALREADY ACCOUNT FOR NEARLY ONE IN EVERY 10 SALES." THE MAGAZINE NOTES THAT THE PC MAKERS HOPE BUDGET BUYERS WILL EVENTUALLY UPGRADE AND BUY MORE EXPENSIVE MODELS. *****
    16-Apr-97 3:52 PM EDT (1952 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/16/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10116
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=DAN NOBLE
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ON WEDNESDAY, APRIL 16TH //

    INTRO: THE QUESTION OF ETHICS AND POLITICAL CAMPAIGN FUNDRAISING IN THE UNITED STATES IS THE SUBJECT OF A NUMBER OF EDITORIALS IN WEDNESDAY'S NEWSPAPERS.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AFRICAN COUNTRY OF ZAIRE, AND A CLINTON ADMINISTRATION DECISION ON LABOR PRACTICES AFFECTING BOTH DOMESTIC AND OVERSEAS CLOTHING FACTORIES.

    NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ___________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THIS WEEK, ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO MADE A DECISION NOT TO SEEK AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL TO INVESTIGATE ALLEGED FUNDRAISING VIOLATIONS INPRESIDENT CLINTON'S RECENT REELECTION CAMPAIGN. THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT, WHICH MS RENO HEADS, WILL CONTINUE THE INVESTIGATION ON ITS OWN. THE WASHINGTON POST SAYS THAT THE DECISION IS THE CORRECT ONE:

    VOICE: "...IT CONTINUES TO SEEM TO US THAT THE TESTS FOR TAKING THE EXTRAORDINARY STEP OF REMOVING THE CASE FROM THE REGULAR CHAIN OF COMMAND AND NAMING AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL HAVE NOT BEEN MET. IT WAS CONGRESS ITSELF -- MANY OF THE SAME PEOPLE NOW DENOUNCING THE ATTORNEY GENERAL FOR NOT SEEKING A COUNSEL -- THAT TOUGHENED THE TEST, AND RIGHTLY SO IN OUR JUDGMENT. THERE NEEDS TO BE SPECIFIC, CREDIBLE EVIDENCE THAT THE PRESIDENT OR ANOTHER HIGH OFFICIAL COVERED BY THE LAW COMMITTED A FELONY, OR CONFLICT OF INTEREST -- A REAL ONE, NOT JUST THE APPEARANCE -- THAT CAN'T OTHERWISE BE RECONCILED IN PROSECUTING SOME LESSER FIGURE. YOU DON'T TAKE THE STEP JUST ON SPEC(ULATION). YOU DON'T DO IT JUST BECAUSE A DECISION TO PROSECUTE OR NOT COULD BE POLITICALLY AWKWARD; A LOT OF THEM ARE. NOR DO YOU DO IT JUST TO FISH."

    TEXT: BUT TOD LINDBERG, EDITORIAL PAGE EDITOR OF THE WASHINGTON TIMES, TAKES A DIFFERENT POINT OF VIEW:

    VOICE: "I AM ONE OF THOSE CONSERVATIVES WHO HAS LONG OPPOSED THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL LAW, ON SEPARATION OF POWERS GROUNDS. BUT, HEY, WE LOST THAT ARGUMENT FAIR AND SQUARE. IT'S THE LAW. AND WHATEVER ONE THINKS OF IT, IT'S GOT TO BE ENFORCED. JANET RENO, MOREOVER, IS UNBURDENED BY PERSONAL OPPOSITION TO THE LAW; SHE HAS BEEN A LONG-TIME SUPPORTER. THE LAST THING THIS COUNTRY NEEDS IS AN ATTORNEY GENERAL ENGAGING IN CIVIL DISOBEDIANCE BECAUSE SHE FINDS HER ROLE AS LAW ENFORCER DISCOMFORTING. BUT HERE WE ARE. THE LAW IS QUITE CLEAR. THE ATTORNEY GENERAL" -- QUOTE "'SHALL'" END QUOTE -- "BEGIN A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION WHENEVER THERE IS SPECIFIC AND CREDIBLE EVIDENCE THAT AN OFFICIAL COVERED BY THE LAW" -- QUOTE "'MAY HAVE VIOLATED'" -- END QUOTE -- "THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL CODE. ONCE A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION IS UNDERWAY, THE LAW TIGHTLY CIRCUMSCRIBES ITS COURSE."

    [BEGIN OPT]

    TEXT: IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL ON THE SAME QUESTION, THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER LABELS JANET RENO'S DECISION -- IN THE NEWSPAPER'S WORDS -- AN "ERROR OF OMISSION."

    VOICE: "HER FAILURE TO HAND THESE CASES OFF TO AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL IS A DISSERVICE TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, EVEN THOUGH A NARROW, LEGAL ARGUMENT CAN BE MADE THAT THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL ACT DOESN'T REQUIRE IT. AGAIN AND AGAIN, IN HER 10-PAGE LETTER TO GOP (REPUBLICAN) LAWMAKERS, MS. RENO SAID THERE'S NOT YET" -- QUOTE -- " 'CREDIBLE AND SPECIFIC' " -- END QUOTE -- "EVIDENCE OF ILLEGAL ACTS BY THE PRESIDENT, THE VICE PRESIDENT AND OTHER TOP-LEVEL OFFICIALS. HER LETTER MAKES THAT POINT PERSUASIVELY WITH RESPECT TO SOME NOTORIOUS EPISODES SUCH AS VICE PRESIDENT GORE'S DIALING FOR DOLLARS. BUT MS. RENO ALSO HAS THE OPTION, IF SHE SEES A CONFLICT OF INTEREST TO LET AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL LOOK INTO FUND-RAISING SHENANIGANS BY LOWER-LEVEL PEOPLE. CLEARLY, SHE SHOULD HAVE TAKEN THIS OPTION."

    TEXT: AND, THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER MAINTAINS THAT "...IN TRYING TO MAKE POLITICAL HAY BY PRESSING (MS.) RENO FOR AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS HAVE UNWITTINGLY CALLED NEW ATTENTION TO THE DESPERATE NEED FOR CAMPAIGN REFORM."

    VOICE: "THE LOOPHOLES CREATED BY CONGRESS AND THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION -- WITH HELP FROM THE COURTS -- HAVE CONSUMED THE LAW THAT WAS ENACTED WITH SUCH HOPE MORE THAN TWO DECADES AGO. THAT'S THE REAL CRIME. THE URGENT NEED FOR THIS CONGRESS TO CLEAN UP THE SYSTEM, ENDING POLITICIANS' DEPENDENCE ON MASSIVE FUND-RAISING FROM PRIVATE INTERESTS, IS ALREADY PROVEN."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ON ITS EDITORIAL PAGE, THE BALTIMORE SUN DISCUSSES THE TRAGEDY OF RWANDANS DYING IN ZAIRE. THE NEWSPAPER TELLS READERS THAT "THE ASPECT OF THE ZAIRIAN CIVIL WAR CRYING OUT FOR INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION IS THE PLIGHT OF HUTU REFUGEES, HERDED BY FORMER SOLDIERS TOWARD DEATH BY STARVATION AND DISEASE."

    VOICE: "LAURENT KABILA, WHO SEEMS CERTAIN TO TAKE OVER ZAIRE IN THE NEAR FUTURE, WILL THEN WANT INTERNATIONAL AID, RESPECT AND COOPERATION. HE SHOULD BE JUDGED ON HOW WELL HE FACILITATES AID AGENCIES IN FINDING AND RESCUING THESE REFUGEES. OF SOME 100,000 SURVIVING HUTU REFUGEES WHO FLED THE TINGI-TINGI CAMP IN MARCH, SOME TWO-THIRDS HAVE BEEN SPOTTED MOVING TOWARD THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC TO THE NORTH. THIS FORLORN COUNTRY HAS ITS OWN TURMOIL AND IS ILL-EQUIPPED TO HANDLE THEM HUMANELY. ANOTHER ONE-THIRD ARE HEADING SOUTH TOWARD ANGOLA, WHICH IS A WEALTHIER COUNTRY BUT WITH ITS OWN INSURGENCY IN THE AREA THEY MIGHT REACH. THESE PEOPLE ARE NOT FREE AGENTS. THEY WERE PROPELLED TO ZAIRE BY FORMER SOLDIERS AND MILITIA OF THE HUTU REGIME OF RWANDA, WHO WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE GENOCIDE OF RIVAL TUTSIS WHICH PROVOKED THEIR OWN OVERTHROW IN 1994."

    TEXT: BRIAN A. BROWN, DEPUTY EDITORIAL PAGE EDITOR OF THE WALL STREET JOURNAL EUROPE, SAYS THAT THE UNITED STATES "HAS NOT PROVIDED A POLICY WITH VISION." HE ADDS THAT WHITE HOUSE SPOKESPERSON MIKE MCCURRY'S PREDICTION OF THE DEPARTURE OF MOBUTO SESE SEKO, ZAIRE'S LONGTIME RULER, IS ABOUT AS OBVIOUS AS AN ANNOUNCEMENT THAT "THE SUN WAS DUE UP THE NEXT DAY."

    VOICE: "AD HOCISM SEEMS TO BE THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S MOTTO. WHILE IT HAS PUSHED FOR A CEASE-FIRE IN ZAIRE AND TRIED TO WORK WITH THE FRENCH, TO DATE ITS MOST PUBLIC ACT WAS MR. MCCURRY'S MUCH-DELAYED ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE OBVIOUS." QUOTE -- "'WE NEED TO MAKE THEM REALIZE THE U.S. IS SERIOUS'" -- END QUOTE -- "SAYS CHESTER CROCKER, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR AFRICAN AFFAIRS IN THE REAGAN ADMINISTRATION. THE U.S. SHOULD BE PUSHING FOR MR. MOBUTU'S PEACEFUL EXIT AND A TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT THAT WILL HOLD FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS. BUT WITHOUT MORE SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON MESSRS. KABILA AND MOBUTU -- AND THE REBEL LEADER'S MENTOR, UGANDAN PRESIDENT YOWERI MUSEVENI -- ZAIRE'S CHANCES FOR BECOMING MORE STABLE AND DEMOCRATIC DON'T LOOK PROMISING."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES COMMENTS ON A NEWLY PROPOSED CODE OF CONDUCT FOR DOMESTIC AND OVERSEAS FACTORIES. THE PRESIDENTIAL TASKFORCE WHICH DEVELOPED IT SEEKS "TO IMPROVE THE APPALLING WORKING CONDITIONS OF APPAREL WORKERS AROUND THE WORLD." BUT, THE TIMES ARGUES THAT "THE WEAKNESS OF THE CODE IS ITS LACK OF PRECISE COMMITMENTS."

    VOICE: "THE ACCORD SUGGESTS BUT DOES NOT REQUIRE LOCAL INDEPENDENT MONITORING OF WORKING CONDITIONS OR PUBLIC DISCLOSURE OF INFRACTIONS. THE 60-HOUR LIMIT ON THE WORKWEEK CAN BE WAIVED FOR WHAT ARE CALLED" -- QUOTE -- "'EXTRAORDINARY'" -- END QUOTE "CIRCUMSTANCES. EVEN IF A FOLLOW-UP COMMISSION STRENGTHENS THE WORDING, THE CODE CANNOT WORK UNLESS AMERICAN CONSUMERS PENALIZE NON-PARTICIPANTS.... IF CONSUMERS FLOCK TO LOWER-PRICED CLOTHES PRODUCED BY COMPANIES THAT IGNORE THE CODE, THE EFFORTS WILL FAIL.... WHETHER THIRD-WORLD WORKERS WILL EVER SEE A BENEFIT DEPENDS ON SHARPENING THE CODE AND INTENSIFYING DISCLOSURE OF COMPANIES THAT VIOLATE ITS PROVISIONS."

    VOICE: THE LOS ANGELES TIMES TAKES A DIFFERENT VIEW, CALLING THE MOVE TO ELIMINATE SWEATSHOPS A LAUDABLE ONE.

    TEXT: "SOME CRITICS WILL ARGUE THAT THE CODE MERELY SETS FORTH STANDARDS THAT EVERY COMPANY IN THE WORLD SHOULD BE OBSERVING ANYWAY. BUT IN FACT FEW COMPANIES IN THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY OR, FOR THAT MATTER, IN SOME OTHER HANDIWORK INDUSTRIES ADHERE TO THESE MINIMUM LEGAL STANDARDS. ANOTHER OBJECTION TO THE PRESIDENTIAL INITIATIVE DEALS WITH THE COMPOSITION OF THE INDEPENDENT PANEL THAT WOULD MONITOR COMPLIANCE. SOME AMERICAN UNION LEADERS INSIST THAT NONGOVERNMENTAL, RELIGIOUS AND HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANIZATIONS, PLUS UNION REPRESENTATIVES, PERFORM THE PROCESS. EMPLOYERS WHO HAVE AGREED TO THE CODE WANT AN INTERNATIONAL FIRM OF AUDITORS TO DO THAT JOB. THIS SHOULD NOT BE AN ISSUE. AS LONG AS THE AUDITORS DO NOT HAVE ANY CONFLICT OF INTEREST, THERE SHOULD BE NO PROBLEM."

    [BEGIN OPT]

    VOICE: FINALLY, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, DISCUSSES "INDIA, PAKISTAN, AND PEACE."

    VOICE: "THE MOST IMPORTANT BUSINESS FACING THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA IS RESUMED NEGOTIATIONS WITH PAKISTAN. REDUCING THE THREAT OF WAR OVER DISPUTED KASHMIR -- AND THE NUCLEAR CONFRONTATION THAT COULD ENTAIL -- WOULD BE A TREMENDOUS BOON TO BOTH COUNTRIES, THEIR REGION, AND THE WORLD. BUT PROGRESS ON THAT FRONT WAS SIDELINED TWO WEEKS AGO BY YET ANOTHER POLITICAL CRISIS IN NEW DELHI.... THIS INTERLUDE IN NEW DELHI POINTS UP THE SPLINTERED NATURE OF INDIAN POLITICS AT THE MOMENT, WITH A VOID OF TOP LEADERSHIP. IN PAKISTAN, BY CONTRAST, PRIME MINISTER NAWAZ SHARIF, THOUGH HARDLY A NEW FACE, HAS SHOWN A DETERMINATION TO BREAK THROUGH SOME OF HIS COUNTRY'S POLITICAL TANGLES IN ORDER TO BOOST THE ECONOMY AND PURSUE REGIONAL PEACE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: WITH THAT, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENTS FROM SOME OF THE NATION'S MAJOR NEWSPAPERS THIS WEDNESDAY, APRIL 16.
    16-Apr-97 10:52 AM EDT (1452 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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