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Voice of America, 97-04-17

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBANIA AID (L-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)
  • [02] BILDT/BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY COLIN SOLOWAY (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] BULGARIA ELECTION PREVIEW (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (SOFIA)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [05] EXTERNAL IRANIAN TERRORISM EXPOSED IN GERMAN TRIAL BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] GERMAN COURT VERDICT EXPOSES IRANIAN TERRORISM BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [08] NATO ENLARGEMENT AND THE FUTURE OF EUROPE
  • [09] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] U-S / IRAN (L-ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [11] YELTSIN / NATO (L-ONLY) BY THOMAS ANDERSSEN (BONN)

  • [01] ALBANIA AID (L-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213027
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS TROOPS OF THE ITALIAN-LED MULTINATIONAL FORCE IN ALBANIA PREPARE TO MOVE INTO THE MOST LAWLESS REGIONS OF THE COUNTRY, INTERNATIONAL RELIEF AGENCIES ARE STRUGGLING TO DISTRIBUTE AID TO THE IMPOVERISHED BALKAN NATION. VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM TIRANA THE AID EFFORT HAS BEEN COMPLICATED BY THE CHAOS IN THE COUNTRY AND THE BREAKDOWN OF PUBLIC SERVICES.

    TEXT: WHILE THERE IS LITTLE DANGER OF PEOPLE STARVING TO DEATH IN ALBANIA, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS SAYS IT ESTIMATES NEARLY ONE PERSON IN TEN IS IN NEED OF EMERGENCY AID.

    MANY OF THE WORST OFF ARE THE OLD AND SICK WHO HAVE BEEN CONFINED TO INSTITUTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN CUT OFF FROM GOVERNMENT SERVICES SINCE THE VIOLENCE IN ALBANIA BEGAN.

    RED CROSS SPOKESWOMAN NINA WINDQUIST-GALBE SAYS THESE INSTITUTIONS ARE BEING GIVEN FIRST PRIORITY IN THE RELIEF EFFORT. SHE SAYS TRUCKS CARRYING AID PACKAGES ARE ALREADY BEING DELIVERED TO INSTITUTIONS LIKE HOSPITALS, ORPHANAGES AND HOMES FOR THE ELDERLY.

    // WINDQUIST-GALBE ACT //

    AND THESE BIG PARCELS -- THEY CONTAIN WHEAT FLOUR; THEY CONTAIN TWO DIFFERENT KINDS OF BEANS; THEY CONTAIN SUGAR AND SALT AND OIL AND PASTA, WHICH IS VERY MUCH EATEN IN ALBANIA.

    // END ACT //

    BUT WITH HUNDREDS OF TONS OF FOOD AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES NOW POURING INTO ALBANIA, RELIEF AGENCIES ARE STILL NOT SURE EXACTLY HOW TO GET AID TO INDIVIDUALS OR FAMILIES LIVING IN REMOTE AREAS.

    SOME RELIEF WORKERS SAY IT COULD TAKE UNTIL THE MONTH OF MAY BEFORE ASSESSMENTS ARE COMPLETED AND AGENCIES HAVE A CLEAR IDEA OF WHO NEEDS HELP THE MOST, AND HOW BEST TO GET IT TO THEM.

    SOME OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE CONCERNED THAT IF TOO MUCH AID POURS INTO THE COUNTRY, IT COULD BECOME A TARGET OF ARMED GANGS BENT ON LOOTING, AND THAT, OFFICIALS FEAR, COULD FURTHER DESTABILIZE THE SITUATION .

    THE RED CROSS SPOKESWOMAN SAYS SHE, TOO, IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE TYPE OF AID COMING IN.

    // SECOND WINDQUIST-GALBE ACT //

    WE FEAR THAT TOO MUCH AID MIGHT BE GIVEN IN THE WRONG PLACES AND MAYBE THE WRONG TYPE OF AID. AND ... WE WANT TO EXPLAIN THAT BRINGING IN, FOR INSTANCE, ONLY WHEAT FLOUR AND A LITTLE BIT OF BEANS OR SO IS PART OF THE SOLUTION. BUT PEOPLE CANNOT SURVIVE ON WHEAT FLOUR AND BEANS.

    // END ACT //

    AT THE MAIN HOSPITAL IN TIRANA, DOCTOR PETRIT VARGU SAYS SUPPLIES ARE RUNNING VERY SHORT, BUT HE SAYS ITS IMPORTANT FOR THE RIGHT MEDICINES TO BE BROUGHT IN.

    // VARGU ACT, IN ALBANIAN, ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    "WE NEED MEDICINES THAT FIT THE SPECIFIC NEEDS OF THIS HOSPITAL," DOCTOR VARGU SAYS. "WE DON'T WANT TO HAVE ANOTHER EXPERIENCE LIKE THE TIME WE WERE GIVEN A SHIPMENT OF AID THAT TURNED OUT TO BE NOTHING MORE THAN MULTI-VITAMINS -- SOMETHING WE DO NOT NEED."

    RED CROSS OFFICIALS SAY FOR NOW THEY WILL FOCUS ON GETTING EMERGENCY FOOD AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES TO HOSPITALS AND INSTITUTIONS IN MORE REMOTE AREAS OF ALBANIA WHICH HAVE BEEN CUT OFF FROM DELIVERIES. OFFICIALS SAY THAT AID WILL TARGET SOME 250-THOUSAND PEOPLE WHO ARE CONSIDERED PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PCF
    17-Apr-97 6:37 AM EDT (1037 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BILDT/BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY COLIN SOLOWAY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=4/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213054
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S HIGH REPRESENTATIVE IN BOSNIA, CARL BILDT, WARNED THURSDAY RADOVAN KARADZIC, WHO HAS BEEN INDICTED FOR INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES, AND THE SERB MEMBER OF BOSNIA'S JOINT PRESIDENCY, MOMCILO KRAJISNIK, ARE WORKING TO DAMAGE THE PEACE PROCESS. AS COLIN SOLOWAY REPORTS, MR. BILDT CALLED FOR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO LIMIT ITS CONTACTS WITH MR. KRAJISNIK .

    TEXT: IN A REPORT TO THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RELEASED THURSDAY, MR. BILDT WARNED MR. KARADZIC SEEKS TO INFLUENCE THE POLITICAL PROCESS. HE WROTE MR. KARADZIC REMAINS A FORCE OF EVIL AND INTRIGUE WHICH HAS TAINTED MOMCILO KRAJISNIK. MR. BILDT RECOMMENDED CONTACTS WITH MR. KRAJISNIK BE LIMITED TO BUSINESS RELATED TO HIS ROLE IN THE JOINT PRESIDENCY.

    WESTERN DIPLOMATS CLOSE TO MR. BILDT SAY HIS WARNING WAS PROMPTED BY INTELLIGENCE REPORTS MR. KRAJISNIK AND MR. KARADZIC REMAIN IN CLOSE CONTACT, COLLABORATING TO AVOID COMPLYING WITH IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS. MR. BILDT IS ALSO CONCERNED THE TWO MEN ARE ATTEMPTING TO UNDERMINE THE AUTHORITY OF SERB-ENTITY PRESIDENT BILJANA PLAVSIC.

    MR. KRAJISNIK AND MS. PLAVSIC HAVE BEEN LOCKED IN A POWER STRUGGLE FOR THE PAST FEW MONTHS OVER ISSUES SUCH AS THE SITE OF THE ENTITY'S CAPITAL AND CONTROL OF THE POLICE. MOST RECENTLY THEY CLASHED OVER THE FEBRUARY SIGNING OF WHAT MS. PLAVSIC REGARDED AS AN UNCONSTITUTIONAL AGREEMENT ON LINKS WITH FEDERAL YUGOSLAVIA.

    MS. PLAVSIC HAS ALSO COMPLAINED MR. KRAJISNIK AND MR. KARADZIC ARE ENRICHING THEMSELVES AT THE EXPENSE OF THEIR CITIZENS BY CONTROLING MONOPOLIES ON MOST TRADE IN THE SERB ENTITY, REPUBLIKA SRPSKA.

    DIPLOMATS SAID MR. BILDT'S WARNING WAS ALSO INTENDED TO GIVE A BOOST TO THE AUTHORITY OF PRESIDENT PLAVSIC, WHO HAS BECOME INCREASINGLY MARGINALIZED AND ISOLATED BY MR. KRAJISNIK AND MR. KARADZIC. THEY SAID MR. BILDT HAS SENT A LETTER TO ALL FOREIGN EMBASSIES IN SARAJEVO, REMINDING THEM MS. PLAVSIC, NOT MR. KRAJISNIK, IS THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE AND INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATIVE OF REPUBLIKA SRPSKA.

    /// REST OPT ///

    IT IS UNCLEAR EXACTLY HOW MR. BILDT'S WARNING WILL AFFECT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S RELATIONSHIP WITH MR. KRAJISNIK, BUT WESTERN DIPLOMATS SAID THE HOPE IS FOREIGN MINISTRIES WOULD STOP PAYING COURT TO MR. KRAJISNIK IN THE CITY OF PALE, AND INSTEAD WORK WITH MRS. PLAVSIC IN BANJA LUKA. BUT IT REMAINS IN QUESTION WHETHER MS. PLAVSIC HAS THE POWER TO IMPLEMENT THE AGREEMENTS SHE MAKES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CS/PCF/RAE
    17-Apr-97 2:33 PM EDT (1833 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BULGARIA ELECTION PREVIEW (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (SOFIA)

    DATE=4/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213035
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SIX-AND-A-HALF MILLION BULGARIANS ARE ELIGIBLE TO VOTE IN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS TAKING PLACE SATURDAY. BUT IF THE EXPERT PREDICTIONS ARE CORRECT, THOSE ELECTIONS ARE ALMOST CERTAIN TO BE WON BY THE CENTER-RIGHT CONSERVATIVES, THE UNION OF DEMOCRATIC FORCES, OR "U-D-F." MORE FROM V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD IN SOFIA.

    TEXT: OPINION SURVEYS SUGGEST THAT THE U-D-F WILL GET AN ABSOLUTE MAJORITY IN THE 240-SEAT PARLIAMENT. THE U-D-F HAS THE SUPPORT OF UP TO 60 PERCENT OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS, COMPARED TO LESS THAN 22 PERCENT FOR THE SOCIALISTS. //OPT// THREE SMALLER PARTIES EACH HAVE LESS THAN SEVEN PERCENT SUPPORT. //END OPT// THIS ELECTION RESULT WOULD MARK A RAPID REVERSAL IN VOTER SENTIMENT, AS THE SOCIALISTS GAINED A PARLIAMENTARY MAJORITY IN THE ELECTIONS OF DECEMBER 1994.

    THESE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS ARE BEING HELD NEARLY TWO YEARS EARLIER THAN PLANNED, BECAUSE A COLLAPSING ECONOMY AND MASSIVE PROTESTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS YEAR FORCED BULGARIA'S SOCIALIST PARTY TO RESIGN IN DISGRACE. A CARETAKER GOVERNMENT LED BY THE U-D-F MAYOR OF SOFIA, BROUGHT IN TO ORGANIZE THE ELECTIONS, HAS GAINED WIDESPREAD BACKING LARGELY BECAUSE IT HAS BEEN IMPLEMENTING MARKET-BASED REFORMS THAT PREVIOUS GOVERNMENTS PROMISED BUT NEVER CARRIED OUT.

    ELECTION ANALYSTS SAY ECONOMIC CATASTROPHE HAS PROVOKED A FUNDAMENTAL REALIGNMENT IN BULGARIAN POLITICS. ALL MAJOR PARTIES HAVE ENDORSED A PROGRAM OF RADICAL MARKET-BASED REFORMS PUT FORWARD BY INTERNATIONAL BANK LENDERS. THE PROGRAM CALLS FOR DRASTIC STABILIZATION MEASURES TO CONTROL INFLATION, RAPID ACCELERATION OF THE PRIVATIZATION OF STATE ENTERPRISES, AND ACTIVE PROMOTION OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT.

    IVAN KRASTEV IS A RESEARCHER AT THE "CENTER FOR LIBERAL STRATEGIES" IN SOFIA. MR. KRASTEV SAYS THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN HAS BEEN LOW KEY -- EVEN BORING. WITH ECONOMIC RECOVERY THE ONLY ISSUE, MR. KRASTEV SAYS THE ELECTION IS MERELY DECIDING WHICH PARTY IS BEST ABLE TO CARRY OUT THE REFORM PROGRAM.

    //KRASTEV ACT//

    THE JANUARY AND FEBRUARY EVENTS (THE STREET PROTESTS) ... GAVE THE ANSWER. SO THE VOTING TO A GREAT EXTENT IS MERELY THE LAST STAGE IN WHICH, THROUGH DEMOCRATIC MEANS, WE ARE GOING TO LISTEN TO THE ANSWER THE PEOPLE ALREADY GAVE ON THE STREETS OF SOFIA.

    //END ACT//

    SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM, BULGARIA HAS HELD SEVERAL PARLIAMENTARY AND PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS, ALL OF WHICH HAVE BEEN REGARDED AS FREE AND FAIR. //REST OPT// ELECTORAL COMMISSIONER DEMETER DIMITROV EXPECTS VOTER TURNOUT SATURDAY TO BE RELATIVELY HIGH.

    //DIMITROV ACT//

    WELL, SOMEWHERE AROUND FOUR-POINT-SIX MILLION (WILL VOTE), WHICH IS FAIRLY HIGH TURNOUT. SOMETHING ABOVE 66 TO 67 PERCENT.

    //END ACT//

    IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION LAST NOVEMBER WON BY U-D-F CANDIDATE PETAR STOYANOV, 80 PERCENT OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS CAST BALLOTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY IF, AS EXPECTED, THE U-D-F WINS AND FORMS THE NEXT GOVERNMENT, ITS FIRST REAL TEST WILL COME IN FOUR TO FIVE MONTHS. THAT IS WHEN THOUSANDS OF WORKERS AT MONEY-LOSING STATE ENTERPRISES ARE EXPECTED TO LOSE THEIR JOBS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF
    17-Apr-97 10:47 AM EDT (1447 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=4/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213053
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCKS CLOSED MIXED ON MAJOR WEST EUROPEAN MARKETS THURSDAY, WHILE THE DOLLAR WEAKENED A FRACTION OF A CENT AGAINST THE MARK. FOR THE CLOSING FIGURES, HERE IS PAUL FRANCUCH AT OUR OFFICES IN LONDON.

    TEXT: HIGHER PRICES ON WALL STREET WEDNESDAY SENT PRICES UP INITIALLY THURSDAY IN EUROPE, BUT THE CLOSING FIGURES WERE MIXED, WITH FRANKFURT AND LONDON POSTING GAINS, AND PARIS A SLIGHT LOSS. THE "CAC 40" INDEX OF FRENCH STOCKS LOST SIX POINTS FOR THE DAY, WHILE IN FRANKFURT, THE "DAX 30" INDEX ADDED A SUBSTANTIAL 30-POINTS. HERE IN LONDON, THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX WAS UP A LITTLE MORE THAN FOUR POINTS AT THE CLOSE.

    THE DOLLAR ON THE LONDON MONEY MARKET LOST NEARLY THREE-QUARTERS-OF-A-CENT TO THE POUND AND ONE-HALF CENT TO THE MARK. GOLD SHOWED NEW LUSTER AFTER DAYS OF LOSSES. THE METAL WAS UP THREE-AND-ONE-HALF DOLLARS AT THE CLOSING FIX, WHEN IT SOLD AT 343-DOLLARS-15 CENTS AN OUNCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RAE
    17-Apr-97 1:58 PM EDT (1758 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EXTERNAL IRANIAN TERRORISM EXPOSED IN GERMAN TRIAL BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/17/97
    TYPE=WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10120
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: ALMOST FIVE YEARS AGO, SADIQ SHARAFKANDI, [SAD-IK SHARAF-KHAN-DEE] EXILED CHAIRMAN OF THE KURDISH DEMOCRAT PARTY OF IRAN, WALKED INTO THE MYKONOS GREEK RESTAURANT IN BERLIN WITH THREE AIDES. WHILE EATING, THE FOUR WERE GUNNED DOWN.

    LAST WEEK, A GERMAN COURT SENTENCED TWO OF THE KILLERS TO LIFE IMPRISONMENT, JAILED ANOTHER PAIR, AND ACCUSED THE TOP LEADERS OF THE IRANIAN GOVERNMENT OF ISSUING THE ASSASSINATION ORDER.

    THE RESULTING DIPLOMATIC UPROAR HAS SEEN ALMOST ALL EUROPEAN UNION NATIONS RECALL THEIR AMBASSADORS FROM TEHRAN AND GIVES CREDENCE TO THE LONGSTANDING U-S POSITION THAT TEHRAN IS SPONSORING INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM.

    NOW WE CALL ON ______________________FOR A SAMPLING OF WORLD PRESS REACTION TO THE VERDICT.

    TEXT: KURDISH LEADERS AROUND THE WORLD SAY THAT SINCE THE THEOCRACY TOOK POWER IN TEHRAN IN 1979, IRAN HAS BEEN SYSTEMATICALLY KILLING EXILED IRANIAN LEADERS--OF VARIOUS POLITICAL FACTIONS--ALL OVER EUROPE. NOW, PEOPLE ARE PAYING ATTENTION, IN THE WAKE OF THE VERDICT BY A THREE-JUDGE PANEL IN BERLIN. IRAN IMMEDIATELY PROTESTED THE VERDICT, AS MOST EUROPEAN NATIONS, INCLUDING GERMANY, PULLED THEIR AMBASSADORS HOME FROM TEHRAN FOR CONSULTATIONS. IN RESPONSE, IRANIANS DEMONSTRATED AROUND THE GERMAN EMBASSY IN TEHERAN FOR SEVERAL DAYS.

    MANY GOVERNMENTS ARE REASSESSING THEIR RELATIONS WITH IRAN, AND THE WORLD'S PRESS IS FULL OF COMMENT. WE BEGIN IN GERMANY WHERE THE PRESS IS FAIRLY CRITICAL OF THE GOVERNMENT. FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE NORTH, THE "NEUE PRESSE" OF HANOVER SAYS:

    VOICE: "KLAUS KINKEL'S [ GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER] 'CRITICAL DIALOGUE' WITH THE REGIME IN TEHRAN WAS A FAILURE. HUMAN RIGHTS WERE NOT SUPPORTED. BUT COVERED UP BY NICE WORDS, SECRET BUSINESS DEALS DEVELOPED; THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC BECAME .... PIVOTAL IN THE ARMAMENT [OF] IRAN. IN CONTINUATION OF THE UNSCRUPULOUS POISON GAS AID TO LIBYA AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND MISSILES TO IRAQ, BUSINESS WITHOUT MORALITY PROCEEDED. ..... IT IS HARD TO BELIEVE ...THE GOVERNMENT IN BONN ...ONLY NOW ... DISCOVERED THIS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN BONN, THE "GENERAL-ANZEIGER" HAD THIS COMMENT WITHIN ITS EDITORIAL ON THE MATTER.

    VOICE: "RELATIONS WITH A COUNTRY, WHICH ORDERS THE MURDER OF ITS OPPOSITION LEADERS IN GERMANY, MAKE NO SENSE. THE IRANIAN STATE LEADERS DID NOT DISTANCE THEMSELVES WITH A SINGLE WORD FROM THIS CRIME."

    TEXT: AND IN MUNICH, THE "SUEDDEUTSCHE ZEITUNG" SNAPS:

    VOICE: ".... THE ONLY THING THAT WOULD PUT AN END TO THE MURDEROUS REGIME [IN TEHRAN] WOULD BE TOTAL, WORLDWIDE ISOLATION. THAT, HOWEVER, WILL NEVER HAPPEN, AND EVERYBODY KNOWS IT."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN SCOTLAND, EDINBURGH'S "THE SCOTSMAN" GOES RIGHT TO HEART OF THE INTERNATIONAL DILEMMA WHEN IT SAYS:

    VOICE: "....THE PROBLEM FOR BOTH EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES IS THAT WHILE THEY ARE NOW BOTH EQUALLY CONVINCED OF IRANIAN PARTICIPATION IN ACTS OF TERRORISM OVERSEAS, NEITHER OF THEM HAS COME UP WITH AN EFFECTIVE POLICY FOR COUNTERING IT."

    TEXT: AND IN SO MANY WORDS, FRANCE'S "LE FIGARO" IN PARIS AGREES, NOTING:

    VOICE: "EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES HAVE EQUALLY FAILED WHEN IT COMES TO IRAN. NEITHER THE 'CRITICAL DIALOGUE' NOR OSTRACISM HAS MANAGED TO CONVINCE TEHRAN'S REGIME TO ABANDON TERRORISM .... INSTEAD OF CONFRONTING EACH OTHER, EUROPEANS AND THE UNITED STATES WOULD BE WISE TO AGREE. ONLY THROUGH A JOINT APPROACH IS THERE ANY HOPE OF COUNTERING IRAN."

    TEXT: ITALY'S "LA REPUBBLICA" BELIEVES THAT RUSSIA WAS SEEKING TO TAKE QUICK ADVANTAGE OF A POSSIBLE NEW OPENING IN THE MIDDLE EAST WHEN IT WELCOMED AN IRANIAN POLITICIAN TO MOSCOW AS EUROPEAN AMBASSADORS CAME HOME FROM TEHERAN. AND IN RUSSIA ITSELF, FROM A FRONT PAGE ARTICLE IN "SEGODNYA," THERE IS THIS:

    VOICE: "OBJECTIVELY, MOSCOW PROFITS BY THE MYKONOS [THE NAME OF THE GREEK RESTAURANT IN BERLIN WHERE THE KILLINGS TOOK PLACE] CASE .... THERE IS A CHANCE FOR MOSCOW IN THE MIDDLE EAST WHERE IT HAS LOOKED PRETTY HELPLESS OF LATE."

    TEXT: IN BELGIUM, "LE SOIR" OF BRUSSELS SUGGESTED THAT:

    VOICE: "THE AYATOLLAHS' ILLEGAL AND CRIMINAL ACTIONS CANNOT REMAIN UNPUNISHED."

    TEXT: WHILE ONE OF IRAN'S NEIGHBORS, THE ENGLISH-LANGUAGE "TURKISH DAILY NEWS" IN ISTANBUL, RAN THIS COMMENT:

    VOICE: "IF IRAN IS ON THE WRONG PATH, WE HAVE TO WARN IT IN A FRIENDLY WAY. THIS CANNOT BE DONE BY ISOLATING IRAN. EVEN IRANIAN LEADERS SAY THAT THEY ARE NOT ANGRY AT GERMANY; THEY ARE ONLY UPSET ABOUT THE CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS."

    TEXT: ON THE SUBCONTINENT, PAKISTAN'S "THE NATION" IN LAHORE SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "CONDEMNING A COUNTRY WITHOUT GIVING IT THE OPPORTUNITY TO DEFEND ITSELF IS BAD FOR INTERNATIONAL HARMONY AND PEACE."

    TEXT: GIVING US A VIEW FROM THE PACIFIC, AUSTRALIA'S "SYDNEY MORNING HERALD" COMMENTED:

    VOICE: "THE QUESTION OF IRAN'S SPONSORSHIP OF TERRORISM OUTSIDE ITS BORDERS LOOMS LARGE IN THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS. AND IT IS ALWAYS IN DANGER OF COLLIDING DIRECTLY WITH THE INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. THE GERMAN COURT'S IDENTIFICATION OF IRANIAN GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITY FOR MURDERS IN BERLIN IN 1992 COINCIDES WITH A SIMILAR IDENTIFICATION BY CANADIAN AUTHORITIES LAST WEEK OF IRANIAN GOVERNMENT COMPLICITY IN THE TRUCK-BOMBING OF A U-S MILITARY COMPOUND IN SAUDI ARABIA LAST YEAR."

    TEXT: AND FOR OUR FINAL WORD, WE TURN TO ARGENTINA, AND "THE BUENOS AIRES HERALD", WHICH TIED THE GERMAN COURT VERDICT TO AN ACT OF TERRORISM CLOSER TO HOME.

    VOICE: "THE DECISION BY A GERMAN COURT IN BERLIN .... MARKS NOT ONLY A LONG OVERDUE U-TURN [TOTAL CHANGE OF COURSE] IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN GERMANY AND IRAN, BUT A WATERSHED IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DEMOCRATIC WESTERN WORLD AND ... IRAN .... IN THE WAKE OF THE EVENTS TAKING PLACE IN GERMANY, IT IS HOPED THAT THE VERDICT HAS BOTH AN IMPACT ON THE IRANIAN REGIME AND ON THOSE PARTIES IN THIS COUNTRY WHO CONTINUE GOING OUT OF THEIR WAY TO PROVE THAT ALMOST ANYBODY - - WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE MAIN SUSPECTS - - MUST BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE TERRORIST ATTACK ON THE ISRAELI EMBASSY AND AMIA BUILDING [IN BUENOS AIRES]. AS WAS PROVED IN BERLIN .... ALL THAT THAT IS NEEDED [UNDERSTOOD:HERE IN ARGENTINA] IS A COURT OF JUSTICE WITH THE WILL AND CAPACITY TO INVESTIGATE WITH COMPLETE JUDICIAL OBJECTIVITY, ESTABLISHING TRUTH AND JUSTICE WHILE OFFERING NO CONCESSIONS TO POLITICAL NECESSITY."

    TEXT: WITH THAT WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF WORLD PRESS OPINION ON THE RECENT VERDICT AGAINST FOUR MEN FOR THE MURDER OF A KURDISH-IRANIAN POLITICAL LEADER AND THREE OF HIS AIDES.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    17-Apr-97 5:18 PM EDT (2118 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] GERMAN COURT VERDICT EXPOSES IRANIAN TERRORISM BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/17/97
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10119
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    [EDITORS: FOR THOSE SERVICES SPECIALLY INTERESTED IN THIS STORY, PLEASE NOTE: THERE ARE N O, N O DUPLICATIONS BELOW OF ANY EDITORIALS FROM PREVIOUSLY ISSUED EDITORIAL DIGESTS ]

    INTRO: THE MURDER OF THREE KURDISH-IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS AND THEIR TRANSLATOR IN A BERLIN RESTAURANT FIVE YEARS AGO, HAS SUDDENLY REVERBERATED ONTO THE DIPLOMATIC SCENE.

    LAST WEEK, A GERMAN COURT CONVICTED FOUR MEN OF THEIR MURDERS. THE VERDICT APPEARS TO CONFIRM THE ROLE OF IRANIAN TERRORISM BOTH AT HOME AND ABROAD, A CONCERN THE UNITED STATES HAS VOICED FOR YEARS.

    FOR REACTION IN THE U-S PRESS TO THE COURT'S FINDING, WE TURN TO _________________ FOR TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: FOR YEARS, THE U-S HAS WARNED ITS ALLIES THAT IRAN'S THEOCRACY WAS PRACTICING INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM BUT THE COMMENTS FELL MOSTLY ON DEAF EARS IN EUROPE. THE EUROPEANS, SOME OBSERVERS SAID, WERE MORE INTERESTED IN TRADE WITH THE TEHERAN REGIME.

    NOW THAT A GERMAN COURT IN BERLIN CONCLUDED THAT TOP IRANIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS ORDERED THE 1992 MURDERS OF A TOP KURDISH-IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS AND POLITICAL LEADER, TWO AIDES, AND A TRANSLATOR HAS CAUSED A DIPLOMATIC EXPLOSION.

    MANY EUROPEAN NATIONS HAVE RECALLED THEIR AMBASSADORS FROM TEHERAN, JOINED BY CANADA AND NEW ZEALAND, AMONG OTHERS. AND THE CREDIBILITY OF THE IRANIAN GOVERNMENT, ACCORDING TO DIPLOMATIC OBSERVERS, HAS SUFFERED A DRAMATIC DECLINE.

    FOR A SAMPLING OF REACTION IN THE U-S PRESS, WE BEGIN IN THE PACIFIC, WHERE THE HONOLULU STAR-BULLETIN SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "IRAN'S EFFORTS TO REGAIN RESPECTABILITY IN THE WORLD COMMUNITY HAVE BEEN SET BACK BY A GERMAN COURT'S CONVICTION OF THREE LEBANESE MEN AND AN IRANIAN FOR THE 1992 KILLING OF FOUR IRANIAN KURDISH DISSIDENTS IN A BERLIN RESTAURANT. THE COURT SAID IRANIAN LEADERS, INCLUDING THE PRESIDENT AND THE SUPREME RELIGIOUS LEADER, ORDERED THE KILLINGS. .....IRAN HAS A WELL-DOCUMENTED RECORD OF TERRORISM AND THE GERMAN COURT RULING IS HIGHLY CREDIBLE. THE RULING TENDS TO SUPPORT THE U-S POLICY OF BANNING DIPLOMATIC AND TRADE RELATIONS WITH IRAN UNTIL IT ENDS SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM. IT IS AN EMBARRASSMENT TO THE EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS THAT HAVE MOVED CAUTIOUSLY TOWARD NORMALIZATION. .... THE GERMAN COURT VERDICT CANNOT BE IGNORED IN ANY EVALUATION OF IRANIAN BEHAVIOR. TEHRAN MUST DEMONSTRATE THAT IT HAS ABANDONED SUCH TACTICS."

    TEXT: BACK ON THE MAINLAND, IN CALIFORNIA'S CAPITAL, THE SACRAMENTO BEE WONDERS ABOUT THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THE VERDICT ON RELATIONS WITH IRAN.

    VOICE: "THE VERDICT'S LONG-TERM IMPORT IS UNCERTAIN, BUT INITIAL RESPONSES SUGGEST THAT THE CASE ARGUED BY THE UNITED STATES - - THAT TEHRAN IS AN ACTIVE SPONSOR OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND SHOULD BE ISOLATED BY THE WORLD COMMUNITY - - MAY HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENED. BUT HOW MUCH? FOURTEEN OF THE 15 MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (GREECE EXCEPTED) HAVE RECALLED THEIR AMBASSADORS FROM TEHRAN, AND GERMANY'S FOREIGN MINISTRY EXPELLED FOUR IRANIAN DIPLOMATS AND SAID THAT 'FOR THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE' BONN'S POLICY OF MAINTAIN 'CRITICAL DIALOGUE' WITH THE IRANIAN REGIME WILL NOT CONTINUE. YET GERMANY AND FRANCE HAVE EXTENSIVE TRADE TIES WITH IRAN, WHOSE GOVERNMENT SHOWS EVERY SIGN OF SEEKING TO PRESERVE THEM. .... [OPT] WASHINGTON MUST NOT OVERPLAY ITS HAND NOW. WHILE IT SHOULD URGE ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES TO INCREASE PRESSURE ON IRAN TO STOP SPONSORING TERRORISM, IT PROBABLY CANNOT PERSUADE THEM TO BREAK OFF VIRTUALLY ALL TIES." [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN TEXAS, THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE TAKES UP THIS SAME REFRAIN, THAT DESPITE THE SENSATIONAL VERDICT AND ACCOMPANYING ALLEGATIONS, TRADE TIES WITH IRAN WILL NOT BE DISRUPTED FOR LONG.

    VOICE: "SADLY, LAST WEEK'S FINDING BY A GERMAN COURT ..... IS UNLIKELY TO HAVE MORE THAN A TEMPORARY EFFECT ON NORMAL EUROPEAN TIES WITH IRAN. ....THE ODDS ARE THAT BUSINESS WILL SOON BE BACK TO NORMAL BETWEEN EUROPE AND IRAN. THE LURE OF IRANIAN OIL AND HANDSOME [LARGE] TRADING PROFITS WITH IRAN APPARENTLY OUTWEIGH ANY MORAL QUESTIONS RAISED BY EUROPEANS ABOUT DOING BUSINESS WITH TERRORISTS. .....BUT THOSE RULING IRAN WILL FIND NO REASON TO CHANGE THEIR TERRORIST WAYS UNTIL THE E-U [EUROPEAN UNION] AND OTHER NATIONS ..... JOIN THE UNITED STATES IN INCREASING THEIR DOSAGE OF ECONOMIC PUNISHMENT."

    TEXT: IN PITTSBURGH, THE POST-GAZETTE LINKED THE VERDICT WITH A SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC APPEARANCE THERE BY AUTHOR SALMAN RUSHDIE, WHO LIVES UNDER A PERMANENT DEATH THREAT ORDERED BY THE LATE IRANIAN RELIGIOUS LEADER AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI. SPEAKING OF THE COURT'S RULING IN THE KURDISH DEATHS, THE POST-GAZETTE SAYS:

    VOICE: "ENDING A THREE-YEAR TRIAL, THE THREE-JUDGE TRIBUNAL FOUND THAT THERE WAS NO DOUBT THE ORDER [FOR THE KILLINGS] WAS ISSUED BY TEHRAN'S COMMITTEE FOR SPECIAL OPERATIONS, A SECRETIVE BODY CONSISTING OF IRAN'S PRESIDENT, ITS TOP RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY, THE MINISTER OF INTELLIGENCE AND OTHER SENIOR SECURITY OFFICIALS. KURDISH OFFICIALS CLAIM THAT AT LEAST 20 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN KILLED BY HIT [KILLING] SQUADS OPERATING ON TEHRAN'S ORDERS IN EUROPE. .....[OPT] WEDNESDAY'S COURT VERDICT IN BERLIN, ALONG WITH MOUNTING EVIDENCE THAT IRAN MAY HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN LAST YEAR'S BOMBING OF THE AMERICAN MILITARY COMPOUND IN SAUDI ARABIA, SHOULD CAUSE EUROPEAN NATIONS TO REASSESS THEIR TIES WITH TEHRAN." [END OPT]

    TEXT: BACK IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, THE SAN DIEGO UNION-TRIBUNE IS ALSO OUTRAGED THAT TOP IRANIAN LEADERS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE KURDISH MURDERS, AND SAYS, IN PART:

    VOICE: "THE COURT'S DECISION DEMANDS A RESPONSE BEYOND A TOKEN RECALL OF AMBASSADORS. TO IGNORE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THESE MURDERS MAKES A MOCKERY OF GERMAN LAW AND ACCORDS STATE-SPONSORED TERRORISM DANGEROUS IMPUNITY. BONN AND THE EUROPEAN UNION MAY TRY TO FINESSE THIS BY ARGUING THAT THE MURDERS DATE TO 1992, AND THAT TEHRAN'S ISLAMIC REGIME HAS EVOLVED SINCE THEN. [OPT] A BELIEF IN POSITIVE EVOLUTION IN TEHRAN WAS ALSO THE BASIS FOR [SECRETARY OF STATE] ALBRIGHT'S EXPECTATIONS FOR IMPROVED U-S - IRANIAN RELATIONS. [END OPT] BUT IRAN'S REACTION TO THE COURT'S DECISION - - DENYING EVERYTHING, SENDING DEMONSTRATORS MARCHING ON THE GERMAN EMBASSY ..... AND WARNING THE EUROPEANS NOT TO JEOPARDIZE TRADE WITH IRAN - - SHOWS LITTLE EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION. ..... BUSINESS WITH TERRORISTS ONLY ENCOURAGES MORE TERRORISM."

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF THE U-S PRESS ON THE RECENT GERMAN COURT VERDICT THAT TOP IRANIAN LEADERS ORDERED THE ASSASSINATION OF FOUR IRANIAN KURDS AT A BERLIN RESTAURANT IN 1992.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    17-Apr-97 2:01 PM EDT (1801 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213063
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// RE-RUNNING W/MUST CORRECT IN 4TH GRAPH FROM TEXT (CHANGE MILLION TO BILLION) ///

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (THURSDAY) AS SOME PROFIT-TAKING ENTERED THE MARKET. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 66-HUNDRED-58, DOWN 21 POINTS. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 761, DOWN ONE POINT.

    ANALYSTS SAY SOME PROFIT-TAKING WAS TO BE EXPECTED AFTER THREE STRAIGHT SESSIONS OF RISING STOCK PRICES.

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED THE U-S TRADE DEFICIT FELL BY EIGHT AND ONE-HALF PERCENT IN FEBRUARY. FALLING OIL PRICES AND A SURGE IN AMERICAN AIRCRAFT EXPORTS WERE CITED AS THE MAIN REASONS FOR THE DROP. HOWEVER, SOME ECONOMISTS SAY THE STRONG U-S DOLLAR, WHICH MAKES AMERICAN GOODS MORE EXPENSIVE IN OTHER NATIONS, WILL PREVENT THE TRADE DEFICIT FROM FALLING MUCH MORE IN THE NEAR FUTURE.

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS SEEKING JOBLESS BENEFITS INCREASED LAST WEEK TO A LEVEL SLIGHTLY HIGHER THAN WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS.

    TALK CONTINUED ON WALL STREET ABOUT WEDNESDAY'S NEWS THAT THE U-S TOBACCO INDUSTRY MAY PAY AS MUCH AS 300-B/I/L/L/I/O/N DOLLARS IN EXCHANGE FOR IMMUNITY FROM FUTURE HEALTH-RELATED LAWSUITS. SOURCES CLOSE TO THE NEGOTIATIONS SAY THERE IS A REALISTIC CHANCE OF A DEAL BEFORE THE END OF THE YEAR.

    ///REST OPT///

    CORPORATE EARNINGS REPORTS FOR THE FIRST QUARTER OF THIS YEAR CONTINUE STRONG. THE MCDONALD'S RESTAURANT CHAIN AND THE GILLETTE PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS COMPANY BOTH REPORTED RECORD QUARTERLY PROFITS. AND SEARS, THE NATION'S SECOND-LARGEST RETAIL CHAIN, REPORTED A 20 PERCENT PROFIT INCREASE, LARGELY BECAUSE OF A RISE IN CLOTHING SALES.

    HOWARD STRINGER, THE FORMER HEAD OF THE C-B-S TELEVISION NETWORK, HAS BEEN NAMED AS PRESIDENT OF THE SONY CORPORATION OF AMERICA, THE U-S SUBSIDIARY OF THE GIANT JAPANESE ELECTRONICS FIRM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NY/BA/LSF
    17-Apr-97 5:49 PM EDT (2149 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] NATO ENLARGEMENT AND THE FUTURE OF EUROPE

    DATE=APRIL 19, 1997
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00523
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT=
    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE

    ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "NATO ENLARGEMENT AND THE FUTURE OF EUROPE." HERE IS YOUR HOST, ROBERT REILLY.

    HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    AT THE RECENT HELSINKI SUMMIT WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN, PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON REAFFIRMED THAT NATO ENLARGEMENT WILL PROCEED. AT THE NATO SUMMIT MEETING SCHEDULED FOR THIS JULY IN MADRID, SEVERAL COUNTRIES WILL BE INVITED TO BEGIN ACCESSION TALKS. MR. CLINTON HAS SAID THAT THE FIRST NEW MEMBERS SHOULD BE ACCEPTED BY 1999 -- THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE NATO ALLIANCE. AT THE SAME TIME, NATO WILL NEGOTIATE A CHARTER WITH RUSSIA TO ESTABLISH A SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP AND HELP ALLAY RUSSIAN CONCERNS OVER NATO ENLARGEMENT.

    JOINING ME TODAY TO DISCUSS THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO AND THE FUTURE OF EUROPE ARE THREE EXPERTS. BRIGADIER GENERAL ROBERT OSTERTHALER IS DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR EUROPEAN AND NATO AFFAIRS. PETER RODMAN IS DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL SECURITY STUDIES AT THE NIXON CENTER FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM. AND AMOS PERLMUTTER IS A PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT AMERICAN UNIVERSITY AND EDITOR OF THE JOURNAL OF STRATEGIC STUDIES.

    WELCOME TO THE PROGRAM.

    GENERAL OSTERTHALER, WHAT HAPPENED AT HELSINKI? DID THE PRESIDENT SIMPLY REAFFIRM WHAT WE ALREADY EXPECT TO HAPPEN WITH NATO ENLARGEMENTS OR WERE THERE ANY NEW DEVELOPMENTS?

    OSTERTHALER: WELL, THE PRESIDENT DID REAFFIRM THAT NATO ENLARGEMENT WILL GO AHEAD ON SCHEDULE. AT THE SAME TIME HE REAFFIRMED THE DESIRABILITY ON OUR COMMITMENT TO TRY TO INCLUDE RUSSIA IN DISCUSSIONS WHICH WILL LEAD TO A COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A NEW NATO AND A NEW RUSSIA, AND FROM THAT STANDPOINT IT WAS A VERY POSITIVE MEETING.

    HOST: WERE THERE ANY CONCESSIONS MADE TO RUSSIA THAT MAKE IT LESS OF AN OBSTACLE FOR THEM TO ACCEPT THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO?

    OSTERTHALER: RUSSIA COMMITTED TO CONTINUE TO WORK WITH NATO, WHILE NOT EXPRESSLY TO ACCEPTING NATO ENLARGEMENT. BUT THERE WERE NO CONCESSIONS MADE TO INDUCE RUSSIA TO STOP COMPLAINING ABOUT NATO ENLARGEMENT. IT WAS MADE VERY CLEAR THAT NATO ENLARGEMENT WILL PROCEED, BUT AT THE SAME TIME WE WANT TO HAVE A COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP WITH RUSSIA.

    HOST: PETER RODMAN, ARE THE UNITED STATES AND NATO ON THE RIGHT TRACK AS YOU MIGHT TAKE IT FROM WHAT HAPPENED IN HELSINKI?

    RODMAN: WELL, I FAVOR NATO ENLARGEMENT AND I AM HAPPY THAT THE ADMINISTRATION HAS MADE THIS COMMITMENT AND THAT THEY HAVE REAFFIRMED IT. I AM ALSO IN FAVOR OF NEGOTIATING WITH RUSSIA ON THE FUTURE RELATIONSHIP, AND I AM CONVINCED THAT A BENIGN RELATIONSHIP IS POSSIBLE IN THE LONG RUN. I AM A LITTLE NERVOUS ABOUT SOME OF THE THINGS THAT WERE DISCUSSED AT HELSINKI, FOR EXAMPLE BRINGING RUSSIA INTO NATO IN SOME FORM OR CREATING A NEW FORM THAT BRINGS RUSSIA AND NATO TOGETHER. I AM A LITTLE NERVOUS ABOUT THIS BUT WE DON'T KNOW THE DETAILS YET.

    HOST: OF THE CHARTER?

    RODMAN: OF THE SO-CALLED. . .THIS WILL BE ONE OF THE THINGS IN THE CHARTER IS A CONSULTATIVE MECHANISM THAT WILL BRING RUSSIA AND NATO INTO SOME PERMANENT RELATIONSHIP AND FORUM. AND THAT WAS DISCUSSED IN THE PRESS CONFERENCE OF THE TWO PRESIDENTS AT HELSINKI.

    HOST: AMOS PERLMUTTER, WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS?

    PERLMUTTER: WELL, I AM OPPOSED TO NATO EXPANSION BECAUSE I THINK IT IS, FOR THREE OR FOUR REASONS. FIRST, THE RATIONALE GIVEN FOR IT CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED IN OTHER MEANS SUCH AS POLITICAL. THERE ARE PLENTY OF ORGANIZATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION THAT HAVE GOT ALSO MILITARY AND STRATEGIC ORGANIZATION FROM C-F-O AND OTHERS, WHICH CAN REALLY, YOU KNOW. . .C-F-O, CONVENTIONAL FORCES IN EUROPE. . .THEN, OF COURSE, I THINK, MORE IMPORTANT IS, THE VERY QUESTION THAT I THINK PROFESSOR [HENRY] KISSINGER ASKS IN HIS ESSAY AND THIS IS, IS IT A COLLECTIVE SECURITY ORGANIZATION OR IS IT GOING TO BE THE OLD NATO? EVEN IF THE ALL NATO, THE RUSSIANS ARE AN ADVERSARY; EVEN IF IT IS A COLLECTIVE SECURITY ORGANIZATION, THEN THERE IS NO NATO AS SUCH. I MEAN, ONE HAS TO MAKE UP ONE'S MIND CONCEPTUALLY, WHETHER THERE IS AN OLD NATO OR THERE IS NO NATO.

    HOST: THAT IS SUCH A BIG QUESTION. LET ME FIRST GET GENERAL OSTERTHALER'S RESPONSE TO THAT KEY POINT. IS THIS KIND OF TO BE A MINI-U-N OR A NATO THAT KEEPS ITSELF. . .?

    OSTERTHALER: NO, ABSOLUTELY NOT. IT HAS BEEN CLEAR THROUGHOUT THE DISCUSSIONS, THAT AS NATO ENLARGEMENT PROCEEDS THAT THE ARTICLE FIVE GUARANTEES THAT THE CENTRAL CHORE OF THIS COLLECTIVE SECURITY ARRANGEMENT WILL BE RETAINED.

    HOST: ARTICLE FIVE, IS THAT THE. . .?

    OSTERTHALER: IS THE COLLECTIVE SECURITY GUARANTEE.

    HOST: IF AN ATTACK AGAINST ONE. . .

    OSTERTHALER: CORRECT. THAT WILL CONTINUE AND THAT DISTINGUISHES NATO FROM COLLECTIVE SECURITY ORGANIZATIONS THAT PROVIDE A FORUM TO DISCUSS SUBJECTS BUT DO NOT CONTAIN AS THEIR CORE ELEMENT A MUTUAL GUARANTEE.

    PERLMUTTER: NO, BUT IT IS THE QUESTION OF THE DILUTION. YOU KNOW IT IS NOT THE QUESTION WHETHER ARTICLE FIVE IS GOING TO BE FULLFILLED OR NOT. THE QUESTION IS THIS AND THIS IS IMPORTANT: IF IT IS THE OLD ALLIANCES WHOSE PURPOSES WERE QUITE CLEAR REGARDING A DIFFERENT AGE, A DIFFERENT TIME. IT HAS GOT TO BE QUICK, IT HAS GOT TO BE RAPID, IT HAS GOT TO BE EFFICIENT, IT HAS GOT TO BE AMONG ALLIES. OR IT IS JUST IF YOU ENTER OTHERS INTO THE ORGANIZATION, ESPECIALLY IF RUSSIA IS GOING TO BE IN IT IN ANY SHAPE AND FORM, IT WILL DILUTE THE VERY IDEA OF WHAT OLD NATO WAS AND IT WILL BECOME A COLLECTIVE SECURITY ORGANIZATION OF ITS OWN. THIS IS THE THESIS, NOT THE. . . .

    RODMAN: WELL, WE ARE NOT TALKING ABOUT RUSSIAN MEMBERSHIP. AT LEAST I HOPE NOT AND I BELIEVE NOT, AND MY WORRY IS THAT RUSSIA IS BEING BROUGHT IN SOMEWHERE AND DILUTE SOME OF THE COHESION OF THE ALLIANCE. BUT STILL I BELIEVE IN THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO, I BELIEVE THAT THE CENTRAL EUROPEANS AND THE COUNTRIES THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT BRINGING IN, DO SHARE THE PURPOSES OF THE CORE ALLIES AND, IN FACT, SOME OF THEM I TRUST MORE THAN SOME OF THE ALLIES WHO ARE ALREADY IN THE ALLIANCE. SO I AM NOT WORRIED ABOUT DILUTING NATO'S COMMON PURPOSE BUT INCLUDING NEW NUMBERS THAT ARE BEING DISCUSSED NOW.

    OSTERTHALER: THE NOTION, AND PROFESSOR KISSINGER DID GO INTO SOME DETAIL ABOUT THIS IN HIS RECENT ESSAY TO WHICH HE REFERRED. THE NOTION THAT RUSSIA IS SOMEHOW GOING TO HAVE A VETO DESPITE STATEMENTS TO THE CONTRARY IS SIMPLY NOT TRUE. RUSSIA IS ALREADY ENGAGED IN THE PROCESS OF A DIALOGUE WITH NATO THROUGH THE SIXTEEN PLUS ONE PROCESS. THAT WILL CONTINUE. I SEE NO EVIDENCE THAT THAT HAS UNDERMINED THE COHESION OF THE ALLIES UP TO THIS POINT, OR HAS GIVEN RUSSIA A VETO OVER THE AFFAIRS OF NATO. THE NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL WILL CONTINUE TO EXIST WILL CONTINUE TO DECIDE ISSUES BY CONSENSUS. RUSSIA WILL NOT BE ON THE NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL. THERE ARE OTHER FORUMS WITHIN THE ALLIANCE, THEY EXISTED FOR QUITE A LONG PERIOD OF TIME. SOME INCLUDE RUSSIA, SOME DO NOT; BUT RUSSIA WILL NEVER HAVE A VOICE IN THOSE. THE DECISIONS OF THE ALLIANCE WILL BE TAKEN BY THE MEMBERS OF THE ALLIANCE.

    HOST: WHY THEN HAVE A SPECIAL CHARTER WITH RUSSIA IF THEY ALREADY HAVE THESE MEANS OF CONTACT?

    OSTERTHALER: BECAUSE RUSSIA HAS LEGITIMATE SECURITY INTERESTS AND THERE SHOULD BE A FORUM IN WHICH THEY CAN BE DISCUSSED WITH NATO MEMBERS, AND THOSE AREAS OF COMMON INTEREST CAN BE IDENTIFIED AND COOPERATIVELY PURSUED WHERE THERE IS THE WILL TO DO SO.

    HOST: OKAY, GENERAL, IS IT TOO EARLY TO SAY, BECAUSE I KNOW THAT THIS IS A MATTER UNDER NEGOTIATION NOW, WHAT THE CONTENT OF THE CHARTER DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUSSIA AND NATO MIGHT HAVE IN IT?

    OSTERTHALER: WE TALKED ABOUT THE MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENTS ALREADY, THE CONSULTATIVE MECHANISM IS REALLY A KEY ONE. THERE ARE OTHERS WHICH ARE UNDER DISCUSSION. [NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER] SELANA IS LEADING THE NATO DISCUSSIONS AND I DON'T WANT TO COMMENT ON THE INTERNAL DEBATES.

    PERLMUTTER: IS NATO GOING TO BE INVOLVED IN, LET'S SAY, CONFLICTS WITHIN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AS WELL? I MEAN, AFTER ALL, THIS IS GOING TO BE PART OF THE ARRANGEMENT, I MEAN, IS IT? WILL NATO BE INVOLVED IN ISSUES BETWEEN UKRAINE AND RUSSIA MAYBE KAZAKSTAN AND OTHERS? ONE FOR ALL AND ALL FOR ONE, ONE MUST DO THAT. WE HAVE GOT TO COME TO THE SUPPORT OF RUSSIA BY, LET'S SAY, UKRAINE OR BELRUSSIA OR VICE VERSA.

    OSTERTHALER: RUSSIA WILL NOT BE A PARTY TO THE COLLECTIVE SECURITY GUARANTEE. IF THE SIXTEEN MEMBER NATIONS OR A LARGE NUMBER OF MEMBER NATIONS ALL DECIDE IN CONCERT THAT TOGETHER WITH RUSSIA THEY SHOULD BECOME INVOLVED IN SOME SORT OF AN OPERATION WITHIN IN THE FOREIGN FEDERATION OR SOME SORT OF FEDERATION TERRITORY, I SUPPOSE THEY COULD THEORETICALLY. I DON'T PERSONALLY ENVISION A CIRCUMSTANCE IN WHICH THEY COULD DO THAT.

    HOST: MAY I ASK THIS QUESTION? PRESIDENT CLINTON IS SPEAKING OF NATO AND DID IN HELSINKI AS A NEW NATO THAT IS RESPONDING TO NEW CIRCUMSTANCES BECAUSE, AS HE EMPHASIZES, THERE IS A NEW AND EMERGING DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA. MAYBE TO CLEAR UP SOME OF THE CONFUSION OVER WHAT KIND OF ORGANIZATION IT IS WE CAN SIMPLY ASK YOU, GENERAL, WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE ENLARGED NATO?

    OSTERTHALER: THE PURPOSE OF THE ENLARGED NATO IS TO PROVIDE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN STATES WHO WISH TO BE INVOLVED IN, TO BE INTEGRATED IN THESE WESTERN INSTITUTIONS, INCLUDING NATO, AND BE INVOLVED IN THIS COLLECTIVE SECURITY ARRANGEMENT TO DO SO. IT IS A WAY TO PROMOTE STABILITY IN CENTRAL EUROPE, TO PROVIDE A FORUM FOR THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN STATES WHO HAVE HISTORICAL RIVALRIES WITH ONE ANOTHER, IN SOME CASES TO WORK THIS OUT WITHIN A COLLECTIVE SECURITY FORUM AND TO PROVIDE THE SAME FORM OF STABILITY WHICH EXISTED IN WESTERN EUROPE BETWEEN THE MEMBER STATES WITHIN THE LAST FORTY YEARS.

    HOST: PETER RODMAN, ARE THOSE SENSIBLE AND ACHIEVABLE OBJECTIVES?

    RODMAN: I THINK THOSE ARE THE REASONS. I THINK IT IS A HISTORICAL NECESSITY. IF YOU LOOK BACK AT THE HISTORY OF THIS CENTURY, THREE TIMES IN THIS CENTURY THAT THE STRUCTURE OF STABILITY IN ALL OF EUROPE HAS COMPLETELY FALLEN APART BECAUSE OF THE WEAKNESS AND INSTABILITY OF THIS PART OF EUROPE. I AM TALKING ABOUT WORLD WAR ONE, WORLD WAR TWO AND THE COLD WAR. SINCE THE OLD EMPIRE BROKE UP AND SINCE THE VERSAILLES CONFERENCE YOU HAVE A BELT OF WEAK, VULNERABLE STATES IN THE CENTER OF EUROPE, AND THIS HAS BEEN A POWER VACUUM IN CLASSICAL TERMS, AND YOU HAVE HAD EITHER RUSSIAN DOMINANCE OR GERMAN DOMINANCE OR CODOMINION. THE PURPOSE OF BRINGING THEM INTO NATO IS TO FORECLOSE ONCE AND FOR ALL ANY AMBIGUITY ABOUT THE STATUS OF THESE COUNTRIES, IS TO FORECLOSE ANY FUTURE INSTABILITY, IT IS TO SAY THESE COUNTRIES ARE INDEPENDENT. THE WEST IS GUARANTEEING THEIR INDEPENDENCE AND THAT IS THE END OF THIS CENTURY OF CHAOS.

    PERLMUTTER: THIS ARGUMENT ABOUT THE INSTABILITY IS RELATED TO THE YEARS 1919 AND 1939 WHEN THERE WAS STALIN IN THE SOVIET UNION AND HITLER IN NAZI GERMANY. NONE OF THEM EXIST. THIS IS A VERY IMPORTANT FACT IN THE FUTURE OF THIS AREA.

    HOST: WHY ARE THESE COUNTRIES SO ANXIOUS TO JOIN NATO?

    PERLMUTER: THEY ARE ANXIOUS TO JOIN NATO AMONG OTHERS IN MY VIEW IS TO HAVE TWO, THREE THINGS INVOLVING IN MY VIEW. ONE AT LEAST READING THE POLISH PAPER: TO ENSURE A EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN ROLE IN THE FUTURE; MAYBE EVEN AFRAID OF THE COSTS OF SOME OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE AND OTHER AREAS WHICH WILL BE INVOLVED IN MILITARY ACTIVITIES. AND THAT, OF COURSE, WILL . . .I WANT TO COME TO THE COST ISSUE WHICH I THINK IS A DEBATABLE THING, REALLY THE C-B-O, [CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFIICE] THE PENTAGON PAPER AND THE RAND CORPORATION. THE CONTRADICTIONS ARE IMMENSE, THE RAND CORPORATION, WHICH OF COURSE IS A DEFENSE ON THE CHEAP, ASKS FOR FORTY BILLION DOLLARS. THE C-B-O ESTIMATES IT IS GOING TO BE ONE-HUNDRED TWENTY-FIVE BILLION IN THE NEXT FIFTEEN YEARS. SEVENTY PERCENT OF IT SUPPOSEDLY IS GOING TO BE PAID BY THE VISOGRAD STATES [POLAND, HUNGARY, CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA]. WHO BELIEVES THAT THE VISOGRAD STATES ARE ABLE TO PAY SEVENTY PERCENT OF THE COSTS IN VIEW OF THE I-M-F [INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND] RULES THAT THEY CAN NOT BE INVOLVED?.

    HOST: LET'S LET THE GENERAL RESPOND TO THE COST ISSUE.

    OSTERTHALER: AS THE PROFESSOR POINTS OUT, THERE HAVE BEEN THREE MAJOR STUDIES DONE ON THE COSTS. THE RAND STUDY AND THE ONE WHICH IS CONTAINED IN THE REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS ON THE COST OF NATO ENLARGEMENT IS ON THE SAME ORDER OF MAGNITUDE IN TERMS OF COSTS. THE C-B-O STUDY POSTULATES COSTS THAT ARE THREE OR FOUR TIMES LARGER

    PERLMUTTER: AND THEY ARE CONSERVATIVE.

    OSTERTHALER: THE MAJOR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE COST IS NOT IN HOW THE ARITHMETIC IS PERFORMED. EACH OF THOSE INSTITUTIONS HAS MATHEMATICIANS ON STAFF AND THEY CAN ALL DO ARITHMETIC MORE OR LESS THE SAME WAY. THE DIFFERENCES ARE DRIVEN PRIMARILY BY THE ASSUMPTIONS. AND THE MAJOR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RAND AND THE D-O-D [DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE] STUDIES ON THE ONE HAND AND C-B-O STUDIES ON THE OTHER HAND IS THAT BOTH RAND AND THE D-O-D STUDIES USE THE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT AND THE DESCRIPTION OF THE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT WHICH IS CONTAINED IN THE NATO STRATEGY CONCEPT OF 1991 AND IN THE UNITED STATES INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT OF THE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT WHICH LOOKS FORWARD APPROXIMATELY TEN YEARS. THAT IS THE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT WHICH IS POSTULATED. THE C-B-O STUDY ON THE OTHER HAND LOOKS AT THAT POSSIBILITY BUT ONLY AS ONE POSSIBILITY AND POSTULATES A DIFFERENT SECURITY ENVIRONMENT -- ONE IN WHICH THERE IS A SUBSTANTIAL EXTERNAL THREAT TO THE SOVEREIGNTY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF EUROPEAN STATES. NONE OF OUR INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENTS LEAD US TO BELIEVE THAT THAT IS LIKELY. IF WE BELIEVED THAT THAT WAS LIKELY, AND WE DID THE ARITHMETIC, WE WOULD LIKELY COME OUT WITH THE SAME NUMBERS. THAT'S THE MAJOR DIFFERENCE.

    HOST: SPEAKING OF EXTERNAL THREATS, MOST OF THE REASONS YOU HAVE GIVEN US FOR THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO HAVE TO DO WITH THE INTEGRATION OF THE WHOLE OF EUROPE, THE EXPANSION OF DEMOCRACY, SECURITY AND SO FORTH. HOWEVER, THE RUSSIANS, AT LEAST MANY OF THE LEADING POLITICAL FIGURES IN RUSSIA, HAVE BEEN VEHEMENTLY OBJECTING. HOWEVER, THERE IS ANOTHER POINT OF VIEW, EVEN IN RUSSIA, AND I WONDERED IF I CAN GET EVERYBODY'S RESPONSE TO THIS VERY INTERESTING STATEMENT BY ONE OF THE LEADERS IN THE DUMA, ARKADY MURASHEV, WHOM I AM SURE SOME OF YOU KNOW, WHO IS PART OF AN ANTI-ANTI NATO GROUP IN THE DUMA, AND HE SAID "THE NEARER NATO IS TO OUR BORDERS, THE CALMER LIFE WILL BE FOR US AND OUR FAMILIES." WHAT DO YOU THINK?

    PERLMUTTER: WONDERFUL.

    OSTERTHALER: WE HAVE BEEN SAYING IN THE DEPARTMENT AND YOU MAY RECALL, WHEN [WILLIAM] PERRY WAS SECRETARY OF DEFENSE, HE OFTEN REFERRED TO NATO ENLARGEMENT AS ULTIMATELY BEING IN THE RUSSIAN INTEREST. I THINK THAT IN FACT, CENTRAL EUROPE IS MORE STABLE. IF THE BORDERS OF RUSSIA ARE SEEING LESS TURBULENCE, IT IS VERY MUCH IN RUSSIA'S INTEREST THAT THAT TAKE PLACE. NOW WHETHER NOT THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO IS THE BEST WAY FOR THAT TO BE ACHIEVED, YOU WOULD CERTAINLY HAVE A DEBATE IN RUSSIA ABOUT.

    RODMAN: RUSSIANS HAVE ADMITTED TO ME PRIVATELY THAT IT IS NOT A THREAT. THEY KNOW IT IS NOT A MILITARY THREAT TO RUSSIA. I MEAN TWO-THIRDS OF AMERICAN TROOPS HAVE ALREADY COME HOME FROM EUROPE, SO THERE WAS NO MILITARY THREAT TO RUSSIA IN ANY OF THAT. SO IT IS POLITICAL, AND I THINK THAT THERE IS A POLITICAL SENSITIVITY THAT THEY ARE BEING EXCLUDED FROM EUROPE AND SOMEHOW THERE IS A NEW ATLANTIC-EUROPEAN RELATIONSHIP AND RUSSIA IS BEING PUSHED TO THE EDGE OF EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION. THIS IS NOT THE PURPOSE OF IT. AND I THINK THE LONG-TERM RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE WEST DEPENDS ON OTHER THINGS. IT DEPENDS ON RUSSIA'S OWN INTERNAL EVOLUTION MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE. SO I THINK WE HAVE TO BE OPEN TO RUSSIA IN THE GENERAL SENSE. THE RUSSIAN RELATIONSHIP WITH EUROPE DEPENDS ON WHETHER RUSSIA EVOLVES INTO A STATE THAT IS LIKE OTHER EUROPEAN AND ATLANTIC STATES, AND I MEAN THAT POSSIBILITY SHOULD ALWAYS BE LEFT OPEN.

    PERLMUTTER: I SEE A CONTRADICTION IN TERMS OF SHORT-RUN-LONG-RUN AND IN TERMS OF ADVERSARY. I KNOW OF NO MILITARY ALLIANCE IN HISTORY THAT DIDN'T DEFINE ITS ADVERSARY. ARE THE RUSSIANS ADVERSARIES OR ARE THEY GOING TO BECOME COLLEAGUES AND PARTICIPATE IN THE COLLECTIVE SECURITY ORGANIZATION? THESE ARE IMPORTANT FACTS. AND WHAT WILL BE THE COSTS?

    HOST: WE ONLY HAVE TIME TO LET GENERAL OSTERTHALER ANSWER THAT.

    OSTERTHALER: NATO IS NOT AN ALLIANCE WHICH REMAINS IN EXISTENCE IN OPPOSITION TO RUSSIA OR IN RESPONSE TO A RUSSIAN MILITARY THREAT. THE ALLIANCE STRATEGY CONCEPT IS VERY CLEARLY ONE WHICH POSTULATES THE POTENTIAL WHICH TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE POTENTIAL FOR INSTABILITY ON THE PERIPHERY OF EUROPE AND NOT A LARGE EXTERNAL THREAT AS THAT WHICH EXISTED DURING THE COLD WAR.

    PERLMUTTER: SO WHY THE GRAY ZONE? THAT MEANS WE ARE SAFE AND SECURE. IF RUSSIA IS GOING TO BECOME WHAT WE THINK IT IS GOING TO BECOME, THEN WE DON'T NEED ALL THIS EXERCISE. IF IT IS GOING TO BECOME WHAT WE DON'T THINK IT IS GOING TO BECOME, THEN WE NEED AN OLD NATO.

    HOST: I'M AFRAID THAT'S ALL THE TIME WE HAVE THIS WEEK. I'D LIKE TO THANK OUR GUESTS -- BRIGADIER GENERAL ROBERT OSTERTHALER, DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR EUROPEAN AND NATO AFFAIRS; PETER RODMAN FROM THE NIXON CENTER FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM; AND AMOS PERLMUTTER FROM AMERICAN UNIVERSITY -- FOR JOINING ME TO DISCUSS U.S. POLICY AND THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO. THIS IS ROBERT REILLY FOR ON THE LINE.
    17-Apr-97 3:23 PM EDT (1923 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/18/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10118
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY APRIL 18TH //

    INTRO: THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION COMES IN FOR A GOOD DEAL OF COMMENT IN THE THURSDAY EDITORIAL PAGES CONCERNING A REPORT HIGHLY CRITICAL OF THE AGENCY'S FAMED CRIME LABORATORY. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: WHAT TO DO ABOUT NORTH KOREA'S FAMINE; THE CLINTON CHINA POLICY; A POSSIBLE INDICTMENT FOR MR. NETANYAHU; A BIG DEAL IN THE WORK WITH U-S TOBACCO; AND TRYING TO SAVE THE MOST ENDANGERED WHALE.

    FOR A CLOSER LOOK HERE IS ___________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: AN INTERNAL JUSTICE DEPARTMENT AND F-B-I STUDY OF THE AGENCY'S CRIME LAB, PROVOKED BY PUBLIC CRITICISM FROM A HIGH-RANKING F-B-I SCIENTIST, HAS CONFIRMED THAT THE AGENCY'S FORENSIC PROCEDURES ARE FLAWED. THE STUDY SAYS EVIDENCE HAS BEEN MISHANDLED, WRONG CONCLUSIONS DRAWN, AND SOMETIMES AGENTS SLANTED EVIDENCE TO HELP CONVICT PEOPLE. NOW, THE NEWSPAPERS ARE SUGGESTING A COMPLETE OVERHAUL IS IN ORDER OF WHAT WAS - - ONCE - - THE MOST RESPECTED CRIMINAL LABORATORY IN THE WORLD. IN ONE OF SEVERAL LEAD EDITORIALS AROUND THE NATION, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES SAYS, "THE F-B-I LAB NEEDS REMEDIES THAT WILL RETURN IT TO EXCELLENCE," ADDING:

    VOICE: "THE LAB AND ITS WORK WERE CONSIDERED STATE OF THE ART IN SCIENTIFIC EXAMINATION OF EVIDENCE. ..... BUT NOW, AFTER TROUBLING ALLEGATIONS IN RECENT MONTHS, THE F-B-I'S OWN INSPECTOR GENERAL .... HAS CONFIRMED A SHOCKING DECLINE IN PROFESSIONALISM AT THE LAB. ..... THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND CONGRESS MUST PROVIDE THE RESOURCES AND OVERSIGHT NECESSARY TO REGAIN THAT STATUS FOR THE CRIME LAB."

    [OPT]
    TEX: THE MIAMI HERALD, ALSO UPSET, TIES THE REVELATIONS TO A CRITICAL COURT CASE THAT MAY BE INVOLVED.

    VOICE: "AS THE SECOND ANNIVERSARY OF THE HORRIFIC OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING APPROACHES, THE LAST THING THAT THE F-B-I NEEDS IS TO LEND CREDENCE TO THE LUNATIC FRINGE THAT SUSPECTS IT OF ALL MANNER OF DASTARDLY CONSPIRACIES. BUT A ... REPORT REVEALING SHODDY, AND EVEN DISHONEST, WORK BY THE F-B-I'S CRIME LAB PLAYS RIGHT INTO ITS [THE LUNATIC FRINGE] HANDS. AS A RESULT, EVIDENCE IN TWO HIGH-PROFILE CRIMINAL CASES .... HAS BECOME AS SUSPECT AS THE EXAMINERS' MOTIVES. THIS IS A SHAME AND A TRAVESTY."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE SUN IN BALTIMORE BEMOANS THE FACT THAT: "THE DISCLOSURE COULD AFFECT THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING TRIAL NOW AT THE JURY-SELECTION STAGE AS WELL AS THE CONVICTION OF MUSLIM FUNDAMENTALISTS IN THE 1993 WORLD TRADE CENTER BOMBING." [OPT] AND LASTLY, THERE IS A DEFENSE OF EMBATTLED F-B-I DIRECTOR LOUIS FREEH FROM TODAY'S WALL STREET JOURNAL WHICH, CONCEDING THE LABORATORY FAILINGS ARE SERIOUS, ADDS:

    VOICE: "UNDER MR. FREEH THE BUREAU HAS OF COURSE MADE MISTAKES .....BUT MORE RECENTLY MR. FREEH STOOD UP TO [OPPOSED] WHITE HOUSE REQUESTS FOR INTELLIGENCE ON CHINESE CONTRIBUTIONS. .... THE CARPING AT MR. FREEH HAS TO BE UNDERSTOOD IN ITS FULL CONTEXT: NOT ONLY THAT THE CURRENT WHITE HOUSE IS A CORROSIVE FORCE ON ALL LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES; BUT ALSO THAT NO DIRECTOR SINCE J. EDGAR HOOVER HAS SUCCEEDED IN ESTABLISHING EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF THE BUREAU." [END OPT]

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN RELATED NEWS, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR IS COMMENTING ON ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO'S DECISION NOT TO ASSIGN A SPECIAL, INDEPENDENT COUNSEL TO INVESTIGATE ALLEGED WRONG-DOING IN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION FUND RAISING. SAYS THE MONITOR:

    VOICE: "'TILL NOW, [MS.] RENO'S APPLICATION OF THE SPECIAL COUNSEL LAW HAS BEEN EXEMPLARY. ..... BUT NOW, BY REFUSING TO CALL FOR SUCH A COUNSEL WHEN EVENTS CLEARLY INDICATE ONE IS NEEDED, SHE IS THWARTING THE PURPOSE OF THE LAW. ..... MS. RENO WOULD BE WISE, LEGALLY AND STRATEGICALLY, TO CHANGE HER MIND ..."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO ASIA, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES SAYS OF THE FAMINE STALKING NORTH KOREA:

    VOICE: "..... THE UNITED STATES IS INCREASING ITS EMERGENCY SHIPMENTS OF FOOD, THIS TIME WITH 50-THOUSAND METRIC TONS OF CORN INTENDED TO FEED TWO-POINT-FOUR MILLION CHILDREN ..... THIS LATEST DONATION BRINGS TO 33-POINT-FOUR MILLION DOLLARS THE VALUE OF U-S FOOD PROVIDED SINCE LATE 1995, WHEN PYONGYANG FIRST ..... APPEALED FOR INTERNATIONAL HELP. THAT AID ... IS VITAL. NO LESS ESSENTIAL IS RIGOROUS INTERNATIONAL OVERSIGHT TO MAKE SURE THE FOOD IS FAIRLY APPORTIONED AND NOT DESTINED ONLY FOR THE ELITE ....."

    TEXT: STILL IN ASIA, THE WASHINGTON POST SEES SOME RESTORATION IN THE U-S BALANCE OF RELATIONS TOWARD CHINA, APPLAUDING THE RECONSIDERED DECISION FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON TO MEET HONG KONG DEMOCRAT MARTIN LEE.

    VOICE: '"IS THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION RESTORING SOME BALANCE TO ITS CHINA POLICY IN THE WAKE OF A DIPLOMATIC DEFEAT IN GENEVA THIS WEEK? A FEW SIGNS GIVE REASON TO HOPE FOR A MODEST SHIFT. .... MR. CLINTON'S DECISION TO SEE MR. LEE COMES AS CHINA BASKS IN A VICTORY AT THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION IN GENEVA, WHICH VOTED ... TUESDAY TO NOT EVEN CONSIDER A MILDLY WORDED RESOLUTION URGING IMPROVEMENT IN CHINA'S OWN HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD. .... THE UNITED STATES .... FAILED TO LEAD AN EFFORT ON BEHALF OF THE RESOLUTION. ..... THAT OMISSION, ALONG WITH VICE PRESIDENT GORE'S DECISION TO SKIP [A TRIP TO] HONG KONG DURING HIS RECENT CHINA VISIT, HAS PROVOKED CONGRESSIONAL CRITICISM TO THE POINT THAT EXTENSION OF CHINA'S MOST-FAVORED-NATION TRADING STATUS - - ONCE THOUGHT A SURE THING - - IS NOW IN DOUBT."

    TEXT: NOTING THE HEADLINES IN MANY U-S PAPERS ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF CRIMINAL INDICTMENTS AGAINST ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER NETANYAHU, THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS OF THE POLITICAL CRISIS:

    VOICE: ".... THE POLITICAL IMPACT OF THE INVESTIGATION CAN NO LONGER BE EASILY CONTAINED. .....THE POLITICAL CRISIS CAN ONLY COMPLICATE ATTEMPTS TO RESCUE THE TROUBLED PEACE WITH THE PALESTINIANS, WHICH IS NEARER COLLAPSE NOW THAN AT ANY TIME SINCE THE OSLO AGREEMENTS WERE SIGNED NEARLY FOUR YEARS AGO."

    TEXT: [OPT] THERE MAY A BIG AGREEMENT IN THE FINAL STAGES BETWEEN TWO BIG TOBACCO COMPANIES AND THE U-S GOVERNMENT, IN WHICH THE COMPANIES WOULD PROVIDE AS MUCH AS 300-BILLION DOLLARS FOR THE HEALTH DAMAGE CAUSED BY TOBACCO. SAYS THE NEW YORK TIMES:

    VOICE: "THE FINAL SHAPE OF ANY SETTLEMENT IS STILL NOT CLEAR ..... BUT THE STARTLING, HEARTENING DEVELOPMENT IS THAT THE TOBACCO COMPANIES HAVE NOW MOVED FROM THE BUNKER TO THE SURRENDER TABLE. THE ANTI-SMOKING FORCES HAVE BEEN RELENTLESS, EVEN WHEN THE ODDS WERE AGAINST THEM. NOW THE CORPORATE ARROGANCE AND TACTICAL BLUNDERS OF BIG TOBACCO HAVE PUT VICTORY WITHIN THE CRUSADERS' GRASP."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THIS PLEA FOR COOPERATION IN SAVING THE WORLD'S MOST ENDANGERED WHALE - - THE NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE - - WHICH HAS NOT RESPONDED TO THE END TO MOST WHALING AS HAVE OTHER SPECIES. SAYS THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD, IF THE WHALES ARE ENTANGLING THEMSELVES IN THE STATE'S LOBSTER FISHING EQUIPMENT, THEN CHANGES SHOULD BE MADE.

    VOICE: "WHAT IS MOST FRUSTRATING ABOUT THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC POPULATION OF THE RIGHT WHALE IS THAT AFTER MORE THAN 60 YEARS OF PROTECTION, IT IS NOT SHOWING THE SIGN OF RECOVERY OTHER POPULATIONS [OF WHALES] ARE. [OPT] CALF PRODUCTION IS DOWN, THE INTERVAL BETWEEN BIRTHS IS GROWING, AND THE SEVEN KNOWN FATALITIES BETWEEN OCTOBER 1995 AND APRIL 1996 ARE THE MOST RECORDED IN A SINGLE YEAR THIS CENTURY. [END OPT] .....THE LARGEST UNKNOWN IN THE RIGHT WHALE'S PLIGHT IS WHERE THE ENTANGLEMENTS DO OCCUR. THAT'S WHY CONTINUING RESEARCH ... IS SO CRITICAL."

    TEXT: WITH THAT ENVIRONMENTAL NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    17-Apr-97 12:06 PM EDT (1606 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] U-S / IRAN (L-ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213065
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS HOPING LAST WEEK'S GERMAN COURT RULING IMPLICATING SENIOR IRANIAN LEADERS IN THE MURDER OF FOUR IRANIAN KURDISH DISSIDENTS MAY INSPIRE EUROPEAN ALLIES TO DO MORE TO ISOLATE THE TEHRAN GOVERNMENT. WASHINGTON CONSIDERS IRAN ONE OF THE WORLD'S CHIEF SPONSORS OF TERRORISM AND A SIGNIFICANT THREAT TO SECURITY AROUND THE WORLD. V-O-A'S NICK SIMEONE ATTENDED A SENATE HEARING THURSDAY CALLED TO CONSIDER WHETHER WASHINGTON AND ITS ALLIES ARE DOING ENOUGH TO ISOLATE IRAN.

    TEXT: BOTH CONGRESS AND THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AGREE THAT POLICIES BY THE UNITED STATES TO ISOLATE IRAN, AND EUROPE'S EFFORTS TO ENGAGE IT, HAVE DONE NOTHING TO MODERATE IRAN'S SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM.

    HERE'S HOW JOHN WELCH, THE STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL IN CHARGE OF U-S POLICY TOWARD THE MIDDLE EAST, SUMMED UP IRAN'S FOREIGN POLICY AND U-S CONCERN ABOUT IT BEFORE THURSDAY'S SENATE PANEL:

    // WELCH ACT //

    WE'RE PARTICULARLY CONCERNED BY IRAN'S CONTINUED PURSUIT OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGIES, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS COMPONENTS AND PRODUCTION MATERIALS AND MISSILE TECHNOLOGY. IRAN'S ACQUISITION OF EVER-MORE SOPHISTICATED MISSILE TECHNOLOGY FROM NORTH KOREA AND CHINA PRESENTS AN INCREASING THREAT TO OUR FRIENDS AND OUR MILITARY PRESENCE IN THE (PERSIAN) GULF.

    // END ACT //

    RIGHT NOW, HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES, THROUGH LEGISLATION AND EXECUTIVE ORDER, HAS GONE AS FAR AS IT POSSIBLY CAN BY ITSELF TO TRY TO KEEP WEAPONS-RELATED TECHNOLOGY FROM GETTING INTO THE HANDS OF ROGUE NATIONS SUCH AS IRAN AND LIBYA. WITH LAST WEEK'S GERMAN COURT RULING AND THE DECISION BY E-U NATIONS TO WITHDRAW THEIR AMBASSADORS FROM TEHERAN, THE ADMINISTRATION BELIEVES THERE MIGHT NOW BE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR MORE COORDINATED ACTION.

    // SECOND WELCH ACT //

    WE BELIEVE THAT THEIR (EUROPE'S) STEPS SO FAR HAVE BEEN GOOD ONES. WE'D LIKE TO DO MORE. WE WILL HAVE THOSE DISCUSSIONS WITH THEM (EUROPEAN NATIONS); IN FACT, SENATOR, THEY'VE BEEN UNDERWAY BOTH BEFORE AND IN THE IMMEDIATE AFTERMATH OF THE VERDICT.

    // END ACT //

    CHINA AND RUSSIA REMAIN TWO COUNTRIES OF CONCERN REGARDING THE SUPPLY OF WEAPONS AND NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY TO IRAN DESPITE THE BEST EFFORTS OF THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION TO CURB IT. DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE ROBERT EINHORN:

    // EINHORN ACT //

    WE CONTINUE TO URGE RUSSIA TO FOREGO ALL NUCLEAR COOPERATION WITH IRAN. WE URGE THE SAME OF CHINA.

    // END ACT //

    BUT THE PROBLEM DOES NOT END THERE. PRIVATE INDUSTRY CONTINUES TO BE ATTRACTED TO IRANIAN OIL. NEW YORK SENATOR ALFONSE D'AMATO LED THE DRIVE TO GET PRESIDENT CLINTON TO PROHIBIT U-S COMPANIES FROM SIGNING AGREEMENTS WITH IRAN. BUT HE CHARGES THIS HAS NOT STOPPED IRAN OR LIBYA FROM OBTAINING THE HARD CURRENCY NEEDED TO FUND TERRORISM AROUND THE WORLD.

    // D'AMATO ACT //

    (THERE ARE) MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS, IN (ROGUE) COUNTRIES WHERE THE VARIOUS CORPORATIONS OPERATE, IN PARTICULAR THEIR OWN NATIONAL COMPANIES, THEY SEEM TO FORGET THE LESSONS OF THE PAST AND SO THEY DEAL WITH THESE PETTY TYRANTS AND DICTATORS AND THOSE PEOPLE WHO EXPORT REVOLUTION.

    // END ACT //

    RECENT REPORTS HAVE SUGGESTED POSSIBLE IRANIAN INVOLVEMENT IN LAST YEAR'S TERRORIST BOMBING IN SAUDI ARABIA OF A FACILITY HOUSING U-S MILITARY PERSONNEL. BUT ACTING ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE WELCH SAYS NO CONCLUSIONS HAVE BEEN REACHED. BUT IF IRAN IS FOUND TO HAVE PLAYED A ROLE, APPROPRIATE ACTION, AS HE PUT IT, WILL BE TAKEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/RRM
    17-Apr-97 5:24 PM EDT (2124 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] YELTSIN / NATO (L-ONLY) BY THOMAS ANDERSSEN (BONN)

    DATE=4/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213055
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN SAYS HE WILL SIGN NEXT MONTH A LANDMARK SECURITY TREATY, OR CHARTER, WITH NATO (-- THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION). THE CHARTER WOULD USHER THE WAY FOR AN EXPANSION OF THE MILITARY ALLIANCE TO INCLUDE SOME FORMER WARSAW PACT COUNTRIES. MR. YELTSIN MADE THE ANNOUNCEMENT THURSDAY IN THE SOUTHWEST GERMAN TOWN OF BADEN-BADEN, AFTER A MEETING WITH CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL. THOMAS ANDERSSEN REPORTS BOTH SIDES NOW HAVE LESS THAN SIX WEEKS TO REACH FINAL DETAILS ON THE PACT.

    TEXT: CHANCELLOR KOHL SAYS 90 PERCENT OF THE TREATY HAS ALREADY BEEN WORKED OUT. MOSCOW AND NATO HAVE BETWEEN NOW AND MAY 27TH THE DATE WHEN THE CHARTER IS SCHEDULED TO BE SIGNED IN PARIS TO FINALIZE OUTSTANDING POINTS.

    THE GROUNDWORK FOR THIS TREATY WAS LAID IN HELSINKI LAST MONTH WHEN PRESIDENT CLINTON DISCUSSED IT CONFIDENTIALLY WITH MR. YELTSIN. IT WILL GIVE RUSSIA A LIMITED SAY IN NATO'S AFFAIRS AND HELP ALLAY MOSCOW'S FEARS ABOUT NATO SIGNING UP ITS FORMER ALLIES IN EASTERN EUROPE.

    THERE IS A SENSE OF URGENCY TO GIVE RUSSIA THE SAFETY GUARANTEES IT REQUIRES BEFORE NATO HOLDS ITS SUMMIT MEETING IN MADRID IN JULY. IT IS AT THIS MADRID MEETING THAT NATO WANTS TO FORMALLY START MEMBERSHIP NEGOTIATIONS WITH SEVERAL FORMER WARSAW PACT COUNTRIES, MOST PROBABLY POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC. SLOVENIA AND ROMANIA ARE ALSO BEING CONSIDERED.

    CHANCELLOR KOHL AND MR. YELTSIN STRESSED, HOWEVER, THAT THERE IS STILL MUCH TO DO BETWEEN NOW AND THE TREATY SIGNING. FOR ONE THING, MOSCOW REMAINS FIRMLY OPPOSED TO ANY DEPLOYMENT OF NATO TROOPS IN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, DECLARING THIS TO BE A THREAT TO RUSSIA'S NATIONAL SECURITY.

    THE SECOND MAJOR SUBJECT OF DISCUSSION THURSDAY WAS THE PRICELESS GERMAN ARTWORKS HELD BY RUSSIA. THEY WERE SEIZED FROM NAZI GERMANY BY SOVIET TROOPS AT THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO. BONN INSISTS THE ARTWORK MUST BE RETURNED. MR. YELTSIN IS SUPPORTIVE OF THE GERMAN CLAIM, BUT IS BATTLING THE RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT, WHICH HAS SO FAR BLOCKED ALL EFFORTS TO RELEASE THE ART TREASURES. AGREEMENT WAS REACHED DURING THURSDAY'S DISCUSSIONS IN BADEN-BADEN TO KEEP WORKING ON THE ISSUE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TA/PCF/RRM
    17-Apr-97 2:30 PM EDT (1830 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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