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Voice of America, 99-04-16

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP/FRIDAY (L ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] NATO / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [03] DJAKOVICA REPORT (L-ONLY) BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)
  • [04] YUGO SITREP Q & A BY GUY DINMORE / RUSS WOODGATES (BELGRADE / WASHINGTON)
  • [05] U-N-H-C-R KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [06] MACEDONIA/REFUGEES BY EVE CONANT (BRAZHDA)
  • [07] KOSOVO REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY LARRY FREUND (NEW YORK)
  • [08] KOSOVO / NATO / NGO'S (L-ONLY) (CQ) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [09] ROBINSON KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [10] ALBANIA SITREP (S ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)
  • [11] ALBANIA PORT (L ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (DURRES, ALBANIA)
  • [12] KOSOVO / RESERVES (S-ONLY) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [13] NATO OBJECTIVES IN KOSOVO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [14] WHO MAKES KOSOVO PEACE? BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [15] KOSOVO / KILLINGS (S) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [16] BRITAIN/KOSOVO (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [17] KOSOVO / HUNGARY (L-ONLY) BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)
  • [18] KOSOVO-ITALY-US L ONLY BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [19] U-N / KOSOVO (S & L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [20] RUSSIA OPINION BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [21] RUSSIA/YUGOSLAVIA UNION (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [22] SPECIAL ENGLISH IN THE NEWS #374 - NATO Fiftieth BY Nancy Steinbach (Washington)
  • [23] NATO SUMMIT ISSUES BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)
  • [24] EDITORIAL: KOSOVO REFUGEE CRISIS
  • [25] EDITORIAL: SERBIAN WAR CRIMINALS WANTED
  • [26] TURKEY ELECTIONS / ECEVIT BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANTALYA, TURKEY)
  • [27] E EURO FORECAST (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [28] NY ECON WRAP (S&L) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (NEW YORK)
  • [29] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP/FRIDAY (L ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248219
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO INTENSIFIED ITS AIRSTRIKES IN YUGOSLAVIA EARLY FRIDAY, HITTING TARGETS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. BUT AS NATO EXPANDS THE AIR CAMPAIGN, QUESTIONS REMAIN ABOUT WEDNESDAY'S ATTACKS ON REFUGEES IN SOUTHWEST KOSOVO. CORRESPONDENT JIM MALONE HAS A WRAP-UP OF FRIDAY'S DEVELOPMENTS IN THE KOSOVO CONFLICT.

    TEXT: NATO OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAD ONE OF THEIR BEST DAYS YET IN THE AIR CAMPAIGN, STRIKING TARGETS FROM THE HUNGARIAN BORDER IN THE NORTH TO MONTENEGRO IN THE SOUTH. THE ATTACKS FOCUSED ON YUGOSLAV TANKS, ARTILLERY, ANTI-AIRCRAFT SITES AND FUEL REFINERIES.

    BUT AT NATO'S DAILY BRIEFING IN BRUSSELS, ALLIANCE OFFICIALS WERE PUT ON THE DEFENSIVE. REPORTERS PRESSED SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA FOR MORE INFORMATION ON WEDNESDAY'S ATTACKS ON REFUGEES NEAR THE TOWN OF DJAKOVICA.

    /// SHEA ACT. ///

    WE ARE NOT GOING TO BE BLOWN OFF COURSE. WE ARE KEEPING OUR EYE ON THE MAIN ISSUE WHICH IS THAT MILOSEVIC HAS TO BE STOPPED.

    /// END ACT. ///

    NATO OFFICIALS HAVE ACCEPTED RESPONSIBILITY FOR WHAT THEY SAY WAS A MISTAKEN ATTACK WEDNESDAY ON A VEHICLE CARRYING REFUGEES NORTH OF DJAKOVICA. BUT YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS SAY THERE WERE OTHER ATTACKS ON REFUGEES SOUTH OF DJAKOVICA ON THE SAME DAY AND THEY ACCUSE NATO OF BEING RESPONSIBLE.

    NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS HE HAS NO EVIDENCE OF ALLIED INVOLVEMENT IN THE OTHER INCIDENTS.

    /// OPT ///

    FINANCIAL TIMES REPORTER GUY DINMORE WAS ONE OF SEVERAL INTERNATIONAL JOURNALISTS WHO VISITED THE AREA SOUTH OF DJAKOVICA WHERE SCORES OF REFUGEES WERE KILLED OR WOUNDED. HE DESCRIBED WHAT HE SAW IN AN INTERVIEW WITH V-O-A NEWS NOW.

    /// DINMORE ACT. ///

    I MUST SAY THE EVIDENCE IS FAIRLY COMPELLING THAT THIS COLUMN WAS ATTACKED BY AIRCRAFT. THE MISSILES HAD OBVIOUSLY BEEN FIRED WITH INCREDIBLE ACCURACY. THEY ALL LANDED EITHER ON THE ROAD OR RIGHT NEXT TO THE ROAD. I DOUBT VERY MUCH THAT THIS WAS ARTILLERY FIRE. I DON'T BELIEVE NATO'S STORY, QUITE FRANKLY.

    /// END ACT. ///

    /// END OPT ///

    HERE IN WASHINGTON, STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAVE NEW EVIDENCE OF MASS KILLINGS AND MASS GRAVES IN KOSOVO AND THEY SAY SERB FORCES WERE RESPONSIBLE.

    /// OPT ///

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL PRESENT THE INFORMATION TO THE HAGUE TRIBUNAL ON WAR CRIMES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// RUBIN ACT. ///

    BUT WE HAVE DEVELOPED NEW EVIDENCE, INDEPENDENTLY CORROBORATED BY REFUGEE INTERVIEWS, ABOUT MASS KILLINGS IN WEST-CENTRAL KOSOVO, WEST OF PRISTINA.

    /// END ACT. ///

    /// END OPT ///

    OFFICIALS OF THE SERB-LED YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT HAVE DENIED THEIR FORCES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO. MEANWHILE, THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES CONTINUE TO STREAM OUT OF KOSOVO INTO NEIGHBORING MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA. UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE OFFICIALS SAY AT LEAST 12-THOUSAND KOSOVAR ALBANIANS HAVE BEEN EXPELLED SINCE THURSDAY WITH THOUSANDS OF OTHERS INSIDE KOSOVO MOVING TOWARD THE BORDERS.

    /// OPT ///

    IN GENEVA, U-N REFUGEE SPOKESMAN KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS IT APPEARS SERB FORCES ARE MAKING ANOTHER EFFORT TO FORCE ETHNIC-ALBANIANS TO LEAVE KOSOVO.

    /// JANOWSKI ACT. ///

    THERE ARE ARSON ATTACKS AGAINST CIVILIANS, THERE ARE THUGS CRUISING KOSOVO AND EXPELLING THE CIVILIAN POPULATION. IT'S COMPLETELY OUT OF CONTROL AND IT'S A FREE-FOR-ALL, BLESSED -- WE HAVE TO ASSUME -- BY THE AUTHORITIES IN BELGRADE WHOSE DUTY IT IS TO PROTECT THE CIVILIAN POPULATION.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// END OPT ///

    PRESIDENT CLINTON IS PLEDGING INCREASED ASSISTANCE TO COPE WITH THE FLOOD OF REFUGEES IN THE BALKANS. MR. CLINTON WENT TO SUBURBAN DETROIT FRIDAY WHERE HE SPOKE TO ALBANIAN-AMERICANS AND MEMBERS OF RELIEF GROUPS HELPING THE KOSOVO REFUGEES.

    /// CLINTON ACT. ///

    I HAVE DIRECTED OUR DEFENSE DEPARTMENT TO BUILD A NEW REFUGEE FACILITY IN ALBANIA FOR UP TO 20-THOUSAND PEOPLE TO HELP PRESERVE LIVES AND HEALTH IN HOPE OF RETURN. WE WILL DO THE MOST WE CAN ALSO TO MAKE SURE THAT THE INNOCENT FAMILIES TRAPPED WITHIN KOSOVO DO NOT GO HUNGRY AND UNPROTECTED OR FORGOTTEN.

    /// END ACT. ///

    EARLIER IN THE DAY, ABOUT 200 PEOPLE INCLUDING SERBIAN-AMERICANS, PROTESTED THE AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA OUTSIDE A DEMOCRATIC PARTY FUNDRAISER WHICH THE PRESIDENT ATTENDED.

    /// REST OPT ///

    FINALLY, THE U-S DEFENSE DEPARTMENT IS PLANNING TO ASK PRESIDENT CLINTON FOR AUTHORITY TO ACTIVATE UP TO 33-THOUSAND RESERVE TROOPS FOR DUTY IN THE BALKANS. MOST OF THE RESERVES WOULD COME FROM AIR FORCE UNITS NEEDED TO HANDLE THE REFUELING AND SERVICING OF MILITARY AIRCRAFT. IF APPROVED BY THE PRESIDENT, IT WOULD BE THE LARGEST ACTIVATION OF RESERVES SINCE THE PERSIAN GULF WAR IN 1991. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JBM/PT
    16-Apr-99 4:54 PM EDT (2054 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] NATO / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248197
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SAYS ITS AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA THURSDAY NIGHT AND FRIDAY MORNING WERE HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL. BUT AS V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS, NATO OFFICIALS STILL ARE TRYING TO EXPLAIN A MISTAKEN ATTACK WEDNESDAY IN WHICH ETHNIC ALBANIAN KOSOVAR REFUGEES WERE KILLED.

    TEXT: NATO HAS TAKEN RESPONSIBILITY FOR BOMBING WHAT AN OFFICIAL SAYS WAS "PROBABLY A TRACTOR" NORTH OF THE TOWN OF DJAKOVICA IN WESTERN KOSOVO. REPORTERS ESCORTED TO A BOMBING SITE SOUTH OF DJAKOVICA TALK OF WIDESPREAD DESTRUCTION WITH SCORES OF REFUGEES KILLED.

    NATO WILL NOT DEAL WITH THE CONFUSION. NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA IMPLIES YUGOSLAVIA IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY OTHER DAMAGE FOUND SOUTH OF DJAKOVICA.

    /// SHEA ACT ///

    WE HAVE ON THIS PARTICULAR INSTANCE, ONLY INDICATIONS IN ONE SITUATION, WHICH IS THE ONE DESCRIBED TO YOU YESTERDAY BY THE GENERAL OF WHERE WE WOULD HAVE HIT A CIVILIAN VEHICLE. FOR THE OTHERS, I THINK YOU SHOULD SEEK YOUR EXPLANATION IN BELGRADE AS MUCH AS YOU SHOULD AT NATO HEADQUARTERS. AND I HOPE YOU WILL DO SO.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN ITS PREVIOUS EXPLANATION, NATO PLAYED THE VOICE OF AN AMERICAN PILOT WHO SAID HE BOMBED WHAT HE THOUGHT WAS THE LEAD VEHICLE OF A MILITARY CONVOY NORTH OF THE TOWN. MR SHEA EXPLAINS IT TAKES TIME TO EXAMINE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. SO FAR, THE PILOT'S DESCRIPTION IS THE ONLY INCIDENT WHERE NATO REPORTS A CIVILIAN VEHICLE WAS HIT.

    IN ANY CASE, MR. SHEA IS DETERMINED TO CHANGE THE SUBJECT TO NATO'S EXTENSIVE ATTACKS ON THURSDAY NIGHT AND FRIDAY MORNING.

    /// SHEA ACT ///

    YESTERDAY, I EXPRESSED NATO'S REGRET FOR A TRAGIC ACCIDENT WHICH OCCURRED ON WEDNESDAY. BUT NATO PUTS ITS SETBACKS BEHIND IT AND THIS IS WHAT WE HAVE DONE AND ARE GOING TO CONTINUE TO DO. WE ARE NOT GOING TO BE BLOWN OFF COURSE. WE ARE KEEPING OUR EYE ON THE MAIN ISSUE WHICH IS THAT (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT) MILOSEVIC HAS TO BE STOPPED.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE NATO SPOKESMAN REPORTS THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY APPEARS TO BE RISING "LIKE PHOENIX FROM THE ASHES" TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF NATO'S ATTACKS ON YUGOSLAV FORCES IN KOSOVO. HE SAYS THE ALBANIAN REBELS ARE STEPPING UP THEIR INSURGENCY AS A RESULT OF NATO'S AIR STRIKES IN KOSOVO. HE ALSO SAYS THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY IS HIDING ITS TANKS AND ARMORED VEHICLES FROM NATO BOMBING AND IT IS BEING STALLED BY NATO'S ATTACKS ON YUGOSLAV FUEL AND AMMUNITION SUPPLIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH/JO
    16-Apr-99 11:25 AM EDT (1525 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] DJAKOVICA REPORT (L-ONLY) BY GUY DINMORE (BELGRADE)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248209
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FOREIGN REPORTERS HAVE BEEN ESCORTED BY THE YUGOSLAV ARMY TO THE SCENE OF AN ATTACK ON A COLUMN OF KOSOVO ALBANIANS WEDNESDAY THAT OFFICIALS BLAMED ON NATO WARPLANES. REPORTERS WERE ALSO ABLE TO SEE FIRST HAND THE EXTENT OF THE DESTRUCTION IN AREAS OF KOSOVO AND THE LARGE NUMBERS OF YUGOSLAV TROOPS STILL THERE. GUY DINMORE REPORTS.

    TEXT: CHARRED CORPSES, THE WRECKAGE OF VEHICLES AND AT LEAST SIX CRATERS BESIDE THE ROAD WERE EVIDENCE OF SEVERAL ATTACKS ON WHAT HAD BEEN A LONG COLUMN OF KOSOVO ALBANIAN REFUGEES ON THE ROAD FROM THE TOWN OF DJAKOVICA TO PRIZREN.

    THE YUGOSLAV ARMY TOOK FOREIGN REPORTERS TO THREE SITES ALONG A SIX-MILE STRETCH OF ROAD WHICH THEY SAID HAD BEEN HIT BY ONE OR MORE NATO AIRCRAFT ON WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON. A FOURTH SITE COULD NOT BE VISITED, THEY SAID, BECAUSE DARKNESS WAS FALLING AND MORE NATO BOMBS WERE FALLING IN THE AREA.

    TESTIMONY FROM SURVIVORS AND FRAGMENTS OF METAL THAT BORE SERIAL NUMBERS AND A FEW WORDS IN ENGLISH SUCH AS "FIRE GUIDED MISSILES" WERE COMPELLING EVIDENCE THAT CONVOY OF REFUGEES -- SAID TO BE ABOUT 100 VEHICLES -- HAD COME UNDER ATTACK FROM NATO.

    YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS SAID A TOTAL OF 72 PEOPLE HAD BEEN KILLED, ALTHOUGH REPORTERS SAW ONLY ABOUT 20 BODIES, INCLUDING THOSE OF CHILDREN. SOME WERE CHARRED BEYOND RECOGNITION AND BODY PARTS WERE STREWN ABOUT.

    MANY QUESTIONS REMAINED UNANSWERED HOWEVER. IT WAS NOT CLEAR IF SERBIAN POLICE OR TROOPS HAD BEEN ESCORTING THE REFUGEES OR USING THEM AS COVER FOR THEIR OWN MOVEMENTS. OFFICIALS SAID THE REFUGEES WERE RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES, BUT SURVIVORS SAID THEY WERE HEADED TO PRIZREN WHICH LIES ON THE MAIN ROUTE TO ALBANIA.

    DURING THE NEARLY 20 HOURS SPENT IN KOSOVO, REPORTERS WERE ALSO ABLE TO GAUGE AT FIRST HAND THE EXTENT OF DESTRUCTION THERE. ETHNIC ALBANIAN VILLAGES ALONG THE MAIN ROAD -- RUNNING PARALLEL WITH THE MOUNTAINOUS BORDER -- WERE ALMOST TOTALLY DESTROYED. THE BUILDINGS WERE EITHER SHELLED OR TORCHED. SOME REFUGEES PILED ONTO TRACTORS AND TRAILERS WERE STILL ON THE MOVE AS HOUSES SMOULDERED IN THE DISTANCE.

    THE MAIN TOWNS HOWEVER APPEARED RELATIVELY UNSCATHED. MANY SHOPS OWNED BY ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN PRIZREN WERE LOCKED UP BUT NOT LOOTED. THE STREETS WERE ALMOST DESERTED. THE FEW INHABITANTS LEFT WERE TOO SCARED TO TALK ,BUT ONE MAN SAID THAT MANY HAD FLED.

    POLICE AND TROOPS WERE SEEN IN LARGE NUMBERS, SOME USING CIVILIAN CARS FOR TRANSPORT. MILITARY VEHICLES WERE HIDDEN INSIDE FARMS AND RESIDENTIAL COMPOUNDS. WITH SO MANY MEMBERS OF THE SECURITY FORCES EITHER INSIDE URBAN AREAS OR WELL CAMOUFLAGED BUNKERS, IT WAS HARD TO IMAGINE HOW NATO AIR STRIKES COULD BE EFFECTIVE AGAINST THEM. THIS COULD EXPLAIN WHY NATO IS INTENSIFYING ITS ATTACKS ON NOT STRCTLY MILITARY TARGETS -- SUCH AS FACTORIES AND BRIDGES -- ACROSS SERBIA TO PUT PRESSURE ON YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. ON THURSDAY NIGHT A FIFTH BRIDGE ACROSS THE DANUBE RIVER WAS HIT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GD/JO
    16-Apr-99 3:08 PM EDT (1908 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] YUGO SITREP Q & A BY GUY DINMORE / RUSS WOODGATES (BELGRADE / WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248202
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ANNCR: LET ME ASK YOU FOR AN ASSESSMENT OF WHAT YOU SAW YESTERDAY WHEN SERB HANDLERS TOOK YOU AND SEVERAL OTHER REPORTERS TO SOUTHWEST KOSOVO TO LOOK AT THE WRECKAGE OF THE SUPPOSED NATO AIRSTRIKE (ON A CONVOY OF REFUGEES WEDNESDAY). DINMORE: WELL, FIRST OF ALL WE WENT TO THE MAIN SOUTHERN TOWN OF PRIZREN WHERE WE WERE TAKEN TO THE MAIN HOSPITAL. THERE WE SAW SIX BODIES IN A MORGUE. WE WERE ABLE TO SPEAK WITH SOME OF THE WOUNDED FROM THE ATTACK ON THIS REFUGEE COLUMN, INCLUDING ONE SURVIVOR WHO DESCRIBED HEARING AIRCRAFT OVERHEAD AND THEN THE EXPLOSION THAT TORE THIS REFUGEE COLUMN APART. WE WERE THEN TAKEN ALONG THE ROAD LEADING FROM PRIZREN NORTHWEST TO THE TOWN OF DJAKOVICA -- ON WHICH THIS COLUMN HAD BEEN MOVING. WE WERE SHOWN THREE DIFFERENT SPOTS ALONG THE ROAD WHERE THIS COLUMN WAS HIT -- A DISTANCE OF ABOUT FIVE OR SIX MILES BETWEEN THE FIRST SPOT AND THE SECOND. I COUNTED A TOTAL OF SIX IMPACTS RIGHT NEXT TO THE ROAD, CLEARLY CAUSED BY HEAVY BOMBS OR MISSILES. WE SAW TRACTORS OVERTURNED AND BURNED. WE SAW (PERSONAL) POSSESSIONS, SUITCASES, BELONGINGS SCATTERED ALONG THE ROAD. WE SAW A TOTAL OF ABOUT 15 BODIES -- SOME OF THEM CHARRED ALMOST BEYOND RECOGNITION. THERE WAS A DRIVER SLUMPED ACROSS THE WHEEL OF HIS TRACTOR, THE BODY OF A YOUNG GIRL INCINERATED BENEATH A TRAILER, A TANGLED HEAP OF BODIES THERE, A SEVERED HEAD THAT WAS JUST LYING IN A FIELD NEAR BY. THERE WERE SIX OTHER BODIES LAID IN A ROW NEXT TO THE SCENE, COLLECTED FRAGMENTS OF WHAT APPEARED TO BE THE NATO MISSILES WHICH HAD SERIAL NUMBERS AND WORDS IN ENGLISH THAT SHOW DATE OF MANUFACTURE. ANOTHER PIECE READ MADE FOR MARK 82, ANOTHER PIECE SAID FIRE-GUIDED MISSILE.

    ANNCR: DID YOU FIND THOSE FRAGMENTS AT MORE THAN ONE LOCATION? DINMORE: THIS WAS AT THE THIRD SPOT WE WERE TAKEN TO, WHERE THERE WERE A TOTAL OF THREE BOMB CRATERS AND WE FOUND THOSE FRAGMENTS IN TWO OF THOSE CRATERS.

    ANNCR: AT THE OTHER TWO LOCATIONS YOU VISITED, DID YOU FIND ANY FRAGMENTS THERE? DINMORE: WELL WE FOUND FRAGMENTS OF METAL FROM THE BOMBS OR SHELLS -- OR WHATEVER THEY WERE. WE DIDN'T ACTUALLY FIND ANY PIECES THAT HAD SORT OF RECOGNIZABLE WRITING ON THEM.

    ANNCR: WERE THERE ANY SIGNS OF REFUGEE FAMILIES COMING TO COLLECT THEIR DEAD? DINMORE: NO, THERE WEREN'T. WE SAW SIX TRACTORS AND TRAILERS MOVING ALONG THAT ROAD TOWARDS PRIZREN. THERE WERE A FEW SURVIVORS AT THE SCENES OF THE BOMBING ATTACK. WE INTERVIEWED THEM. WE WERE SLIGHTLY SUSPICIOUS -- IT DID SEEM THEY WERE PLACED THERE FOR OUR CONVENIENCE AND WERE SORT OF LISTENED TO BY OFFICIAL (GOVERNMENT) INTERPRETERS AS WE SPOKE TO THEM. THEY ALL GAVE ROUGHLY THE SAME STORY THAT THEY WERE IN THIS COLUMN OF REFUGEES MOVING TOWARDS PRIZREN; THAT THEY HEARD AIRCRAFT AND MASSIVE EXPLOSIONS THAT TORE THE COLUMN APART.

    ANNCR: AT YESTERDAY'S (THURSDAY) NATO BRIEFING IN BRUSSELS, AND AGAIN TODAY, NATO SPOKESMEN ADMITTED THAT ONE LASER-GUIDED BOMB MAY HAVE ACCIDENTLY BEEN FIRED AT HE HEAD VEHICLE IN ONE CONVOY, BUT THEY DENIED THAT THERE WERE ANY OTHER SHOTS FIRED OR BOMBS DROPPED IN ANY OTHER FASHION. YOU SAY YOU SAW WHAT APPEARED TO BE FRAGMENTS OF A NATO SHELL, BUT NOT AT THE OTHER TWO. DINMORE: WELL, WE FOUND FRAGMENTS OF SHELLS AT ALL LOCATIONS, BUT IT WAS ONLY AT ONE PARTICULAR LOCATION WHERE THE FRAGMENTS WERE LARGE ENOUGH TO BE READ. I MUST SAY THE EVIDENCE IS FAIRLY COMPELLING THAT THIS COLUMN WAS ATTACKED BY AIRCRAFT. I DON'T BELIEVE THE STORIES THAT THESE WERE YUGOSLAV AIRCRAFT. I DON'T SEE HOW THEY COULD HAVE POSSIBLY GOTTEN UP IN THE AIR WITHOUT BEING SHOT DOWN BY NATO. THE MISSILES HAD OBVIOUSLY BEEN FIRED WITH INCREDIBLE ACCURACY. THEY ALL LANDED EITHER ON THE ROAD OR RIGHT NEXT TO THE ROAD. I DOUBT VERY MUCH THAT THIS WAS ARTILLERY FIRE. I DON'T BELIEVE NATO'S STORY, QUITE FRANKLY.

    ANNCR: ON THE WAY TO AND FROM THE SITES IN SOUTHWEST KOSOVO, WHAT ELSE DID YOU SEE THAT MIGHT GIVE US SOME INSIGHT AS TO THE CONDITIONS INSIDE KOSOVO -- EITHER IN TERMS OF MILITARY MOVEMENTS OR REFUGEE MOVEMENTS? DINMORE: WELL THE DEVASTATION WAS QUITE APPALLING. ALMOST ALL THE VILLAGES ALONG THIS ROAD, THAT RUNS PARALLEL WITH THE BORDER WITH ALBANIA, WERE SORT OF BLACKENED WRECKS, RUINED FARM HOUSES, STILL SOME SMOKE COMING FROM SOME BUILDINGS, OBVIOUSLY BEEN SET ALIGHT QUITE RECENTLY. INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH, SOME TOWNS WE WENT THROUGH, WERE LARGELY UNTOUCHED. WE SAW VERY LITTLE DESTRUCTION THERE APART FROM THE AFFECTS OF NATO ATTACKS ON ARMY GARRISONS. SOME SHOPS HAD BEEN LOOTED. PRIZREN SEEMED LARGELY EMPTY OF PEOPLE, ALTHOUGH I WANDERED DOWN ONE STREET IN A GYPSY QUARTER AND THERE WERE LOST OF GYPSIES STILL LIVING THERE. THEY SAID MOST PEOPLE WERE HIDING IN THEIR HOMES, ALTHOUGH SOME (ETHNIC) ALBANIANS ALSO TOLD ME LARGE NUMBERS HAD FLED. WE SAW A FEW REFUGEES ON THE ROAD -- BUT NOT THAT MANY. NOT VERY MUCH MILITARY MOVEMENT -- A LOT OF TROOPS OR MEN IN UNIFORM IN THE TOWNS THEMSELVES BUT VERY LITTLE TRAFFIC OUTSIDE. A LOT OF SOLDIERS AND POLICE WERE ACTUALLY TRAVELLING IN UNMARKED CIVILIAN CARS, PRESUMABLY BECAUSE THEY THINK THAT IS SAFER THAN MOVING AROUND IN MILITARY VEHICLES. WE HEARD SOME NATO BOMBING IN THE DISTANCE, WHICH WAS THE REASON WHY LATE IN THE DAY OUR (SERB) ESCORTS DIDN'T WANT TO TAKE US TO THE FOURTH SITE OF THIS REFUGEE COLUMN WHICH THEY SAID WAS ATTACKED ON WEDNESDAY.

    ANNCR: YOU ARE NOW BACK IN BELGRADE, WHERE IT IS EVENING. // OPT

    // HAVE YOU HEARD ANY AIR RAID SIRENS TONIGHT? IS THERE ANY RESUMPTION OF THE NATO BOMBING? // END OPT //
    DINMORE: // OPT // NO. THE AIR RAID SIRENS HAVEN'T GONE OFF YET. THEY NORMALLY SOUND AROUND EIGHT O'CLOCK. // END OPT // THIS CITY I FOUND TODAY WAS AT ITS BUSIEST AND MOST CROWDED SINCE NATO'S OFFENSIVE BEGAN OVER THREE WEEKS AGO. LOTS OF PEOPLE IN THE STREETS, QUITE A LOT OF TRAFFIC, EVEN TRAFFIC JAMS IN CENTRAL BELGRADE. HOW PEOPLE ARE FINDING THE PETROL TO DRIVE AROUND, I REALLY DON'T KNOW. LIFE IN BELGRADE ACTUALLY SEEMED, FROM WHAT I SAW THIS AFTERNOON, ALMOST NORMAL.

    /// OPT ///

    ANNCR: AND WHAT, IF ANYTHING, HAVE YOU BEEN ABLE TO SEE OF THE SERB MEDIA TODAY -- TELEVISION OR RADIO? HOW ARE THEY PLAYING THESE STORIES? DINMORE: I'VE SEEN THE SERBIAN NEWSPAPERS, AND SAW A BIT OF TELEVISION, AND THEY ARE BLAMING NATO OUTRIGHT FOR THIS ATTACK ON THE REFUGEE COLUMN -- CALLING IT "AN AGGRESSIVE ATTACK BY NATO," "A CRIMINAL ACT,""A WAR CRIME," "NATO SHOULD BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE." THEY ARE ALSO GIVING THE OFFICIAL DEATH TOLL WHICH NOW STANDS AT 72 CIVILIANS KILLED. THEY ARE ALSO GIVING REPORTS OF FURTHER ATTACKS OVERNIGHT ON TARGETS AROUND THE COUNTRY -- INCLUDING A BRIDGE OVER THE RIVER DANUBE NEAR THE INDUSTRIAL TOWN OF SMEDEREVO AND ALSO AN ATTACK ON THE NORTHERN TOWN OF SUBOTICA.

    /// END OPT /

    ANNCR: FINALLY, GUY, IS THERE ANY REACTION YOU CAN GAUGE AMONG THE YOUNG SERBIANS THERE IN YUGOSLAVIA, WHO MAY BE FACING MILITARY DUTY IF A GROUND OFFENSIVE WERE TO BE LAUNCHED? DINMORE: WELL INDEED, SOME OF MY FRIENDS HAVE BEEN CALLED UP. THEY HAVE OBEYED THE SUMMONS. THEY ARE NOW IN UNIFORM. I DON'T KNOW WHERE SOME OF THEM ARE NOW. I HAVE HEARD STORIES OF A FEW PEOPLE WHO ARE TOO AFRAID TO GO KOSOVO AND ARE IN HIDING. BUT OUR EVIDENCE, FROM WHAT WE SAW IN KOSOVO -- HUNDREDS OF MEN OF ALL AGES IN UNIFORM, I THINK THERE IS A MASS MOBILIZATION GOING ON. AS FAR AS I CAN TELL, THE VAST MAJORITY OF PEOPLE ARE, INDEED, PUTTING ON THEIR UNIFORMS.

    ANNCR: WELL, THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
    16-Apr-99 2:26 PM EDT (1826 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] U-N-H-C-R KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248188
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE AGENCY, THE U-N-H-C-R, ACCUSES THE SERB AUTHORITIES OF HEIGHTENING EFFORTS ALREADY UNDERWAY TO CLEANSE KOSOVO OF ITS ENTIRE ETHNIC ALBANIAN POPULATION. LISA SCHLEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA.

    TEXT: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY ESTIMATES AT LEAST 12-THOUSAND PEOPLE WERE FORCED OUT OF KOSOVO INTO NEIGHBORING MACEDONIA, MONTENEGRO AND ALBANIA SINCE THURSDAY. U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN, KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS HIS ORGANIZATION HAS REASON TO BELIEVE THAT TENS OF THOUSANDS OF ADDITIONAL ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE LIKELY TO FOLLOW IN THE COMING DAYS. HE SAYS THE EXPULSIONS, WHICH APPARENTLY WERE EITHER PUT ON HOLD OR SLOWED DOWN OVER THE PAST TWO WEEKS, HAVE NOW RESUMED WITH FULL FORCE.

    ///JANOWSKI ACT///

    THE EFFORT BY THE SERBIAN AUTHORITIES TO EXPEL THE ENTIRE ETHNIC POPULATION OF KOSOVO IS AGAIN UNDERWAY. A COUPLE OF MONTHS AGO, IT WOULD HAVE SEEMED UNBELIEVABLE TO THE CIVILIZED WORLD THAT THE SERBS WOULD ACTUALLY EXPEL THE ENTIRE CIVILIAN POPULATION. BUT, THIS SEEMS TO BE REALITY NOW.

    ///END ACT///

    BEFORE THE CONFLICT ERUPTED A YEAR AGO, THERE WERE JUST UNDER TWO MILLION ETHNIC ALBANIANS LIVING IN KOSOVO. THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS MOST OF THESE PEOPLE HAVE SINCE FLED TO OTHER COUNTRIES IN THE REGION AND TO WESTERN EUROPE.

    THE AGENCY NOW ESTIMATES THAT LESS THAN A HALF-MILLION (EDS: 400,000) ETHNIC ALBANIANS REMAIN INSIDE KOSOVO. MR. JANOWSKI SAYS HE EXPECTS MORE WILL BE FORCED OUT.

    ///SECOND JANOWSKI ACT///

    WHAT IS HAPPENING IS THE ENTIRE TOWNS, PRISONS ARE BEING -- ACCORDING TO THE REFUGEES -- ENTIRELY EMPTIED OUT ... THERE'S ARSON ATTACKS AGAINST CIVILIANS, THERE ARE THUGS CRUISING KOSOVO AND EXPELLING THE CIVILIAN POPULATION.

    //OPT//

    IT'S COMPLETELY OUT OF CONTROL AND IT'S A FREE-FOR-ALL, BLESSED -- WE HAVE TO ASSUME -- BY THE AUTHORITIES IN BELGRADE WHOSE DUTY IT IS TO PROTECT THE CIVILIAN POPULATION. //END OPT//

    ///END ACT///

    MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THE U-N AGENCY IS VERY CONCERNED ABOUT THE FATE OF THE ALBANIAN CIVILIAN POPULATION INSIDE KOSOVO WHICH IS AT THE MERCY OF THE SERB PARAMILITARY. HE SAYS ONCE ALL OF THEM ARE PUSHED OUT, KOSOVO -- HE SAYS -- WILL "ACQUIRE THE CALMNESS OF A GRAVEYARD." (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/PCF
    16-Apr-99 8:11 AM EDT (1211 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] MACEDONIA/REFUGEES BY EVE CONANT (BRAZHDA)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=NEWS FEATURE
    NUMBER=5-43153
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN RECENT DAYS SEVERAL THOUSAND MORE ETHNIC ALBANIANS HAVE MANAGED TO ESCAPE KOSOVO AND CROSS THE BORDER INTO MACEDONIA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT EVE CONANT REPORTS REFUGEE CAMPS THERE ARE REACHING CAPACITY, AND AIDE WORKERS ARE LOOKING FOR NEW SITES TO HOUSE THIS MOST RECENT INFLUX. MEANWHILE, WORKERS AND REFUGEES INSIDE THE CAMPS ARE MAKING EFFORTS TO CREATE A DECENT LIFE FOR THEMSELVES WHILE THEY WAIT TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES.

    TEXT: ///NAT SOUND MUSLIM CALL FOR PRAYER -- ESTABLISH AND UNDER/// THIS MAN, A REFUGEE FROM PRISTINA, SINGS OUT A CALL FOR PRAYER. SOON, ABOUT 50 MEN JOIN HIM AT THIS MAKESHIFT MOSQUE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE BRAZDHA REFUGEE CAMP. THEIR MOSQUE IS ACTUALLY TENT NUMBER 284-B, WHICH HOUSES NINE FAMILIES WHEN IT IS NOT BEING USED FOR PRAYER. THE WOMEN OF THOSE NINE FAMILIES WAIT OUTSIDE WITH THEIR BABIES UNTIL PRAYER IS OVER AND THEY CAN GO BACK INSIDE.

    //OPT//

    ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE CAMP, FOUR BASKETBALL HOOPS HAVE BEEN SET UP.

    YOUNG MEN PLAY BASKETBALL WHILE OTHERS CROWD AROUND TO WATCH. THEY CONTINUE THEIR GAME AS A CONVOY OF FIVE BUSES GOES BY, FILLED WITH REFUGEES WHO HAVE JUST MADE IT OVER THE BORDER. AS THEY PLAY, ONE CAN HEAR SEVERAL MEN WANDERING THE CAMP SHOUTING THROUGH MEGAPHONES.

    ///SOUND OF MEGAPHONE ANNOUNCEMENT -- ESTABLISH AND UNDER///

    THIS MAN CALLS OUT A NAME FROM A LONG LIST HE HOLDS IN HIS HAND. HE IS SEARCHING FOR SOMEONE'S LOST RELATIVE. ALTHOUGH THE CROWD KEEPS TALKING, IT IS CLEAR THEY LISTENED TO THE NAME AS IT WAS SHOUTED. //END OPT//

    IN THE NEIGHBORING CAMP OF STENKOVAC, A SCHOOL HAS BEEN SET UP.

    ///BRING UP AND UNDER NAT SOUND OF SCHOOL KIDS///

    TEACHERS HAND OUT PENCILS TO ABOUT 40 KIDS WHO SIT BEHIND DESKS INSIDE THIS DARK TENT. UNICEF AIDE WORKERS WATCHING NEARBY SAY THE REFUGEES HAD ALREADY USED THIS HILLTOP AREA FOR POETRY READINGS AND LESSONS. AT THE REQUEST OF REFUGEES WHO HAPPEN TO BE PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS, UNICEF HAS SUPPLIED THE TENT, NOTEBOOKS, AND WILL SOON BRING TEXTBOOKS IN ALBANIAN. LIKE HER STUDENTS, TEACHER NAXHIJE KASTRATI ('NAD'-ZHI-YE KOS-'TRAT) IS ALSO A REFUGEE.

    ///ACT KASTRATI IN ALBANIAN IN FULL AND FADE UNDER///

    "I GAVE THE CHILDREN PENCILS AND ASKED THEM WHAT THEY WANTED TO DRAW," SHE SAYS. "THEY ALL WANTED TO DRAW THEIR HOMES IN KOSOVO."

    BUT ONE LOOK AT WHAT THESE YOUNG CHILDREN HAVE DRAWN IS DISTURBING. MOST OF THEIR PICTURES ARE OF HOUSES ON FIRE. ONE SEVEN-YEAR-OLD HAS DRAWN A HOUSE WITH A TANK IN THE FRONT YARD. IT IS TITLED "PRISTINA, 1999." ANOTHER DRAWING SHOWS A MAN WITH A GUN AND DEAD BODIES LYING ACROSS TRAIN TRACKS. ONE OF THE SIMPLEST DRAWINGS SHOWS STICK FIGURES, SMALL AND LARGE, SITTING IN PERFECT ROWS ON A LARGE RED BUS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/PCF
    16-Apr-99 1:41 PM EDT (1741 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KOSOVO REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY LARRY FREUND (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248213
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-RUNNING W/NUMBER ///

    INTRO: SOME AMERICAN REFUGEE EXPERTS SAY AID FOR KOSOVO REFUGEES SHOULD BE FUNNELED THROUGH LOCAL ALBANIAN ORGANIZATIONS. CORRESPONDENT LARRY FREUND REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE WOMEN'S COMMISSION FOR REFUGEE WOMEN AND CHILDREN -- A PRIVATE GROUP BASED IN NEW YORK -- SAYS VERY LITTLE AID FOR KOSOVO REFUGEES IS GOING TO ESTABLISHED LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS IN ALBANIA ALREADY STAFFED WITH PROFESSIONAL WORKERS AND VOLUNTEERS. MAHA MUNA (MAH-HAH MUH-NAH'), DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE COMMISSION, RECENTLY RETURNED FROM A FACT-FINDING TRIP TO KOSOVO REFUGEE CAMPS IN ALBANIA.

    /// MUNA ACTUALITY ///

    THEY HAVE THE EXPERTISE, THEY HAVE THE CULTURE, THEY HAVE THE LANGUAGE. AND THERE IS NO REASON FOR THEM TO CONTINUE TO BE IGNORED. WE SAW VERY GOOD PROJECTS IN PROVIDING COUNSELING TO REFUGEE WOMEN, TO ADOLESCENTS, TO CHILDREN WHO WERE CLEARLY TRAUMATIZED. AND WE ALSO SAW DISTRIBUTIONS OF ESSENTIAL ITEMS THAT HAD BEEN LEFT OUT OF RELIEF DISTRIBUTIONS, THINGS LIKE SANITARY NAPKINS WHICH IS A BASIC NEED BUT IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED IN REFUGEE SITUATIONS, BOTTLES FOR INFANTS, NIPPLES, PACIFIERS.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    MAHA MUNA OF THE WOMEN'S COMMISSION FOR REFUGEE WOMEN AND CHILDREN -- AFFILIATED WITH THE INTERNATIONAL RESCUE COMMITTEE -- SAYS RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS OFTEN NEGLECT LOCAL GROUPS. THE COMMISSION ALSO SAYS AID ORGANIZATIONS SHOULD START PLANNING FOR LONG-TERM ASSISTANCE FOR THE KOSOVO REFUGEES, INCLUDING ACCESS TO EDUCATION.

    MS. MUNA PARTICULARLY RECALLS ONE ADOLESCENT BOY SHE MET IN A REFUGEE CAMP. HE FELT SHAME, SHE SAYS, AT LEAVING KOSOVO AND HE ALSO FELT POWERLESS TO PROTECT HIS FAMILY.

    /// MUNA ACTUALITY ///

    BOYS LIKE HIM ARE MORE VULNERABLE TO CONSCRIPTION. HE'S SAFE NOW. HE'S IN A REFUGEE CAMP. HE SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH PROTECTION AND WITH CARE. HE CAN BE MADE PART OF HIS REFUGEE COMMUNITY. HE CAN BE BROUGHT INTO EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR THE SMALLER CHILDREN. HE CAN BE INVOLVED IN SETTING UP SANITATION FOR THE CAMP. THERE SHOULD BE ALTERNATIVES FOR HIM TO RETURNING AND BEING ENGAGED IN COMBAT.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    THE WOMEN'S COMMISSION SAYS 50 TO 60 PERCENT OF THE KOSOVO REFUGEES IN ALBANIA ARE CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF 15. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NY/LSF/PT
    16-Apr-99 3:37 PM EDT (1937 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America *DATE=4/16/99 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248218
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: RE-FILING WITH NEW 7TH PARA (FRENCH AIR-DROP PLANS) ///

    INTRO: PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS NATO IS WORKING ON SEVERAL PLANS TO GET BADLY-NEEDED FOOD TO THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED PEOPLE HIDING IN KOSOVO. BUT AS V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON, ALL THREE IDEAS FACE SERIOUS OBSTACLES.

    TEXT: PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY BETWEEN 250-THOUSAND AND 700-THOUSAND ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE HIDING IN KOSOVO'S HILLS AND FORESTS. RELIEF AGENCIES SAY THE DISPLACED PEOPLE ARE DESPERATELY SHORT OF FOOD, WATER, MEDICINE AND SHELTER.

    PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS NATO PLANNERS ARE EXAMINING AT LEAST THREE DIFFERENT WAYS OF GETTING SUPPLIES TO THE HUNGRY AND HOMELESS IN KOSOVO.

    /// FIRST BACON ACT ///

    THE THREE PLANS ARE AIR DROPS, OPENING UP SOME SORT OF A CORRIDOR INTO KOSOVO, OR FINDING A WAY TO HELP NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS, SUCH AS THE GREEK ORGANIZATION TO GET FOOD INTO THE PEOPLE IN KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY ALL THREE PLANS HAVE SERIOUS PROBLEMS. CARGO PLANES COULD FLY OVER REFUGEE CAMPS AND PARACHUTE SUPPLIES TO THE HUNGRY, BUT AIR FORCE OFFICERS SAY SERBIAN AIR DEFENSES COULD QUICKLY BLAST THE LARGE, SLOW PLANES OUT OF THE SKY.

    MR. BACON SAYS SENDING GROUND TROOPS INTO KOSOVO TO CLEAR A SAFE CORRIDOR TO DELIVER SUPPLIES WOULD ALSO LIKELY MEET STRONG SERB RESISTANCE. AND HE SAYS BELGRADE IS VERY UN-LIKELY TO GIVE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS PERMISSION TO CARRY FOOD TO PEOPLE DISPLACED BY THE CURRENT SERB OFFENSIVE.

    /// SECOND BACON ACT ///

    AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, THE SERBS ARE NOT BEING TOO COMPLIANT ABOUT PLANS TO HELP THE KOSOVAR REFUGEES THEY ARE TRYING TO EXTERMINATE.

    /// END ACT ///

    DESPITE THE DIFFICULTIES OF AN AIR-DROP OPERATION, FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC HAS ORDERED HIS FORCES TO BEGIN PLANNING TO PARACHUTE FOOD AND MEDICINE INTO KOSOVO. MEANTIME, PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY SERB FORCES HAVE BEEN SYSTEMATICALLY BURNING ETHNIC ALBANIAN VILLAGES ACROSS THE SERB PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. AS OF FRIDAY, THEY SAY HUNDREDS OF VILLAGES HAVE BEEN LEVELED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/WTW
    16-Apr-99 6:28 PM EDT (2228 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] KOSOVO / NATO / NGO'S (L-ONLY) (CQ) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248201
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS' TOP HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICIAL, MARY ROBINSON, SAYS EXTENSIVE INTERVIEWS WITH KOSOVAR REFUGEES AND PRIVATE GROUPS IN ALBANIA, MACEDONIA AND MONTENEGRO PAINT BOTH A COMPELLING AND TERRIFYING PICTURE OF ETHNIC CLEANSING AND SUMMARY EXECUTIONS BY SERB SECURITY AND PARAMILITARY FORCES. MS. ROBINSON HAS JUST PRESENTED HER LATEST UPDATE OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN KOSOVO TO THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION IN GENEVA. LISA SCHLEIN HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: U-N HUMAN RIGHTS CHIEF, MARY ROBINSON SAYS OVER HALF A MILLION PEOPLE HAVE FLED THE SERBIAN PROVINCE SINCE MARCH 24TH -- THE START OF THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN. HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE HAVE ALSO BEEN LEFT HOMELESS WITHIN KOSOVO. MS ROBINSON SAYS THOUSANDS ARE BELIEVED TO BE IN HIDING, WITHOUT SHELTER, WITH VERY LITTLE OR NO FOOD OR CLEAN WATER.

    ///ROBINSON ACT///

    THERE ARE INDICATIONS THAT THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE ARE HIDING IN THE FORESTS AND ICY MOUNTAIN AREAS IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN KOSOVO. KOSOVO ALBANIANS EXPRESS GREAT CONCERN AT THE LACK OF FOOD AND SECURITY OF THESE INTERNALLY-DISPLACED PEOPLES AND HAVE URGED THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO ASSIST THEM. THIS IS PARTICULARLY ALARMING IN VIEW OF REPORTS THAT MORE THAN HALF OF THE PEOPLE FORCED OUT OF THEIR HOMES IN KOSOVO ARE CHILDREN.

    ///END ACT///

    MS. ROBINSON SAYS REFUGEES GIVE DETAILED ACCOUNTS OF SERIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS ALLEGEDLY COMMITTED IN KOSOVO BY SERBIAN POLICE AND PARAMILITARY FORCES. SHE SAYS THESE STORIES SHOW A CONSISTENT PATTERN IN THE METHODS USED BY THE SERBS TO EXPEL THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM KOSOVO. //OPT// THE REFUGEES DESCRIBE AN ARRAY OF INTIMIDATING TACTICS, OF BEING FORCED TO LEAVE THEIR HOMES AT GUNPOINT AT VERY SHORT NOTICE. //END OPT//

    MS. ROBINSON SAYS IN THE LAST FEW DAYS, THE OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS -- THE O-H-C-H-R -- HAS RECEIVED ALARMING REPORTS OF LARGE-SCALE SUMMARY EXECUTIONS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN FOUR PLACES IN KOSOVO.

    ///SECOND ROBINSON ACT///

    O-H-C-H-R STAFF ARE NOW INTERVIEWING PERSONS WHO HAVE WITNESSED SUMMARY EXECUTIONS. ONE REFUGEE WE INTERVIEWED HAD FOUND THE BODY OF AN ALBANIAN COLLEAGUE KILLED BY GUNFIRE AND DECAPITATED. WITNESSES FURTHER REPORT THAT IN SOME VILLAGES, ENTIRE FAMILIES HAVE BEEN KILLED. SOME OTHERS HAVE REPORTEDLY BEEN KILLED BY SNIPER FIRE.

    ///END ACT///

    MS. ROBINSON SAYS HER STAFF IS NOW CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS TO TRY TO CORROBORATE REPORTS OF MASS RAPE OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN WOMEN AND GIRLS. SHE SAYS THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE HAS RECEIVED REPORTS THAT GROUPS OF PEOPLE HAVE BEEN SENT BY THE REGULAR SERBIAN ARMY TO CERTAIN LOCATIONS TO BE USED AS HUMAN SHIELDS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/PCF
    16-Apr-99 12:39 PM EDT (1639 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] ROBINSON KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248200
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FLOW OF REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO INTO ALBANIA HAS RESUMED IN A BIG WAY. WESTERN OBSERVERS SAY SEVERAL THOUSAND HAVE CROSSED THE BORDER IN THE LAST DAY-AND-A-HALF. V-O-A'S GIL BUTLER REPORTS FROM THE ALBANIAN CAPITAL, TIRANA.

    TEXT: MONITORS FOR THE O-S-C-E, THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, SAY THE MORINA BORDER CROSSING -- THE PLACE MOST OF THE REFUGEES USE TO GET INTO ALBANIA -- HAS HAD A LARGE INFLUX. TWENTY-FIVE HUNDRED KOSOVARS HAD CROSSED THE BORDER BY ONE O'CLOCK FRIDAY AFTERNOON WITH MANY MORE WAITING TO COME ACROSS FROM SERBIA.

    THE REFUGEES WHO ENTERED ALBANIA ON FRIDAY TOLD OF THEIR HOUSES BEING SET AFIRE AND SAID THERE WERE UNBURIED CORPSES ALONG THE ROAD TO THE BORDER.

    U-N REFUGEE OFFICIALS HAVE SAID THE PATTERN OF SUDDEN INCREASES IN THE NUMBER OF REFUGEES COULD BE THE RESULT OF SERB FORCES CLEARING OUT ENTIRE VILLAGES.

    INFORMATION MINISTER MUSA ULQINI SAYS AS OF NOW THERE ARE 325-THOUSAND KOSOVAR REFUGEES IN ALBANIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH
    16-Apr-99 12:32 PM EDT (1632 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] ALBANIA SITREP (S ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248199
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TIRANA'S SMALL AIRPORT IS NOW OVERWHELMINGLY A NON-CIVILIAN FACILITY. HUGE MILITARY TRANSPORTS BRING RELIEF SUPPLIES FOR THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES. SUPPLIES ARE REACHING ALBANIA BY SEA, AS WELL. V-O-A'S GIL BUTLER TRAVELLED TO THE ADRIATIC PORT OF DURRES AND FILED THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: DURRES IS AN HOUR'S DRIVE FROM TIRANA AND, LIKE THE CAPITAL'S AIRPORT, IT SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN OVERWHELMED BY THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    THERE IS BUMPER TO BUMPER TRAFFIC ON THE MUDDY ROADS. LONG CONVOYS OF MILITARY TRUCKS, RED CROSS VEHICLES FROM MANY COUNTRIES, POLICE CARS, RELIEF AGENCY TRUCKS, AND TAXIS CREEP TOWARD AND AWAY FROM THE PORT.

    ON A BUSY FRIDAY MORNING, TRUCKS WERE LINED UP TO BE LOADED WITH SACKS OF FLOUR FROM THE HOLD OF A SMALL FREIGHTER.

    A SHORT DISTANCE AWAY, A MOTOR VESSEL OPERATED BY LA VIKINGA SHIPPING LINES IS LOADING UP WITH PASSENGERS FOR THE TRIP ACROSS THE ADRIATIC SEA TO BARI, ITALY. WITH CIVIL AIR SERVICE FROM TIRANA SEVERELY CURTAILED BY THE MILITARY FLIGHTS, FERRIES AND BOATS TO ITALY PROVIDE A WAY OUT OF THE COUNTRY.

    SOME OF THE PASSENGER VESSELS BRING SPECIAL PASSENGERS TO ALBANIA, AS WELL. THEY ARE SOME OF THE HUNDREDS OF VOLUNTEERS FROM EUROPE AND ELSEWHERE WHO HAVE JOINED THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY (K-L-A) SINCE THE KOSOVO CRISIS BEGAN.

    AFTER LANDING IN DURRES AND CLEARING CUSTOMS, THEY GO TO A SEASIDE BUILDING THAT WAS ONCE A RESTAURANT. THAT IS THE LOCAL HEADQUARTERS OF THE K-L-A. THEY THEN BOARD VANS TO CONTINUE THE JOURNEY, PRESUMABLY TO K-L-A TRAINING CAMPS.

    ALTHOUGH NONE OF THE ARRIVING VESSELS ON FRIDAY CARRIED KOSOVO GUERILLA RECRUITS, A REPORT FROM ITALY QUOTES A BARI SHIPPING COMPANY EXECUTIVE AS SAYING 300 TO 400 UNIFORMED K-L-A MEMBERS HAD BOARDED THE FERRY AT BARI AS RECENTLY AS TUESDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/GE
    16-Apr-99 12:29 PM EDT (1629 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] ALBANIA PORT (L ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (DURRES, ALBANIA)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248225
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S OFFICIALS SAY THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO WILL LIKELY FORCE THE PENTAGON TO CALL THOUSANDS OF PART-TIME SOLDIERS AND AIRMEN TO ACTIVE DUTY. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON, WHERE THE DEFENSE SECRETARY SAYS IT WILL PROBABLY TAKE UNTIL MONDAY OR TUESDAY TO WORK OUT DETAILS.

    TEXT: PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY UP TO 33-THOUSAND RESERVISTS MAY BE NEEDED TO FLY AND MAINTAIN THE HUNDREDS OF U-S PLANES NEWLY DISPATCHED TO FIGHT IN THE SKIES OVER YUGOSLAVIA.

    AIR FORCE OFFICIALS SAY THE KEY NEED IS FOR PILOTS TO FLY THE BIG PLANES THAT RE-FUEL OTHER AIRCRAFT IN MID-AIR, AND THE BIG TRANSPORTS THAT CARRY MUNITIONS AND RELIEF SUPPLIES INTO ACTION NEAR KOSOVO.

    DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS IT WILL TAKE A COUPLE OF DAYS FOR THE PENTAGON BUREAUCRACY TO FIGURE OUT EXACTLY HOW MANY PEOPLE WILL BE NEEDED AND WITH WHAT SKILLS.

    BOTH MR. COHEN AND THE PRESIDENT WILL HAVE TO EXAMINE AND APPROVE THE ORDERS. THE RESERVE CALL-UP COMES AT A TIME WHEN BOTH THE NAVY AND AIR FORCE COMPLAIN THEY ARE HAVING A HARD TIME PERSUADING PILOTS AND AIR CRAFT MECHANICS TO STAY IN THE SERVICE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/WTW
    16-Apr-99 6:04 PM EDT (2204 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] KOSOVO / RESERVES (S-ONLY) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43145
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MEMBERS OF A TRANS-ATLANTIC RESEARCH ORGANIZATION COMPLAIN THE WAR IN KOSOVO LACKS A COHERENT STRATEGY AND MAY LEAD TO DISASTER. IN THEIR OPINION, NATO HAS MISCALCULATED THE YUGOSLAV REACTION TO THE BOMBING AND IGNORED THE POSSIBILITY THE WAR MAY SPREAD. V-O-A'S ED WARNER REPORTS THEIR VIEWS, AND A MORE CONFIDENT ONE OF AN AMERICAN ANALYST.

    TEXT: HOW CAN YOU FIGHT A WAR WITHOUT A CLEAR OBJECTIVE? ASKS MARTIN BUTCHER, A MEMBER OF THE BRITISH AMERICAN SECURITY INFORMATION COUNCIL:

    // BUTCHER ACT //

    I FIND IT ABSOLUTELY AMAZING THAT IT HAS TAKEN NEARLY FOUR WEEKS OF A NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN BEFORE THE SLIGHTEST SIGNS OF A POLITICAL STRATEGY THAT MIGHT EVOLVE AFTER THE WAR HAVE BEEN PUT FORWARD. IT IS DIFFICULT TO SEE WHY, INDEED HOW NATO COULD HAVE POSSIBLY BEGUN THIS ACTION WITHOUT HAVING SOME KIND OF POLITICAL STRATEGY TO FOLLOW ON FROM IT. BUT IT IS CLEAR NOW THERE WAS NO SUCH STRATEGY.

    // END ACT //

    MR. BUTCHER NOTES GERMANS AND OTHER EUROPEANS ARE NOW MAKING PROPOSALS FOR A POLITICAL SOLUTION OF THE CONFLICT, BUT THESE ARE COOLY RECEIVED IN WASHINGTON.

    DANIEL PLESCH, DIRECTOR OF B-A-S-I-C, SAYS WASHINGTON AND LONDON TEND TO DISMISS GERMANY AS WOBBLY IN ITS COMMITMENT TO THE WAR AND MAKING UNNECESSARY TROUBLE:

    // PLESCH ACT //

    FROM OUR PERSPECTIVE, THE LACK ON THE CONGRESSIONAL SIDE AND INDEED WITHIN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ANY SERIOUS POLITICAL IDEAS EQUIVALENT TO THOSE BEING PUT FORWARD IN EUROPE IS A TESTAMENT TO THE POVERTY OF CURRENT GEOPOLITICAL THINKING IN WASHINGTON. IT IS NOT AS IF THE GERMAN PROPOSALS HAVE BEEN REJECTED BECAUSE THERE ARE A RANGE OF OTHER EQUALLY DEVELOPED IDEAS BEING PUT FORWARD AND DISCUSSED IN WASHINGTON.

    // END ACT //

    MR. PLESCH SAYS BECAUSE OF ITS LACK OF A STRATEGY, THE UNITED STATES IGNORES THE POSSIBILITY OF THE WAR SPREADING TO BOSNIA, MACEDONIA AND HUNGARY. WHAT WILL WASHINGTON DO THEN? HE ASKS.

    HARVEY SICHERMAN, PRESIDENT OF THE FOREIGN POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE IN PHILADELPHIA, CONTENDS THE UNITED STATES DOES HAVE A STRATEGY TOWARD YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC:

    // SICHERMAN ACT //

    THE STRATEGY RIGHT RIGHT NOW IS TO BEAT THE DEVIL OUT OF HIM, AND THAT PUNISHES HIM, NUMBER ONE. AND NUMBER TWO, IT WOULD BRING HIM AROUND TO SOME OF THE THINGS WE ARE DEMANDING, AND BASICALLY WHAT WE ARE DEMANDING IS THAT HE MAKE KOSOVO LIVABLE FOR THE ALBANIANS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. SICHERMAN SAYS THE EUROPEAN PROPOSALS MAY BE ORIGINATING IN WASHINGTON:

    // SICHERMAN ACT //

    ANYTHING THAT WE ARE LIKELY TO PROPOSE, ANYTHING THAT THE PRESIDENT IS LIKELY TO PROPOSE DIRECTLY WILL BE REJECTED OUT OF HAND. AND SO YOU HAVE INTERMEDIARIES.

    // END ACT //

    MR. SICHERMAN EXPECTS THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN WITH SOME LIMITED GROUND FORCES TO END THE WAR.

    HOWEVER IT TURNS OUT, DANIEL PLESCH OF B-A-S-I-C URGES MORE LONG TERM PLANNING FOR SOUTHEAST EUROPE TO PREVENT FUTURE CRISES:

    // PLESCH ACT //

    NATO IS EUROPE'S RIOT SQUAD AND SWAT TEAM, AND EVERY OTHER ASPECT OF LAW ENFORCEMENT EITHER DOES NOT EXIST OR EXISTS ON A PITTANCE. WITHOUT SETTING IN PLACE A COMPREHENSIVE POLICY FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT AND CONFLICT PREVENTION, WE ARE DOOMED TO CONTINUE TO REPEAT KOSOVO.

    // END ACT //

    MR. PLESCH URGES THE EUROPEAN UNION TO HELP PREPARE NATIONS IN THE REGION FOR EVENTUAL MEMBERSHIP BY ENCOURAGING DEMOCRATIC PRACTICES AND MAKING SUBSTANTIAL INVESTMENTS IN THEIR ECONOMIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/GE
    16-Apr-99 10:47 AM EDT (1447 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] NATO OBJECTIVES IN KOSOVO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43142
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SAYS ITS AIR STRIKES ARE AIMED AT DISRUPTING THE SERB MILITARY'S ABILITY TO CARRY OUT ITS CAMPAIGN OF ETHNIC CLEANSING IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. AS MORE REPORTS OF THE ATROCITIES ARE REVEALED, NATO ALLIES SHARPEN THEIR CONDEMNATION OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. BUT THE VILIFICATION OF THE YUGOSLAV LEADER RAISES QUESTIONS ABOUT WITH WHOM NATO WILL HAVE TO NEGOTIATE AN EVENTUAL PEACE. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN TAKES A CLOSER LOOK.

    TEXT: CRITICISM OF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS INTENSIFIED WITH EACH NEW REPORT OF ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO. HE HAS BEEN REFERRED TO BY HIS DETRACTORS AS A VILE DICTATOR, A SERIAL ETHNIC CLEANSER AND QUITE SIMPLY -- A THUG.

    POLITICIANS LIKE BRITAIN'S PADDY ASHDOWN SAY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IS THE PROBLEM, NOT THE SOLUTION TO PEACE IN KOSOVO.

    /// ASHDOWN ACT ///

    THE FACT IS THAT IT IS ONE OF THE GREAT MISTAKES OF WESTERN STRATEGIES HAS BEEN TO SEE MILOSEVIC AS PART OF THE SOLUTION, WHEN IN FACT HE WAS THE ORIGIN OF THE PROBLEM. AND I DON'T BELIEVE NOW THAT WE CAN ACHIEVE WHAT WE WANT TO ACHIEVE. AND HE CAN SURVIVE IN POWER ANYWAY. IF NATO WINS, THEN HE HAS TO GO BECAUSE HIS FUTURE IS TIED TO KOSOVO. BUT IF HE DOESN'T, I DON'T BELIEVE YOU CAN HAVE PEACE IN THE BALKANS OVER ALL.

    /// END ACT ///

    SOME DIPLOMATS WHO HAVE HAD TO NEGOTIATE WITH MR. MILOSEVIC SAY "WATCH OUT." PAULINE NEVILLE-JONES LED THE BRITISH DELEGATION TO THE DAYTON PEACE TALKS TO END THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA. SHE SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC IS MOTIVATED ONLY BY HIS PERSONAL AMBITION -- AND NOT BY THE WELFARE OF HIS PEOPLE.

    /// NEVILLE-JONES ///

    I THINK IT'S HIS OWN POSITION AT THE END OF THE DAY, HIS OWN AMBITION AND HIS NEED TO RETAIN HIS POSITION. AND THAT'S THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT THING IN HIS LIFE. AND IN ORDER TO PRESERVE HIS POSITION, HE CANNOT MAKE ANY CONCESSIONS ABOUT KOSOVO, NOT VOLUNTEERED ONES.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN FACT, MR MILOSEVIC'S RISE TO POWER IS DIRECTLY LINKED TO SERB NATIONALIST FEELINGS TOWARD KOSOVO, WHICH SERBS CONSIDER THE BIRTHPLACE OF THEIR NATION.

    BALKANS SCHOLAR JOHN ALCOCK OF ENGLAND'S BRADFORD UNIVERSITY SAYS NATO AIR STRIKES HAVE REFUELED THAT NATIONALISM, WHICH LETS MR. MILOSEVIC EFFECTIVELY SILENCE HIS OPPONENTS. SO HAS THE CAMPAIGN OF ETHNIC CLEANSING OF KOSOVAR ALBANIANS.

    /// ALCOCK ACT ///

    A SENSE OF NATIONAL CRISIS, WHICH HE IS CREATING AT THE MOMENT IN THE SHORT TERM, SEEMS TO BE EFFECTIVE IN PRODUCING A SENSE OF NATIONAL SOLIDARITY AMONG SERBS. YES THAT'S PART OF IT. BUT IN THE LONGER TERM HE WOULD DEMONSTRATE THAT HE IS WILLING TO ALLOW NO KIND OF OPPOSITION TO HIS VIEW OF HOW THE YUGOSLAV STATE SHOULD BE RUN -- AND THAT A SIMILAR KIND OF FATE WOULD AWAIT ANYBODY WHO WAS PREPARED TO STAND OUT AGAINST HIM.

    /// END ACT ///

    OTHER ANALYSTS ALSO WARN THE LONGER THE CONFLICT CONTINUES, THE HARDER IT WILL BE FOR MR. MILOSEVIC TO BACK DOWN.

    BRITISH JOURNALIST TIM JUDAH HAS WRITTEN A HISTORY OF THE SERBS. HE TALKS OF THEIR SELF-PERCEPTION AS THE VICTIM, NOT THE AGGRESSOR. THAT, HE SAYS, MAKES DEALING WITH SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC VERY DIFFICULT.

    /// JUDAH ACT ///

    THEY OFTEN SEE THEMSELVES AS THE LITTLE PEOPLE STANDING UP AGAINST THE BULLIES. THIS IS ALSO CONNECTED TO THE IDEA OF KOSOVO ITSELF. THE MYTH OF KOSOVO. THEY REFER TO THE FACT THAT IN 1389 SERB PRINCE LAZAR DECIDED HE WOULD RATHER FIGHT AND DIE IN BATTLE IN THE TURKS THAN SUBMIT AND BECOME AN OTTOMAN VASSAL. THE REASON THAT'S IMPORTANT IS THAT WAS TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE CENTURIES AS SERBIAN MYTH.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT IN THE END, NATO DIPLOMATS LIKE BRITAIN'S FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK RECOGNIZE THEY MAY HAVE NO CHOICE ABOUT WHOM THEY TALK TO IN BELGRADE.

    /// COOK ACT ///

    //OPT//

    MY INTEREST IS TO FIND AN END TO THIS CONFLICT ON THE BASIS THAT WOULD ENABLE THE REFUGEES TO RETURN SAFELY AND ENABLE THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO TO ACHIEVE THE DEMOCRATIC SELF-GOVERNMENT THAT THEY WERE PROMISED IN THE PEACE ACCORDS. //END OPT// NOW, AS FOREIGN MINISTER, I WILL DEAL WITH ANYBODY IN BELGRADE WHO HAS THE EFFECTIVE POWER TO DELIVER ON THAT END OF THE BARGAIN -- ALTHOUGH THAT MUST BE THE BASIS OF THE BARGAIN.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE BASIS OF THE BARGAIN FOR NATO IS TO REVERSE BELGRADE'S CAMPAIGN OF ETHNIC CLEANSING IN KOSOVO, GAIN THE SAFE RETURN OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES AND ESTABLISH THE PRESENCE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING TROOPS IN THE PROVINCE WHEN SERB MILITARY, POLICE AND PARAMILITARY FORCES PULL OUT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF
    16-Apr-99 5:36 AM EDT (0936 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] WHO MAKES KOSOVO PEACE? BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248211
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS IT HAS COMPELLING NEW EVIDENCE OF MASS KILLINGS IN KOSOVO. FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS THE NEW EVIDENCE WAS GATHERED FROM INDEPENDENT SOURCES AND INTERVIEWS WITH ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES.

    // RUBIN ACT //

    IN WEST CENTRAL KOSOVO, WEST OF PRISTINA, THERE IS A SET OF, EVIDENCE OF MASS KILLINGS AND GRAVES ASSOCIATED WITH MASS KILLINGS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. RUBIN WAS UNABLE TO SAY HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE BELIEVED TO BE BURIED THERE. HE DESCRIBED IT AS A SIGNIFICANT MASS, MORE THAN JUST A FEW DOZEN.

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY THEY ALSO HAVE NEW EVIDENCE THAT SERB FORCES HAVE NOW BURNED MORE THAN 400 VILLAGES IN KOSOVO, INCLUDING 45 IN THE LAST TEN DAYS.

    THE UNITED STATES SAYS IT WILL SHARE THE INFORMATION WITH THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. SERB AUTHORITIES DENY THEIR FORCES HAVE COMMITTED ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PT
    16-Apr-99 3:13 PM EDT (1913 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] KOSOVO / KILLINGS (S) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248189
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAVE MORE EVIDENCE OF MASS GRAVES INSIDE THE SERB PROVINCE OF KOSOVO, AS A NEW FLOOD OF REFUGEES STRAIN RELIEF OPERATIONS ALONG MACEDONIA'S AND ALBANIA'S BORDER. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN HAS MORE FROM THE BRITISH DEFENSE BRIEFING IN LONDON.

    TEXT: BRITAIN'S CHIEF OF DEFENSE CHARLES GUTHRIE SHOWED FRIDAY'S NEWS CONFERENCE AERIAL PHOTOS OF WHAT HE SAYS IS A MASS GRAVE IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. HE SAYS REFUGEES ALSO REPORT THE KILLINGS OF HUNDREDS OF YOUNG KOSOVAR MEN BY SERB FORCES.

    /// GUTHRIE ACT ///

    MOST GRAPHIC OF ALL IS THE ACCOUNT OF THE AREA AROUND THE TOWN OF SUBICA. ONE REFUGEE EYEWITNESS SAID THAT THE AREA IS FULL OF UNBURIED CADAVERS. EVERYWHERE YOU GO YOU SEE KILLINGS. //OPT// EVERYWHERE YOU MOVE IN DRENICA, ALL YOU CAN SEE IS BODIES. //END OPT//

    /// END ACT ///

    RELIEF WORKERS ARE COLLECTING THE INFORMATION TO PRESENT TO THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    GENERAL GUTHRIE SAYS NATO AIRCRAFT HAVE INTENSIFIED THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN OVER YUGOSLAVIA, FLYING MORE THAN 400 SORTIES IN THE LAST TWO DAYS ALONE.

    /// OPT THE REST FOR LONG CR ///

    THE DAILY BRIEFING IN LONDON INCLUDED A SATELLITE HOOK-UP WITH MACEDONIA, WHERE BRITISH OFFICIALS PRESENTED A 15-YEAR-OLD REFUGEE TO RELATE HER OWN HARROWING EXPERIENCES IN KOSOVO.

    BRIGADIER TIM CROSS, STANDING NEXT TO HER, SAYS 40 BUSLOADS OF REFUGEES DROVE ACROSS MACEDONIA'S BORDER DURING THE NIGHT THURSDAY. MOST OF THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN FAMILIES HAD BEEN HIDING IN THE WOODS AND MOUNTAINS OF KOSOVO.

    /// CROSS ACT ///

    A LOT OF THEM HAVE SAID THEY HAVE LEFT BECAUSE THEY'VE HAD ENOUGH. QUITE A LOT OF REFUGEES THIS MORNING SAID THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF BURNING AND LOOTING IN THEIR VILLAGES. AND WHILE THEY WERE LIVING IN THE HILLS, THEY COULD SEE THIS HAPPENING. THEY LEFT, THEREFORE, BECAUSE THEY WERE QUITE EVIDENTLY SCARED.

    /// END ACT ///

    BRIGADIER CROSS SAYS RELIEF WORKERS ARE EXPECTING ANOTHER FLOOD OF REFUGEES AS FOOD AND WATER RUN OUT FOR THOSE STILL HIDING IN THE OPEN IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF
    16-Apr-99 8:10 AM EDT (1210 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] BRITAIN/KOSOVO (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248205
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE HUNGARIAN AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES SAYS HIS COUNTRY IS COMMITTED TO THE GOALS OF THE NATO ALLIANCE IN KOSOVO. CAROL PINEAU MET WITH THE AMBASSADOR AND HAS THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: AMBASSADOR GEZA JESZENSZKY (PRON: GAY-ZA YES-CEN-SKY) SAYS HIS COUNTRY IS PARTICULARLY CONCERNED ABOUT THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO AS HUNGARY IS THE ONLY NATO MEMBER THAT BORDERS YUGOSLAVIA.

    AMBASSADOR JESZENSZKY SAYS HUNGARY'S COMMITMENT TO NATO IS UNEQUIVOCAL. HE SAYS HIS COUNTRY'S AIR SPACE, AIR BASES, AND OTHER RESOURCES ARE AVAILABLE FOR NATO USE. BUT HE ADDS HUNGARY MAY BE ABLE TO MAKE A SPECIAL CONTRIBUTION IN LOOKING CREATIVELY AT SOLVING THE CONFLICT.

    /// JESZENSZKY ACT ///

    THERE SHOULD BE NOT SIMPLY A SOLUTION FOR THIS PARTICULAR TRAGEDY, BUT A DEMOCRATIC SERBIA SHOULD BE HELPED TO BE BORN, AND (A) PARTICULAR ASPECT OF DEMOCRACY IS RESPECT FOR THE RIGHTS OF NATIONAL ETHNIC MINORITIES. WE HAVE SOME IDEAS OF HOW IT CAN HAPPEN IN YUGOSLAVIA, OUTSIDE OF YUGOSLAVIA, IT CAN APPLY TO BOSNIA AS WELL. BASICALLY, LOCAL DEMOCRACY, PERHAPS A VERSION OF THE SWISS CANTON SYSTEM, AUTONOMY, NOT NECESSARILY FOR A LARGE PROVINCE, BUT FOR A GROUP.

    /// END ACT ///

    AMBASSADOR JESZENSZKY SAYS DEMOCRACY IN YUGOSLAVIA MAY SEEM LIKE A DREAM AT THIS POINT, BUT HE NOTES THAT IN 1944 -- BEFORE THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO -- NO ONE WOULD HAVE PREDICTED THAT GERMANY WOULD BECOME A STRONG DEMOCRACY AND ONE OF THE UNITED STATES' CLOSEST ALLIES.

    BUT THE AMBASSADOR SAYS FOR NOW, HUNGARY IS IN A VULNERABLE POSITION AS YUGOSLAVIA'S NORTHERN NEIGHBOR. HE NOTES HIS COUNTRY IS FLAT -- WHICH WOULD BE EASY TO INVADE. HE SAYS WHILE HUNGARY DOES NOT WANT REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO, IT WILL NOT REFUSE THEM.

    THE AMBASSADOR SAYS PEOPLE LIVING NEAR THE BORDER ARE VERY CONCERNED ABOUT THE AIR STRIKES. HE ADDS YUGOSLAVIA IS ALSO EXTREMELY CONCERNED ABOUT ETHNIC HUNGARIANS LIVING WITHIN YUGOSLAVIA, WHO REPRESENT 40 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION OF YUGOSLAVIA'S NORTHERN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA.

    AMBASSADOR JESZENSZKY SAYS THERE IS ALSO AN IMPORTANT ECONOMIC ASPECT TO THE SITUATION. HE NOTES HUNGARY HAS LOST NEARLY TWO-BILLION DOLLARS IN TRADE SINCE SANCTIONS WERE IMPOSED ON YUGOSLAVIA IN 1992. HE ADDS THAT THERE MUST BE AN ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION PLAN FOR SOUTHERN EUROPE IF NATO HOPES TO BRING PEACE TO THE REGION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CP/GE
    16-Apr-99 2:21 PM EDT (1821 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] KOSOVO / HUNGARY (L-ONLY) BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248220
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DEFENSE MINISTERS FROM ITALY AND THE UNITED STATES SAY NATO IS UNIFIED IN SUPPORT OF THE ALLIANCE BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON, WHERE ITALY'S DEFENSE MINISTER TELLS REPORTERS, HIS NATION IS MAKING A MAJOR CONTRIBUTION TO THE AIR CAMPAIGN -- AND WILL KEEP IT UP AS LONG AS IT TAKES.

    TEXT: ITALY'S DEFENSE MINISTER CARLO SCOGNAMIGLIO (PRONO: SCONE-AH-MEAL-EE-OH) SAYS THERE HAS BEEN CONSIDERABLE DEBATE IN HIS PARLIAMENT ABOUT THE GOALS AND MERITS OF THE AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. BUT HE SAYS ITALY'S FRIENDS AND ADVERSARIES SHOULD HAVE NO DOUBT ABOUT ROME'S COMMITMENT TO THE CURRENT CAMPAIGN.

    /// SCOGNAMIGLIO ACT ///

    THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT POLICY AND DECISION HAS ALWAYS BEEN AND WITH NO DOUBT, WILL CONTINUE TO BE TO FIRMLY STICK WITH THE POLICY AND DECISIONS COLLECTIVELY TAKEN BY THE ALLIANCE. THERE CAN NOT BE ANY DOUBT ABOUT THIS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE MINISTER SAYS HE HOPES THE CRISIS CAN BE RESOLVED SOON, BUT SAYS THE AIR CAMPAIGN WILL CONTINUE UNTIL YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC STOPS ATTACKING ETHNIC ALBANIANS, ALLOWS REFUGEES TO RETURN HOME AND AGREES TO LET A NATO-LED FORCE PROTECT THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS.

    THE ITALIAN DEFENSE MINISTER SAID THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN CAN WORK IF GIVEN SUFFICIENT TIME. HE DID NOT RULE OUT ITALIAN PARTICIPATION IN A GROUND FORCE, BUT SAID SUCH A DECISION WOULD BE UP TO ITALY'S PARLIAMENT IN THE FUTURE.

    NATO OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE MAKING NO PLANS TO SEND GROUND TROOPS TO KOSOVO, BUT MANY MILITARY EXPERTS AND MEMBERS OF THE U-S CONGRESS SAY NATO CAN NOT REACH ITS POLITICAL AND MILITARY GOALS WITHOUT PUTTING TANKS, ARTILLERY AND FOOT SOLDIERS INTO YUGOSLAVIA, OR AT LEAST MAKING A CREDIBLE THREAT TO DO THAT.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE ITALIAN DEFENSE MINISTER WAS AT THE PENTAGON FOR MEETINGS WITH U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN ABOUT LAST YEAR'S ACCIDENT THAT SAW A LOW-FLYING U-S JET KILL 20 PEOPLE AT AN ITALIAN SKI RESORT.

    A GROUP OF EXPERTS AND HIGH RANKING OFFICERS FROM BOTH NATIONS REVIEWED THE ACCIDENT AND MADE A SERIES OF RECCOMMENDATIONS TO PREVENT FUTURE ACCIDENTS. (SIGNED).
    NEB/PT
    16-Apr-99 5:09 PM EDT (2109 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] KOSOVO-ITALY-US L ONLY BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248226
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: YUGOSLAVIA TODAY (FRIDAY) REJECTED A PROPOSED PEACE PLAN PUT FORWARD LAST WEEK BY UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN. V-O-A'S U-N CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: YUGOSLAVIA'S U-N REPRESENTATIVE VLADISLAV JOVANOVIC MET BRIEFLY WITH U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN. HE PRESENTED MR. ANNAN WITH A LETTER FROM THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT REJECTING THE TWO KEY POINTS OF MR. ANNAN'S PEACE PROPOSAL -- THAT YUGOSLAVIA WITHDRAW ITS MILITARY FORCES FROM KOSOVO AND PERMIT DEPLOYMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL MILITARY FORCE.

    MR. JOVANOVIC SAID YUGOSLAVIA IS, IN HIS WORDS, NOT AT ALL OPEN TO THE IDEA OF ACCEPTING ANY FOREIGN MILITARY PRESENCE. HE SAID BELGRADE WOULD CONSIDER REDUCING ITS FORCES IN KOSOVO ONLY IN PARALLEL WITH THE END OF NATO STRIKES.

    MR. JOVANOVIC'S STATEMENT APPEARS TO END ANY HOPE OF SUCCESS FOR MR. ANNAN'S PEACE PLAN, WHICH WAS BELIEVED TO HAVE THE SUPPORT OF MOST NATO COUNTRIES.

    /// REST OPTIONAL FOR LONG ///

    IN HIS PEACE PLAN, PROPOSED LAST WEEK IN GENEVA, MR. ANNAN SAID HE WOULD URGE NATO LEADERS TO END THEIR AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA IF BELGRADE MET A SERIES OF CONDITIONS. IN ADDITION TO THE END OF MILITARY ACTIVITIES, AND THE DEPLOYMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL MILITARY FORCE, MR. ANNAN SAID YUGOSLAVIA MUST STOP EXPELLING CIVILIANS FROM KOSOVO, ACCEPT THE RETURN OF ALL REFUGEES AND PERMIT INTERNATIONAL VERIFICATION THAT ALL CONDITIONS HAVE BEEN MET. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/PT
    16-Apr-99 6:02 PM EDT (2202 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] U-N / KOSOVO (S & L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43148
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A NEWLY-RELEASED PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY INDICATES RUSSIANS' ATTITUDE TOWARD THE UNITED STATES HAS TURNED SHARPLY NEGATIVE SINCE THE BEGINNING OF AIR STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A MOSCOW CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS THAT WHILE THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT APPEARS TO BE SOFTENING ITS ANTI-AMERICAN AND ANTI-NATO RHETORIC, PUBLIC ANGER AND RESENTMENT ARE SIMMERING, AND PUBLIC PROTESTS ARE COMMON.

    TEXT:

    /// DEMONSTRATORS - FADE UNDER ///

    DEMONSTRATIONS SUCH AS THIS ONE ARE A REGULAR OCCURRENCE THESE DAYS IN CENTRAL MOSCOW. MOST ARE SMALL, BUT SEETHING WITH ANTI-WESTERN FURY NOT SEEN SINCE THE HEIGHT OF THE COLD WAR.

    TWENTY-ONE YEAR OLD MAXIM, WHO DECLINED TO GIVE HIS LAST NAME, HAS A TARGET TAPED TO THE SLEEVE OF HIS JACKET.

    /// MAXIM ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER TRANSLATOR ///

    THE NATO POWERS, LED BY THE STINKING UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, HAVE JOINED FORCES AGAINST THE ONLY OBSTACLE TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF WORLD HEGEMONY OF THE UNITED STATES. ONLY SERBIA, BELARUS, AND RUSSIA ARE LEFT. SO NOW IT IS SERBIA, THEN BELARUS, AND THEN IT WILL BE RUSSIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    MAXIM'S COMMENTS ARE EXTREME, EVEN BY MOSCOW STANDARDS. BUT A SURVEY RELEASED THIS WEEK BY THE INDEPENDENT PUBLIC OPINION FOUNDATION SHOWS THE NUMBER OF RUSSIANS WHO DISLIKE THE UNITED STATES HAS RISEN FROM 28 PERCENT TO 72 PERCENT SINCE NATO BEGAN AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    POLLSTER YURI LEVADA OF THE ALL-RUSSIAN CENTER FOR OPINION RESEARCH SAYS HIS SURVEYS REVEAL A CONTRADICTION IN PUBLIC OPINION. ON ONE HAND, PEOPLE OPPOSE THE AIRSTRIKES. ON THE OTHER, THEY ALSO OPPOSE RUSSIAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE CONFLICT.

    /// LEVADA ACT ///

    THERE ARE TWO POLES OF OUR OPINION. THE CONDEMNATION AND THE WILL FOR ABSENTION FROM THIS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE IDEA THAT THEIR COUNTRY MIGHT GET INVOLVED IN THE CONFLICT RINGS ALARM BELLS FOR MOST RUSSIANS. IT HAS BEEN ONLY A FEW YEARS SINCE THE ILL-FATED WAR IN CHECHNYA.

    A KREMLIN ADVISER ON FOREIGN AND DEFENSE POLICY, SERGEI KARAGANOV, TOLD V-O-A THERE IS A REAL FEAR, BOTH AT OFFICIAL AND PUBLIC LEVELS, THAT RUSSIA COULD GET DRAGGED INTO AN UNCONTROLLABLE WAR.

    /// KARAGANOV ACT ///

    WE DON'T WANT TO BE INVOLVED IN A WAR WHERE WE CANNOT CONTROL THINGS. STILL THINGS IN YUGOSLAVIA ARE CONTROLLED BY NATO AND (YUGOSLA PRESIDENT) MILOSEVIC, AND ANY DIRECT INVOLVEMENT WOULD PUT US IN A SITUATION WHERE WE WILL BE LED ONE WAY OR ANOTHER BY THESE PARTIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    PART OF THE SURGE IN ANTI-NATO SENTIMENT HERE IS DUE TO THE MEDIA COVERAGE. IN SHARP CONTRAST TO WESTERN STATIONS, THE RUSSIAN MEDIA HAS FOCUSED ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY ON THE DESTRUCTION CAUSED BY NATO BOMBS. UNTIL RECENTLY, THERE WAS VIRTUALLY NO MENTION OF THE REFUGEE CAMPS OR OF THE SERB CAMPAIGN OF ETHNIC CLEANSING.

    TWENTY-TWO YEAR OLD NATASHA, WHO LIKE MANY OTHER RUSSIANS REFUSED TO GIVE HER LAST NAME, SAID WHAT SHE SEES ON TELEVISION MAKES HER SYMPATHIZE WITH THE SERBS.

    /// NATASHA ACT ///

    YOUR TELEVISION AND YOUR RADIO SHOWS THAT THERE IS REPRESSION. OUR TELEVISION SHOWS THAT THERE IS NOT REPRESSION. I THINK THAT THERE IS NOT REPRESSION. I THINK THERE IS NOT REPRESSION THAT YOU CALL REPRESSION. THERE IS THE INTERNAL WAR OF YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    YURI KOBALADZE, A FORMER SENIOR RUSSIAN INTELLIGENCE OFFICER WHO IS CURRENTLY DIRECTOR OF THE STATE-RUN ITAR-TASS NEWS AGENCY, SAYS HE SEES THE CONFLICT OVER KOSOVO AS AN INFORMATION WAR.

    /// KOBALADZE ACT ///

    I CAN ACTUALLY JUDGE BY ANALYSIS OF THE PRESS, AND I THINK IT'S VERY SELECTIVE IN THE WEST, PARTICULARLY IN AMERICA. IF YOU TAKE C-N-N, I THINK THEY ARE CREATING THE PICTURE AS IF NOTHING IS GOING ON IN BELGRADE, THERE IS NO BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIAN CITIES, AND ITS ONLY A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE.

    /// END ACT ///

    EXPERTS SAY GIVEN THE SHARP DIFFERENCE IN COVERAGE, IT IS NO WONDER RUSSIAN OPINION HAS TURNED SO SHARPLY ANTI-NATO AND ESPECIALLY ANTI-AMERICAN. AS ONE PERSON EXPLAINED, THE BOMBINGS THEY ARE SEEING OVER AND OVER ON THEIR TELEVISION SCREENS ARE A JARRING REMINDER OF RUSSIA'S LOST SUPERPOWER STATUS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH
    16-Apr-99 12:05 PM EDT (1605 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] RUSSIA OPINION BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248191
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA'S HARDLINER-DOMINATED LOWER HOUSE HAS EXPRESSED OVERWHELMING SUPPORT FOR YUGOSLAVIA'S MEMBERSHIP IN A SLAVIC UNION THAT ALREADY INCLUDES RUSSIA AND BELARUS. BUT AS VOA'S PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, KREMLIN OFFICIALS HAVE MADE CLEAR THAT YUGOSLAVIA MUST END ITS WAR WITH NATO BEFORE MEMBERSHIP IN THE UNION IS CONSIDERED.

    TEXT: BY A 293-TO-54 MARGIN, THE DUMA, OR LOWER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT APPROVED A NON-BINDING RESOLUTION SUPPORTING YUGOSLAVIA'S REQUEST TO JOIN THE PAN-SLAVIC UNION. THE MOTION WAS SUPPORTED VIRTUALLY UNANIMOUSLY BY COMMUNISTS AND OTHER HARDLINERS. ONLY THE LIBERAL "YABLOKO" FACTION VOTED AGAINST. AFTERWARD, ALEXANDER SHABANOV OF THE ULTRANATIONALIST "LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC" PARTY CALLED THE VOTE A POLITICAL INITIATIVE AIMED AT ENDING NATO'S AIR STRIKES.

    ///SHABANOV ACT IN RUSSIAN, THEN FADE TO...///

    HE SAYS, "THE MAIN THING IS TO STOP THE ENDLESS BOMBING IN THE BALKANS. THE WEST SHOULD THINK WHO THEY ARE DEALING WITH AFTER YUGOSLAVIA JOINS OUR UNION."

    THE VOTE REFLECT RUSSIA'S WIDESPREAD SYMPATHY FOR YUGOSLAVIA AS IT ENDURES NATO ATTACKS ALMOST UNIVERSALLY PORTRAYED HERE AS "NAKED AGGRESSION".

    BUT YABLOKO FACTION LAWMAKER SERGEI IVANENKO CALLED THE RESOLUTION AN IRRESPONSIBLE STEP THAT PUSHES RUSSIA CLOSER TO WAR.

    ///IVANENKO ACT IN RUSSIAN, THEN FADE TO...///

    HE SAYS, "THE COMMUNISTS AND ULTRANATIONALISTS ARE GOING DOWN THE PATH OF ISOLATING RUSSIA AND PLACING HER NOT ONLY AGAINST THE WEST, BUT ALSO AGAINST MUSLIM COUNTRIES THAT SUPPORT THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES." HE CALLED THE VOTE "DANGEROUS."

    BUT KREMLIN OFFICIALS SAY DESPITE THE VOTE, YUGOSLAVIA'S ADMISSION TO THE VAGUELY-DEFINED SLAVIC UNION IS A LONG WAY OFF. PRESIDENTIAL ADVISER OLEG SYSUYEV WAS QUOTED AS SAYING EXPANDING THE UNION WOULD BE WRONG IF IT IS A STEP TOWARD DRAWING RUSSIA INTO A BALKANS CONFLICT.

    //REST OPT//

    ANOTHER SLAVIC COUNTRY, UKRAINE, FRIDAY CRITICIZED THE SLAVIC UNION AS UNHELPFUL IN ENDING THE KOSOVO CRISIS. UKRAINE'S FOREIGN MINISTER BORIS TARASYUK TOLD A NEWS CONFERENCE SUCH AN ASSOCIATION WOULD UNDERMINE EUROPEAN SECURITY, ESPECIALLY WHEN ONE OF THE MEMBERS HAS NUCLEAR WEAPONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/PCF
    16-Apr-99 8:42 AM EDT (1242 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [21] RUSSIA/YUGOSLAVIA UNION (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/17/99
    TYPE=Special English Feature
    NUMBER=7-20498
    Anniversary TELEPHONE=619-2585
    EDITOR=Arditti
    CONTENT=
    (THEME) This is _______ with the VOA Special English program IN THE NEWS. Next week, leaders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization will gather in Washington to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the alliance. Events will take place April twenty-third through the twenty-fifth. The meeting was planned as a way to celebrate NATO's history as a military alliance that ties the United States and Canada to the defense of Europe. The three-day event will be more serious, however, because of the NATO bombing in Yugoslavia. The Kosovo crisis will be discussed, in addition to the future of the alliance. Nineteen countries belong to NATO. The newest members are the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. The heads of the member nations will be joined by those from more than twenty countries in NATO's Partnership for Peace. This will be the largest gathering of world leaders ever in Washington. NATO was formed after World War Two to answer the communist threat from the Soviet Union. Members are joined by the North Atlantic Treaty. The treaty was signed in Washington on April fourth, Nineteen-Forty-Nine. It says an attack against one member will be considered an attack against all the members. After World War Two, the Soviet Union seized control of eastern European nations. There was fear that it might also try to seize western Europe. To prevent this, twelve nations signed the North Atlantic Treaty. They included Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark and France. Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Norway also signed the treaty. So did Portugal and the United States. Later, four more countries -- Greece, Turkey, West Germany and Spain -- signed the treaty. That increased the number of members to sixteen. During the Nineteen-Eighties, many non-communist governments came to power in eastern Europe. A united Germany replaced West Germany in NATO in Nineteen-Ninety. That same year, the leaders of NATO and those of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact agreed not to use military force against each other. The Warsaw alliance ended in Nineteen-Ninety-One. The Soviet Union also disappeared. A short time later, NATO created the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. It included members of NATO and the former Warsaw alliance. The council began permitting its forces to help protect peace in non-NATO countries. Now, NATO military training and planning operations include a number of other countries. Most NATO military forces are controlled by the Allied Command Europe, which establishes NATO military policies. That command is carrying out the air war in Yugoslavia -- the first NATO attack against any country in the fifty-year history of the alliance. This IN THE NEWS program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is _______________. (THEME)
    16-Apr-99 2:41 PM EDT (1841 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [22] SPECIAL ENGLISH IN THE NEWS #374 - NATO Fiftieth BY Nancy Steinbach (Washington)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5- 43154
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // THIS REPORT UPDATES A PINEAU BKG FILED EARLIER THIS MONTH ///

    INTRO: THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION --NATO--CELEBRATES ITS FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY HERE IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEK / MONTH (4/23-25). AS WORLD LEADERS MEET TO MARK THE OCCASION, THEY ARE DISCUSSING DIFFICULT QUESTIONS ABOUT NATO'S FUTURE IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA. CAROL PINEAU TAKES A LOOK AT THE ISSUES.

    TEXT: THE QUESTIONS FACING NATO'S LEADERS ARE MANY AND VARIED. SHOULD MORE OF THE FORMER COMMUNIST EASTERN BLOC COUNTRIES BE BROUGHT INTO THE NATO ALLIANCE? WHAT IS NATO'S STRATEGIC MISSION: TERRITORIAL DEFENSE OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC COUNTRIES OR PEACE KEEPING THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE REGION? DOES NATO ACTION REQUIRE A U-N SECURITY COUNCIL MANDATE?

    HANS BINNENDIJK IS THE DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE OF NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES AT THE NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY IN WASHINGTON. HE SAYS THE EUROPEAN MILITARY HAS BEEN A MAJOR TOPIC OF DISCUSSION LEADING UP TO THE SUMMIT. HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES WANTS THE EUROPEANS TO BE MORE WILLING TO PARTICIPATE IN OPERATIONS AND TO ACQUIRE MORE SOPHISTICATED MILITARY HARDWARE, ESPECIALLY COMPUTERIZED WEAPONRY. BUT THE EUROPEANS ARE RELUCTANT TO PARTICIPATE IN OPERATIONS OUTSIDE THE NATO ALLIANCE TERRITORY.

    /// BINNENDIJK ACT ///

    THE UNITED STATES IS EAGER TO HAVE ITS ALLIES PICK UP A LARGER BURDEN, NOT ONLY IN EUROPE, BUT ALSO POSSIBLY IN PLACES AS FAR AWAY AS THE PERSIAN GULF. THE EUROPEANS HAVE COUNTERED WITH OBJECTIONS TO WHAT THEY CALL A GLOBAL NATO.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE ALSO PREDICTED THE ALLIES WILL DISCUSS THE ISSUE OF U-N MANDATES.

    /// BINNENDIJK ACT ///

    I DON'T THINK NATO CAN GET ITSELF INTO A POSITION WHERE IT REQUIRES A UNITED NATIONS MANDATE IN ORDER FOR IT TO ACT BECAUSE WHAT THAT MEANS IS THAT CHINA OR RUSSIA OR BOTH HAVE A VETO OVER ANY NATO ACTION IN PLACES LIKE KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    DAVID YOST, A PROFESSOR AND AUTHOR OF THE JUST-PUBLISHED BOOK, "NATO TRANSFORMED: THE ALLIANCE'S NEW ROLES IN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY," SAYS THE ISSUE OF U-N MANDATES IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT. HE NOTES NATO'S BOMBING IN KOSOVO WAS UNDERTAKEN WITHOUT U-N ENDORSEMENT. THE MISSION ANTAGONIZED RUSSIA AND OTHER NATIONS OPPOSED TO THE OPERATION.

    MR. YOST ADDS IF NATO IS NOT SUCCESSFUL, THERE COULD BE RECRIMINATIONS WITHIN THE ALLIANCE. NATO MEMBERS MAY SAY THE ALLIANCE SHOULD HAVE SOUGHT A MANDATE FROM THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL IN ORDER TO HAVE A GREATER LEGITIMACY AND POLITICAL COVER. HE SAYS THERE IS ALSO A LONG-TERM RISK.

    /// YOST ACT ///

    NATO IN USING FORCE AGAINST A SOVEREIGN STATE WITHOUT A U-N SECURITY COUNCIL MANDATE IS SETTING AN EXAMPLE THAT COULD BE EXPLOITED BY RUSSIA, CHINA, INDIA, NIGERIA, AND OTHER MAJOR POWERS THAT COULD ASSERT "WE SEE AN OVERWHELMING HUMANITARIAN NECESSITY TO ACT, (AND) NATO USED THIS ARGUMENT TO ACT IN KOSOVO."

    /// END ACT ///

    ANOTHER EXPERT, JOHN HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR ANDREW PIERRE, SUGGESTS THE OVERRIDING CONCERN FOR THE SUMMIT IS WHETHER NATO REMAINS A PRIMARILY DEFENSE ORGANIZATION FOR MEMBER NATIONS OR EXPANDS ITS ROLE AS IT HAS IN KOSOVO.

    MR. PIERRE SAYS EVEN IF NATO IS SUCCESSFUL IN KOSOVO, IT MAY BE RELUCTANT TO BROADEN ITS CORE MISSION IN ORDER TO AVOID APPEARING TOO READY TO TAKE MILITARY ACTION.

    BUT MR. BINNENDIJK SAYS IF THE KOSOVO MISSION FAILS, THERE WILL BE WHAT HE CALLS THE "SOMALIA EFFECT," REFERRING TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S RELUCTANCE IN THE EARLY 1990'S TO INTERVENE IN CONFLICTS FOLLOWING A FAILED MISSION IN SOMALIA.

    MR. BINNENDIJK SAYS WHAT HAPPENS IN KOSOVO IS LIKELY TO IMPACT THE SUMMIT AND SOME OF THE DECISIONS THAT ARE TAKEN FOR NATO'S FUTURE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CP/LTD/JO
    16-Apr-99 4:38 PM EDT (2038 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] NATO SUMMIT ISSUES BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)

    DATE= 04/17/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08264
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    04/17/99.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    AS THE WORLD KNOWS, SERBIAN POLICE AND MILITARY FORCES HAVE BEEN CARRYING OUT MASS EXPULSIONS ON A SCALE NOT SEEN IN EUROPE SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR. THEY HAVE DRIVEN THE BULK OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM THEIR HOMES. THOUGH NOT ALL HAVE BEEN FORCED OUT OF KOSOVO, ALMOST SIX-HUNDRED SIXTY THOUSAND HAVE FLED THE PROVINCE SINCE MARCH 1998. MORE THAN THREE-FOURTHS OF THESE REFUGEES HAVE BEEN DRIVEN INTO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES DURING THE PAST TWO WEEKS. ANOTHER SEVEN-HUNDRED THOUSAND ARE DISPLACED WITHIN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    THE SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC REGIME CLAIMS THAT THIS UNPRECEDENTED EXODUS IS A VOLUNTARY RESPONSE TO NATO AIRSTRIKES -- A CLAIM THAT IS PATENTLY ABSURD AND DENIED BY THE ALBANIAN REFUGEES. SOME FOUR-HUNDRED SIXTY THOUSAND PEOPLE HAD BEEN DISPLACED BEFORE MARCH 24TH, WHEN NATO AIRSTRIKES BEGAN. REFUGEES REPORT BEING EXPELLED FROM THEIR HOMES IN KOSOVO AT GUNPOINT.

    THE BELGRADE REGIME HAS NOW ORDERED THE REFUGEES TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES -- KNOWING FULL WELL THAT MANY OF THEM HAVE NO HOMES TO GO TO. THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN HOMES IN AT LEAST TWO-HUNDRED KOSOVO CITIES, TOWNS, AND VILLAGES HAVE BEEN DELIBERATELY DESTROYED BY SERBIAN FORCES.

    HOMELESS, DENIED FOOD AND OTHER NECESSITIES BY SERBIAN AUTHORITIES, THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE SUFFERING -- AND REFUGEES REPORT THAT SOME ARE DYING FROM HUNGER, COLD, AND SICKNESSS. OTHERS ARE BEING ROBBED, RAPED, AND MURDERED BY SERBIAN POLICE, TROOPS, AND ARMED GANGS OF CIVILIANS. THE SERBIAN CAMPAIGN OF ETHNIC CLEANSING AND THE LATEST INCURSION AGAINST ALBANIA MAKE IT ABSOLUTELY CLEAR WHY NATO AND THE CIVILIZED WORLD MUST STOP SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S WAR ON THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    16-Apr-99 12:52 PM EDT (1652 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [24] EDITORIAL: KOSOVO REFUGEE CRISIS

    DATE= 04/19/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08268
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE THIRD OF THREE EDITORIALS BEING RELEASED FOR
    BROADCAST 04/19/99.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    HORRENDOUS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES HAVE BEEN COMMITTED BY SERB FORCES AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. DAVID SCHEFFER, U.S. AMBASSADOR AT LARGE, INTERVIEWED REFUGEES AT THE YUGOSLAV-MACEDONIA BORDER FOR FIFTEEN HOURS. THE LITANY OF HORRORS MR. SCHEFFER RECORDED IS CHILLING. THE REFUGEE ACCOUNTS WERE CONSISTENT AND SHOWED A WELL-PLANNED SERBIAN CAMPAIGN. ONE REFUGEE WHO SOUGHT TO CARRY HIS MOTHER WAS STOPPED. HIS MOTHER WAS SHOT DEAD. HE WAS THEN TOLD BY THE SERB GUNMAN, "LOOK, I'VE MADE YOUR HIKE EASIER."

    REFUGEES REPORT MASS KILLINGS, RAPES, A FORCED MARCH, MURDER VICTIMS LEFT IN THE STREETS, INJURED CHILDREN, AND PEOPLE STUFFED IN RAIL CARS. THE U.S. HAS BEEN ABLE TO CORROBORATE ACCOUNTS OF ONE MASS EXECUTION NEAR PUSTO SALO, A VILLAGE IN SOUTHWEST KOSOVO. REFUGEES ARRIVING AT THE BORDER HAVE DESCRIBED YUGOSLAV TROOPS GUNNING DOWN MORE THAN ONE-HUNDRED MEN AND BOYS. THE SYSTEMATIC CRIMINAL CONDUCT OF SERB MILITARY, PARAMILITARY, AND POLICE UNITS IN KOSOVO CONSTITUTES WAR CRIMES AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, AND POINTS TO GENOCIDE.

    THOSE COMMITTING THESE CRIMES MUST BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE. THE UNITED STATES HAS NAMED NINE SUSPECTED SERBIAN WAR CRIMINALS. THEY ARE COLONEL MILOS MANDIC, MAJOR GENERAL VLADIMIR LAZAREVIC, COLONEL MLADEN CIRKOVIC, COLONEL DRAGAN ZIVANOVIC, COLONEL KRSMAN JELIC, COLONEL BOZIDAR DELIC, COLONEL RADOJKO STEFANOVIC, COLONEL MILOS DJOSAN, AND MAJOR ZELJKO PEKOVIC. THE UNITED NATIONS TRIBUNAL RECENTLY REVEALED THAT THE NOTORIOUS SERBIAN PARAMILITARY LEADER KNOWN AS ARKAN IS ALSO A WANTED WAR CRIMES SUSPECT.

    ANY COMMANDER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CRIMES COMMITTED BY SOLDIERS UNDER HIM IF HE FAILS TO TAKE STEPS TO PREVENT THOSE CRIMES. ANY YUGOSLAV ARMY OR SERB POLICE COMMANDER WHO PLANS, INSTIGATES, ORDERS, AIDS, OR ABETS WAR CRIMES WILL BE HELD INDIVIDUALLY RESPONSIBLE.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    16-Apr-99 1:51 PM EDT (1751 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [25] EDITORIAL: SERBIAN WAR CRIMINALS WANTED

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43144
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S INTERIM PRIME MINISTER, BULENT ECEVIT, IS ONE OF THE LEADING CONTENDERS IN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS TO BE HELD SUNDAY. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN RESORT OF ANTALYA, MR ECEVIT, IS THE NEW HERO OF TURKEY'S PRO-SECULAR MAJORITY.

    TEXT: THOUSANDS OF SUPPORTERS GATHERED HERE UNDER RAINY SKIES TO GREET BULENT ECEVIT, LEADER OF THE DEMOCRATIC LEFT PARTY AND TURKEY'S CURRENT PRIME MINISTER.

    /// CHEERING CROWDS - FADE UNDER ///

    FOR MANY HERE, MR. ECEVIT IS WHAT THE CHANTING CROWDS DESCRIBE AS "THE CONQUEROR OF KENYA." MR. ECEVIT'S POPULARITY HAS SKYROCKETED SINCE THE CAPTURE IN FEBRUARY OF KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN IN NAIROBI, KENYA BY TURKISH SPECIAL FORCES.

    THE ARREST OF THE MAN TURKEY BLAMES FOR THE DEATHS OF MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND OF ITS CITIZENS CAME JUST TWO WEEKS AFTER MR. ECEVIT BECAME INTERIM PRIME MINISTER IN THE PERIOD BEFORE SUNDAY'S POLLS.

    SOME OPINION POLLS SAY MR. ECEVIT IS NOW SET TO RECEIVE A LARGER SHARE OF THE VOTE THAN HIS CHIEF RIVALS, THE ISLAMISTS, WHO WON THE LAST ELECTIONS IN 1995. MR ECEVIT'S REPUTATION FOR PROBITY AMID A SEA OF CORRUPTION TAINTED RIVALS HAS ALSO ENHANCED HIS POPULARITY IN RECENT MONTHS.

    MR. ECEVIT IS A 73-YEAR-OLD FORMER JOURNALIST WHO HAS BEEN PRIME MINISTER THREE TIMES BEFORE. HE IS BEST KNOWN ABROAD AS THE MAN WHO ORDERED TURKISH TROOPS INTO CYPRUS IN 1974.

    MR ECEVIT'S ADVOCACY OF THE CONTINUED PRESENCE OF TURKISH TROOPS ON THE MEDITERRANEAN ISLAND HAS LED MANY WESTERN GOVERNMENTS TO LABEL HIM A HAWK ON FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES. FOR THAT REASON, SOME WERE WARY WHEN MR. ECEVIT RETURNED TO POWER EARLIER THIS YEAR.

    IN A RECENT INTERVIEW, MR. ECEVIT, SAID HE DOES NOT BELIEVE RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND THE UNITED STATES AND WITH EUROPE WOULD SUFFER SHOULD HE RETURN TO POWER.

    /// ECEVIT ACT ONE ///

    ALTHOUGH I STOOD FIRMLY IN REGARD TO CERTAIN ISSUES, OBJECTIVES, AND RIGHTS AND TURKEY, I DID NOT HAVE ANY REAL DIFFICULTIES WITH EITHER WESTERN EUROPEAN OR UNITED STATES ADMINISTRATIONS. THEY HAVE REALIZED I WAS FOLLOWING A COHERENT AND CONSISTENT POLICY AND THAT IN DEFENDING AND ENHANCING TURKEY'S RIGHTS, I TOOK CARE NOT TO CREATE PROBLEMS FOR THE REST OF THE WORLD.

    /// END ACT ///

    MANY WESTERN DIPLOMATS HERE DESCRIBE THE WORKING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEIR GOVERNMENTS AND MR. ECEVIT AS EXTREMELY SMOOTH. U-S OFFICIALS, IN PARTICULAR, SAY MR. ECEVIT HAS BEEN EXTREMELY COOPERATIVE WITH REGARD TO POLICY ON IRAQ. U-S AND BRITISH FIGHTER JETS STATIONED AT A NATO AIRBASE IN SOUTHERN TURKEY ENFORCE THE SO-CALLED "NO FLY" ZONE OVER KURDISH-CONTROLLED NORTHERN IRAQ. MR. ECEVIT RECENTLY REJECTED IRAQ"S DEMANDS THAT THE ALLIED MISSION BE SCRAPPED.

    NONETHELESS, MR. ECEVIT CONTINUES TO EXPRESS CONCERN ABOUT THE SITUATION IN IRAQ, SAYING THAT U-S POLICY HAS -- IN HIS WORDS -- RESULTED IN A VIRTUAL PARTITION OF THAT COUNTRY BETWEEN KURDS AND ARABS WHICH HAS A DESTABILIZING EFFECT ON TURKEY. WHICH HAS ABOUT 12-MILLION ETHNIC KURDS.

    /// ECEVIT ACT TWO ///

    I CLAIMED THAT THIS WOULD CREATE IMMENSE PROBLEMS FOR TURKEY, BOTH SECURITY-WISE AND WITH REGARD TO THE ECONOMY, AND THIS HAS BEEN THE RESULT. UNFORTUNATELY, THE SITUATION HAS MORE OR LESS SOLIDIFIED AND VERY DIFFICULT TO DISENTANGLE AND IT NEEDS GREAT PATIENCE. AND AS LONG AS THE UNITED STATES POLICY VIRTUALLY ENABLING KEEPING IRAQ PARTITIONED CONTINUES TO CREATE PROBLEMS FOR US.

    /// END ACT ///

    MOST ANALYSTS AGREE THAT FOR ALL HIS NEWFOUND POPULARITY, MR. ECEVIT WILL NOT BE ABLE TO SECURE ENOUGH VOTES TO FORM A GOVERNMENT ON HIS OWN. MORE LIKELY, THEY SAY, THE GOVERNMENT TO EMERGE FROM SUNDAY"S POLLS WILL BE ANOTHER COALITION. AND COALITIONS HAVE SO FAR PROVED UNABLE ANALYSTS SAY TO SOLVE TURKEY'S PROBLEMS -- BE THEY IN HUMAN RIGHTS, THE ECONOMY, OR THE 15-YEAR KURDISH CONFLICT IN THE SOUTHEAST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH
    16-Apr-99 9:16 AM EDT (1316 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [26] TURKEY ELECTIONS / ECEVIT BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANTALYA, TURKEY)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248210
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT (E-B-R-D) SAYS EVEN BEFORE THE WAR IN KOSOVO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION HAD GROUND TO A NEAR HALT, MAINLY BECAUSE OF THE IMPACT OF LAST YEAR'S FINANCIAL CRISIS IN RUSSIA. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THE E-B-R-D IS BEGINNING ITS ANNUAL SHAREHOLDERS MEETING IN LONDON.

    TEXT: THE E-B-R-D HAS REVISED SHARPLY DOWNWARDS ITS GROWTH FORECAST FOR 1999. IN A REVISION TO ITS ANNUAL TRANSITION REPORT, PREPARED BEFORE THE NATO CAMPAIGN IN YUGOSLAVIA, THE BANK SAYS THE CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN ECONOMIES WILL GROW ONLY ONE POINT NINE PERCENT THIS YEAR, COMPARED TO TWO POINT THREE PERCENT IN 1998. IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, THE FORECAST IS EVEN WORSE. THOSE ECONOMIES WILL CONTRACT FOUR PERCENT THIS YEAR, COMPARED TO A THREE AND A HALF PERCENT DECLINE IN 1998.

    WORLD BANK EXPERTS SAY THE REGIONAL RECESSION IS LIKELY TO BE SUBSTANTIALLY MORE SEVERE SINCE THE WAR IN KOSOVO HAS SOURED BOTH INVESTORS AND TOURISTS ON THE BALKANS AS A WHOLE. TOURIST BOOKINGS TO TURKEY AND CROATIA ARE SHARPLY DOWN AND THE ECONOMIES OF MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA ARE SEVERELY DISRUPTED BY THE FLOW OF REFUGEES.

    /// OPT ///

    THE EUROPEAN BANK, SET UP IN 1991 TO PROMOTE FREE MARKETS IN THE EAST, IS OWNED BY SHAREHOLDER GOVERNMENTS, AND EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES ARE THE DOMINANT SHAREHOLDERS. THE BANK'S ANNUAL MEETING AT ITS LONDON HEADQUARTERS CONTINUES UNTIL WEDNESDAY. /// END OPT ///

    THE CRISIS IN THE BALKANS HAS PROMPTED THE WORLD BANK TO CONVENE AN EMERGENCY MEETING OF AID DONORS FOR MACEDONIA IN PARIS ON MAY FIFTH. FINANCE MINISTERS IN ALBANIA, CROATIA, BULGARIA AND ROMANIA ARE SEEKING EMERGENCY LOANS TO MAKE UP FOR REVENUES LOST BY DISRUPTED COMMERCE. IN LONDON, THE BULGARIAN DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER SAYS THE KOSOVO WAR IS DISCOURAGING FOREIGN INVESTMENT, WHICH HE EXPECTS TO TOTAL ONLY 500 MILLION DOLLARS THIS YEAR, HALF WHAT HAD BEEN ANTICIPATED. BOTH BULGARIA AND ROMANIA BORDER SERBIA. THEY BOTH HAVE BEEN AFFECTED BY THE DISRUPTION OF SHIPPING ON THE DANUBE RIVER CAUSED BY THE DESTRUCTION OF BRIDGES IN SERBIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/GE
    16-Apr-99 3:00 PM EDT (1900 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [27] E EURO FORECAST (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/16/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248221
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE MIXED TODAY (FRIDAY). TRADERS BREATHED A SIGH OF RELIEF AS A RAUCOUS, VOLATILE WEEK CAME TO A CLOSE ON WALL STREET. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 31 POINTS -- THREE-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT -- TO CLOSE AT 10-THOUSAND-493. THAT IS A FIFTH STRAIGHT RECORD HIGH FOR THE DOW THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FOUR POINTS DOWN AT 13-HUNDRED-18. AND THE NASDAQ (INDEX) LOST ONE-AND-ONE-HALF PERCENT, AS TECHNOLOGY STOCKS CONTINUED TO SELL OFF.

    ANALYSTS BELIEVE THE STOCK MARKET IS RE-ALIGNING ITSELF, EVEN BROADENING A BIT. MONEY IS MOVING INTO NEW SECTORS -- AWAY FROM THE BIG STOCKS THAT HAVE LED THE MARKET SINCE LAST YEAR.

    // OPT //

    SENIOR ANALYST TED WEISBERG SAYS IT PROBABLY IS A GOOD THING TO REFRESH THE MARKET PERIODICALLY WITH NEW INTERESTS:

    /// WEISBERG ACT ///

    I THINK THE SECTOR ROTATION IS -- PERHAPS THEY JUST GOT TIRED OF THOSE STOCKS FOR WHATEVER REASONS AND THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF REALLY INTERESTING COMPANIES THAT HAVE NOT PARTICIPATED THE LAST SIX TO NINE MONTHS. I WOULD HAVE TO THINK IT'S SORT OF HEALTHY.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    EASTMAN KODAK -- THE LEADING PHOTOGRAPHY COMPANY -- HELPED PROP UP THE DOW JONES AVERAGE AFTER REPORTING BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED QUARTERLY EARNINGS.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    CATERPILLAR TRACTOR, THE WORLD'S LARGEST MAKER OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT, ALSO REPORTED BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED PROFITS. BUT THEY WERE ACTUALLY LOWER THAN ONE YEAR AGO. AND CATERPILLAR'S INCOME FELL OVER 50 PERCENT.

    THE COMPANY PLANS TO SHUT DOWN U-S AND LATIN AMERICAN PRODUCTION TEMPORARILY, TO TRY TO BRING ITS INVENTORIES DOWN IN LINE WITH SALES. CATERPILLAR ALSO INTENDS TO CUT JOBS.

    MERRILL LYNCH DOWNGRADED COMPUTER-MAKER SUN MICROSYSTEMS, DESPITE THE FACT THE COMPANY CAME IN WITH BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED EARNINGS. ANALYSTS SAY THEY ARE WORRIED ABOUT SUN MICROSYSTEM'S FUTURE EARNINGS.

    IN U-S ECONOMIC NEWS, THE NUMBER OF NEW HOMES UNDER CONSTRUCTION FELL ONE-POINT-THREE PERCENT IN MARCH. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION WAS UP ONE-TENTH OF ONE PERCENT. THAT IS HALF OF WHAT ECONOMISTS EXPECTED. THE GOOD NEWS IS, INFLATION IN THE UNITED STATES REMAINS NEGLIGIBLE. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/EJ/LSF/WTW
    16-Apr-99 5:18 PM EDT (2118 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [28] NY ECON WRAP (S&L) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=04/16/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11244
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EDT ////

    INTRO: THE NATO AIR ASSAULT ON YUGOSLOVIA OVER KOSOVO REMAINS THE DOMINANT EDITORIAL TOPIC IN FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS, ESPECIALLY IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE ACCIDENTAL NATO BOMBING OF A REFUGEE CONVOY. WHILE SOME PAPERS QUESTION WHETHER "WE'RE DOING MORE HARM THAN GOOD IN KOSOVO," THE MAJORITY OF OPINIONS EXPRESS SADNESS FOR THE LOST LIVES, BUT SUPPORT CONTINUED BOMBING.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: DEALING WITH CHINA; THE UNCERTAIN FUTURE OF ALGERIA AFTER THURSDAY'S ELECTION; THE PROGRESS OF GENERAL PINOCHET'S EXTRADITION; AND MALAYSIAN JUSTICE. NOW, HERE IS _______________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND A FEW EXCERPTS IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON TALKED THURSDAY/YESTERDAY ABOUT THE NATO BOMBING ACCIDENT AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF U-S NEWSPAPER PUBLISHERS IN SAN FRANCISCO. "THE SAN JOSE [CALIFORNIA] MERCURY NEWS" SAYS OF HIS COMMENTS:

    VOICE: TOO BAD [MR.] CLINTON WASN'T ASKED HOW TO TELL IF WE'RE DOING MORE HARM THAT GOOD IN KOSOVO ... [HOWEVER] THE PRESIDENT ... WAS ABSOLUTELY RIGHT ... WHEN HE SAID NATO'S ACCIDENTAL BOMBING OF CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO WAS REGRETTABLE AND TRAGIC, BUT NO REASON TO STOP THE AIR WAR.

    TEXT: IN NEW HAMPSHIRE, "THE MANCHESTER UNION LEADER" BLAMES 'THE FOG (CONFUSION) OF WAR' FOR WHAT IT CALLS THE "HORRIBLE MISTAKE," BUT GOES ON TO CRITICIZE THE PRESIDENT.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// GIVEN THE CONFUSION AND CHAOS THAT MILITARY STRATEGISTS CALL 'THE FOG OF WAR,' SUCH MISTAKES CANNOT BE AVOIDED. /// END OPT /// ... THESE UNFORTUNATE ERRORS DEMONSTRATE THE INHERENT FLAWS IN BILL CLINTON'S BOMBS -ONLY POLICY. ... STRIKING ... THE SERBS' MOBILE MILITARY FORCES IN KOSOVO ... IS MUCH MORE DIFFICULT ... WHERE CIVILIANS AND SOLDIERS ARE ALL MIXED UP, THE WEATHER AND TERRAIN ARE ATROCIOUS, AND PILOTS HAVE TO GO IN LOW AND SLOW TO HIT THEIR TARGETS ...

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: IN PORTLAND, "THE OREGONIAN" SAYS NATO NEEDS TO DO A MORE CANDID JOB OF EXPLAINING ITS ATTACKS, ESPECIALLY THE ERRORS, LIKE KILLING PEOPLE IN THE REFUGEE CONVOY.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// NOBLE AS NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN TO STOP ... PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S WAR ON ETHNIC ALBANIANS .... SKEPTICISM ABOUT THE ALLIED EFFORT ABOUNDS. /// END OPT /// ... THE LAST THING THE WAR NEEDS IS DOUBTS ABOUT THE INFORMATION COMING OUT OF NATO AND THE PENTAGON. /// OPT /// YET A FEW MORE PUBLIC-RELATIONS PERFORMANCES LIKE THE ONE THAT TOOK PLACE WEDNESDAY COULD SERIOUSLY UNDERMINE CONFIDENCE IN THIS MISSION. ... /// END OPT /// FIRST NATO HEADQUARTERS DENIED THE REPORT AND SAID SERB TROOPS HAD ATTACKED THE REFUGEES ... THEN THEY CLAIMED A YUGOSLAV PLANE ACTUALLY BOMBED THE ... CONVOY ... FINALLY, NATO OFFICIALS ADMITTED THAT, WELL, YES, AN ALLIED AIRCRAFT HAD 'MISTAKENLY' DROPPED A BOMB ON A VEHICLE IN A CONVOY OF ... REFUGEES. ... NO INFORMATION IS BETTER THAN BAD INFORMATION. WHY COULDN'T NATO SPOKESMAN [HAVE] WAITED FOR FACTS BEFORE LAUNCHING THEIR SPIN? [EXPLANATION]

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" AGREES WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON, AT LEAST FOR NOW, THAT THE "AIR WAR IS STILL THE KEY" DESPITE THE MISTAKEN ATTACK, AND "THE AKRON [OHIO] BEACON JOURNAL" BLAMES THE ACCIDENT ON MR. "MILOSEVIC'S WAR." "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" ASKS, IN VIEW OF THE NATO APOLOGY, "HAS [MR.] MILOSEVIC EVER APOLOGIZED?," ADDING:

    VOICE: ... LET'S BE PERFECTLY CLEAR ABOUT WHO IS TO BLAME FOR THE AGONY. IT WAS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT ... MILOSEVIC WHO LAUNCHED A MURDEROUS CAMPAIGN TO ETHNICALLY CLEANSE KOSOVO OF ITS MUSLIM ALBANIANS POPULATION. .... THIS IS NOT A WAR OF NATO'S MAKING. /// OPT /// IT IS A CAMPAIGN TO STOP [MR.] MILOSEVIC FROM BRUTALIZING DEFENSELESS CIVILIANS AND DESTABILIZING NATO'S SOUTHERN FLANK. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: QUICKLY AND BRIEFLY ON TO OTHER TOPICS, SUCH AS DEALING WITH CHINA, WHEREIN "THE PROVIDENCE [RHODE ISLAND] JOURNAL" SUGGESTS AMERICANS ASSUME A MORE REALISTIC ATTITUDE, IN THE WAKE OF ALLEGATIONS THAT THE CHINESE STOLE NUCLEAR SECRETS FROM U-S LABS AND CONTRIBUTED ILLEGALLY TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S REELECTION CAMPAIGN.

    VOICE: ... GIVE THE CHINESE CREDIT. THEY'RE NOT OUR ALLIES, WE SPY ON THEM, AND THEY MANAGED TO OBTAIN SECRET NUCLEAR INFORMATION THE SAME WAY THE RUSSIANS DID 50 YEARS AGO: BY RECRUITING SCIENTISTS, AND INFILTRATING THE PROFESSIONAL STAFF AT WEAPONS LABORATORIES. ... THE CHINESE HAVE DONE WHAT GOVERNMENTS DO. THIS DOESN'T EXCUSE THEIR BEHAVIOR, OF COURSE. BUT THE ANGER OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE OUGHT TO BE MORE USEFULLY DIRECTED AT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION.

    /// OPT ///

    ... WHAT IS OUTRAGEOUS IS THE REVELATION THAT NO ACTION WAS TAKEN TO COUNTERACT CHINESE ESPIONAGE ... FOR TWO LONG YEARS BECAUSE THE WHITE HOUSE DID NOT WISH TO JEOPARDIZE ITS BLOSSOMING RELATIONS WITH BEIJING. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: STILL IN ASIA, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" IS NOT PLEASED WITH WHAT LOOKS LIKE AN ESCALATING ARMS RACE IN THE SUB-CONTINENT, WITH INDIA AND PAKISTAN MISSILE TESTS. "THE GLOBE SAYS" THE TESTS CONFIRMS:

    VOICE: ... FEARS OF A REGIONAL ARMS RACE IN NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND THE VEHICLES (MISSILES) TO DELIVER THEM. ... MORE DISQUIETING IS THE SENSE THAT THE LEADERS OF BOTH INDIA AND PAKISTAN ARE RIDING A TIGER. THEY ARE NOT GUIDING THE PROLIFERATION BEAST; THEY ARE BEING TAKEN FOR A TERRIFYING RIDE /// OPT /// .. WHETHER THEY ARE BEING CARRIED TOWARD A CATASTROPHE BY DOMESTIC POLITICS, GEOPOLITICS, OR SOME FORM OF SUB-CONTINENTAL MACHISMO MATTERS NOT. .... THEY ARE CREATING A FORM OF GLOBAL INSTABILITY THAT WILL MAKE THE COLD WAR CONCEPT OF MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION - - M-A-D - - LOOK LIKE A GOLDEN AGE OF PEACE AND SECURITY.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: AS FOR ALGERIA'S MUCH VAUNTED PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, IN WHICH FORMER FOREIGN MINISTER ABDELAZIZ BOUTEFLIKA WAS THE WINNER OF A PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION THAT WAS THROWN INTO TURMOIL BY THE LAST-MINUTE WITHDRAWAL OF ALL THE OTHER CANDIDATES. "THE WASHINGTON POST" LAMENTS:

    VOICE: A RARE DEMOCRATIC OPENING HAS BEEN ALL BUT SLAMMED SHUT BY THE WAY ELECTIONS WERE HANDLED IN ALGERIA. THE LOSS EXTENDS BEYOND THE FAILURE TO ARRANGE A BALLOT-BOX EXIT FROM A CIVIL WAR THAT HAS PLAGUED THE COUNTRY SINCE 1992 ..... THE LOSS ALSO TOUCHES A RANGE OF OTHER ISLAMIC COUNTRIES THAT ARE IN DEEP NEED OF A SUCCESSFUL MODEL OF A LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC ISLAMIC REGIME BUT ARE APPARENTLY NOT GOING TO FIND ONE HERE.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: AND AS FOR THE FUTURE OF FORMER CHILEAN DICTATOR AUGUSTO PINOCHET, AND HIS POSSIBLE EXTRADITION FROM BRITAIN TO SPAIN, ON HUMAN RIGHTS CHARGES, "THE MIAMI HERALD" SAYS TODAY: "CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY AREN'T INTERNAL MATTERS."

    VOICE: BRITISH HOME SECRETARY JACK STRAW YESTERDAY, AGAIN, AFFIRMED THAT SPAIN'S EXTRADITION REQUEST TO PUT THE FORMER CHILEAN DICTATOR ON TRIAL MAY GO FORWARD. HIS DECISION DOESN'T MEAN THAT MR. PINOCHET WILL BE TRIED SOON, IF EVER. BUT IT KEEPS ALIVE THE CASE THAT IS PUSHING THE ENVELOPE (I.E. GOING INTO NEW TERRITORY) ON THE HUMAN-RIGHTS LAW - - EVEN AS IT CLASHES WITH ESTABLISHED PRINCIPLES OF NONINTERVENTION IN THE AFFAIRS OF SOVEREIGN STATES. /// OPT /// .... WE ARE MOVING TOWARD A GLOBAL SOCIETY. THAT BRAVE NEW WORLD CAME CRASHING IN ON MR. PINOCHET. THIS CASE IS A STEP INTO A FUTURE WHERE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS WILL REGULATE HOW HUMAN BEINGS SHOULD BE TREATED ...THE PATH TO A SAFER AND MORE-JUST WORLD. /// END OPT ///

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THE SEXUAL MISCONDUCT CONVICTION OF FORMER MALAYSIAN DEPUTY PREMIER ANWAR IBRAHIM, IN WHAT IS WIDELY REGARDED AS A POLITICAL SHOW TRIAL ON FABRICATED CHARGES, DRAWS THIS RESPONSE FROM "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL."

    VOICE: IF ANYONE WANTS TO PROTEST OVER MR. ANWAR, [EDITORS: MEANING, MR. ANWAR'S TREATMENT IN THIS CASE] THE BEST WAY NOW WOULD BE TO BEGIN LAYING THE GROUNDWORK FOR A MULTIPARTY DEMOCRACY, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT POLITICIANS ARE MEANT TO BE SERVANTS OF THE PEOPLE, NOT THEIR MASTERS OR MANIPULATORS.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF FRIDAY'S PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    16-Apr-99 11:25 AM EDT (1525 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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