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Voice of America, 97-08-28

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BOSNIA - PLAVSIC (S/L) BY ART CHIMES (BANJA LUKA)
  • [02] BOSNIA SERBS (S) BY ART CHIMES (BANJA LUKA, BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA)
  • [03] EDITORIAL: ALBRIGHT -- BOSNIA IS A "TEST CASE"
  • [04] EGYPT / COPTS BY JESSICA JONES (CAIRO)
  • [05] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [07] PEACE-KEEPING'S GAINS AND LOSSES BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] U-S / BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (MARTHA'S VINEYARD, MASS.)
  • [10] U-S / BOSNIA (L) BY REBECCA MCMENAMIN (PENTAGON)

  • [01] BOSNIA - PLAVSIC (S/L) BY ART CHIMES (BANJA LUKA)

    DATE=8/28/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219095
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RERUNNING TO CORRECT NAME OF POLITICAL PARTY IN INTRO. //

    INTRO: BOSNIAN SERB PRESIDENT BILJANA PLAVSIC HAS INAUGURATED HER NEW POLITICAL PARTY -- THE "SERBIAN NATIONAL FEDERATION" (OR S-N-S). FROM BANJA LUKA, WHERE MS. PLAVSIC HAS HER HEADQUARTERS, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS THAT THE NEW PARTY IS SENDING SOME MIXED MESSAGES.

    TEXT:

    // MUSIC -- ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    ALMOST 300 PARTY DELEGATES STOOD AT ATTENTION (THURSDAY) AS A CHOIR SANG THE BOSNIAN SERB ANTHEM. THEY ALSO GAVE A STANDING OVATION TO THEIR LEADER, PRESIDENT BILJANA PLAVSIC, WHO SAID SHE WOULD HONOR THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT.

    // PLAVSIC ACTUALITY (IN SERBIAN: ESTAB AND FADE) //

    SHE SAID EVERYONE IS WELCOME IN THE SERB REPUBLIC, IF THEY AGREED TO ACCEPT AND DEFEND ITS LAWS AND VALUES. A KEY INSTITUTION REPRESENTING ONE OF THOSE VALUES, THE PARTY PROGRAM MADE CLEAR, IS THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH -- WHICH IS NOT ACCEPTED BY THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS WHO WERE PUSHED OUT DURING THE WAR.

    THE PARTY PLATFORM GAVE LIP SERVICE (INSINCERE TRIBUTE) TO THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT -- WHICH ENVISAGES A UNIFIED BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT THE DETAILS EMPHASIZED THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF THE SERB REPUBLIC AND LINKS TO SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAVIA.

    // REST OPT FOR LONG VERSION ONLY //

    PRESIDENT PLAVSIC IS LOCKED IN A POWER STRUGGLE WITH HER HARDLINE PREDECESSOR, INDICTED WAR CRIMES SUSPECT RADOVAN KARADZIC. FROM HIS HEADQUARTERS IN THE SARAJEVO SUBURB OF PALE (PAH-LAY), MR. KARADZIC PRESIDES OVER WHAT IS WIDELY BELIEVED TO BE A PROFITABLE CRIMINAL NETWORK OF SMUGGLING AND OTHER BLACK MARKET ACTIVITIES. IN HER SPEECH, MS. PLAVSIC REPEATEDLY REFERRED TO THE CRIMINALS AND CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES CENTERED IN PALE.

    PALE AND MOST OF THE REST OF THE EASTERN SERB REPUBLIC REMAIN UNDER THE DOMINATION OF MR. KARADZIC, WHILE MS. PLAVSIC HAS WON SUBSTANTIAL BACKING IN WESTERN AREAS. SHE HAS DONE SO WITH HELP FROM THE INTERNATIONAL POWERS WHO HAVE BACKED HER AS THE CONSTITUTIONAL LEADER OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS. WITH INTERNATIONAL HELP, SHE HAS BEEN MOVING TO ASSERT CONTROL OVER INSTITUTIONS -- INCLUDING POLICE STATIONS AND TELEVISION TRANSMITTERS.

    NATO-LED FORCES HELPED EJECT PRO-KARADZIC FORCES FROM POLICE STATIONS IN BANJA LUKA LAST WEEK. BUT EARLY THURSDAY, A SIMILAR ATTEMPT MET RESISTANCE WHEN ARMED NATO TROOPS WERE TURNED BACK FROM A POLICE STATION IN BRCKO ('BIRCH-KO) BY STONE-THROWING RESIDENTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF
    28-Aug-97 10:29 AM EDT (1429 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BOSNIA SERBS (S) BY ART CHIMES (BANJA LUKA, BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA)

    DATE=8/28/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219077
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///// EDS: WATCH FOR UPDATES /////

    INTRO: NATO-LED TROOPS EARLY THURSDAY MOVED INTO POSITIONS IN AN APPARENT EFFORT TO KEEP THE PEACE IN THE BOSNIAN-SERB REPUBLIC. BUT THEIR PRESENCE IN ONE TOWN TRIGGERED AN OUTBURST OF ANGER AGAINST THE TROOPS, WHO WERE FORCED TO WITHDRAW. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM THE BOSNIAN-SERB CITY OF BANJA LUKA.

    TEXT: SOLDIERS OF THE NATO-LED "STABILIZATION FORCE" MOVED INTO AT LEAST TWO BOSNIAN SERB TOWNS. IT IS AN APPARENT EFFORT TO PREVENT VIOLENCE IN THE POWER STRUGGLE BETWEEN PRESIDENT BILJANA PLAVSIC AND HER HARDLINE RIVAL, RADOVAN KARADZIC. IN BRCKO (EDS: 'BURCH-KO), TROOPS WENT IN TO SECURE A POLICE STATION CONTROLLED BY KARADZIC LOYALISTS, BUT REPORTS SAY LOCAL TOWNSPEOPLE THREW ROCKS AND FORCED THEM TO WITHDRAW. A SIMILAR OPERATION IN BANJA LUKA LAST WEEK SAW HARDLINE POLICE REPLACED BY OFFICIALS WHO HAVE PLEDGED TO SUPPORT THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT.

    THERE ARE UN-CONFIRMED REPORTS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC MAY FLY TO BANJA LUKA TO MEET WITH MS. PLAVSIC, SIGNALING A POSSIBLE NEW STAGE IN THE POWER STRUGGLE. THE HEAD OF SERBIAN-LED YUGOSLAVIA COULD HAVE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON THE DISPUTE BETWEEN HIS FELLOW SERBS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF/RAE
    28-Aug-97 5:41 AM EDT (0941 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EDITORIAL: ALBRIGHT -- BOSNIA IS A "TEST CASE"

    DATE= AUGUST 29, 1997
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07421
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    AUGUST 29, 1997.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    AS SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAID THIS MONTH, BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS "A TEST CASE FOR WHETHER INTER-ETHNIC HATRED CAN GIVE WAY TO INTER-ETHNIC COOPERATION; AND WHETHER DEMOCRACY CAN BRING TOGETHER THOSE WHO HAVE PREVIOUSLY ENGAGED IN BITTER FIGHTING. IT IS A TEST CASE, AS WELL," SAID MRS. ALBRIGHT, "FOR THE RULE OF LAW. JUSTICE DEMANDS THAT THOSE INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES STAND TRIAL. AND PEACE DEPENDS ON WHETHER THOSE WHO SIGNED THE DAYTON ACCORDS LIVE UP TO THEM." THE 1995 DAYTON ACCORDS PROVIDE FOR A SINGLE BOSNIAN STATE CONSISTING OF TWO MULTI-ETHNIC ENTITIES -- A MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND A SERB REPUBLIC. AS SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT STRESSED, THE UNITED STATES WILL DO ALL IT CAN TO HELP THOSE WHO WANT TO TRAVEL THE ROAD ENVISIONED IN THE 1995 DAYTON ACCORDS -- THE ROAD OF RECONCILIATION, DEMOCRACY, PROSPERITY AND PEACE. SHE SAID THERE HAVE BEEN SOME ENCOURAGING SIGNS IN BOSNIA RECENTLY. THE RECORD ON REFUGEE RETURNS HAS IMPROVED. MUSLIMS AND CROATS ARE WORKING TOGETHER BETTER IN THEIR FEDERATION. PROGRESS IS BEING MADE IN ENSURING THAT PEOPLE INDICTED ON WAR CRIMES CHARGES ARE TAKEN TO THE HAGUE FOR TRIAL. AND U.S. SPECIAL ENVOYS RICHARD HOLBROOKE AND ROBERT GELBARD HAVE MADE CLEAR TO LEADERS THROUGHOUT THE REGION THAT THE U.S. WILL USE ITS LEVERAGE IN THE CAUSE OF PEACE.

    SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT SPOKE AT THE SWEARING-IN CEREMONY FOR RICHARD KAUZLARICH, THE NEW U.S. AMBASSADOR TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AS HE SAID, THE U.S. HOPES FOR A RESTORATION OF SOCIAL INTERACTIONS AMONG THE VARIOUS ETHNIC COMMUNITIES WITHIN BOSNIA. SUCH A VISION OF BOSNIA IS THE ONLY POSSIBILITY FOR PEACE IN THIS TROUBLED REGION. "RATHER THAN [BEING] A SYMBOL OF INTOLERANCE, HATRED AND HORROR," SAID AMBASSADOR KAUZLARICH, "BOSNIA CAN BE THE DEMOCRATIC HOME TO MUSLIMS, CROATS AND SERBS BASED ON JUSTICE AND THE RULE OF LAW. THIS IS OUR GOAL; AND THAT, WE BELIEVE, IS ALSO THE DREAM OF THE PEOPLE OF BOSNIA."

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    28-Aug-97 2:41 PM EDT (1841 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EGYPT / COPTS BY JESSICA JONES (CAIRO)

    DATE=8/28/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37379
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN EGYPT, MORE THAN EIGHT-MILLION CHRISTIANS FORM A SIZABLE MINORITY IN A COUNTRY OF 60-MILLION PEOPLE, YET THEIR PRESENCE IS ALMOST INVISIBLE. JESSICA JONES REPORTS FROM CAIRO, WHERE COPTIC CHRISTIANS HAVE RETREATED FROM THE POLITICAL SPHERE.

    TEXT: // SFX OF COPTIC MASS AND FADE //

    EGYPTIAN CHRISTIANS -- WHO ARE MOSTLY MEMBERS OF THE COPTIC ORTHODOX CHURCH -- ARE FOSTERING A SWEEPING RELIGIOUS RENAISSANCE. ATTENDANCE AT DAILY MASS AND WEEKLY CHURCH ACTIVITIES IS HIGHER THAN EVER. AND SO MANY YOUNG MEN WANT TO BECOME MONKS THAT THE CHURCH TURNS LARGE NUMBERS OF APPLICANTS AWAY EVERY YEAR.

    YET COPTIC CHRISTIANS -- KNOWN AS COPTS -- ARE REMARKABLY ABSENT FROM POLITICAL AND GOVERNMENTAL SPHERES OF INFLUENCE. THERE ARE ONLY THREE CHRISTIAN MEMBERS OF THE EGYPTIAN PARLIAMENT, AND ALMOST NO HIGH-RANKING COPTS IN THE POWERFUL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT.

    SEVERAL DECADES AGO, THE COPTIC COMMUNITY WAS WELL-KNOWN FOR ITS INFLUENTIAL POLITICAL LEADERS AND VOCAL INVOLVEMENT IN GOVERNMENT. BUT HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST MARLYN TADROS SAYS RELIGIOUS TRENDS HAVE LED THE GROUP AWAY FROM POLITICAL ACTIVITY IN RECENT YEARS.

    /// TADROS ACT ///

    THEY DON'T REALLY CARE ABOUT ELECTIONS. THEY DON'T CARE ABOUT POLITICAL OR SOCIETAL PARTICIPATION. WHAT'S THE POINT? YOU'RE GOING TO THE OTHER WORLD, WHERE THERE'S PARADISE AND HEAVEN. SO THEY DISAPPEARED.

    /// END ACT ///

    OBSERVERS SAY SOME MEMBERS OF THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY FEEL UNWELCOME IN GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS. OTHERS BELIEVE KEEPING A LOW POLITICAL PROFILE IS THE BEST WAY TO AVOID MUSLIM MILITANTS, WHO HAVE ATTACKED BOTH COPTS AND GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS FOR BEING UN-ISLAMIC.

    A FEW YEARS AGO, GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS BEGAN INSISTING THAT THE COUNTRY'S SIX-MILLION COPTS WERE NOT A MINORITY AT ALL. NOW THEY REFER TO COPTS ONLY AS PART OF A LARGER EGYPTIAN SOCIAL FABRIC.

    MRS. TADROS SAYS NOW MANY PROMINENT COPTS -- INCLUDING POPE SHENOUDA -- REFUSE TO SAY THEY BELONG TO A MINORITY, BECAUSE THEY FEEL THE TERM WILL ENCOURAGE SECTARIAN DIFFERENCES.

    /// SECOND TADROS ACT ///

    THE TERM ITSELF STARTED TO BE ATTACKED AS A TERM JUST LIKE THE ISLAMISTS IN THE '70'S STARTED ATTACKING THE TERM 'SECULARISM.' NOW SECULARISM HAS A VERY BAD CONNOTATION WITH THE GENERAL PUBLIC. AND NOW EVERYONE WHO SAYS THE TERM 'MINORITY' IS IMMEDIATELY ATTACKED. IT'S A CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE WORD.

    /// END ACT ///

    COPTIC LAWYER MAMDOUH NAKHLA SAYS THE EGYPTIAN GOVERNMENT DOES NOT WANT TO CALL COPTS A MINORITY BECAUSE IT WOULD IMPLY THAT THEY ARE VICTIMS OF DISCRIMINATION.

    /// NAKHLA - ARABIC - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS MINORITIES DESERVE CERTAIN RIGHTS. HE SAYS, "IF WE AMOUNT TO 12 OR 15 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION, THEN THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD GIVE US THE SAME PERCENTAGE OF SEATS IN PARLIAMENT."

    BUT CRITICS SAY THAT COPTS SHOULD DO MORE TO FIGHT FOR THEIR RIGHTS. CHRISTIANS OFTEN COMPLAIN ABOUT A LAW THAT PREVENTS CHRISTIANS FROM BUILDING CHURCHES WITHOUT SPECIAL GOVERNMENTAL PERMISSION, YET FEW HAVE LOBBIED TO CHANGE THE SITUATION.

    BUT MR. NAKHLA PLANS TO BRING THE CASE BEFORE AN EGYPTIAN COURT IN A FEW MONTHS. SINCE 1995 HE HAS FILED 30 ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWSUITS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT. THANKS TO HIM, CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS NOW HAVE A HOLIDAY ON COPTIC CHRISTMAS. STILL, MR. NAKHLA SAYS HE CANNOT UNDERSTAND WHY HIS PEERS ARE NOT WILLING TO BRAVE THE COURT SYSTEM TO SOLVE RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION LEGALLY AND PERMANENTLY.

    /// SECOND NAKHLA - ARABIC - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS HE OFTEN ASKS HIMSELF WHY SO MANY OF HIS FELLOW COPTS ARE NOT POLITICALLY INVOLVED. HE WISHES THAT SOMEONE WOULD AT LEAST ACCOMPANY HIM TO COURT SO HE WOULD NOT HAVE TO GO ALONE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JJ/RRM
    28-Aug-97 12:53 PM EDT (1653 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=8/28/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219105
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES DROPPED SHARPLY IN TRADING THURSDAY IN EUROPEAN EXCHANGES. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: PRICES FELL IN ALL THREE MAJOR EUROPEAN MARKETS THURSDAY, PUSHED EVEN LOWER BY AN OPENING PLUNGE ON WALL STREET.

    IN LONDON -- EUROPE'S BIGGEST MARKET -- THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX CLOSED DOWN MORE THAN 61 POINTS, ABOUT ONE-AND-ONE-QUARTER PERCENT OF THE LONDON MARKET'S TOTAL VALUE. IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX FELL MORE THAN 43 POINTS, ABOUT ONE-AND-ONE-HALF PERCENT.

    AND IN FRANKFURT, THE DAX-30 WAS OFF 22 POINTS -- ONE-HALF PERCENT -- IN FLOOR TRADING, AND THEN PLUNGED MORE THAN TWO PERCENT IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR LOST VALUE AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN, THE GERMAN MARK, AND THE BRITISH POUND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWH/WFR
    28-Aug-97 1:16 PM EDT (1716 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=8/28/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219115
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (THURSDAY) IN ANOTHER VERY VOLATILE SESSION. V-OA- CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 76-HUNDRED-94, DOWN 92 POINTS, MORE THAN ONE PERCENT. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 903, DOWN 10 POINTS.

    IT WAS ANOTHER VOLATILE DAY, WITH THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE DOWN MORE THAN 100 POINTS IN THE MORNING, RECOVERING TO A POSITIVE READING BY MID-AFTERNOON BEFORE BEING HIT WITH ANOTHER WAVE OF SELLING IN THE LAST HALF-HOUR OF THE SESSION. ANALYSTS SAY WEAKNESS IN MANY HIGH-TECHNOLOGY STOCKS SPILLED OVER TO THE REST OF THE STOCK MARKET. SOME TRADERS WERE ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT A REVISION IN U-S ECONOMIC GROWTH FIGURES.

    THAT REVISION SHOWS THE U-S ECONOMY GREW AT A THREE-POINT-SIX PERCENT ANNUAL RATE IN THE SECOND QUARTER, A BIG INCREASE FROM THE TWO-POINT-TWO PERCENT RATE ORIGINALLY REPORTED. THE STRONGER-THAN-EXPECTED GROWTH REVIVED INFLATIONARY FEARS.

    ///REST OPT///

    THREE COMPANIES FROM THREE NATIONS ARE FORMING A JOINT VENTURE TO DEVELOP A TWO-POINT-FOUR-BILLION-DOLLAR COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM FOR THE BRITISH ARMED FORCES. THE COMPANIES ARE I-T-T INDUSTRIES OF THE UNITED STATES, RACAL (RAY-CAL) ELECTRONICS OF BRITAIN AND SIEMENS OF GERMANY.

    THE GOVERNMENT OF EGYPT HAS BEGUN A CRACKDOWN ON COPYRIGHT VIOLATIONS, BRINGING CRIMINAL CHARGES AGAINST A COMPANY ACCUSED OF PIRATING COMPUTER SOFTWARE. ANALYSTS SAY EGYPT IS ATTEMPTING TO DEMONSTRATE TO FOREIGN INVESTORS THAT IT IS SERIOUS ABOUT PROTECTING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

    THE BURGER KING RESTAURANT CHAIN PLANS TO COMPETE DIRECTLY WITH THE VERY POPULAR "BIG MAC," THE 29-YEAR-OLD HAMBURGER PRODUCT OF THE MCDONALD'S CORPORATION. NEXT WEEK, BURGER KING WILL INTRODUCE ITS "BIG KING" HAMBURGER -- WHICH THE COMPANY CONTENDS HAS MORE BEEF AND LESS BREAD THAN THE "BIG MAC." (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/RRM
    28-Aug-97 4:52 PM EDT (2052 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] PEACE-KEEPING'S GAINS AND LOSSES BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/28/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37390
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN THE POST COLD WAR WORLD, LOCAL CONFLICTS HAVE BROKEN OUT UNATTACHED TO IDEOLOGY BUT ARE NO LESS DEVASTATING ON A LIMITED SCALE. WHAT TO DO ABOUT THESE IS NOW THE CONCERN OF STRATEGISTS AND SCHOLARS WHO ARE TURNING OUT MANY BOOKS AND ARTICLES AND ARRANGING CONFERENCES ON THE SUBJECT. A RECENT ONE HELD BY THE U-S INSTITUTE OF PEACE FOCUSED ON GAINS AND LOSSES OF PEACE-KEEPING EFFORTS. V-O-A'S ED WARNER ATTENDED AND HAS THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: AROUND 1990, THERE WERE EXPECTATIONS THAT UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPING EFFORTS JUST MIGHT BRING PEACE TO THE WORLD. THOSE HOPES WERE SUBSEQUENTLY DASHED, SAID DONALD ROTHSCHILD AT A MEETING OF THE U-S INSTITUTE OF PEACE IN WASHINGTON.

    MR. ROTHSCHILD, A PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, NOTED THE DEFICIENCIES IN U-N INTERVENTIONS:

    // ROTHSCHILD ACT //

    UNCERTAIN DECISION-MAKING AUTHORITY, AN INABILITY TO DEVELOP A DOCTRINE THAT ENABLED FIELD COMMANDERS TO TAKE FORCEFUL ACTION TO PREVENT CONFLICT OR TO DETER ESCALATION OF AN ONGOING CONFLICT, DISPUTES OVER THE COMMAND OF INTERVENTION FORCES, THE INABILITY TO INTEGRATE CONTINGENTS FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES, THE PRESSURES TO PUT NATIONALS INTO VARIOUS KEY POSITIONS, THE EXISTENCE OF CRONYISM, MEDIOCRITY AND DEAD WOOD IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL SERVICES.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR ROTHSCHILD ALSO NOTED THE IMPORTANCE OF DOMESTIC PRESSURES, ESPECIALLY IN THE UNITED STATES. IN JUNE 1994, ONLY 28 PER CENT OF AMERICANS WHO WERE POLLED FAVORED SENDING GROUND TROOPS TO STOP THE SLAUGHTER IN RWANDA. TWO MONTHS LATER, ANOTHER SURVEY SHOWED 69 PER CENT SUPPORTED NON-MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO RWANDA.

    GIVEN THESE LIMITATIONS, PROFESSOR ROTHSCHILD SAID U-N PEACE-KEEPING OPERATIONS ARE BEING REPLACED BY AD HOC COALITIONS LED BY A PARTICULAR NATION; FOR EXAMPLE, THE U-S INTERVENTION IN HAITI OR THE ITALIAN INVOLVEMENT IN ALBANIA.

    TIMOTHY SISK OF THE U-S INSTITUTE OF PEACE SAID SUCH COALITIONS MAY DO BETTER BECAUSE THEY REFLECT NATIONAL INTEREST:

    // SISK ACT //

    UNTIL THERE IS SIGNIFICANT WILLINGNESS ON THE PART OF MEMBER STATES TO LIVE UP TO THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE (U-N) CHARTER IN TERMS OF TROOP COMMITMENTS AND ALSO SIGNIFICANT REFORM IN TERMS OF THE U-N IN GENERAL, WE THINK THAT THIS IS THE DOMINANT TREND, AND IT IS LIKELY TO CONTINUE IN TERMS OF MULTI-LATERAL INTERVENTIONS IN INTRA-STATE CONFLICTS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. SISK ADDED THAT AD HOC OPERATIONS FACE THE SAME PROBLEMS AS U-N PEACE-KEEPING AND HAVE YET TO BE FULLY TESTED.

    IN SOME INSTANCES, THEY ARE BOUND TO FAIL, SAID CHAIM KAUFMANN, PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AT LEHIGH UNIVERSITY. WHEN ETHNIC GROUPS ARE MOBILIZED TO FIGHT, HE NOTED, THERE IS NO STOPPING THEM SHORT OF SEPARATING THEM.

    THIS IS ADMITTEDLY ONLY A PARTIAL SOLUTION, SAID PROFESSOR KAUFMANN, BUT AT LEAST IT REDUCES THE KILLING, WHICH SHOULD BE OUR PRIMARY CONCERN. THE GREEK-TURKISH PARTITION OF CYRPUS IS UNSATISFACTORY, HE NOTED, BUT IT HAS RESULTED IN TWELVE DEATHS IN TWENTY-TWO YEARS. OTHERS PUT THE COUNT ONLY SLIGHTLY HIGHER. THAT WOULD BE A BLESSING FOR VICTIMS OF ETHNIC CONFLICT IN BOSNIA, RWANDA, SRI LANKA OR KASHMIR.

    PROFESSOR KAUFMANN SAID ISRAEL WOULD BENEFIT FROM A SIMILAR SEPARATION. ISRAEL CREATED A LARGELY HOMOGENEOUS STATE BY EXPELLING THE ARAB POPULATION, BUT EXPANDING SETTLEMENTS IN THE LARGELY ARAB WEST BANK REVIVES THE CONFLICT:

    // KAUFMANN ACT //

    IF SEPARATING WARRING ETHNIC GROUPS REDUCES VIOLENCE, THEN REMIXING THEM SHOULD INCREASE IT, AND THIS IS WHAT HAPPENED. UNFORTUNATELY, ISRAELI SETTLEMENT POLICIES, ESPECIALLY SINCE 1977, HAVE TURNED THE WEST BANK INTO JUST SUCH A MIXED REGION WHERE BOTH SETTLERS AND PALESTINIANS NOW FACE A SEVERE MUTUAL SECURITY DILEMMA. AND THE RESULT, AS WE ALL KNOW, WAS FIRST A POPULAR UPRISING AND THEN DESPITE PEACE NEGOTIATIONS, A MARKED INCREASE IN TERRORISM BY BOTH SIDES.

    // END ACT //

    OTHERS AT THE MEETING OF THE U-S INSTITUTE OF PEACE SAID PROFESSOR KAUFMANN TOO CASUALLY DISMISSES THE PLURALIST SOCIETY THAT CAN RECONCILE HOSTILE GROUPS. IS THE WORLD TO BE ENDLESSLY SPLIT INTO INCOMPATIBLE ENCLAVES? NO, HE RESPONDED. PLURALISM WILL REMAIN WHERE IT IS VIABLE, AND SEPARATISM WHERE NOTHING ELSE CAN BE DONE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    28-Aug-97 6:24 PM EDT (2224 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=08/28/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10318
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY AUGUST 28TH //

    INTRO: THE BIG NEWS FROM SOUTH AFRICA, ABOUT THE RETIREMENT FROM POLITICS OF F. W. DE KLERK, IS RESONATING AMONG THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF U-S NEWSPAPERS THIS THURSDAY BEFORE AMERICA'S LABOR DAY WEEKEND.

    OTHER TOPICS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE: THE FORMER SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE IS INDICTED FOR ETHICS VIOLATIONS; THE LATEST ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF VICE PRESIDENT GORE;THE FAILINGS OF THE B-2 BOMBER; SAFETY OF THE FOOD SUPPLY AND THE DEFECTION OF A NORTH KOREAN AMBASSADOR AND ITS RAMIFICATIONS.

    NOW, HERE IS __________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE RETIREMENT OF F.W.DE KLERK, THE LAST PRESIDENT OF SOUTH AFRICA UNDER APARTHEID, IS DRAWING A LARGE AMOUNT OF COMMENT IN THE NATION'S PRESS. THE ORLANDO SENTINEL CALLS HIM "A CATALYST FOR CHANGE" :

    VOICE: THE RESIGNATION ..... FROM THE HELM OF HIS NATIONAL PARTY AND FROM POLITICS PROBABLY WON'T CAUSE A LOT OF PEOPLE TO SHED TEARS. TO MANY, THE END OF APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA IS A MATTER FOR THE HISTORY BOOKS, THE GOVERNMENT ARCHITECTS OF ITS DEMISE ONLY OF PASSING INTEREST. YET WITHOUT THEM - - PARTICULARLY MR. DE KLERK - - THE SO-CALLED NEW SOUTH AFRICA WOULDN'T HAVE TAKEN ITS FIRST BREATH. [OPT] ..... AS HE DEVASTATED A SYSTEM THAT HE ONCE HAD DEFENDED, MR. DE KLERK KNEW THAT HIS OWN POLITICAL FUTURE WOULD BE DIMMED. NO MATTER. HE CONTINUED. SOUTH AFRICA WAS REBORN. .... THE REST IS HISTORY." [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN BALTIMORE, THE SUN HEADLINES ITS COMMENT "MAN OF HISTORY BOWS OUT," ADDING THIS HERALDS THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA IN SOUTH AFRICAN POLITICS.

    VOICE: "THE WHIRLWIND HAS BEGUN. [THE] ...DECISION ..... WILL USHER IN A NEW GENERATION OF LEADERSHIP IN SOUTH AFRICAN POLITICS. IN DECEMBER, PRESIDENT NELSON MANDELA WILL RELINQUISH HIS DUTIES AS THE HEAD OF THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS. HE IS TO REMAIN AS HEAD OF STATE FOR ANOTHER YEAR, BUT NEW - - AND UNTESTED - - LEADERS ARE ABOUT TO TAKE OVER. ....... [MR. DE KLERK'S] .... RESIGNATION COMES AT A TIME WHEN THE NATIONAL PARTY IS AT A CROSSROADS. WITH NEW ELECTIONS SCHEDULED IN 18 MONTHS, THE PARTY HAS EITHER TO SHAKE ITS APARTHEID PAST AND REMOLD ITSELF AS A TRULY MULTI-RACIAL OPPOSITION GROUP TO THE ANC OR BECOME EVEN MORE MARGINALIZED THAN IT IS TODAY."

    TEXT: DOMESTICALLY, THE NEWS THAT MIKE ESPY, PRESIDENT CLINTON'S FIRST CHOICE FOR AGRICULTURE SECRETARY, AND THE FIRST BLACK EVER TO HOLD THAT POST, HAS BEEN INDICTED FOR 39 ETHICS VIOLATIONS IS GARNERING PLENTY OF RESPONSE. SAYS THE WASHINGTON POST:

    VOICE: "MOST OF THE INDIVIDUAL GIFTS MR. ESPY IS ACCUSED OF HAVING ACCEPTED FROM POULTRY GIANT TYSON FOODS INCORPORATED AND SUN DIAMOND GROWERS, THE DRIED FRUIT PRODUCER IN CALIFORNIA, WERE RELATIVELY SMALL - - PLANE TRIPS AND TICKETS TO SPORTING EVENTS, FOR EXAMPLE - - BUT THERE WAS A STRING OF THEM. THE [AGRICULTURE] DEPARTMENT EXERCISES REGULATORY AND OTHER FORMS OF AUTHORITY OVER BOTH COMPANIES; ..... IT IS RECKLESS BEYOND IMAGINING FOR A CABINET OFFICER TO ACCEPT FAVORS FROM SUCH SOURCES - - IF IN FACT THAT'S WHAT MR. ESPY DID."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK POST POINTS OUT THAT MR. ESPY IS NOT ALONE IN POSSIBLY FALLING PREY TO ETHICAL LAPSES, AND RENEWS ITS CALL FOR APPOINTMENT OF A SPECIAL PROSECUTOR TO INVESTIGATE MR. CLINTON'S ALLEGED FUND RAISING VIOLATIONS AS WELL.

    VOICE: ".... THIS IS HARDLY THE ONLY SIGN OF HIGH-LEVEL MISDEEDS IN THE FUNNY-MONEY MESS. [PRESIDENT] CLINTON'S FIRST SECRETARIES OF COMMERCE AND ENERGY HAVE BEEN LINKED TO IT AS WELL. ALL THIS PLAINLY MEETS THE STANDARD FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF A SPECIAL PROSECUTOR TO SORT OUT THE ODORIFEROUS ACTIVITIES OF THE ADMINISTRATION'S BIGGER FISH."

    VOICE: STILL WITH THE ISSUE OF POSSIBLE ETHICS VIOLATIONS, VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE'S USE OF THE OFFICE TELEPHONE AT THE WHITE HOUSE TO SOLICIT FUNDS FOR THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN, AND THE RECENT REPAYMENT OF A SMALL PHONE BILL BY THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE DRAWS THIS REBUKE FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES.

    VOICE: "THE VICE PRESIDENT HAS MANY GIFTS, BUT THEY DO NOT SEEM TO INCLUDE CANDOR WHEN IT COMES TO THE BUSINESS OF POLITICS. ALONG WITH THE ERRATIC RECOLLECTIONS OF THE NUMBER OF CALLS HE MADE, MR. GORE HAS SHIFTED STORIES ON HOW THEY WERE PAID FOR AND INSISTED IMPLAUSIBLY THAT HE WAS UNAWARE THAT HIS NOW-INFAMOUS APPEARANCE AT A BUDDHIST TEMPLE IN LOS ANGELES HAD ANYTHING TO DO WITH FUND-RAISING. IT CANNOT HAVE BEEN PLEASANT TO HAVE MADE SO MANY FUND-RAISING CALLS AND THEN TO HAVE INVENTED SUCH DISTORTED EXCUSES. ..... BUT IN THE PROCESS, MR. GORE BECAME THE WORST ENEMY TO DATE OF HIS OWN PRESIDENTIAL AMBITIONS."

    TEXT: THE DEFECTION TO THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH KOREA'S AMBASSADOR TO EGYPT, AND HIS BROTHER, A TRADE MINISTER IN PARIS, DRAWS THIS RESPONSE FROM MAINE'S PORTLAND PRESS HERALD.

    VOICE: "THE FACE THAT THE NORTH KOREAN GOVERNMENT CONSIDERS THE DEFECTION OF TWO DIPLOMATS A CRITICAL MATTER WAS SHOWN WEDNESDAY WHEN IT ABRUPTLY RECALLED ITS DELEGATION TO U-N ARMS CONTROL TALKS IN NEW YORK. NORTH KOREAN RADIO CALLED CHANG SUNG GIL, THE COMMUNIST DICTATORSHIP'S AMBASSADOR TO EGYPT, AND HIS BROTHER .....'CRIMINALS.' .... CHANG SUNG GIL IS ONE OF NORTH KOREA'S TOP DIPLOMATS IN THE MIDEAST, WHERE HIS COUNTRY HAS REPORTEDLY SOLD LONG-RANGE MISSILE TECHNOLOGY TO SUCH STATES AS IRAN AND SYRIA. HE CAN LIKELY INFORM WESTERN INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES OF KEY ELEMENTS OF SUCH DEALS, VASTLY STRENGTHENING THE HAND OF THOSE WHO WANT TO KEEP PEACE IN THAT VOLATILE CORNER OF THE WORLD."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE LOS ANGELES TIMES IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF THE DEFECTIONS ON THE GRADUALLY THAWING RELATIONS BETWEEN PYONGYANG AND THE U-S, AND QUOTES THE WHITE HOUSE ON HOW THE TALKS ABOUT NORTH KOREAN MISSILE SALES ABROAD ARE N O T RELATED TO THE DEFECTIONS.

    VOICE: "'WE SEE NO LINKAGE BETWEEN THE DEFECTION AND THE MISSILE TALKS, AND WE BELIEVE IT IS IN NORTH KOREA'S INTEREST TO REMAIN ENGAGED,' SAID WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN BARRY TOIV. NO DOUBT IT IS, BUT THE DEFECTIONS ARE BOUND TO DELAY THE PROCESS, AND THE AMERICANS MUST HAVE EXPECTED THAT. THE CHANG BROTHERS ARE THE BIRDS IN HAND, AND WASHINGTON SHOULD MAKE THE MOST OF IT."

    TEXT: SENSING SOME IMPROVEMENT IN THE QUEST FOR PEACE IN NORTHERN IRELAND, TODAY'S HARTFORD COURANT REMARKS:

    VOICE: "IF ALL GOES AS EXPECTED, THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT WILL SOON RECOGNIZE SINN FEIN, THE POLITICAL ARM OF THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY, AS A NEGOTIATING PARTNER. THAT WOULD REPRESENT A BIG STEP FORWARD TOWARD PEACE IN NORTHERN IRELAND. ..... THE SADNESS, TERROR AND BLOODSHED PLAGUING THE PROVINCE FOR CENTURIES HAVE SPRUNG, IN LARGE PART, FROM THE REFUSAL OF ALL SIDES TO 'GIVE IN' A LITTLE. MR. [TONY] BLAIR'S GOVERNMENT IS ON THE RIGHT TRACK."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: BACK DOMESTICALLY, THE FABLED STEALTH B-2 BOMBER, ONE OF THE MOST EXPENSIVE AIRPLANES EVER BUILT, AT TWO BILLION-DOLLARS-APIECE, HAS RECENTLY BEEN FOUND TO HAVE PROBLEMS FLYING IN THE RAIN, CAUSING THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR TO REMARK:

    VOICE: "THE B-2 ['S] ... DEVELOPMENT HAS STRETCHED OVER MORE THAN A DECADE, DURING WHICH ..... SOME KING-SIZED GLITCHES [FAULTS] HAVE SURFACED. [A NEW REPORT BY] THE .....GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE [THE INVESTIGATIVE ARM OF CONGRESS] UNDERSCORED SEVERE MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS WITH THE PLANE'S HIGH-TECH, STEALTHY SKIN. THE THERMOPLASTICS ..... ARE APPARENTLY VERY SENSITIVE TO MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES. ERGO, THE B-2 NEEDS TO BE STORED IN CLIMATE-CONTROLLED INDOOR FACILITIES. SO MUCH FOR OVERSEAS BASING. ...... INCREASING THE PURCHASE OF B-2S WOULD BE DUBIOUS, GIVEN THE PLANE'S SHAKY START-UP AND CLOUDY MISSION. DOING SO NOW, WHEN FISCAL DISCIPLINE HAS BECOME THE CREED IN WASHINGTON - - EVEN AT THE PENTAGON - - WOULD BE, WELL, DUMB."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, IN THE WAKE OF MAJOR OUTBREAKS OF E-COLI BACTERIA IN GROUND BEEF AND BEAN SPROUTS, DRAWING INTO QUESTION AGAIN THE SAFETY OF THE NATION'S FOOD SUPPLY, THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER WRITES:

    VOICE: "THE PUBLIC'S SKITTISHNESS IS A POSITIVE THING. IT CAN SPUR CONSUMERS - - THE LAST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST CONTAMINATED FOODS - - TO LEARN MORE ABOUT HOW TO PROTECT THEMSELVES. ..... IT CAN [ALSO] BOLSTER THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S EFFORTS TO IMPROVE FOOD SAFETY. EVEN THOUGH 100 PERCENT FOOD SAFETY CANNOT BE ENSURED BY THE BEST EFFORTS OF GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY, CURRENT PRACTICES CAN BE IMPROVED - - SO LONG AS THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ESCHEWS THE ANTI-REGULATORY, LAISSE-FAIRE ZEAL OF THE CONTRACT WITH AMERICA."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM SOME OF TODAY'S U-S DAILY PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/EH
    28-Aug-97 10:22 AM EDT (1422 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-S / BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (MARTHA'S VINEYARD, MASS.)

    DATE=8/28/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219104
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS WARNING BOSNIAN SERBS THAT IT WILL NOT TOLERATE ATTACKS AGAINST NATO PEACEKEEPING TROOPS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AMERICAN TROOPS IN NORTHEAST BOSNIA WERE STONED THURSDAY BY A CROWD OF SERB CIVILIANS; AT LEAST ONE SOLDIER WAS SLIGHTLY INJURED. V-O-A WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE HAS ADMINISTRATION REACTION FROM MARTHA'S VINEYARD, MASSACHUSETTS, WHERE THE PRESIDENT IS VACATIONING.

    TEXT: THE INCIDENT OCCURRED AFTER MEMBERS OF NATO'S STABILIZATION FORCE, KNOWN AS S-FOR, WENT INTO THE TOWN OF BRCKO TO PREVENT CLASHES BETWEEN SUPPORTERS AND OPPONENTS OF BOSNIAN SERB PRESIDENT BILJANA PLAVSIC.

    MS. PLAVSIC IS LOCKED IN A POWER STRUGGLE WITH SUPPORTERS OF HARD-LINE NATIONALIST AND WAR CRIMES SUSPECT RADOVAN KARADZIC.

    SPEAKING IN MARTHA'S VINEYARD, WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART WARNED THAT VIOLENCE AGAINST S-FOR TROOPS WOULD NOT BE TOLERATED.

    // LOCKHART ACTUALITY //

    I THINK IT IS IMPORTANT THAT ALL THE PARTIES THERE TO UNDERSTAND THAT THEY SHOULD NOT CHALLENGE S-FOR, AND THAT WE WILL HOLD THE PARTIES' LEADERSHIP RESPONSIBLE FOR KEEPING THEIR PEOPLE UNDER CONTROL.

    // END ACT //

    MR. LOCKHART DID NOT ELABORATE.

    THE SPOKESMAN SAYS PRESIDENT CLINTON IS BEING KEPT INFORMED OF THE DEVELOPMENTS IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAT/RRM
    28-Aug-97 12:46 PM EDT (1646 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] U-S / BOSNIA (L) BY REBECCA MCMENAMIN (PENTAGON)

    DATE=8/28/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219117
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMERICAN TROOPS SERVING IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAVE COME UNDER ATTACK BY SERBS IN THE NORTHEASTERN CITY OF BRCKO. V-O-A'S REBECCA MCMENAMIN REPORTS THE CLASHES OCCURRED AS NATO TROOPS WERE TRYING TO PREVENT UNREST BETWEEN SUPPORTERS AND OPPONENTS OF SERB PRESIDENT BILJANA PLAVSIC.

    TEXT: SOME 350 AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVING WITH NATO'S STABILIZATION FORCE MOVED INTO BRCKO BEFORE DAWN THURSDAY MORNING AND SOON FOUND THEMSELVES FACING A MUCH LARGER CROWD OF ANGRY SERBS.

    MEMBERS OF THE CROWD ATTACKED THE TROOPS, USING STONES, CLUBS AND MOLOTOV COCKTAILS.

    THE U-S TROOPS RESPONDED BY FIRING SHOTS IN THE AIR IN A BID TO DISPERSE THE MOB, BUT WHEN THIS DID NOT WORK, THEY ALSO FIRED TEAR GAS. PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY TWO AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE SLIGHTLY WOUNDED IN THE UNREST.

    THE INCIDENT OCCURRED AS SUPPORTERS OF BOSNIAN SERB PRESIDENT BILJANA PLAVSIC TRIED TO TAKE CONTROL OF A LOCAL POLICE STATION.

    PENTAGON SPOKESMAN MIKE DOUBLEDAY SAYS THE CROWD WAS SUMMONED INTO THE STREETS BY AIR-RAID SIRENS IN WHAT WAS CLEARLY AN ORCHESTRATED ATTACK.

    // DOUBLEDAY ACT //

    AT THIS POINT, IT APPEARS THAT BASED NOT ONLY ON THE SIRENS, BUT THE FACT THAT SOME OF THE CROWD ARRIVED IN VEHICLES RATHER THAN ON FOOT, THAT IS TO SAY BUSES, AND BASED ON THE FACT THAT THE (BOSNIAN SERB) RADIO RHETORIC WAS PRETTY HIGH, OUR BELIEF IS THAT, YES, THE CROWDS WERE CERTAINLY ENCOURAGED BY SOME SORT OF ORGANIZATION TO APPEAR ON THE SCENE.

    // END ACT //

    NATO TROOPS HAVE BEEN PLAYING A MORE AGGRESSIVE ROLE IN BOSNIA IN RECENT WEEKS -- AS INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE BUILDS TO STRIP REMAINING POWER FROM FORMER BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC A WAR CRIMES SUSPECT. DESPITE HIS REPLACEMENT BY MS. PLAVSIC, MR. KARADZIC STILL CONTROLS LARGE SECTIONS OF THE POLICE AND SPECIAL FORCES.

    CAPTAIN DOUBLEDAY DEFENDED THE FACT THAT NATO TROOPS ARE SIDING WITH MS. PLAVSIC IN THE DISPUTE.

    // DOUBLEDAY ACT //

    I THINK THAT THERE IS ONLY ONE DULY ELECTED PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBSKA AND THAT IS MRS. PLAVSIC. THE ALTERNATIVE IN MY VIEW IS UNTHINKABLE; THE ALTERNATIVE IS AN INDICTED WAR CRIMINAL. SO THERE IS NO DOUBT IN MY MIND THAT S-FOR (STABILIZATION FORCE) IS ALWAYS GOING TO HAVE DEAL WITH THE DULY ELECTED PRESIDENTS OFTHE VARIOUS AREAS IN WHICH THEY OPERATE.

    // END ACT //

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS HAVE REFUSED TO COMMENT ON WHETHER NATO IS PLANNING ANY SPECFIC ACTIONS AGAINST MR. KARADZIC. BUT CAPTAIN DOUBLEDAY MADE CLEAR THAT NATO TROOPS WILL RESPOND IF THEY FEEL THREATENED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RJM/RRM
    28-Aug-97 5:45 PM EDT (2145 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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