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Voice of America, 97-04-30

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BLACK SEA CONFERENCE (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ISTANBUL)
  • [02] BRITISH ELECTION (S OVERNIGHTER) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [03] BRITISH ELECTIONS BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [05] IRAN / E-U (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)
  • [06] KARADZIC LAWSUIT BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)
  • [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [08] RUSSIA/NATO BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [09] SERBIA POL (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [10] TAJIKISTAN ATTACK (S-2ND UPDATE) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [11] TERRORISM REPORT CQ (L) BY JIM RANDLE (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [12] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [13] WORLD BANK/IMF (L ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] BLACK SEA CONFERENCE (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ISTANBUL)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213627
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A CONFERENCE OF COUNTRIES SURROUNDING THE BLACK SEA ENDED WEDNESDAY IN THE TURKISH CITY OF ISTANBUL. THE SUMMIT WAS AIMED AT PROMOTING TRADE AND ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THE BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION. FROM ISTANBUL, REPORTER AMBERIN ZAMAN HAS THE DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE LAST DAY OF THE SUMMIT WAS MARKED BY A MEETING OF THE FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE "BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION." DURING THEIR MEETING, THE MINISTERS DECIDED ON THE EVENTUAL ESTABLISHMENT OF A FREE-TRADE AREA IN THE BLACK SEA A DECISION DESCRIBED AS "CRUCIAL" BY TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER TANSU CILLER, WHO CHAIRED THE MEETING.

    SPEAKING AT A NEWS CONFERENCE, MRS. CILLER POINTED OUT THAT WITH A COMBINED POPULATION OF 400-MILLION AND TOTAL TRADE VOLUME OF 350-BILLION DOLLARS, THE BLACK SEA REGION OFFERED HUGE ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES. MRS. CILLER SAID THAT THE PRIVATE SECTOR HAD A VERY IMPORTANT ROLE TO PLAY IN TERMS OF HELPING INTEGRATE THE ECONOMIES OF THE BLACK SEA COUNTRIES -- MANY OF WHICH WERE STATE-DOMINATED PRIOR TO THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION.

    JOINT PROJECTS DISCUSSED BY THE MEMBERS COUNTRIES INCLUDE ONES IN THE FIELDS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, TRANSPORT AND ENERGY. WESTERN BUSINESS EXECUTIVES PRESENT AT THE CONFERENCE SAID THEY BELIEVE THAT ENERGY WILL PLAY A CENTRAL ROLE IN LINKING THE ECONOMIES OF THE BLACK SEA COUNTRIES.

    POLITICAL ANALYSTS SAY RUSSIA WILL LIKELY PLAY A KEY ROLE IN THIS RESPECT, BECAUSE OF ITS VAST ENERGY RESOURCES. RUSSIA IS ALREADY THE PRINCIPAL SUPPLIER OF NATURAL GAS IN THE REGION. THE ANALYSTS ADD THAT TURKEY, WITH ITS DEVELOPED MARKET ECONOMY AND ITS EXPERTISE IN CONSTRUCTION AND BANKING, COULD ALSO PLAY A PIVOTAL ROLE IN HELPING DEVELOP THE SERVICES SECTORS IN THE BLACK SEA ECONOMIES.

    WEDNESDAY'S FINAL SESSION ALSO INCLUDED A NETWORKING ONE, DURING WHICH SOME 600 BUSINESSMEN ATTENDING THE CONFERENCE MET WITH OFFICIALS WITH MEMBER COUNTRIES TO DISCUSS INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF
    30-Apr-97 12:20 PM EDT (1620 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BRITISH ELECTION (S OVERNIGHTER) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213628
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH VOTERS CAST THEIR BALLOTS TODAY (THURSDAY) IN A GENERAL ELECTION THAT MAY BRING TO AN END 18 YEARS OF CONSERVATIVE PARTY RULE. V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: SIX-HUNDRED-FIFTY-NINE PARLIAMENTARY SEATS ARE AT STAKE IN THIS ELECTION. AND IF ONE JUDGES BY PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS, THE MAIN OPPOSITION LABOR PARTY WILL WIN HANDILY.

    FOR MONTHS NOW, POLLS HAVE BEEN PREDICTING A LABOR VICTORY BY AS MUCH AS 28 PERCENT -- AND IT APPEARS THE SIX WEEK-LONG ELECTION CAMPAIGN HAS NOT CHANGED THE MINDS OF MANY PEOPLE.

    HOWEVER LABOR LEADER TONY BLAIR -- IN THE WANING DAYS OF THE CAMPAIGN -- WARNED AGAINST COMPLACENCY FROM HIS SUPPORTERS.

    /// BLAIR ACT ///

    THIS ELECTION IS NOT OVER UNTIL IT IS OVER. THE ONLY POLL THAT COUNTS IS ON ELECTION DAY. I DO NOT THINK THIS IS A LANDSLIDE COUNTRY AND WE ARE GOING TO BE WORKING IN EVERY SINGLE PART OF THE COUNTRY -- FIGHTING, BATTLING ALL THE WAY TO GET OUR SUPPORT OUT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BLAIR HAS CAMPAIGNED ON A PLATFORM STRESSING CHANGE -- SAYING AFTER 18 YEARS OF CONSERVATIVE RULE, BRITAIN NEEDS FRESH FACES TO GUIDE IT INTO THE 21ST CENTURY. HOWEVER, PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR SAID THE COUNTRY'S ECONOMY IS BOOMING AND A LABOR PARTY WIN WOULD END BRITAIN'S GOOD ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE.

    PADDY ASHDOWN -- THE LEADER OF THE SMALL "LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY" -- BELIEVES VOTERS WILL HELP HIS PARTY ACHIEVE ITS BEST SHOWING EVER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH
    30-Apr-97 12:25 PM EDT (1625 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BRITISH ELECTIONS BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36298
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BRITISH ELECTION CAMPAIGN IS COMPLETED AND NOW VOTERS WILL CONCENTRATE ON CASTING THEIR BALLOTS (THURSDAY) FOR A NEW PARLIAMENT. AS V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON, PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS INDICATE A LANDSLIDE VICTORY FOR THE THE MAIN OPPOSITION LABOR PARTY.

    TEXT: FOR THE PAST SIX WEEKS, THE LEADERS OF BRITAIN'S THREE MAIN POLITICAL PARTIES HAVE CRISS-CROSSED THE COUNTRY, TRAVELLING THOUSANDS OF KILOMETERS TO WIN VOTERS.

    PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR HAS BEEN SAYING UNDER A "CONSERVATIVE PARTY" GOVERNMENT THE COUNTRY IS BETTER OFF -- AND HE HAS BEEN POINTING TO STRONG ECONOMIC STATISTICS TO BOLSTER HIS ARGUMENT. DO NOT THROW ALL OF THAT AWAY -- HE TELLS VOTERS. BUT, "LABOUR PARTY" LEADER TONY BLAIR SAYS IT IS TIME FOR A CHANGE. HE SAYS -- THE CONSERVATIVES HAVE BEEN IN POWER FOR 18-YEARS, HAVE BECOME ARROGANT, AND OUT OF TOUCH WITH THE BRITISH PEOPLE. HE CALLS HIS LABOUR PARTY -- NEW -- AND SAYS IT OFFERS THE BEST OPPORTUNITY TO MOVE BRITAIN SOLIDLY INTO THE 21ST CENTURY.

    FOR THE LEADER OF THE SMALL "LIBERAL DEMOCRAT PARTY", PADDY ASHDOWN, THE POLICIES OF THE TWO OTHER PARTIES ARE SIMPLY HOPELESS. HE SAYS MANY BRITONS WILL VOTE FOR HIS SIDE -- A BELIEF WHICH HAS PROMPTED HIM TO SAY THE LIBERAL DEMOCRATS ARE ON THE BRINK OF THE GREATEST BREAKTHROUGH ANY THIRD PARTY HAS ACHIEVED IN BRITISH POLITICS SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

    FOR MONTHS, PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS HAVE INDICATED THE LABOUR PARTY AHEAD OF THE RULING CONSERVATIVES -- BY AS MUCH AS 28-PERCENT. IF TRANSLATED INTO PARLIAMENTARY SEATS, THIS WOULD MEAN A LABOR MAJORITY AS HIGH AS 200 -- A LANDSLIDE BY ANY MEASURE. BUT, LABOUR PARTY LEADER TONY BLAIR CAUTIONS AGAINST SUCH OPTIMISTIC ASSESSMENTS. SHORTLY BEFORE THE LAST GENERAL ELECTION IN 1992, POLLS SAID LABOUR WAS AHEAD -- ALBEIT BY A MUCH SMALLER MARGIN -- AND THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY WON. MR. BLAIR HAS URGED HIS SUPPORTERS TO VOTE, CAUTIONING AGAINST COMPLACENCY.

    LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS PROFESSOR GEORGE JONES SAYS MR. BLAIR'S BIGGEST ACHIEVEMENT HAS BEEN TO TRANSFORM THE LABOUR PARTY BY DISCARDING THE WELL-KNOWN SOCIALIST RHETORIC AND MAKING THE PARTY MORE ACCEPTABLE TO BRITISH VOTERS.

    /// JONES ACT ///

    WHAT HE HAS SOUGHT TO DO IS TO POSITION HIMSELF VERY CLOSE TO THE CONSERVATIVES -- WHICH HAS MADE IT VERY DIFFICULT FOR THEM TO ATTACK HIM AND HIS POLICIES BECAUSE THEY ARE REALLY THEIR POLICIES. AND THIS, I THINK, HAS STRUCK A SYMPATHETIC CORD WITH THE BRITISH PEOPLE. THEY DO NOT WANT AN UPHEAVAL IN THEIR LIVES, THEY DO NOT WANT RADICAL CHANGES IN POLICY, THEY JUST WANT THINGS TO GET BETTER. AND THAT IS WHAT MR. BLAIR HAS PROMISED -- NOT RADICAL TRANSFORMATION, NOT A NEW SOCIALIST SOCIETY, BUT SPECIFIC CHANGES THAT WILL IMPROVE THE DAILY LIVES OF CITIZENS.

    /// END ACT ///

    PROFESSOR JONES BELIEVES DURING THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN, THE RULING CONSERVATIVES HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO GET ACROSS THEIR MESSAGE THE ECONOMY IS IN GOOD SHAPE. HE ALSO SAYS THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY IS DEEPLY DIVIDED -- ESPECIALLY OVER THE CONTENTIOUS ISSUE OF EUROPE.

    /// 2ND JONES ACT ///

    IF YOU ARE DIVIDED, WITH A WEAK LEADER, YOU ARE CLEARLY INCOMPETENT TO GOVERN -- AND THE LABOUR PARTY LOOKS MORE LIKE A GOVERNING PARTY THAN DOES THE CONSERVATIVES WHICH ARE ENGAGED IN A KIND OF INTERNAL CIVIL WAR. THEY ARE MORE FIGHTING EACH OTHER THAN THEY ARE THEIR OPPOSITION. AND IT IS FOR THOSE REASONS THAT I THINK LABOUR LOOKS STILL AS IF IT IS GOING TO SUCCEED ON THURSDAY.

    /// END ACT ///

    EVEN SUCH A STAUNCH SUPPORTER OF THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY AS BERNARD INGHAM -- FORMER PRIME MINISTER MARGARET THATCHER'S SPOKESMAN -- RELUCTANTLY ACKNOWLEDGES MR. BLAIR WILL BE THE NEXT PRIME MINISTER AND TAKE OVER AT TEN DOWNING STREET ON FRIDAY.

    /// INGHAM ACT ///

    MY GUT REACTION IS THAT THE LABOUR PARTY WILL HAVE A WORKING MAJORITY (IN PARLIAMENT). AND THEN WE SHALL BE ON A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY WHICH I DO NOT THINK WILL BE PLEASANT. I THINK ONLY TWO THINGS CAN RESULT FOR BRITAIN. ONE IS THAT WE SHALL BE GRADUALLY ABSORBED AND DISAPPEAR INTO A UNITED STATES OF EUROPE -- WHATEVER TONY BLAIR SAYS -- AND SECONDLY, THE ECONOMY WILL BE LESS STRONG.

    /// END ACT ///

    DESPITE ALL THE GLOOM AND DOOM, PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR PUTS ON A BRAVE PUBLIC FACE, SAYING HIS PARTY WILL WIN THURSDAY'S GENERAL ELECTION. CONSERVATIVE PARTY OFFICIALS SAY THERE ARE ENOUGH UNDECIDED VOTERS TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE -- AND THEY HOPE THOSE WAVERING VOTERS WILL CAST THEIR BALLOTS FOR THEM, THUS ENSURING THE GREATEST POLITICAL COMEBACK IN MODERN BRITISH HISTORY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH
    30-Apr-97 10:07 AM EDT (1407 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213632
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DESPITE TENTATIVE SIGNS OF A POSSIBLE INTEREST RATE HIKE IN THE UNITED STATES, KEY STOCK MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE WEDNESDAY CONTINUED TO ADVANCE. FOR THE CLOSING MARKET FIGURES, HERE'S PAUL FRANCUCH IN OUR LONDON OFFICES.

    TEXT: INDICATIONS OF U-S INFLATION REMAINING IN CHECK TUESDAY SENT STOCK PRICES SOARING. HOWEVER NEW DATA WEDNESDAY THAT PAINTED A LESS ROSY OUTLOOK ON U-S INTEREST RATES HAD LITTLE EFFECT ON THE REBOUNDING MARKET, WITH FRANKFURT, LONDON AND PARIS ALL CLOSING HIGHER.

    FRANKFURT CLOSED BEFORE THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC NEWS CAME OUT, SO THE "DAX 30" WAS RIDING HIGH ON TUESDAY'S POSITIVE NEWS. THAT INDEX CLOSED UP 55 POINTS. HERE IN LONDON, THE NEWS TEMPERED THE BUYING SPREE WITH THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX GAINING JUST UNDER THREE POINTS. IN PARIS, THE "CAC 40" INDEX POSTED A SUBSTANTIAL 36-AND-A-HALF POINT GAIN.

    THE DOLLAR WAS UP ALMOST A CENT AGAINST BOTH THE MARK AND THE POUND IN CURRENCY TRADING WEDNESDAY. THE CLOSING GOLD FIX HERE IN LONDON WAS SET AT 340-DOLLARS-55 CENTS AN OUNCE -- A 60-CENT INCREASE FROM TUESDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF /MMK
    30-Apr-97 2:10 PM EDT (1810 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] IRAN / E-U (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213614
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RE-RUNNING FOR TECHNICAL REASONS //

    INTRO: IRAN SAYS GERMANY'S AMBASSADOR IS NOT WELCOME BACK IN TEHRAN NOW. THE ANNOUNCEMENT IS THE LATEST IN A DIPLOMATIC DISPUTE OVER THE EUROPEAN UNION'S DECISION TO SUSPEND HIGH-LEVEL MINISTERIAL EXCHANGES. MOST OTHER EUROPEAN UNION AMBASSADORS ARE EXPECTED TO RETURN TO TEHRAN IN THE NEXT WEEK OR TWO. BUT V-O-A MIDDLE EAST CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS THAT IRAN IS NOT SENDING ITS OWN DIPLOMATS BACK TO EUROPE IMMEDIATELY.

    TEXT: FOREIGN MINISTER ALI AKBAR VELAYATI SAYS HE WILL NOT BE UPSET IF GERMANY'S AMBASSADOR DOES NOT RETURN TO TEHRAN FOR A WHILE LONGER. AND, IRAN'S STATE NEWS AGENCY SAYS IRAN'S SPIRITUAL LEADER INSTRUCTED THE FOREIGN MINISTER NOT TO SEND ANY IRANIAN DIPLOMATS BACK TO EUROPE YET. AYATOLLAH ALI KHAMENEI CALLS EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS UNFAIR, ILL-INTENTIONED AND SHAMELESS AND SAYS THEIR ACCUSATIONS ARE BASELESS.

    EARLIER THIS MONTH, EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS RECALLED THEIR AMBASSADORS AFTER A BERLIN COURT LINKED IRAN'S LEADERSHIP TO POLITICAL ASSASSINATIONS IN GERMANY FIVE YEARS AGO. IRAN DENIED ANY INVOLVEMENT IN THE BERLIN MURDERS AND RECALLED ITS DIPLOMATS TO PROTEST THE COURT FINDING. THIS WEEK, EUROPEAN FOREIGN MINISTERS AGREED TO SUSPEND THEIR SO-CALLED "CRITICAL DIALOGUE" WITH IRAN AND CUT OFF MINISTERIAL VISITS TO AND FROM TEHRAN. THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBERS WILL REFUSE VISAS FOR ANY IRANIAN SECURITY OFFICIALS. THE STATES ALSO RENEWED THEIR BAN ON THE SALE OF WEAPONS TO IRAN.

    THE UNITED STATES HAS WELCOMED THE MEASURES AS A STEP TOWARD ITS OWN POLICY OF ISOLATING IRAN, WHICH IT CONSIDERS THE NUMBER-ONE TERRORIST-SPONSORING NATION. EUROPEAN STATES HAVE PREFERRED TO MAINTAIN REGULAR TRADE AND DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS.

    IRONICALLY, IRAN'S PRESIDENT ALI AKBAR HASHEMI RAFSANJANI IS REPORTED AS SAYING IRAN HAS ALREADY SUSPENDED THE CRITICAL DIALOGUE WITH EUROPE. BUT HE DID NOT EXPLAIN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/JWH
    30-Apr-97 11:22 AM EDT (1522 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] KARADZIC LAWSUIT BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36305
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ON MAY 16TH, A FEDERAL COURT IN NEW YORK CITY WILL HOLD A PRELIMINARY HEARING ON CHARGES BROUGHT AGAINST FORMER BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC BY TWO ANONYMOUS BOSNIAN WOMEN. HE IS CHARGED WITH RESPONSIBILITY FOR A RANGE OF ABUSES AND CRIMES, INCLUDING RAPE, MURDER, TORTURE AND GENOCIDE COMMITTED IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. AS WE HEAR FROM V-O-A'S MAX RUSTON IN NEW YORK, EXPERTS SAY THE LEGAL ACTION MAY TURN OUT TO BE THE ONLY CASE TO GO TO FINAL JUDGMENT AGAINST MR. KARADZIC FOR THE ATROCITIES COMMITTED IN BOSNIA.

    TEXT: ONE OF THE KEYS TO PROSECUTING MR. KARADZIC IN A U-S COURT WAS TO SERVE HIM WITH LEGAL PAPERS -- TO INFORM OF HIM OF THE PROSECUTION AGAINST HIM -- WHILE HE WAS ON U-S SOIL. THIS WAS DONE IN FEBRUARY OF 1993, AS MR. KARADZIC WALKED THROUGH THE LOBBY OF A NEW YORK HOTEL, ON HIS WAY TO THE UNITED NATIONS. WITH THAT SEEMINGLY SIMPLE PROCEDURE, A U-S FEDERAL COURT BECAME THE ONLY COURT IN THE WORLD WITH JURISDICTION OVER THE FORMER BOSNIAN SERB LEADER.

    MR. KARADZIC IS BEING CHARGED BY TWO BOSNIAN WOMEN WITH RESPONSIBILITY FOR ATROCITIES COMMITTED DURING THE BOSNIAN WAR. ONE OF THE FIRST STEPS IN PURSUING THOSE CHARGES, AFTER SERVING HIM WITH PAPERS, WAS FOR THE U-S FEDERAL COURT IN NEW YORK TO SUMMON HIM FOR A DEPOSITION. BUT LAWYER PAUL DUBINSKY, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF THE "SCHELL CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS" AT YALE (UNIVERSITY) LAW SCHOOL, SAYS MR. KARADZIC HAS REFUSED TO COOPERATE WITH THIS STAGE OF THE LEGAL PROCESS.

    /// DUBINSKY ACT ///

    IN FEBRUARY, KARADZIC WAS ORDERED TO APPLY TO THE U-S STATE DEPARTMENT FOR A VISA TO ENTER THE UNITED STATES TO APPEAR FOR WHAT IS KNOWN AS A DEPOSITION, THAT IS, TO ANSWER QUESTIONS UNDER OATH RELATED TO THE CASE. HE REFUSED TO OBEY THAT ORDER AND DIRECTED HIS LAWYER, WHO IS A FORMER ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES, RAMSEY CLARK, TO TAKE NO FURTHER STEPS DEFENDING THE ACTION IN THE DISTRICT COURT, BUT RATHER TO DEFEND IT ONLY ON APPEAL.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. DUBINSKY, WHO IS HELPING REPRESENT THE TWO BOSNIAN WOMEN BRINGING THE CHARGES, SAYS HE BELIEVES MR. KARADZIC HOPES TO USE THIS TACTIC TO MAKE IT APPEAR HE IS THE VICTIM OF LEGAL ABUSES BY THE WESTERN COMMUNITY.

    MS. KARADZIC'S LAWYER, RAMSEY CLARK, REJECTS THIS CHARGE. HE SAYS THE CASE IS MEANINGLESS, EXCEPT AS A POLITICAL STATEMENT AND HE SAYS THE U-S LEGAL SYSTEM SHOULD NOT BE USED TO MAKE SUCH STATEMENTS. HE SAYS THE CASE REPRESENTS A SERIOUS OVERREACHING OF THE U-S FEDERAL JUDICIARY OF WHAT HE CALLS AN IMPERIALISTIC NATURE.

    MR. KARADZIC HAS BEEN INDICTED TWICE BY THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR GENOCIDE. HE IS CONSIDERED A FUGITIVE FROM INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE BUT REMAINS FREE IN BOSNIA.

    MR. DUBINSKY SAYS NATIONAL COURTS OFFER MORE EFFECTIVE MEANS FOR PUNISHING INTERNATIONAL FUGITIVES SUCH AS MR. KARADZIC. THE U-S LEGAL SYSTEM IS PARTICULARLY EFFECTIVE IN SUCH CASES BECAUSE OF A LAW IN FORCE FOR MORE THAN 200 YEARS. IT GIVES AMERICAN COURTS JURISDICTION OVER CIVIL ACTIONS BY FOREIGN NATIONALS COMMITTED IN VIOLATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW.

    MR. DUBINSKY SAYS INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNALS GENERALLY LACK THE POWER TO ENFORCE VERDICTS AND ARE BETTER SUITED TO PURSUING HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AGAINST STATES RATHER THAN INDIVIDUALS. BUT HE SAYS NATIONAL COURTS, IF THERE IS SUFFICIENT COOPERATION BETWEEN NATIONS, CAN SUCCESSFULLY ENFORCE SOME FINANCIAL PENALTIES.

    /// DUBINSKY ACT ///

    SO IT CAN POTENTIALLY BE A VERY EFFECTIVE, POWERFUL MECHANISM OF MAKING IT VERY DIFFICULT FOR ANY FUGITIVE FROM JUSTICE TO HIDE THEIR ASSETS. OF COURSE, IT STILL REQUIRES THE COOPERATION OF A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD THAT HAVE TRADITIONALLY BEEN THE HAVEN FOR DRUG PROFITS AND OTHER ASSETS THAT PEOPLE WISH TO HIDE.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN THE CASE AGAINST FORMER BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC, MR. DUBINSKY SAYS IF HE IS FOUND GUILTY, IT SHOULD BE QUITE EASY TO FREEZE ANY ASSETS HE MAY HAVE IN THE UNITED STATES AND DISBURSE THEM TO VICTIMS. BUT MR KARADZIC'S LAWYER, RAMSEY CLARK, SAYS IT UNLIKELY MR. KARADZIC HAS ANY ASSETS IN THE UNITED STATES. HE SAYS THE ONLY REAL POTENTIAL THE CASE HAS IS TO CREATE GREATER FRUSTRATION AND HOSTILITY, WITHOUT ANY HOPE FOR RESOLUTION. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/MPR/LSF/RRM
    30-Apr-97 4:56 PM EDT (2056 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213645
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (WEDNESDAY) FOR THE THIRD STRAIGHT SESSION. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED JUST SHORT OF SEVEN THOUSAND NINE, UP 46 POINTS. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 801, UP SEVEN POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY THERE WAS SOME NEW OPTIMISM THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE REPUBLICAN-CONTROLLED CONGRESS WILL SOON REACH AGREEMENT ON A NEW FEDERAL BUDGET WHICH FURTHER REDUCES THE DEFICIT.

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED THAT THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, THE BROADEST MEASURE OF THE U-S ECONOMY, GREW AT A VERY STRONG ANNUAL RATE OF FIVE POINT SIX PERCENT IN THE FIRST QUARTER, THE FASTEST GROWTH IN NINE YEARS. BUT ANALYSTS SAY MUCH OF THE INCREASE WAS THE RESULT OF INVENTORY ACCUMULATION AND THAT THE GROWTH RATE SHOULD FALL SHARPLY IN THE SECOND QUARTER.

    THE UNITED STATES WILL FILE FORMAL COMPLAINTS WITH THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AGAINST FOUR NATIONS IN CONNECTION WITH COPYRIGHT VIOLATIONS. U-S TRADE REPRESENTATIVE CHARLENE BARSHEFSKY CLAIMS THAT DENMARK, ECUADOR, IRELAND AND SWEDEN HAVE NOT IMPLEMENTED AN INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT THAT PROTECTS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. CONSECO, A FINANCIAL SERVICES FIRM, WILL PAY 460 MILLION DOLLARS FOR THE COLONIAL PENN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. ANALYSTS SAY IT IS ANOTHER MOVE BY CONSECO TO EXPAND ITS INSURANCE BUSINESS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE DUPONT CHEMICAL COMPANY ANNOUNCED THAT IT WILL RAISE ITS STOCK DIVIDEND BY 11 PERCENT AND SPLIT THE STOCK TWO FOR ONE.

    RAND MACNALLY, THE WORLD'S LARGEST MAP MAKER, MAY BE FOR SALE. THE 141-YEAR OLD PRIVATELY HELD COMPANY HAS RETAINED AN INVESTMENT BANKER TO INVESTIGATE A POSSIBLE SALE. AEROFLOT, THE RUSSIAN AIRLINE, HAS SIGNED A FORMAL AGREEMENT TO PAY 400 MILLION DOLLARS FOR 10 BOEING 737 JETLINERS. IT IS THE FIRST PURCHASE OF BOEING JETS BY A RUSSIAN AIRLINE.

    THE QUALCOM COMPANY OF THE UNITED STATES HAS SIGNED A 300 MILLION DOLLAR CONTRACT TO PROVIDE DIGITAL TELEPHONES TO CHINA. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/LWM
    30-Apr-97 5:11 PM EDT (2111 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] RUSSIA/NATO BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36301
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IS (EN ROUTE TO / IN MOSCOW) TO MEET WITH KREMLIN LEADERS IN HOPES OF PUTTING THE FINAL TOUCHES ON A CHARTER OUTLINING FUTURE RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE NATO ALLIANCE. FROM THE RUSSIAN CAPITAL, PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS RUSSIAN LEADERS HAVE BUILT UP TO THE VISIT WITH A BARRAGE OF ANTI-NATO RHETORIC.

    TEXT: /// ACT OF WOMAN IN RUSSIAN ///

    SEVENTY-TWO YEAR OLD YELENA NIKOLAYEVNA WAS ONE OF A FEW DOZEN PEOPLE WHO STOOD IN FRONT OF THE AMERICAN EMBASSY IN MOSCOW THIS WEEK TO DEMONSTRATE OPPOSITION TO NATO'S EASTWARD EXPANSION. MS. NIKOLAYEVNA, AN AVOWED COMMUNIST, CHANTED ONE OF THE FEW ENGLISH PHRASES SHE KNOWS. "YANKEE GO HOME". THEN IN RUSSIAN, SHE SAID "NATO IS A CRIMINAL ORGANIZATION".

    YELENA NIKOLAYEVNA IS ONE OF A DYING BREED. SHE LIVED MOST OF HER LIFE UNDER SOVIET RULE, AND REMEMBERS THOSE TIMES AS THE GOOD OLD DAYS. BUT HER FEARS OF BEING TAKEN OVER BY THE SOVIET UNION'S COLD WAR ENEMY ARE SHARED TO SOME DEGREE BY RUSSIANS OF ALL AGES.

    ANOTHER DEMONSTRATOR, 19-YEAR OLD ANDREI KRYLOV CALLED NATO EXPANSION A HUMILIATING EXPERIENCE FOR HIS COUNTRY.

    ///KRYLOV ACT UP, THEN FADE TO...///

    MR. KRYLOV SAID RUSSIA WILL BE THE LOSER AFTER NATO EXPANSION. ITS WORD WILL COUNT LESS IN WORLD AFFAIRS, AND IT WILL LOSE ITS STATUS AS A GREAT POWER.

    INTERVIEWS WITH PEOPLE ON THE STREETS OF MOSCOW REVEAL THEY KNOW FULL WELL NATO EXPANSION IS INEVITABLE. BUT AS SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT ARRIVES ON THE TRADITIONAL MAY FIRST HOLIDAY FOR TALKS ON A NATO/RUSSIA CHARTER, THE OBSERVANCES WILL HAVE A DISTINCTIVE ANTI-WESTERN FLAVOR.

    POSSIBLY IN RECOGNITION OF PUBLIC SENTIMENT, OR MAYBE TO WIN FURTHER CONCESSIONS FROM NATO, RUSSIAN LEADERS HAVE PUT UP A BOLD FRONT. ON THE EVE OF THE ALBRIGHT VISIT, FIRST DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER ANATOLY CHUBAIS CALLED NATO EXPANSION A "GROSS POLITICAL MISTAKE THAT IS NEITHER IN THE INTERESTS OF RUSSIA OR THE WEST."

    A FOREIGN MINISTRY STATEMENT WEDNESDAY SAID RUSSIA'S GOAL REMAINS A FULL-SCALE BINDING DOCUMENT CONCERNING THE DEPLOYMENT OF NUCLEAR AND CONVENTIONAL FORCES ON THE TERRITORY OF NEW NATO MEMBERS. SECRETARY ALBRIGHT PREVIOUSLY TOLD A SENATE COMMITTEE THERE COULD BE NO COMPROMISE ON THAT ISSUE.

    FORMER SOVIET ARMY OFFICER AND NOW POLITICAL ANALYST, DMITRI TRENIN, BELIEVES THE RHETORIC IS PART OF A GOVERNMENT EFFORT AIMED AT A DOMESTIC AUDIENCE TO PROJECT A TOUGH IMAGE.

    ///TRENIN ACT///

    THE GOVERNMENT HAS TO PERFORM A PUBLIC RELATIONS TRICK TO PROJECT AN IMAGE OF AN ADMINISTRATION FIGHTING TO THE LAST DITCH FOR THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL INTEREST.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. TRENIN SAID HARSH RHETORIC BEFORE MAKING CONCESSIONS IS A TIME-HONORED NEGOTIATING TACTIC.

    ///SECOND TRENIN ACT///

    THERE IS A NEGOTIATION TECHNIQUE WHICH EXACTLY CALLS FOR THIS SORT OF THING, CALLS FOR APPLYING THE MAXIMUM PRESSURE ON YOUR PARTNER AT THE NEGOTIATING TABLE A FEW MINUTES OR A FEW SECONDS BEFORE THE DEAL IS GOING TO BE STRUCK.

    ///END ACT///

    DIPLOMATIC SOURCES SAY MS. ALBRIGHT'S BRIEF STOP (EDS: ABOUT 24 HOURS IN DURATION) IN MOSCOW INDICATES A FINAL DEAL IS NEAR ON THE NATO/RUSSIA CHARTER. BUT IN DEFERENCE TO ALLIANCE SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA, ANY ANNOUNCEMENT IS LIKELY TO BE WITHHELD UNTIL NEXT WEEK, WHEN THE NATO CHIEF AND THE RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER MEET IN LUXEMBOURG. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/PCF/RAE
    30-Apr-97 12:59 PM EDT (1659 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] SERBIA POL (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213630
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: VESNA PESIC, ONE OF THE THREE LEADERS OF THE SERBIAN POLITICAL OPPOSITION GROUP KNOWN AS "TOGETHER" OR "ZAJEDNO" (ZY-'ED-NO), TOLD AN AUDIENCE IN PRAGUE WEDNESDAY THAT SHE BELIEVES SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS DETERMINED TO RETAIN POWER AT ALL COSTS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS DESPITE WEEKS OF RALLIES AND GAINS BY THE OPPOSITION EARLIER THIS YEAR, MRS. PESIC BELIEVES SERBIA FACES AN UNCERTAIN POLITICAL FUTURE.

    TEXT: MRS. PESIC SAID IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO PREDICT THE METHODS MR. MILOSEVIC WILL USE TO RETAIN POWER AFTER HIS PRESIDENTIAL TERM EXPIRES LATER THIS YEAR. UNDER TERMS OF THE SERBIAN CONSTITUTION, HE IS NOT PERMITTED TO SEEK A THIRD TERM, BUT THIS WEEK ONE OF MR. MILOSEVIC'S DEPUTIES SUGGESTED THIS MAY NOT BE AN ABSOLUTE PROHIBITION. THERE IS ALSO SPECULATION THAT MR. MILOSEVIC WILL ASSUME THE CURRENTLY CEREMONIAL JOB OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT AND INVEST IT WITH EXECUTIVE POWER.

    BUT MRS. PESIC, A MEMBER OF THE SERBIAN PARLIAMENT, BELIEVES THAT SERBIAN PARLIAMENTARY AND PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS ARE LIKELY TO TAKE PLACE THIS YEAR. AND SHE HAS NO DOUBT ABOUT THE KIND OF CAMPAIGN MR. MILOSEVIC'S SOCIALIST PARTY WILL RUN.

    //PESIC ACT//

    I THINK MILOSEVIC IS PREPARING A CAMPAIGN THAT WILL BE MORE AUTHORITARIAN, MORE XENOPHOBIC, AND AGAIN, MORE NATIONALISTIC.

    //END ACT//

    //OPT//

    MRS. PESIC SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC HAS NO IDEAS FOR EITHER PRIVATIZING THE ECONOMY OR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF SERBIAN CITIZENS. //END OPT//

    MRS. PESIC SAYS THE "TOGETHER" OPPOSITION IS DEBATING ITS FUTURE AND WHETHER IT SHOULD BROADEN ITS BASE TO INCLUDE OTHER OPPOSITION PARTIES. SHE CONCEDES THAT SINCE STREET PROTESTS ENDED IN FEBRUARY, IT IS INCREASINGLY DIFFICULT TO PRESERVE COALITION UNITY.

    //SECOND PESIC ACT//

    ALL THESE DISPUTES MIGHT LEAD EVEN TO THE DISSOLUTION OF THE COALITION "TOGETHER." AND STRATEGICALLY SPEAKING, I DON'T THINK THAT WOULD BE SUCH A DISASTER FINALLY, IF ONE PARTY ISN'T IN THE COALITION. IF WE MAKE A BLOC OF DIFFERENT PARTIES AND ALSO CITIZENS, STUDENTS WHO WOULD BE HELPING THE COALITION.

    //END ACT//

    MRS. PESIC REGRETS THE "TOGETHER" COALITION HAS LOST MOMENTUM -- THIS AFTER STREET PROTESTS ENDED WHEN MR. MILOSEVIC REVERSED HIS POSITION AND ACCEPTED OPPOSITION VICTORIES IN MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. SHE SAID THE COALITION WILL NOT AGREE TO PARTICIPATE IN NATIONAL ELECTIONS UNTIL RESTRICTIONS ARE LIFTED ON THE BROADCAST MEDIA AND A NEW ELECTORAL LAW IS APPROVED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF/KL
    30-Apr-97 1:52 PM EDT (1752 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] TAJIKISTAN ATTACK (S-2ND UPDATE) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213619
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RE-RUNNING FOR TECHNICAL REASONS //

    INTRO: TAJIKISTAN'S PRESIDENT, EMOMALI RAKHMONOV, HAS SURVIVED A GRENADE ATTACK THAT KILLED TWO PEOPLE AND WOUNDED NEARLY 50 OTHERS. V-O-A'S PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS TWO SUSPECTS WERE TAKEN INTO CUSTODY IN CONNECTION WITH THE ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT.

    TEXT: TAJIK OFFICIALS SAY A YOUNG MAN HURLED A GRENADE AS PRESIDENT RAKHMONOV EMERGED FROM HIS CAR WEDNESDAY DURING A VISIT TO THE CITY OF KHODZHENT, 200 KILOMETERS NORTH OF THE CAPITAL, DUSHANBE. THE PRESIDENT SUFFERED A LEG WOUND, BUT LATER WAS ABLE TO DELIVER A SPEECH AS PART OF CEREMONIES MARKING THE ANNIVERSARY OF A LOCAL UNIVERSITY.

    MR. RAKHMONOV'S SECURITY STAFF ARRESTED TWO SUSPECTS IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE ATTACK. ONE OF THEM IS IDENTIFIED AS A 21-YEAR-OLD MAN INVOLVED IN ORGANIZING ANTI-GOVERNMENT DEMONSTRATIONS LAST YEAR.

    TAJIKISTAN, A FORMER SOVIET REPUBLIC IN CENTRAL ASIA, HAS BEEN BESET BY CIVIL WAR FOR MUCH OF THE TIME SINCE INDEPENDENCE IN 1991. BUT FIGHTING HAS MOSTLY STOPPED SINCE A DECEMBER CEASE-FIRE.

    THE COUNTRY'S MAIN OPPOSITION GROUPS DISTANCED THEMSELVES FROM WEDNESDAY'S ATTACK, SAYING THEY HOPED IT WOULD NOT DERAIL EFFORTS TO NEGOTIATE A PEACE AGREEMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH
    30-Apr-97 11:23 AM EDT (1523 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] TERRORISM REPORT CQ (L) BY JIM RANDLE (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=4/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213637
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // CORRECTION: IN 4TH GRAF OF TEXT, ADD SUDAN TO LIST //

    INTRO: A NEW REPORT FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST INCIDENTS ARE GETTING MORE DEADLY, WHILE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS GETTING TOUGHER ON TERRORIST GROUPS. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: AMBASSADOR PHILIP WILCOX, WHO COORDINATES THE U-S FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM, SAYS THERE WERE FEWER INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST INCIDENTS LAST YEAR, BUT SUCH ATTACKS ARE KILLING MORE PEOPLE. HE BLAMES THE GROWING NUMBER OF DEATHS ON WIDESPREAD ACCESS TO IMPROVED EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER TECHNOLOGY.

    /// WILCOX ACT ///

    TERRORISM IS ALSO A MORE LETHAL THREAT THAN IT HAS EVER BEEN IN THE PAST BECAUSE OF GROWING ACCESS OF TERRORISTS TO TECHNOLOGY. IN THE YEAR 1605, A WOULD-BE TERRORIST NAMED GUY FAWKES TRIED TO BLOW UP THE BRITISH HOUSE OF COMMONS. HE USED 29 BARRELS OF GUNPOWDER. FORTUNATELY THE PLOT WAS FOILED. TODAY, THAT JOB COULD HAVE BEEN DONE WITH A SMALL PLASTIC CHARGE IN A BRIEFCASE.

    /// END ACT ///

    AMBASSADOR WILCOX TOLD REPORTERS, MANY NATIONS AND GROUPS ARE CAPABLE OF DEVELOPING CHEMICAL OR GERM WEAPONS, OR STEALING OR SMUGGLING NUCLEAR DEVICES. HE SAYS THERE IS GROWING CONCERN SUCH WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION COULD BE AIMED AT LARGE CIVILIAN TARGETS -- WITH CATASTROPHIC RESULTS.

    THE AMBASSADOR ALSO CITED IMPROVED GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS AS ANOTHER SPUR TO TERRORISM, SAYING IT GIVES A BETTER STAGE FOR TERRORISTS TO SEND OUT THEIR MESSAGES.

    THE REPORT BRANDS SEVEN NATIONS AS SPONSORS OF TERRORISM (-- THE SAME SEVEN THAT WERE LISTED LAST YEAR --): IRAQ, LIBYA, SUDAN, NORTH KOREA, SYRIA, CUBA, AND PARTICULARLY IRAN.

    /// WILCOX ACT ///

    IRAN'S POLICY OF ASSASSINATING DISSIDENTS IS UNIQUE, AND STARTLING IN THE LATE 20TH CENTURY THAT A GOVERNMENT CONTINUES TO DO THAT AS A MATTER OF POLICY.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE REPORT SAYS ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS REDUCE THE TERRORIST THREAT FROM CUBA, IRAQ, NORTH KOREA, AND LIBYA. IT CREDITS SUDAN WITH 'DISTANCING' ITSELF FROM PAST SUPPORT OF TERRORISM, BUT SAYS SUDAN CONTINUES TO SERVE AS A SANCTUARY AND TRAINING GROUND FOR TERROR GROUPS.

    AMBASSADOR WILCOX SAYS THE OVERALL NUMBER OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST INCIDENTS DROPPED LAST YEAR BECAUSE OF WHAT HE CALLED MORE RESOLUTE ANTI-TERROR POLICIES AND A GROWING CONSENSUS TERRORISM IS INTOLERABLE, REGARDLESS OF THE POLITICAL MOTIVE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RAE/RRM
    30-Apr-97 3:46 PM EDT (1946 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/30/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10138
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY APRIL 30TH //

    INTRO: THE SITUATION IN ZAIRE GETS ATTENTION FROM SEVERAL PAPERS IN TODAY'S EDITORIALS, AS WELL AS A PLEA TO REDUCE THE U-S MILITARY AS A WAY OF SAVING MONEY.

    OTHER TOPICS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE JANET RENO'S APPEARANCE BEFORE CONGRESS TODAY; THE SOON-TO-BE DEDICATED MEMORIAL TO FORMER PRESIDENT FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT; THE MILITIA STANDOFF IN TEXAS; AND THE DEATH OF ONE OF AMERICA'S LEADING NEWSPAPER COLUMNISTS, MIKE ROYKO, IN CHICAGO.

    NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: AS REBEL FORCES LED BY LAURENT KABILA MOVE EVER CLOSER TO THE CAPITAL OF KINSHASA, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES IS SUGGESTING THAT NELSON MANDELA WOULD BE AN EXCELLENT ROLE MODEL FOR MR. KABILA WHO STANDS ON THE VERGE OF TAKING OVER THE GOVERNMENT IN ZAIRE.

    VOICE: "ZAIRE'S CURRENT HORROR WILL NOT RESULT IN A PERMANENT HELL IF LAURENT KABILA, THE REBEL LEADER EXPECTED TO REPLACE MOBUTU SESE SEKO, LEARNS FROM POLITICAL SUCCESS STORIES ELSEWHERE IN AFRICA. .....HE CAN LEAD ZAIRE OUT OF POVERTY AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY IF HE LOOKS TO THE EXAMPLE OF THE SHREWDLY PRAGMATIC [MR.] MANDELA, WHO PUT TOGETHER AN ELECTED GOVERNMENT THAT INCLUDES OLD ENEMIES AND REPRESENTS ALL OF SOUTH AFRICA. THE LONG-SUFFERING PEOPLE OF ZAIRE DESERVE NOTHING LESS."

    TEXT: THE BOSTON GLOBE IS ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT ZAIRE, PARTICULARLY THE PLIGHT OF THOUSANDS OF HUTU REFUGEES FROM NEIGHBORING RWANDA WHO ARE ROAMING THE COUNTRY .

    VOICE: "IT IS RIGHT THAT THE UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED NATIONS TRY TO SAVE THE RWANDAN REFUGEES. RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS AND JOURNALISTS HAVE HEARD REPORTS OF MASSACRES AND OF REFUGEES BEING DRIVEN OUT OF TWO LARGE CAMPS INTO THE SURROUNDING JUNGLE. ..... EVEN THOUGH THE REFUGEES MIGHT INCLUDE SOME OF THE HUTU MILITIAMEN WHO MASSACRED HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF RWANDAN TUTSIS IN 1994, THE OUTSIDE WORLD HAS A HUMANITARIAN OBLIGATION TO PROTECT THE REFUGEES AND HAVE THEM REPATRIATED."

    TEXT: IN DOMESTIC ISSUES, THE REDUCTION IN FORCE OF THE U-S MILITARY IS VERY MUCH IN THE NEWS AND A LEAD ITEM ON THE DESK OF NEW SECRETARY OF DEFENSE WILLIAM COHEN. IN HIS HOME STATE, MAINE, THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD SAYS ANY REDUCTION "NEEDS CAREFUL THOUGHT."

    VOICE: "THE TOTAL RE-EVALUATION OF THE U-S MILITARY ANNOUNCED BY DEFENSE SECRETARY ... COHEN .... IS NEEDED, BUT SO IS GREAT CAUTION. ..... OUR ACTIVE-DUTY MILITARY FORCES HAVE BEEN CUT NEARLY IN HALF SINCE 1989. ... MEANWHILE, MOST OF OUR CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS - - SHIPS, TANKS, PLANES AND OTHER COMPLEX MACHINES - - WERE BUILT IN THE 1970S AND 1980S. THOSE WEAPONS ARE NOW ALL IN THE MIDDLE OR NEAR THE END OF THEIR USEFUL LIVES. FURTHER, ADVANCEMENTS IN WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY HAVE LEFT THE SYSTEMS OF THAT ERA VULNERABLE TO MORE MODERN THREATS. ..... THE LONG-RANGE RISK IS THAT CURRENT AMERICAN ALLIES, PRIMARILY IN EAST ASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST, MIGHT RESPOND TO PERCEPTIONS OF A LESS-CAPABLE U-S MILITARY BY VASTLY EXPANDING THEIR OWN FORCES. ..... THAT'S WHY [SECRETARY] COHEN AND HIS STAFF SHOULD PROCEED ONLY AFTER DEEP THOUGHT ....."

    TEXT: BUT REDUCTIONS SHOULD BE MADE, ACCORDING TO THE NEW YORK TIMES .

    VOICE: "MAINTAINING AMERICAN MILITARY SUPERIORITY IS VITAL, BUT IT DOES NOT REQUIRE AN ANNUAL PENTAGON BUDGET OF 250-BILLION DOLLARS. ..... IT IS NOT UNREASONABLE TO BELIEVE THAT AMERICAN SECURITY CAN BE ADEQUATELY PROTECTED FOR CONSIDERABLY LESS ....."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN QUITE ANOTHER ASPECT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES NOTES THE CONVICTION, TUESDAY, OF DELMAR SIMPSON, AN ARMY SERGEANT ON 54 COUNTS OF SEXUAL IMPROPRIETY, INCLUDING RAPE, COMMENTING:

    VOICE: "WHAT [SGT.] SIMPSON DID TO A NUMBER OF WOMEN UNDER HIS COMMAND IS NOW WELL ESTABLISHED. HOW THE ARMY FAILED TO SEE WHAT WAS GOING ON REMAINS TO BE EXPLAINED. .... THE DEEP AND TROUBLING SYSTEMIC PROBLEMS ... THE SIMPSON CASE ... HAS HELPED EXPOSE NOW CRY OUT FOR REDRESS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO IS SCHEDULED TO TESTIFY BEFORE CONGRESS TODAY AND IT IS VIRTUALLY CERTAIN SHE WILL BE CRITICIZED FOR FAILING TO MOVE TOWARD APPOINTING A SPECIAL COUNSEL TO INVESTIGATE ALLEGED FUND RAISING ILLEGALITIES IN LAST YEAR'S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. SAYS THE WASHINGTON TIMES:

    VOICE: "...... SENATOR [ORRIN] HATCH WILL WANT TO KNOW WHY MISS RENO HAS SO SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED HER VIEW ON THE ROLE OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL FROM THE VIEW SHE EXPRESSED IN MAY 1993, WHEN SHE TESTIFIED BEFORE THE SENATE ON BEHALF OF REENACTING THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL STATUTE. 'THERE IS AN INHERENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST WHENEVER SENIOR EXECUTIVE BRANCH OFFICIALS ARE TO BE INVESTIGATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AND ITS APPOINTED HEAD, THE ATTORNEY GENERAL,' WHO, MISS RENO REMINDED THE SENATORS FOUR YEAR AGO, SERVES AT THE PLEASURE OF THE PRESIDENT."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, ON THE SAME MATTER, SAYS THE ARGUMENT THAT THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT CAN ADMINISTER THE FUND-RAISING INVESTIGATION ITSELF, DOES NOT HOLD UP BECAUSE OF CHRONIC VACANCIES.

    VOICE: "MAINE JUSTICE CAN HANDLE THIS PROBLEM .... ATTORNEY GENERAL RENO ..... IS FORCED TO ARGUE, THOUGH THERE IS NO CONFIRMED DEPUTY ATTORNEY GENERAL, ASSOCIATE ATTORNEY GENERAL, SOLICITOR GENERAL, HEAD OF THE CRIMINAL DIVISION OR OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL. WHATEVER THE DESIRABILITY OF LETTING JUSTICE HANDLE POLITICAL CASES, JUSTICE AT PRESENT HAS NO COMPETENCE TO DO SO."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THIS FRIDAY, THE FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT MEMOIAL WILL BE DEDICATED HERE IN WASHINGTON, DRAWING THIS COMMENT FROM THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD.

    VOICE: "AMERICAN WAS FLAT ON ITS BACK WHEN FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT BECAME PRESIDENT 66 YEARS AGO. IT BEGAN TO RISE WHEN IT HEARD HIS RESONANT, CONFIDENT VOICE RINGING FROM THE STEPS OF THE CAPITOL IN HIS FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 'THE ONLY THING WE HAVE TO FEAR IS FEAR ITSELF,' HE SAID WITH A JAUNTY TOSS OF HIS HEAD, AND AMERICA BELIEVED HIM. THE 100 DAYS THAT FOLLOWED WERE DAYS OF LIGHTNING. SOCIAL SECURITY, UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION, RELIEF FOR THE JOBLESS, THE CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS ALL GAVE HOPE WHERE NONE HAD EXISTED BEFORE."

    TEXT: TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE, IS CALLKING FOR PATIENCE IN RESPONDING TO A SMALL, ARMED, MILITIA IN WEST TEXAS. THE MILITIA CALLS ITSELF THE REPUBLIC OF TEXAS AND IS RESISTING ARREST FROM THE DOZENS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS WHO HAVE THEM SURROUNDED.

    VOICE: "THE TERRORISTS ARE DOOMED TO LOSE ...... THE CRUCIAL REMAINING QUESTION IS WHETHER THE AUTHORITIES SHOULD DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO WIN THE WAR WITHOUT RESORTING TO FORCE. IF THEY [THE AUTHORITIES] HAVE LEARNED THE PROPER LESSONS FROM THE CALAMITIES IN WACO, TEXAS, AND RUBY RIDGE, IDAHO, AS WELL AS THE SUCCESSFUL SIEGE LAST YEAR OF THE SO-CALLED FREEMEN IN MONTANA, THE OFFICIALS ...... WILL PATIENTLY PURSUE A BLOODLESS CAPTURE OF THE DELUDED SECESSIONISTS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, SOME WORDS OF FAREWELL FROM THE OREGONIAN TO THE JAUNTY, MAN-OF-THE-PEOPLE CHICAGO NEWSPAPER COLUMNIST, MIKE ROYKO, WHO DIED YESTERDAY AT 64.

    VOICE: ".... WHAT MADE HIM A LANDMARK ON LAKE MICHIGAN WAS HIS POWERFUL, ALMOST INSTINCTIVE SENSE OF HOW HIS CITY WORKED, LAID OUT IN COLUMNS THAT NEVER MADE IT [TO PRINT] OUTSIDE CHICAGO. HIS SENSE OF ITS NEIGHBORHOODS, ITS PEOPLE AND ITS CONFLICTS, FROM THE BILLY GOAT TAVERN TO THE NORTHWEST WARDS, PULSED THROUGH A THOUSAND COLUMNS AND A DEVASTATING BIOGRAPHY OF FORMER MAYOR RICHARD J. DALEY. .... FOR A NEWSPAPER GUY, THERE IS NO HIGHER LEVEL."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT THE WEDNESDAY EDITORIAL PAGES OF SOME OF THIS NATION'S PREMIER NEWSPAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    30-Apr-97 10:55 AM EDT (1455 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] WORLD BANK/IMF (L ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213595
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // CORR: LAST GRAPH; SENTENCE CHANGED //

    INTRO: A TWO-DAY ANNUAL WORLD BANK/INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND MEETING ENDED TUESDAY IN WASHINGTON IN WHICH THE WORLD BANK PRESIDENT JAMES WOLFENSOHN WARNED BANK PROFITS ARE FALLING AS DEMAND FOR FUNDS IS RISING. AND AS V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS U-S TREASURY SECRETARY ROBERT RUBIN WHO ALSO ATTENDED THE MEETING VOICED CONCERN OF THE NEED TO CURB CORRUPTION IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD.

    TEXT: MR. WOLFENSOHN SAYS WHILE HE HAS NO CONCERNS AT ALL ABOUT THE FINANCIAL STABILITY OF STRENGTH OF THE WORLD BANK HE IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE CONSTANT DEMAND FOR INCOME. MR. WOLFENSOHN SAYS THE BANK IS NOT WHAT HE CALLS A MIRACLE INSTITUTION THAT PRODUCES PROFITS NO MATTER WHAT IT DOES.

    THE WORLD BANK PRESIDENT POINTS TO THE LOW INTEREST IT CHARGES FOR LOANS AS THE REASON FOR A LACK OF GROWING RESERVES. LAST YEAR, THE BANK EARNED ONE-POINT-TWO BILLION DOLLARS, SOME OF WHICH WAS PUT INTO RESERVES, SOME WAS USED TO REDUCE INTEREST RATE CHARGES FOR BORROWERS OR HELP FUND LOW-COST LOANS FOR THE WORLD'S POOREST NATIONS.

    MR. WOLFENSOHN SAYS BANK PROFITS ARE FALLING IN PART BECAUSE IT IS CHARGING LESS INTEREST ON THE TENS OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS IT LENDS TO DEVELOPING AND FORMER COMMUNIST BLOC NATIONS. AT THE SAME TIME, IT HAS TO RELY ON PROFITS TO FINANCE A NEW PLAN TO PROVIDE DEBT-RELIEF FOR POOR COUNTRIES THAT HAVE ADOPTED TOUGH ECONOMIC PLANS SET BY THE I-M-F. UP TO 20 COUNTRIES, MOSTLY IN AFRICA, ARE EXPECTED TO HAVE THEIR DEBT BURDENS REDUCED COSTING CREDITORS MORE THAN EIGHT BILLION DOLLARS.

    IN A RELATED DEVELOPMENT, THE BANK IS LENDING 225-MILLION DOLLARS TO HUNGARY TO BOOST ITS PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM AND REDUCE LOSSES SUSTAINED BY STATE-OWNED COMPANIES.

    TREASURY SECRETARY RUBIN TOLD A JOINT IMF-WORLD BANK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE INTERNATIONAL LENDING AGENCIES SHOULD CONCENTRATE SUPPORT ON HELPING POOR NATIONS COMMITTED TO WHAT HE CALLS SOUND ECONOMIC POLICIES WHICH PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT AND POVERTY REDUCTION.

    SECRETARY RUBIN ALSO SAYS CURBING CORRUPTION AND BRIBERY IS WAY TO ADVANCE ECONOMIC REFORM IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD. HE URGED MEMBER COUNTRIES TO CRIMINALIZE AND ELIMINATE TAX DEDUCTIONS FOR BRIBES AND CATALOGUE ALL CASES OF CORRUPTION.

    AND AMERICA'S CENTRAL BANK CHAIRMAN, ALAN GREENSPAN, SPEAKING TO THE INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCE IN WASHINGTON (TUESDAY) ALSO CALLED FOR GREATER COOPERATION AMONG BANKING SUPERVISORS ON EXCHANGING INFORMATION. MR. GREENSPAN SAYS IT WOULD AVOID OR REDUCE THE RISK OF FINANCIAL CALAMITIES SUCH AS THE 1995 COLLAPSE OF THE BRITISH BANK BARINGS WHICH DECLARED BANKRUPTCY AFTER HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS WERE LOST IN SOURED DERIVATIVES CONTRACTS BY A SINGAPORE INVESTOR:

    /// GREENSPAN ACTUALITY ///

    IT IS MORE DIFFICULT TO POINT TO EPISODES WHEN ABSENT A FORMAL ARRANGEMENT FOR COORDINATION OF SUPERVISORY ACTIVITIES INHIBITED A RESPONSE TO A PROBLEM.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    MR. GREENSPAN SAYS SUCH SUPERVISORY COORDINATION OVER LARGE, DIVERSIFIED, GLOBALLY-ACTIVE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS MIGHT OFFER AN INCENTIVE FOR MARKET PARTICIPANTS TO PROVIDE SELF-DISCIPLINE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/VB/LWM
    29-Apr-97 10:24 PM EDT (0224 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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