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Voice of America, 97-04-29

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BRITISH BOMB THREATS (L) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [02] CYPRUS/U-N CONSULTS (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [03] E-U / IRAN (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (LUXEMBOURG)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [05] FRANCE / ELECTIONS (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [07] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] TURKEY / POLITICS (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)
  • [09] TURKEY POLITICS (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)
  • [10] U-S-EUROPEAN UNION (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [11] U-S/ROMANIA-NATO (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [12] U-S / E-U / IRAN O'NITER (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [13] U-S VOLUNTEERS AID ROMANIAN BAKERS BY ROB SIVAK (WASHINGTON)
  • [14] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] BRITISH BOMB THREATS (L) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213559
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOMB THREATS BELIEVED TO BE FROM THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY HAVE ONCE AGAIN DISRUPTED LIFE FOR BRITISH COMMUTERS. AS V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON, THIS LATEST TERRORIST ACT COMES JUST TWO DAYS BEFORE THE BRITISH PEOPLE GO TO THE POLLS TO ELECT A NEW PARLIAMENT.

    TEXT: THOUSANDS OF BRITISH COMMUTERS WERE ONCE AGAIN FACED WITH CLOSED HIGHWAYS AND DISRUPTED AIR TRAFFIC AS POLICE SPRUNG INTO ACTION FOLLOWING BOMB THREATS FROM TELEPHONE CALLERS BELIEVED TO BE FROM THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY.

    THIS TIME IT WAS MOSTLY THE SOUTH OF ENGLAND WHICH WAS AFFECTED, AS MORE THAN 80-KILOMETERS OF MOTORWAY WERE CLOSED. FOLLOWING CODED MESSAGES TO SCOTLAND YARD, POLICE WERE FORCED TO DIVERT TRAFFIC FROM THE RING ROAD AROUND LONDON -- AND ALONG STRETCHES OF ROADS CONNECTING THE BRITISH CAPITAL TO THE SOUTHERN PORT OF DOVER.

    BOMB THREATS ALSO FORCED THE EVACUATION OF SEVERAL TERMINALS AT GATWICK AND HEATHROW AIRPORTS. THE AIRPORT NEAR THE SOUTHERN PORT CITY OF SOUTHAMPTON WAS ALSO TEMPORAILY CLOSED.

    THESE LATEST TERRORIST ACTS COME TWO DAYS BEFORE A BRITISH GENERAL ELECTION -- AND ALL THE MAJOR PARTIES CONDEMNED THE BOMB THREATS. THE LEADER OF THE LIBERAL DEMOCRATS -- PADDY ASHDOWN -- EXPRESSED THE VIEW OF MANY POLITICIANS WHEN HE TOLD REPORTERS SUCH ACTS ARE COUNTERPRODUCTIVE.

    /// ASHDOWN ACT ///

    THESE ARE FUTILE, STUPID ACTS WHICH WILL ACHIEVE ABSOLUTELY NOTHING. THE I-R-A WILL HAVE NO INFLUENCE ON THE GENERAL ELECTION AND THEY DIMINISH ANY CHANCE THEY HAVE OF TAKING PART IN THE TALKS ABOUT THE FUTURE OF (NORTHERN) IRELAND AFTER THE ELECTION BY TAKING ACTIONS WHICH I SUPPOSE THEY BELIEVE WILL HAVE SOME EFFECT IN BRITAIN OR IRELAND -- BUT WILL HAVE NONE IN EITHER PLACE.

    /// END ACT ///

    FOR ABOUT A MONTH NOW, THE I-R-A HAS BEEN ENGAGED IN A TERRORIST CAMPAIGN AIMED AT DISRUPTING THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN.

    /// OPT ///

    JUST LAST WEEK, TWO SMALL BOMBS EXPLODED ON AN EXPRESSWAY NORTH OF BRITAIN'S SECOND LARGEST CITY, BIRMINGHAM -- AND LONDON'S TRAFFIC WAS SEVERELY AFFECTED BY BOMB THREATS IN THE CENTER OF THE CITY. A FEW WEEKS AGO, ONE OF THE WORLD'S BEST KNOWN HORSE RACES -- THE GRAND NATIONAL STEEPLECHASE -- WAS POSTPONED BECAUSE OF AN I-R-A BOMB THREAT. /// END OPT ///

    PROFESSOR HENRY PATTERSON FROM BELFAST'S ULSTER UNIVERSITY IS AN EXPERT ON THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY AND ITS POLITICAL WING, SINN FEIN. HE SAYS THE REPUBLICAN MOVEMENT -- IN OTHER WORDS THOSE WHO WANT NORTHERN IRELAND UNITED WITH IRELAND -- IS DIVIDED OVER THE ISSUE OF WHETHER OR NOT TO WAGE A BOMBING CAMPAIGN IN MAINLAND BRITAIN.

    /// PATTERSON ACT ///

    THERE ARE POLITICAL ELEMENTS WITHIN THE REPUBLICAN MOVEMENT WHICH WHICH WOULD HAVE LIKED A TOTAL CEASEFIRE BOTH IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND NORTHERN IRELAND TO BE DECLARED A COUPLE OF WEEKS AGO. BUT THE MORE MILITARIST ELEMENTS BASICALLY SAID THE MOST YOU CAN HAVE IS A DE FACTO CESSATION OF ACTIVITIES IN NORTHERN IRELAND, BUT WE RETAIN THE RIGHT TO HAVE A CAMPAIGN OF SOME SORT ON MAINLAND BRITAIN. SO I THINK THE OTHER THING YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER IS THAT THIS DOES NOT REFLECT A COHERENT, UNIFIED REPUBLICAN STRATEGY. IT REFLECTS AN I-R-A STRATEGY.

    /// END ACT ///

    SINN FEIN HAS SEVERAL CANDIDATES RUNNING FOR PARLIAMENTARY SEATS IN MAY FIRST'S GENERAL ELECTION. PROFESSOR PATTERSON SAYS HE DOES NOT BELIEVE THE CURRENT I-R-A TERRORIST CAMPAIGN WILL HURT THEM. BUT HE SAYS THAT MAY CHANGE IF BETWEEN NOW AND THURSDAY THE I-R-A DETONATES A MASSIVE BOMB RESULTING IN DEATHS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH
    29-Apr-97 10:40 AM EDT (1440 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CYPRUS/U-N CONSULTS (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213594
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN SAYS HE HOPES THE GREEK AND TURKISH-CYPRUS LEADERS WILL AGREE TO MEET FACE-TO FACE IN THE NEXT TWO MONTHS TO TRY TO BREAK THE POLITICAL STALEMATE IN THEIR DIVIDED COUNTRY. MEANWHILE, THE FIVE PERMANENT MEMBERS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL DISCUSSED CYPRUS PRIVATELY TUESDAY TO ASSESS THE SITUATION. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: SECRETARY-GENERAL ANNAN WANTS TO BREATHE FRESH LIFE INTO THE LONG AND STALE NEGOTIATIONS ON CYPRUS -- AS HE DID RECENTLY ON WESTERN SAHARA. IN THE CASE OF WESTERN SAHARA -- HE APPOINTED FORMER U-S SECRETARY OF STATE JAMES BAKER AS SPECIAL ENVOY. THAT CALCULATED MOVE SEEMS TO BE PAYING OFF. INITIAL REPORTS SUGGEST NEW FLEXIBILITY BY BOTH MOROCCO -- WHICH CONTROLS THE TERRITORY AND ITS MAIN RIVAL, THE POLISARIO FRONT. HOWEVER, NO HIGH-POWERED U-N ENVOY IS WAITING IN THE WINGS FOR CYPRUS. U-N SPOKESMAN FRED ECKHARD SAYS THE SECRETARY-GENERAL'S ONLY PLAN IS TO PROMOTE HIGH-LEVEL TALKS:

    //ECKHARD ACT//

    IN THE CASE OF CYPRUS, HIS HOPE IS THAT THE COMMUNITY LEADERS COULD MEET FACE-TO-FACE PERHAPS THIS SUMMER. PERHAPS. THAT'S HIS OBJECTIVE. HE FEELS THAT THE SITUATION IN CYPRUS HAS DETERIORATED AND THAT ANY EFFORT THAT COULD HELP IMPROVE THE ATMOSPHERICS THERE COULD BE A PLUS. SO THAT IS HIS MINIMAL OBJECTIVE FOR THIS YEAR.

    //END ACT//

    "PERHAPS" IS THE KEY WORD. SOURCES CLOSE TO THE SITUATION SAY PROSPECTS FOR FACE-TO-FACE TALKS ARE NOT ESPECIALLY GOOD AT THIS POINT. AND VIRTUALLY NO ONE EXPECTS A SOLUTION OUT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL -- NO MATTER HOW OFTEN ITS KEY MEMBERS CONSULT.

    CYPRUS HAS BEEN DIVIDED ETHNICALLY SINCE TURKEY INVADED CYPRUS IN 1974 IN RESPONSE TO A SHORT-LIVED COUP IN NICOSIA SUPPORTED BY THE FORMER MILITARY JUNTA OF GREECE. THE TURKISH CYPRIOTS HAVE SINCE DECLARED THEIR INDEPENDENCE IN NORTHERN CYPRUS -- WHERE OVER 30-THOUSAND TURKISH TROOPS REMAIN. ONLY TURKEY RECOGNIZES THE SELF-PROCLAIMED REPUBLIC.

    THE EUROPEAN UNION IS PUTTING PRESSURE ON CYPRUS TO FIND A SOLUTION BEFORE ITS APPLICATION FOR E-U MEMBERSHIP CAN BE CONSIDERED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    29-Apr-97 6:37 PM EDT (2237 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] E-U / IRAN (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (LUXEMBOURG)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213545
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EUROPEAN UNION FOREIGN MINISTERS HAVE ISSUED A TOUGH STATEMENT ON IRAN, BUT HAVE STOPPED SHORT OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS. JOHN FRASER IN LUXEMBOURG REPORTS THE E-U MINISTERS ACTED AFTER A BERLIN COURT EARLIER THIS MONTH RULED THAT IRANIAN AUTHORITIES WERE IMPLICATED IN TERRORIST ASSASSINATIONS IN GERMANY.

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN UNION FOREIGN MINISTERS WARNED THAT WHILE THEY WANT AN IMPROVED RELATIONSHIP WITH IRAN, THIS WILL BE POSSIBLE ONLY IF IRANIAN AUTHORITIES RESPECT THE NORMS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, AND REFRAIN FROM ACTS OF TERRORISM, INCLUDING THOSE AGAINST IRANIAN CITIZENS LIVING ABROAD.

    THE EUROPEAN MINISTERS ALSO CALLED ON IRAN TO ABIDE BY ITS COMMITMENTS UNDER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS, INCLUDING THOSE CONCERNING HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE NON-PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION. AND THEY URGED IRAN TO RATIFY THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS TREATY.

    THERE WAS SOME DISCUSSION OF WHETHER NEW ECONOMIC SANCTIONS SHOULD BE APPLIED. BUT THERE WAS NO AGREEMENT ON THIS.

    THE FOREIGN MINISTER ALSO AGREED THAT AMBASSADORS FROM E-U NATIONS, WHO WERE WITHDRAWN FROM TEHRAN FOLLOWING THE COURT VERDICT ON THE MURDERS IN A BERLIN RESTAURANT, SHOULD RETURN. HOWEVER, THE 15 E-U FOREIGN MINISTERS SAID THERE IS AT PRESENT NO QUESTION OF RESUMING THEIR POLITICAL DIALOGUE WITH IRAN.

    THEY SAID THAT THERE WILL BE NO MINISTERIAL VISITS TO OR FROM IRAN, THAT THE E-U WILL SELL NO ARMS TO TERHAN, THAT NO VISAS WILL BE GRANTED TO IRANIANS WHO HAVE INTELLIGENCE OR SECURITY FUNCTIONS, AND THAT DISCUSSIONS WILL CONTINUE ON EXPELLING IRANIAN INTELLIGENCE PERSONNEL FROM THE E-U.

    EUROPEAN UNION OFFICIALS SAY THAT THE 15-NATION BLOC HAS SENT A STRONG POLITICAL SIGNAL TO IRANIAN AUTHORITIES, EVEN THOUGH THE SAME OFFICIALS ADMIT THAT THERE ARE PLENTY OF WORDS -- BUT NO NEW ACTIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH
    29-Apr-97 8:01 AM EDT (1201 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213577
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: POSITIVE NEWS ABOUT ANTICIPATED INFLATION IN THE UNITED STATES HELPED DRIVE STOCK MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE TUESDAY INTO POSITIVE TERRITORY. BUT THE DOLLAR DECLINED ON THE NEWS, AS VOA'S PAUL FRANCUCH REPORTS IN THIS MARKET WRAP-UP.

    TEXT: FIGURES RELEASED IN WASHINGTON SUGGESTING INFLATION IS BEING HELD IN CHECK WERE GREETED AS VERY GOOD NEWS BY EUROPEAN INVESTORS, WHO CELEBRATED BY PURCHASING GREAT QUANTITIES OF STOCKS.

    THE BIGGEST ADVANCE CAME IN PARIS, WHERE THE "CAC 40" INDEX POSTED A GAIN OF MORE THAN 52-AND-ONE-HALF POINTS. IN LONDON, THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX GAINED 43-AND-A-HALF POINTS, WHILE IN FRANKFURT THE "DAX 30" WAS UP JUST MORE THAN 20-POINTS.

    THE DOLLAR LOST A FRACTION OF A CENT IN TRADING AGAINST THE MARK AND WAS DOWN ALMOST A FULL CENT AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND. GOLD WAS VIRTUALLY UNCHANGED IN THE LONDON CLOSING FIX, OFF 10-CENTS AN OUNCE AT 339-DOLLARS-95 CENTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RAE
    29-Apr-97 1:38 PM EDT (1738 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] FRANCE / ELECTIONS (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213578
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRANCE'S OPPOSITION SOCIALISTS AND COMMUNISTS MET TUESDAY TO CONCLUDE A PACT ON THE UPCOMING PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS IN JUNE. THE AGREEMENT COULD LEAD TO COMMUNIST MINISTERS PARTICIPATING IN A NEW GOVERNMENT, IF THE LEFT-WING IS ELECTED. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: FRANCE'S SOCIALIST AND COMMUNIST LEADERS MET TO SIGN THEIR ELECTORAL AGREEMENT AFTER FIVE MONTHS OF NEGOTIATIONS. ITS CONCLUSION WAS SUDDENLY MADE URGENT BY THE CONSERVATIVE PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC'S DECISION LAST WEEK TO DISSOLVE PARLIAMENT AND CALL NEW ELECTIONS.

    THE TWO ROUNDS OF ELECTIONS THAT END ON JUNE FIRST, WILL CHOOSE A NEW PARLIAMENT TO LEAD FRANCE FOR THE NEXT FIVE YEARS. ALTHOUGH THE CURRENT RULING CONSERVATIVE COALITION IS STILL THE FAVORITE TO WIN, SOME OPINION POLLS PROJECT A VICTORY BY ONLY A VERY SMALL MARGIN.

    THE SOCIALIST-COMMUNIST AGREEMENT -- MAINLY A DIATRIBE AGAINST MR. CHIRAC FOR CHOOSING TO DISSOLVE PARLIAMENT NOW -- DOES NOT LAY DOWN ANY RULES FOR GOVERNMENT. BUT IT DOES INCLUDE SOME JOINT AIMS, SUCH AS THE CREATION OF 700-THOUSAND JOBS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. IT ALSO PROMISES TO CANCEL PENDING PRIVATIZATIONS, PARTICULARLY OF THE "FRANCE TELECOM" TELEPHONE COMPANY. EARLIER, THE SOCIALIST LEADER LIONEL JOSPIN ALSO CALLED INTO QUESTION THE RULES FOR CREATING A SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY -- A CONCEPT TO WHICH THE COMMUNISTS ARE FIERCELY OPPOSED.

    POLITICAL SOURCES SAY MR. JOSPIN ASKED THE COMMUNISTS NOT TO PUBLICLY PRESS FOR A PLACE IN GOVERNMENT BEFORE THE FIRST ROUND OF THE ELECTION IS HELD ON THE LAST SUNDAY IN MAY.

    IN MID-APRIL, HOWEVER, THE COMMUNIST LEADER, ROBERT HUE, SAID HE EXPECTED COMMUNISTS TO BE INVITED TO GOVERN ALONGSIDE THE SOCIALISTS, IF THE LEFT WINS.

    FRANCE HAD FOUR COMMUNIST MINISTERS IN THE LEFT-WING GOVERNMENT THAT FOLLOWED THE LATE FRANCOIS MITTERRAND'S ELECTION AS PRESIDENT IN 1981. AT THE TIME, THE DECISION WAS CRITICIZED BY FRANCE'S WESTERN ALLIES SINCE THE FRENCH PARTY WAS STILL SUBSERVIENT TO THE THEN SOVIET UNION.

    BUT IN THE SUCCEEDING YEARS, THE ONCE-POWERFUL FRENCH COMMUNIST PARTY LOST MUCH OF ITS INFLUENCE AND THE COMMUNISTS WITHDREW ALTOGETHER FROM THE CABINET IN 1984. NOW, THE SOCIALIST-COMMUNIST AGREEMENT IS LIKELY TO BECOME THE MAIN TARGET IN THE CONSERVATIVE CAMPAIGN. ALREADY, SEVERAL COMMENTATORS ARE NOTING THAT AFTER THE FALL OF COMMUNISM IN EASTERN EUROPE, FRANCE COULD BECOME THE ONLY COUNTRY IN EUROPE WITH MINISTERS ACTUALLY CALLING THEMSELVES "COMMUNISTS." (SIGNED)
    NEB/JN/PCF/KL
    29-Apr-97 1:34 PM EDT (1734 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213590
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP STRONGLY TODAY (TUESDAY) AS WALL STREET'S CONCERN ABOUT INTEREST RATES FADED AWAY. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 69 HUNDRED 62, UP 179 POINTS OR TWO AND ONE-HALF PERCENT. THAT IS THE SECOND-HIGHEST SINGLE DAY POINT GAIN IN THE HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 794, UP 21 POINTS. THE VOLUME ON THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE WAS A VERY HEAVY 550 MILLION SHARES.

    ANALYSTS SAY TWO ECONOMIC REPORTS PLEASED STOCK TRADERS. THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED THAT ORDERS FOR DURABLE GOODS -- ITEMS EXPECTED TO LAST THREE YEARS OR LONGER -- WERE DOWN THREE PERCENT IN MARCH. ANOTHER REPORT SHOWS THAT EMPLOYMENT COSTS IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF THIS YEAR WERE UP ONLY MODESTLY, MUCH LOWER THAN MOST ANALYSTS HAD EXPECTED. TAKEN TOGETHER, THE REPORTS INDICATE THERE IS STILL NO INFLATIONARY THREAT IN THE U-S ECONOMY. THAT LED MANY TRADERS TO THE CONCLUSION THAT THE U-S CENTRAL BANK MAY NOT RAISE INTEREST RATES AGAIN NEXT MONTH.

    /// REST OPT ///

    ANOTHER REPORT SHOWS CONSUMER CONFIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES THIS MONTH DECLINED SLIGHTLY, BUT IS STILL NEAR ALL-TIME HIGHS. I-B-M, THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER COMPANY ANNOUNCED IT WILL RAISE ITS STOCK DIVIDEND BY 15 PERCENT AND WILL INCREASE ITS STOCK BUYBACK PROGRAM. THE ANNOUNCEMENT FOLLOWS LAST WEEK'S STRONGER-THAN-EXPECTED QUARTERLY EARNINGS REPORT FROM I-B-M.

    SOME NEW PROFIT REPORTS ALSO FUELED CONFIDENCE IN THE STOCK MARKET. THE WENDY'S RESTAURANT CHAIN, THE PEPSICO FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY AND THE I-T-T HOTEL AND CASINO CORPORATION ALL REPORTED EARNINGS ABOVE EXPECTATIONS. THE RESULTS AT I-T-T ARE EXPECTED TO STRENGTHEN THE COMPANY'S POSITION IN ITS BATTLE AGAINST A HOSTILE TAKEOVER ATTEMPT BY THE HILTON HOTELS CORPORATION.

    AS NEGOTIATIONS CONTINUE AIMED AT SETTLING HEALTH-RELATED LAWSUITS AGAINST THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY, A GROUP OF FIVE DEMOCRATIC SENATORS SAYS THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD GET A PORTION OF ANY SETTLEMENT. THE SENATORS ARE URGING U-S ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO TO JOIN STATE ATTORNEYS GENERAL AND OTHER LAWYERS WHO ARE SUING TOBACCO COMPANIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BA/LWM
    NEB/NY/BA/LSF
    29-Apr-97 5:15 PM EDT (2115 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/29/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10136
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON TUESDAY APRIL 29TH //

    INTRO: THE JUST-CONCLUDED VOLUNTEER SUMMIT IN PHILADELPHIA HOLDS A DOMINATING POSITION IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF SEVERAL U-S DAILIES THIS TUESDAY, AS APRIL FADES INTO MAY.

    OTHER TOPICS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE: THE BRITISH ELECTIONS; THE INFLUENCE OF U-S TOBACCO COMPANIES ON POLITICIANS; ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHILE AND RUSSIA; [OPT] A SUPREME COURT RULING ON POLICE POWER; [END OPT] AND THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING TRIAL.

    NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ___________________ AND TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE FIRST LADY, WITH HELP FROM THREE FORMER PRESIDENTS AND OTHER NOTABLES, HAS CONCLUDED A THREE-DAY VOLUNTEER SUMMIT MEETING IN PHILADELPHIA. THE IDEA WAS TO GET AMERICANS, WHO ALREADY VOLUNTEER THEIR TIME IN THOUSANDS OF CIVIC ACTIVITIES, TO DO EVEN MORE. THE SUMMIT DRAWS THIS RESPONSE FROM THE HOMETOWN PAPER, THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER.

    VOICE: "THE IMAGE IS WELL-WORN, BUT IT SEEMED ESPECIALLY APT BEFORE SO STAR-STUDDED AN AUDIENCE. PHILADELPHIA ..... IS A TALE OF TWO CITIES: ONE GLEAMING, GROWING, HOPEFUL; THE OTHER CAUGHT IN A GRIND OF POVERTY, JOBLESSNESS AND DESPAIR. THE TALE IS REPEATED ACROSS A NATION WHERE THE GAP BETWEEN THE HAVES AND THE HAVE-NOTS IS WIDENING, THREATENING OUR CIVIC FABRIC AND FAR TOO MANY OF OUR CHILDREN. THE PRESIDENTS' SUMMIT ..... EVEN IF WILDLY SUCCESSFUL, WILL NOT ERASE THAT GAP. ....[HOWEVER] ... IF DONE WELL - - A CRUCIAL QUALIFIER - - ORGANIZED VOLUNTEER WORK MAY HELP THE NATION DEVELOP A THIRD WAY OF ATTACKING SOCIETAL PROBLEMS. NOT TO RELY JUST ON GOVERNMENT."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE SUN IN BALTIMORE IS CAUTIOUSLY OPTIMISTIC, ADDING:

    VOICE: ON THE SURFACE THIS [SUMMIT AND ITS GOALS] MAY SEEM LIKE SO MUCH SLOGANEERING, AND IT REALLY WILL BE JUST THAT IF THERE ISN'T TARGETED FOLLOW-THROUGH TO RESCUE AN ESTIMATED 15 MILLION AT-RISK YOUNG AMERICANS. .... THE ODDS ARE THAT PROGRESS CAN BE MADE ONLY BY AUGMENTING GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS WITH A MASSIVE INCREASE IN VOLUNTEERISM."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE BRITISH ELECTIONS, SCHEDULED FOR THURSDAY, TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE SUGGESTS OF THE LEADING CANDIDATE, TONY BLAIR OF THE LABOR PARTY:

    VOICE: "LABOR'S TONY BLAIR IS A YOUNG (43), POLITICALLY SKILLFUL AND GLIB OPERATOR WHO IS POISED TO BRING HIS PARTY BACK TO POWER AFTER YEARS IN THE WILDERNESS. HIS CRITICS, HOWEVER, FEAR AN AMERICAN-STYLE (CLINTON STYLE) VACUITY THAT COULD, IN THE WORDS OF ONE FORMER LABOR MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT, 'DEGENERATE INTO A SHIFTLESS, POLL-DRIVEN OPPORTUNISM.' ..... BUT IF BRITAIN CAN HAVE A LABOR GOVERNMENT WITHOUT THE SHACKLES OF NATIONALIZATION AND SOCIALISM, THEN [MR.] BLAIR WILL DESERVE THE GRATITUDE OF HIS COUNTRYMEN."

    TEXT: THE LOS ANGELES TIMES IS TALKING ABOUT A MAJOR FEDERAL COURT DECISION CLASSIFYING NICOTINE AS A DRUG.

    VOICE: "DESPITE DECADES OF RESEARCH REACHING THE SAME OMINOUS CONCLUSION ABOUT THE HEALTH DANGERS POSED BY CIGARETTES, THE COZY RELATIONSHIP AMONG GOVERNMENT, POLITICS AND TOBACCO HAS PERSISTED. UNTIL NOW. THE ... RULING CONCURRED WITH THE F-D-A THAT NICOTINE IS A DRUG AND THAT CIGARETTES ARE A DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, PUTTING THESE PRODUCTS SQUARELY UNDER AGENCY JURISDICTION. ..... THE DRIVE AGAINST TEENAGE SMOKING FACES A MAJOR OBSTACLE, HOWEVER: COMPLIANCE BY MERCHANTS AND THEIR YOUNG CUSTOMERS WITH THE NEW FEDERAL SALES RESTRICTIONS ....."

    TEXT: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN CHILE AND RUSSIA ARE ALSO GARNERING ATTENTION. FIRST, REGARDING CHILE, THE NEW YORK TIMES LAMENTS THE FACT THAT HOPED-FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS HAVE NOT COME, DESPITE THE END OF THE PINOCHET DICTATORSHIP IN 1990, DUE TO ECONOMIC PRESSURES.

    VOICE: "CHILEANS ....... DID NOT COUNT ON .... THAT .... LIKE MOST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES EAGER TO ATTRACT FOREIGN INVESTMENT, THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH OUTWEIGHTED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS. AS A RESULT, AIR AND WATER POLLUTION REMAIN SERIOUS THREATS TO PUBLIC HEALTH. CHILE IS ALSO DESTROYING IRREPLACEABLE NATURAL RESOURCES THROUGH LOGGING OF OLD-GROWTH FORESTS AND OVERFISHING. ..... NO ONE HAS CALCULATED THE YEARLY COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE TO CHILEANS' HEALTH AND RESOURCES, BUT THE FIGURE IS PROBABLY GREATER THAN THE ANNUAL INCREASE IN CHILE'S ECONOMY."

    TEXT: AND IN RUSSIA, SUPPORT FROM THE WASHINGTON POST FOR A FORMER SOVIET NAVY CAPTAIN, ALEXANDER NIKITIN, WHO SAYS THAT ROTTING OLD SUBS POSE A NUCLEAR HAZARD FROM THEIR NUCLEAR ENGINES. HE NOW FACES THE DEATH PENALTY FOR HIS CANDOR.

    VOICE: "WITH 18 PERCENT OF ALL THE WORLD'S NUCLEAR REACTORS RUSTING AWAY IN NORTHERN FLEET BASES ON THE ARCTIC OCEAN, IT'S OF COURSE IN NORWAY'S INTEREST - - AND ALASKA'S, AND THE REST OF THE WORLD'S TOO - - TO CONFRONT THESE PROBLEMS OPENLY AND WORK COOPERATIVELY TO FIND SOLUTIONS. BUT MOST OF ALL IT IS IN RUSSIA'S INTEREST. HANGING THE MESSENGER WON'T GET ANYONE VERY FAR."

    TEXT: BACK HOME, THE SUPREME COURT HAS LIMITED POLICE POWERS TO BURST INTO PEOPLE'S HOMES WITHOUT ANNOUNCING THEIR PRESENCE, AS THEY SEARCH FOR ILLICIT DRUGS. IT DREW THIS REMARK FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES.

    VOICE: "MANY, IF NOT MOST, DRUG SEARCHES RAISE CONCERNS ABOUT THE DANGER TO THE POLICE AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF THE DESTRUCTION OF EVIDENCE THAT WOULD JUSTIFY ALLOWING AN UNANNOUNCED ENTRY BY THE POLICE, JUSTICE [JOHN PAUL] STEVENS SAID. BUT THE REASONABLENESS OF UNANNOUNCED ENTRIES BY THE POLICE MUST BE JUSTIFIED ON A CASE-BY-CASE BASIS."

    TEXT: AND IN ANOTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT MATTER, THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING TRIAL UNDERWAY IN DENVER, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR SAYS:

    VOICE: "NOTHING SHOULD BE PRESUMED ABOUT THE DEFENDANT'S GUILT OR INNOCENCE. BUT A NUMBER OF THINGS CAN BE AFFIRMED ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS TRIAL FOR LATE 20TH CENTURY AMERICA. FIRST, THE VERY PROCESS BY WHICH THE TRIAL IS SET IN MOTION TESTIFIES TO THE VALUE OF THE SYSTEM THE BOMBER REVILED. THE CHANGE OF VENUE, [OUT OF OKLAHOMA, TO DENVER, COLORADO] THE PAINSTAKING JURY SELECTION, THE JUDGE'S EFFORTS TO PREVENT A MEDIA CIRCUS - - ALL SHOW A RESPECT FOR JUSTICE NO MATTER HOW HEINOUS THE CRIME."

    TEXT: THAT COMMENT, ON THE TRIAL OF TIMOTHY MCVEIGH, THE ALLEGED OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBER, CONCLUDES THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENTS FROM THE DAY'S PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    29-Apr-97 9:55 AM EDT (1355 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] TURKEY / POLITICS (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213552
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBEKAN SAYS THERE IS NO ALTERNATIVE TO HIS GOVERNMENT COALITION AND HE IS READY FOR EARLY ELECTIONS. TURKISH POLITICS ARE IN TURMOIL FOLLOWING THE ISLAMIST LEADER'S CONFRONTATION WITH THE MILITARY-BACKED NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL LAST WEEKEND. V-O-A MIDDLE EAST CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS OPPOSITION POLITICIANS ARE TRYING TO FORGE AN ALTERNATIVE COALITION TO OUST MR. ERBEKAN'S PARTY FROM POWER.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER ERBEKAN TOLD HIS WELFARE PARTY DEPUTIES HE DOES NOT FEAR EARLY ELECTIONS. HE ALSO RULED OUT A MILITARY COUP BECAUSE OF DISPUTES WITH THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL OVER HOW HE IS HANDLING ISLAMIC ACTIVISTS.

    TURKEY'S MILITARY SEES ITSELF AS THE GUARANTOR OF THE SECULAR STATE SET UP MORE THAN 70 YEARS AGO.

    THE LATEST POLITICAL CRISIS WAS SPARKED BY MR. ERBEKAN'S DELAYS IN IMPLEMENTING DEMANDS FROM THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL TO CURB ISLAMIC RADICALISM.

    DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER NOW IS PUSHING HER COALITION PARTNER TO APPROVE A DIRECTIVE THAT WILL INCREASE COMPULSORY PRIMARY EDUCATION FROM FIVE TO EIGHT YEARS. WELFARE PARTY DEPUTIES ARE DETERMINED TO FIGHT THE BILL IN PARLIAMENT BECAUSE IT WOULD MEAN THE END FOR HIGH SCHOOL-LEVEL RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS.

    AUTHORITIES IN SEVERAL TOWNS ARE ALREADY CRACKING DOWN ON UNREGISTERED KORAN STUDY CENTERS AND ISLAMIC-STYLE DRESS IN GOVERNMENT OFFICES TO COMPLY WITH MILITARY DIRECTIVES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/JWH
    29-Apr-97 9:43 AM EDT (1343 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] TURKEY POLITICS (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-313557
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBEKAN SAYS THERE IS NO ALTERNATIVE TO HIS GOVERNMENT COALITION AND HE IS READY FOR EARLY ELECTIONS. TURKISH POLITICS ARE IN TURMOIL SINCE THE ISLAMIST LEADER'S RIFT WITH THE MILITARY-BACKED NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL OVER HIS POLICIES. BUT CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM OUR MIDDLE EAST BUREAU THAT MOST TURKISH POLITICIANS NOW SAY MR. ERBEKAN'S DAYS IN POWER ARE NUMBERED.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER ERBEKAN TOLD HIS "WELFARE PARTY" DEPUTIES HE DOES NOT FEAR EARLY ELECTIONS. HE ALSO RULED OUT A MILITARY COUP BECAUSE OF DISPUTES WITH THE MILITARY-BACKED NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL OVER HOW HE IS HANDLING ISLAMIC ACTIVISTS. TURKEY'S MILITARY HAS ALWAYS SEEN ITSELF AS THE GUARANTOR OF THE SECULAR STATE SET UP MORE THAN 70 YEARS AGO.

    THE STATEMENTS COME AS OPPOSITION POLITICIANS ARE BUSY TRYING TO FORGE AN ALTERNATIVE COALITION THAT COULD OUST THE ISLAMISTS FROM POWER. TO PREVENT THAT, DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER IS TRYING TO SHORE-UP SUPPORT TO SURVIVE A POSSIBLE CENSURE MOTION IN THE PARLIAMENT. SHE IS ALSO SAID TO BE CONSIDERING FORCING MR. ERBEKAN TO HAND OVER THE ROTATING PREMIERSHIP TO HER AS SOON AS JULY SO SHE COULD ORGANIZE EARLY ELECTIONS FOR 1998.

    MR. ERBEKAN'S WELFARE PARTY JOINED FORCES WITH MRS. CILLER'S "TRUE PATH" PARTY LAST JUNE TO TAKE CONTROL OF THE GOVERNMENT. MR. ERBEKAN BECAME TURKEY'S FIRST ISLAMIST PRIME MINISTER. THE LATEST CRISIS WAS SPARKED BY MR. ERBEKAN'S DELAYS IN IMPLEMENTING DEMANDS FROM THE COUNTRY'S NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL TO CURB ISLAMIC RADICALISM.

    MRS. CILLER IS PUSHING HER COALITION PARTNER TO APPROVE A DIRECTIVE THAT WILL INCREASE COMPULSORY PRIMARY EDUCATION FROM FIVE TO EIGHT YEARS. WELFARE PARTY DEPUTIES ARE DETERMINED TO FIGHT THE BILL IN PARLIAMENT BECAUSE IT WOULD MEAN THE END FOR HIGH SCHOOL-LEVEL RELIGION SCHOOLS. THEY ARE URGING MR. ERBEKAN TO CALL ELECTIONS RATHER THAN LET THE RELIGION SCHOOLS CLOSE DOWN.

    AUTHORITIES IN SEVERAL TOWNS HAVE ALREADY STARTED SHUTTING DOWN UNREGISTERED KORAN STUDY CENTERS TO COMPLY WITH THE MILITARY DIRECTIVES.

    //OPT THE REST//

    ISLAM EXPERT ALI BIRAND WROTE IN THE "SABAH" NEWSPAPER MONDAY THAT THE WELFARE PARTY HAS TO REALIZE IT CANNOT GOVERN TURKEY AS LONG AS IT USES THE RHETORIC OF ITS RADICAL ELEMENTS. THE "HURRIYET" NEWSPAPER SAYS THE CONTINUING POLITICAL CRISIS IS LIKE A SLOW WATER DRIP THAT IS ERODING TURKEY'S POLITICAL STRUCTURE AND TRUST IN ITS POLITICIANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/PCF
    29-Apr-97 10:14 AM EDT (1414 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [10] U-S-EUROPEAN UNION (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213582
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS APPLAUDED THE EUROPEAN UNION'S SUSPENSION OF ITS DIALOGUE WITH IRAN. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE DECISION BY THE UNION IS NOT EVERYTHING THE UNITED STATES WANTS.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT HAS WELCOMED THE EUROPEAN UNION'S CANCELLATION OF MINISTERIAL CONTACTS WITH IRAN, THE SO-CALLED CRITICAL DIALOGUE. THE UNITED STATES IS ALSO PLEASED THAT EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WILL BAN VISAS TO IRANIANS WITH INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY FUNCTIONS AND WILL MAINTAIN THEIR ARMS EMBARGO.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION'S DECISION DOES NOT MEET ALL AMERICAN OBJECTIVES TO COMPLETELY ISOLATE IRAN FOR SUPPORTING TERRORISM.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    I DON'T THINK THE EUROPEANS HAVE AGREED WITH ALL THE IDEAS WE PUT FORWARD. THEY AGREED WITH OTHERS. OBVIOUSLY WE WOULD HAVE PREFERRED IF THE EUROPEANS HAD INCLUDED THE THREAT OF ADDITIONAL ECONOMIC SANCTIONS IN CASE IRANIAN BEHAVIOR DOES NOT IMPROVE. WE WOULD HAVE PREFERRED THAT, BUT I THINK WE HAVE TO BE REALISTIC.

    ///'END ACT///

    GERMANY AND FRANCE ARE IRAN'S BIGGEST TRADING PARTNERS IN EUROPE. THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES ARE EXPECTED TO RETURN THEIR AMBASSADORS TO TEHRAN IN NEXT FEW WEEKS. THE STATE DEPARTMENT HOPES THOSE AMBASSADORS WILL DELIVER A TOUGHER MESSAGE TO IRAN WHEN THEY RETURN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/MMK
    29-Apr-97 3:00 PM EDT (1900 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] U-S/ROMANIA-NATO (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213564
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ROMANIA IS PRESSING WHAT MANY CONSIDER ITS LONG-SHOT CAMPAIGN TO BECOME ONE OF THE FIRST CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ADMITTED TO NATO. ROMANIAN DEFENSE MINISTER VICTOR BABIUC DISCUSSED THE ISSUE AT A PENTAGON MEETING TUESDAY WITH U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: MR. BABIUC SAID HE WOULD TRY TO CONVINCE HIS U-S COUNTERPART THAT NATO SHOULD EXPAND ON BOTH ITS NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN FLANKS IF IT IS TO MAINTAIN ITS COHERENCE.

    THE ALLIANCE IS WIDELY EXPECTED TO ADMIT POLAND IN THE NORTH AND HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC IN CENTRAL EUROPE WHEN IT HOLD ITS EXPANSION SUMMIT IN MADRID THIS COMING JULY. ROMANIA, WHOSE FOREIGN MINISTER (ADRIAN SEVERIN) WAS IN WASHINGTON ONLY LAST WEEK, HAS MADE ITS STRATEGIC SOUTHERN LOCATION ALONG THE DANUBE AND BLACK SEA A MAIN SELLING POINT IN AN INTENSIVE CAMPAIGN FOR EARLY ADMISSION.

    IN A TALK WITH REPORTERS ALONG WITH MR. BABIUC, SECRETARY COHEN SAID ROMANIA HAS MADE TREMENDOUS POLITICAL AND MILITARY STRIDES IN RECENT YEARS, BUT HE WAS NON-COMMITTAL ABOUT ITS CANDIDACY FOR MEMBERSHIP:

    ///COHEN ACTUALITY///

    THE UNITED STATES HAS TAKEN NO POSITION WITH RESPECT TO ANY OF THE COUNTRIES WHO HAVE BEEN AT LEAST CONSIDERED FOR RECOMMENDATION, FOR ACCESSION, OR ADMISSION INTO NATO. AND SO THAT HAS TO AWAIT THE JUDGEMENT OF THE FULL NATO MEMBERS AND THE U-S HAS TAKEN NO POSITION ON ANY COUNTRY AT THIS POINT.

    //END ACT///

    MR. COHEN SAID ROMANIA HAS ITS SUPPORTERS WITHIN NATO -- AMONG THEM, REPORTEDLY, SOUTHERN-TIER ALLIES FRANCE AND ITALY. BUT NATO ANALYSTS ALSO SAY IT HAS GOTTEN A LATE START IN BOTH POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/MMK
    29-Apr-97 12:05 PM EDT (1605 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] U-S / E-U / IRAN O'NITER (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/28/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213533
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS EUROPEAN DIPLOMATS MEET IN LUXEMBOURG TODAY (TUESDAY) TO DISCUSS RELATIONS WITH IRAN, THE UNITED STATES IS URGING THEM TO JOIN ITS SANCTIONS AGAINST TEHRAN. HOWEVER -- AS V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS -- EVEN WASHINGTON ACKNOWLEDGES IT IS UNLIKELY TO BE ABLE TO PERSUADE THE EUROPEAN UNION TO END ITS LUCRATIVE TRADE WITH IRAN:

    TEXT: U-S STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS UNDERSECRETARY PETER TARNOFF MET LAST WEEK WITH EUROPEAN DIPLOMATS TO DISCUSS IRAN, WITH WHICH WASHINGTON CUT TIES IN 1980. SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SENT LETTERS URGING HER EUROPEAN COUNTERPARTS TO CONFRONT TEHRAN -- CONSIDERED BY WASHINGTON AS A STATE SPONSOR OF TERRORISM:

    ///BURNS ACTUALITY///

    WE AWAIT THE WISDOM AND THE JUDGMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THIS ISSUE.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    MR. BURNS SAYS THERE OUGHT TO BE ROOM FOR THE UNITED STATES AND E-U TO WORK TOGETHER TO FASHION WHAT HE CALLS A REALISTIC POLICY TOWARD IRAN:

    ///BURNS ACTUALITY///

    ONE THAT INDICATES IRAN IS A TERRORIST STATE; IT FINANCES TERRORIST GROUPS; IT IS OPPOSED TO THE MIDEAST PEACE PROCESS; AND IT CONTINUES TO SEEK A CAPABILITY TO PRODUCE WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION. THEREFORE, IT IS A REGIME THAT NEEDS TO BE CONTAINED.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    MR. BURNS ACKNOWLEDGES EUROPE IS UNLIKELY TO ADOPT SANCTIONS AND WILL RESUME ITS SO-CALLED 'CRITICAL DIALOGUE,' INVOLVING TRADE AND TALKS ON SUCH ISSUES AS HUMAN RIGHTS.

    E-U MEMBERS RECALLED THEIR DIPLOMATS FROM TEHRAN, EARLIER THIS MONTH, AFTER A GERMAN COURT IMPLICATED THE IRANIAN GOVERNMENT IN THE MURDERS OF FOUR KURDISH DISSIDENTS IN BERLIN IN 1992. NOW, IT APPEARS THE E-U RETURN ITS REPRESENTATIVES TO TEHRAN AS EARLY AS THIS WEEK. (SIGNED).
    NEB / WD
    29-Apr-97 12:59 AM EDT (0459 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] U-S VOLUNTEERS AID ROMANIAN BAKERS BY ROB SIVAK (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=AGRICULTURE TODAY #1972
    NUMBER=3-27219
    TELEPHONE=202-619-2023
    EDITOR=SMART
    CONTENT=
    [TAPE INSERTS AND VOICED VERSION AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES]

    INTRO: IN THE EASTERN EUROPEAN NATION OF ROMANIA, THE BUSINESS OF MAKING BREAD AND CAKES WAS ONCE THE EXCLUSIVE PROVINCE OF STATE-RUN BAKERIES. BUT NOW, AS ROMANIA AND MANY OF ITS FORMERLY COMMUNIST NEIGHBORS SEEK TO PRIVATIZE THEIR ECONOMIES, A FLEDGLING PRIVATE BAKERY

    INDUSTRY IS RISING UP. AS VOA'S ROB SIVAK REPORTS, A

    GROUP OF ROMANIAN BAKERS IS GETTING SOME MUCH-KNEADED HELP FROM A NON-PROFIT U-S DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION AND FROM A RETIRED AMERICAN BAKER-TURNED VOLUNTEER:

    TEXT: LUCAS GALLEGOS (PRON. GUY-AY-GOHS) STARTED A BAKERY BUSINESS WITH HIS BROTHER MORE THAN FORTY YEARS AGO, IN THE WASHINGTON, D-C SUBURB OF MCLEAN, VIRGINIA. THEIR BUSINESS GREW AND PROSPERED, EARNING HANDSOME PROFITS AND A REPUTATION FOR EXCELLENCE. THE GALLEGOS BAKERY PREPARED PASTRIES AND CAKES FOR SOME OF THE AREA'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS CLIENTS -- INCLUDING A U-S PRESIDENT AND MANY WEALTHY CORPORATE EXECUTIVES. LUCAS WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT OF THE RETAIL BAKERS OF AMERICA.

    BUT AFTER HIS BROTHER AND LIFELONG PARTNER DIED A FEW YEARS AGO, LUCAS GALLEGOS DECIDED TO SELL THE BAKERY AND RETIRE FROM THE BUSINESS. A SHORT TIME LATER, HE GOT A CALL FROM VOLUNTEERS IN OVERSEAS COOPERATIVE ASSISTANCE, OR VOCA -- THE INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARM OF AMERICA'S PRIVATE FARM COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT. WOULD HE BE INTERESTED, THE VOCA OFFICIAL ASKED MR. GALLEGOS, IN SHARING HIS BUSINESS AND PRODUCTION SKILLS WITH SOME BAKERS IN ROMANIA?

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- GALLEGOS "THERE WAS A SLIGHT VOID THERE IN MY LIFE, BECAUSE I DIDN'T HAVE MY FINGERS INTO THE DOUGH ANYMORE! SO WHEN THIS WAS OFFERED TO ME THROUGH VOCA, I THOUGHT, WHAT I AM GOING TO FACE WHEN I GET THERE AND CAN I REALLY HELP THEM? BUT I DECIDED, YES, I'LL GIVE IT A TRY."

    TEXT: SO IN 1996, THE RETIRED VIRGINIA BAKER SIGNED ON AS A VOCA VOLUNTEER. DURING THE COURSE OF THE YEAR, MR. GALLEGOS MADE A SERIES OF VISITS TO FIVE PRIVATE START-UP BAKERY OPERATIONS IN ROMANIA, AND PROVIDED THEIR OWNERS WITH HANDS-ON, PRACTICAL ADVICE FOR IMPROVING THEIR BUSINESS. HE HELD TRAINING SEMINARS FOR HUNDREDS OF BAKERS IN PASTRY AND BREAD PRODUCTION, MARKETING AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT. MR. GALLEGOS SAYS HE FOUND ROMANIAN BAKERS DOING REMARKABLY WELL -- UNDER DIFFICULT CONDITIONS:

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- GALLEGOS "IT IS A DIFFERENT WORLD. THESE PEOPLE, WHEN WE LOOK AT OURSELVES AND SEE THINGS WE CONSIDER NECESSARY, THEY WOULD BE GREAT LUXURIES TO THESE PEOPLE. I THINK THE BIGGEST PROBLEM THAT THEY HAVE RIGHT NOW --AND IT IS SOMETHING WE ARE TRYING TO SOLVE -- IS THE AVAILABILITY OF RAW MATERIALS, SUCH THINGS AS GOOD CONFECTIONERS SUGAR, FOR INSTANCE, IS NOT AVAILABLE, YOU HAVE TO WORK AROUND THAT. VARIOUS DIFFERENT TYPES OF FRUIT THAT YOU WANT TO USE IN OFF-SEASON, YOU CAN'T GET THEM CANNED OR ANY OTHER WAY, NOT FROZEN. THE FACILITIES ARE NOT THERE YET. HOWEVER, THROUGH VOCA WE ARE TRYING TO INVITE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES THAT DEAL IN THIS KIND OF THING TO COME TO ROMANIA TO HELP TO OVERCOME THIS PROBLEM."

    TEXT: ROMANIAN BAKERS FACE OTHER PROBLEMS -- FROM THE UNEVEN QUALITY OF DOMESTIC FLOUR AND INADEQUATE ROADS TO COMPETITION WITH THE OLD STATE-RUN BAKERIES AND THE FACT THAT MOST ROMANIAN CONSUMERS ARE USED TO SPENDING ONLY A FEW PENNIES DAILY FOR A LOAF OF BREAD. BUT WITH HELP FROM VOLUNTEERS LIKE LUCAS GALLEGOS AND THE VOCA PROJECT, THE BAKERS HAVE FOUND WAYS TO SOLVE AT LEAST SOME OF THESE PROBLEMS -- AND WORK AROUND THE REST. THIS SPRING, EIGHT OF THE ROMANIAN BAKERS WORKING WITH VOCA CAME TO THE UNITED STATES FOR A THREE-WEEK STUDY TOUR OF AMERICAN BAKING FACILITIES. ONE OF THE ROMANIANS ON THE TOUR IS DAN NICOLAE, OWNER AND MANAGER OF THE TWO-YEAR OLD PANELI BAKERY IN THE WESTERN CITY OF CRAIOVA. SPEAKING THROUGH A TRANSLATOR, MR. NICOLAE SAYS HIS CONTACTS WITH MR. GALLEGOS AND VOCA HAVE MADE A BIG DIFFERENCE TO HIS BAKERY:

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- NICOLAE (IN ROMANIAN, FADE UNDER ENGLISH TRANSLATION) "THE BAKING FORMULAS THAT WE USED IN OUR BAKERIES AND PASTRY SHOPS ARE NOT AS UP-TO-DATE AS THE ONES WE HAVE SEEN HERE OR THE ONES OUR VOLUNTEER ASSISTANT, MR. LUCAS GALLEGOS, GAVE TO US. MR. GALLEGOS, WHO WAS TWICE IN OUR BAKERIES, OFFERED US SOME VERY WONDERFUL AND MODERN FORMULAS AND TECHNOLOGIES."

    TEXT: BESIDES TIPS ON FLOUR-BLENDING AND PASTRY ART, ROMANIAN BAKERS ALSO LEARNED THERE IS STRENGTH IN NUMBERS. IN EARLY 1996, VOCA AND THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF BAKING HELPED ABOUT TWENTY PRIVATE BAKERIES TO ESTABLISH THE ROMANIAN BAKERS AND MILLERS ASSOCIATION, THE COUNTRY'S FIRST PRIVATE TRADE GROUP. FOUNDING MEMBER ANCA CAPATINA, ANOTHER PARTICIPANT IN THE VOCA PROJECT, IS A PART-OWNER OF THE CAST-COMEX BAKERY, BUCHAREST'S FIRST PRIVATE BREAD SHOP. MS. CAPATINA SAYS THE ASSOCIATION -- AND THE SUPPORT OF VOLUNTEERS LIKE MR. GALLEGOS -- HAVE BEEN INSTRUCTIVE AND ENCOURAGING:

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- CAPATINA (IN ENGLISH) "SPECIALISTS IN BREAD PRODUCTION, THEY CAME AND TOLD US HOW TO DO SOME THINGS, AND EXPLAINED MANY THINGS TO US. THEY SHOWED US THAT WE CAN OVERCOME SOME SITUATIONS BEING TOGETHER, AND DISCUSSING EACH PROBLEM. ALSO, THE VOLUNTEERS WHO CAME INTO ROMANIA TO EACH BAKERY AND REALLY WORKED THERE, THAT WAS VERY GOOD SUPPORT FOR US, AND A VERY GOOD EXAMPLE FOR US."

    TEXT: AND VOCA VOLUNTEER LUCAS GALLEGOS SAYS HE HAS GAINED, TOO, FROM HIS CONTACTS WITH THE ROMANIAN BAKERS:

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- GALLEGOS "MY GRATIFICATION IS THAT I CAN SEE THE IMPROVEMENT AND I CAN SEE THE WILLINGNESS OF THESE PEOPLE TO LEARN. THIS BAKING BUSINESS WAS VERY, VERY GOOD TO ME, AND IF I CAN LEAVE A LITLE BIT OF THAT TO SOMEBODY ELSE, IT MAKES ME FEEL THAT I REALLY HAVE ACCOMPLISHED SOMETHING IN LIFE."

    TEXT: RETIRED VIRGINIA BAKER LUCAS GALLEGOS BELIEVES THAT WITH VOCA'S CONTINUED HELP, ROMANIA'S FLEDGLING BAKERS COULD BE PRODUCING BREAD AND PASTRIES IN A FEW YEARS TO RIVAL THE BEST IN EUROPE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RMS/NES
    29-Apr-97 5:05 PM EDT (2105 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=4/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213568
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A BOSNIAN CROAT HAS PLEADED INNOCENT AT THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL, WHERE HE IS CHARGED WITH ATROCITIES AGAINST MUSLIMS IN BOSNIA. AS GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, CROATIAN AUTHORITIES HANDED OVER THE SUSPECT ON MONDAY -- THE FIRST TIME CROATIA HAS EXTRADITED ANYONE TO THE TRIBUNAL.

    TEXT: THE SUSPECT, ZLATKO ALEKSOVSKI, LOOKED SOLEMN AND WROTE BUSILY THROUGHOUT THIS INITIAL HEARING.

    HE WAS ARRESTED BY CROAT POLICE IN JUNE OF LAST YEAR. HIS EXTRADITION WAS DELAYED BECAUSE OF WHAT HIS LAWYER CALLED HEALTH GROUNDS, BUT WHAT SOME INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS VIEWED SIMPLY AS DELAYING TACTICS.

    WESTERN DIPLOMATIC PRESSURE HAD BEEN BUILDING FOR CROATIA TO HAND HIM OVER. A U-S GOVERNMENT SOURCE SAID IT HAD BEEN MADE IT CLEAR TO ZAGREB THAT RELATIONS WOULD SUFFER IF CROATIA BEHAVED LIKE A RENEGADE STATE.

    THE CHARGES AGAINST MR. ALEKSOVSKI RELATE TO THE EXPULSION OF MUSLIMS FROM THE CENTRAL BOSNIAN LASVA VALLEY IN 1993. THE INDICTMENT SAYS THIS WAS CARRIED OUT ON SUCH A WIDESPREAD AND SYSTEMATIC BASIS THAT IT "EFFECTIVELY DESTROYED OR REMOVED ALMOST THE ENTIRE MUSLIM CIVILIAN POPULATION."

    MR. ALEKSOVSKI IS SPECIFICALLY CHARGED WITH BEING COMMANDER OF A DETENTION CAMP WHERE MUSLIM PRISONERS WERE MURDERED AND MISTREATED. BUT, THROUGH A TRANSLATOR, HE DENIED THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM.

    /// ALEKSOVSKI TRANSLATOR ACT ///

    I HAVE READ IT, BUT I DENY ALL CULPABILITY FOR THE CHARGES AND I DO NOT FEEL RESPONSIBLE AND THEREFORE I PLEAD NOT GUILTY.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE TRANSFER OF ZALKO ALEKSOVSKI IS A SIGNIFICANT BOOST FOR THE TRIBUNAL. IT IS MORE THAN TEN MONTHS SINCE ANY NEW WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS HAVE ARRIVED IN THE HAGUE, AND THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THAT CROATIA HAS EXTRADITED ANYONE.

    MR. ALEKSOVSKI IS NOW IN THE U-N DETENTION CENTER WITH THE SEVEN OTHER WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS THE TRIBUNAL HAS IN CUSTODY. SIXTY SIX OTHERS REMAIN FREE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH/MMK
    29-Apr-97 12:31 PM EDT (1631 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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