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Voice of America, 97-04-25

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BRITISH BOMB ALERT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [02] CZECH SMALL BUSINESS BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [03] EAST EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [04] EDITORIAL: SUMMERS ON ECONOMIC IMPACT OF NATO
  • [05] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [06] FRANCE ELECTIONS (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [07] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [09] THE U.S., THE U-N AND HUMAN RIGHTS
  • [10] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [11] WORLD BANK / WOLFENSOHN (L-ONLY) BY BILL WYATT (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] BRITISH BOMB ALERT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=4/25/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36271
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWO SMALL EXPLOSIONS AND SEVERAL BOMB THREATS HAVE BROUGHT CHAOS TO MAJOR TRANSPORT ARTERIES IN CENTRAL ENGLAND. AUTHORITIES BELIEVE IT IS THE WORK OF THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY, WHICH HAS BEEN WAGING A TERRORIST CAMPAIGN FOR MORE THAN A MONTH NOW IN ADVANCE OF GENERAL ELECTIONS SCHEDULED NEXT THURSDAY. V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA IN LONDON LOOKS AT WHAT THE I-R-A IS TRYING TO GAIN WITH ITS CONTINUING CAMPAIGN OF VIOLENCE.

    TEXT: THIS LATEST TERRORIST CAMPAIGN BROUGHT MISERY AND FRUSTRATION TO DRIVERS ON THE EXPRESSWAY KNOWN AS THE "M-6" -- NORTHWEST OF ENGLAND'S SECOND LARGEST CITY, BIRMINGHAM. POLICE EVACUATED AND SHUT DOWN LARGE STRIPS OF THE HIGHWAY FOLLOWING SEVERAL BOMB THREATS FROM A TELEPHONE CALLER USING A RECOGNIZED CODE WORD FROM THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY. TWO SMALL BOMBS DETONATED NEAR THE "M-6" -- NO ONE WAS INJURED, BUT ONE EXPLOSION DAMAGED AN ELECTRICAL PYLON.

    BOMB THREATS ALSO FORCED THE EVACUATION OF BIRMINGHAM'S MAIN RAILROAD STATION AND LUTON AIRPORT TO THE SOUTH -- AS WELL AS THE TEMPORARY CLOSURE OF VARIOUS HIGHWAYS IN THE REGION.

    THIS WAS THE LATEST ATTEMPT BY THE I-R-A TO DISRUPT LIFE ON THE BRITISH MAINLAND IN ADVANCE OF THURSDAY'S GENERAL ELECTION. IN THE PAST MONTH, VARIOUS BOMB THREATS HAVE FORCED THE POSTPONEMENT OF THE WELL-KNOWN GRAND NATIONAL STEEPLECHASE, HAVE SHUT DOWN EXPRESSWAYS AND RAIL LINES IN THE NORTH OF ENGLAND -- AND HAVE BROUGHT LONDON TRAFFIC TO A STANDSTILL. ALL OF THESE TERRORIST ACTS HAVE CAUSED MANY BRITONS TO ASK -- WHAT CAN THE I-R-A GAIN FROM SUCH TACTICS?

    PROFESSOR HENRY PATTERSON FROM BELFAST'S ULSTER UNIVERSITY IS AN EXPERT ON THE IRISH REPUBLICAN MOVEMENT, THE I-R-A AND ITS POLITICAL WING, SINN FEIN. HE SAYS THE TERRORIST CAMPAIGN IS DRIVEN BY PURELY POLITICAL MOTIVES.

    /// PATTERSON ACT ///

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS SORT OF ACTIVITY ON MAINLAND BRITAIN IS PRIMARILY TO PUT PRESSURE ON THE INCOMING BRITISH GOVERNMENT TO PUT THE IRISH QUESTION AT THE TOP OF THEIR AGENDA. I THINK THIS IS THE ACTUAL PURPOSE OF THIS ACTIVITY IN BRITAIN. NOW IN NORTHERN IRELAND -- FOR AT LEAST A WEEK -- THERE HAS BEEN NO I-R-A ACTIVITY -- AND I THINK THE SECURITY FORCES HERE BELIEVE THERE IS A DE FACTO CESSATION OF ACTIVITIES HERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    PROFESSOR PATTERSON BELIEVES THE REPUBLICAN MOVEMENT -- IN OTHER WORDS THOSE FAVORING A UNITED IRELAND -- IS DIVIDED ON THE ISSUE OF WHETHER TO CONTINUE A CAMPAIGN OF TERROR.

    /// 2ND PATTERSON ACT ///

    YOU HAVE GOT A VERY POWERFUL MILITARY MACHINE THERE AND YOU HAVE GOT PEOPLE WHO ONLY THINK IN MILITARISTIC AND TERRORIST TERMS -- SO IN THAT SENSE, THERE IS A STRUGGLE GOING ON FOR, IF YOU LIKE, THE "SOUL OF REPUBLICANISM" AND IT IS A VERY BEHIND THE SCENES SORT OF STRUGGLE -- AND FROM THE OUTSIDE, PEOPLE ASSUME WE HAVE GOT THIS STRONG, UNITED MOVEMENT.

    /// OPT ///

    THE UNIONISTS (PRO BRITISH) TEND TO THINK IN THESE TERMS. BUT -- I HAVE BEEN STUDYING THIS FOR NEARLY 20 YEARS, AND IF YOU KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT IT, YOU KNOW THAT BEHIND THE SCENES THERE ISN'T UNITY -- THERE IS DIVISION. /// END OPT ///

    /// END ACT ///

    IN THE UPCOMING GENERAL ELECTION, THE I-R-A'S POLITICAL WING -- SINN FEIN -- IS FIELDING 17 CANDIDATES IN NORTHERN IRELAND'S 18 CONSTITUENCIES. SINN FEIN WANTS TO BECOME THE LEADING PARTY REPRESENTING CATHOLICS, THE DOMINANT FORCE IN NATIONALIST POLITICS -- SUPPLANTING THE SOCIAL, DEMOCRATIC AND LABOR PARTY (S-D-L-P) LED BY JOHN HUME.

    PROFESSOR PATTERSON SAYS SINN FEIN HAS A CHANCE OF WINNING -- AT THE MOST -- THREE SEATS IN THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT. MORE REALISTICALLY, HE BELIEVES SINN FEIN PRESIDENT GERRY ADAMS WILL BE THE ONLY WINNER, REPRESENTING THE NATIONALIST CONSTITUENCY OF WEST BELFAST. THE IRISH EXPERT SAYS THE I-R-A'S CONTINUED CAMPAIGN OF VIOLENCE HAS NOT HELPED SINN FEIN'S CAUSE.

    /// 3RD PATTERSON ACT ///

    WITHOUT A CEASEFIRE, WITH (S-D-L-P LEADER) JOHN HUME AND THE IRISH PRIME MINISTER SAYING "A VOTE FOR SINN FEIN IS A VOTE FOR VIOLENCE," THERE ARE QUITE A LOT OF CATHOLICS IN NORTHERN IRELAND WHO WOULD THINK VERY LONG AND HARD BEFORE VOTING FOR SINN FEIN.

    /// END ACT ///

    PROFESSOR HENRY PATTERSON BELIEVES THE I-R-A'S CAMPAIGN OF VIOLENCE MAY ULTIMATELY BACKFIRE AND THE LOSER MAY BE ITS POLITICAL WING. HE SAYS IN THE SHORT TERM, SINN FEIN MAY LOSE PRECIOUS VOTES IN THURSDAY'S GENERAL ELECTIONS -- AND IN THE LONG TERM MAY FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ENTER POLITICAL TALKS ON NORTHERN IRELAND -- EVEN WITH A CHANGE OF GOVERNMENT IN LONDON. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH
    25-Apr-97 12:02 PM EDT (1602 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CZECH SMALL BUSINESS BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=4/25/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36272
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE THREE MOST SUCCESSFUL ECONOMIES IN EASTERN EUROPE -- THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY, AND POLAND -- HAVE EXPERIENCED EXPLOSIVE GROWTH OF SMALL BUSINESSES IN THE PAST FIVE YEARS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD HAS BEEN VISITING A NEIGHBORHOOD IN PRAGUE WHERE SMALL BUSINESS IS PLAYING A VITAL ROLE IN BOOSTING THE LIVING STANDARDS OF RESIDENTS.

    TEXT:

    /// SOUND OF SUPER MARKET CASH REGISTERS IN THE CHECK OUT LINE ///

    THIS NEW, VERY LARGE SUPERMARKET NEAR PRAGUE'S DEJVICKA SUBWAY STATION OPENED TWO MONTHS AGO. ITS PRESENCE IS MOSTLY WELCOMED BY RESIDENTS. BUT THERE ARE THOSE WHO COMPLAIN ABOUT THE ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC AND THE DIFFICULTY OF FINDING A PARKING PLACE.

    MID-DAY ON A FRIDAY AFTERNOON, THE AISLES ARE CROWDED AND THERE ARE LONG LINES AT EACH OF THE SIX CHECK OUT LANES. REFLECTING CHANGING SHOPPING HABITS, THE SHOPPING CARTS AT THIS SUPERMARKET ARE DOUBLE THE SIZE OF THE MUCH SMALLER CARTS CZECHS ARE USED TO. THIS WOMAN SAYS SHE COMES TO THE NEW, WELL LIT DELVITA STORE BECAUSE OF WIDE SELECTION OF GOODS AND BECAUSE IT IS NEAR HER HOME.

    /// CZECH ACTUALITY - FADE UNDER ///

    ACROSS THE STREET IS THE NEIGHBORHOOD'S MOST POPULAR NEW RESTAURANT. THE PIZZERIA GROSSETO HAS BEEN OPEN ONLY ONE YEAR, AND IT HAS BEEN BUSY SINCE THE BEGINNING.

    LIKE THE SUPERMARKET, THE RESTAURANT IS WELL LIT AND MODERN. THE BIGGEST INVESTMENT FOR THE THREE OWNERS FROM NORTH BOHEMIA WAS THE PURCHASE OF AN EXPENSIVE BRICK OVEN FROM ITALY. PEOPLE WAITING FOR TABLES SPILL OUT ONTO THE SIDEWALK ALMOST EVERY EVENING. SO SUCCESSFUL IS THE RESTAURANT THAT THE OWNERS ARE IN THE PROCESS OF OPENING A SECOND ONE, CLOSER TO DOWNTOWN PRAGUE.

    DRESSED IN A TRADEMARK RED TEE SHIRT WITH WHITE APRON, 21-YEAR-OLD TOMAS IS A WAITER AT THE GROSSETTO RESTAURANT. HE SAYS BECAUSE PRICES ARE REASONABLE, THE RESTAURANT ATTRACTS FOREIGN AND CZECH CUSTOMERS.

    /// TOMAS ACT ///

    WE HAVE AMERICAN PEOPLE, FRENCH PEOPLE, CZECHS, EVERYBODY. I THINK CZECHS ARE ABOUT 50 PERCENT (OF OUR BUSINESS).

    /// END ACT ///

    PARKED ON THE STREET, THERE ARE MORE NEW SKODA FELICIAS AND IMPORTS FROM WESTERN EUROPE THAN OLD SKODAS, TRABANTS, AND LADAS FROM THE COMMUNIST PERIOD. THE TRAMS THAT PASS BY ARE MOSTLY THE NEW RED AND WHITE CZECH MODELS THAT HAVE BEEN INTRODUCED IN THE PAST YEAR.

    DOWN THE STREET THE OLD COMMUNIST INTERNATIONAL HOTEL HAS BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO THE PRAGUE HOLIDAY INN. AND ALL ALONG THE STREET THERE ARE THE NEWLY ERECTED SIGNS OF SMALL BUSINESSES. THERE ARE HARDWARE STORES, VIDEO SHOPS, NUMEROUS RESTAURANTS, AND SMALL GROCERY STORES.

    IN A COUNTRY TRADITIONALLY DOMINATED BY INDUSTRY, THE SERVICE SECTOR -- WHERE SMALL BUSINESS IS MOST ACTIVE -- NOW ACCOUNTS FOR 54 PERCENT OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. IN 1991 SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTED FOR ONLY ONE PERCENT OF CZECH OUTPUT. TODAY THAT FIGURE IS 20 PERCENT, AND GROWING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH
    25-Apr-97 1:30 PM EDT (1730 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EAST EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=4/25/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213420
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE WAS SUBDUED TRADING ON EAST EUROPEAN STOCK EXCHANGES THIS WEEK, BUT BOTH BUDAPEST AND WARSAW REGISTERED SIGNIFICANT GAINS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS.

    TEXT: WARSAW CONTINUED TO BE A WINNER, WITH THE WIG INDEX UP 560 POINTS OR TWO-AND-ONE-HALF PERCENT TO 16-THOUSAND-669. THE MARKET DECLINED THURSDAY AND FRIDAY TRIMMING THE BIG GAINS OF EARLIER IN THE WEEK.

    BUDAPEST WAS ALSO HIGHER WITH THE BUX INDEX UP 100 POINTS OR ONE-AND-ONE-HALF PERCENT TO 5804. IN PRAGUE, STOCK PRICES WERE LOWER AMID VERY LOW VOLUME.

    /// OPT ///

    THE CZECH MARKET CONTINUES TO BE CRITICIZED FOR THE LACK OF REGULATION. SEVERAL PEOPLE WERE ARRESTED THIS WEEK IN CONNECTION WITH A BANKING SCANDAL. /// END OPT /// THE P-X 50 INDEX LOST FOUR POINTS TO 539.

    THE BIG NEWS ON THE SMALLER MARKETS WAS BUCHAREST WHICH HAS BEEN ENJOYING A BOOM IN RECENT WEEKS. STOCK PRICES WENT TO RECORD HIGHS AS INVESTOR CONFIDENCE ROSE AS ROMANIA CONCLUDED A LOAN AGREEMENT WITH THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

    BRATISLAVA WAS LOWER, LJUBLJANA WAS DOWN ABOUT TWO PERCENT, AND ZAGREB ENDED MIXED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH/KL
    25-Apr-97 1:22 PM EDT (1722 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EDITORIAL: SUMMERS ON ECONOMIC IMPACT OF NATO

    DATE= APRIL 26 , 1997
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07249
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    APRIL 26, 1997.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    AS DEPUTY SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY LAWRENCE SUMMERS SAID IN A RECENT SPEECH, ENLARGEMENT OF NATO WILL NOT ONLY IMPROVE EUROPEAN SECURITY BUT ALSO PROMOTE FREE MARKETS, TRADE, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. THE TRANSITION TO MARKET ECONOMIES HAS PRESENTED CHALLENGES TO THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL EUROPE. BUT THE DESIRE TO ENTER WESTERN ECONOMIC AND SECURITY STRUCTURES HAS ENCOURAGED CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES TO STAY THE COURSE OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM.

    WESTERN EUROPE HAS LONG BEEN A PARTNER IN COMMERCE WITH THE U.S. SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR, THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL EUROPE ALSO HAVE BECOME TRADING PARTNERS. PARTLY AS A RESULT OF EFFORTS TO PRIVATIZE STATE INDUSTRIES, FOREIGN INVESTMENT HAS RISEN TO NEARLY FORTY-BILLION DOLLARS IN CENTRAL EUROPE SINCE THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL. ALTHOUGH THIS IS A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF THE ENTIRE EUROPEAN ECONOMY, CENTRAL EUROPE IS BECOMING ONE OF THE MOST VIBRANT REGIONS OF THE CONTINENT.

    STRONG ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE U.S. AND WESTERN EUROPE COULD NOT HAVE EVOLVED OVER THE PAST FIFTY YEARS IF THE CONTINENT HAD NOT ENJOYED SECURITY AND STABILITY. WHAT MADE THAT SECURITY AND STABILITY POSSIBLE WAS NATO. AND JUST AS THE ALLIANCE BROUGHT A HALF CENTURY OF SUCCESS TO WESTERN EUROPE, A NEW LARGER NATO WILL HELP EXTEND PROSPERITY EASTWARD.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    25-Apr-97 11:09 AM EDT (1509 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=4/25/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213421
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES WERE OFF IN TRADING FRIDAY IN MAJOR EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA REPORTS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: PRICES ENDED DOWN IN ALL THREE MAJOR EUROPEAN MARKETS -- LONDON, PARIS, AND FRANKFURT. ANALYSTS SAID TRADERS WERE CONCERNED ABOUT POLITICAL UNCERTAINTIES IN BRITAIN AND FRANCE, AND ABOUT A POOR PERFORMANCE ON WALL STREET.

    THE BIGGEST DROP WAS IN FRANKFURT. THE DAX-30 INDEX FELL IN FLOOR TRADING BY MORE THAN 23 POINTS, ABOUT SEVEN-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT. FRANKFURT PRICES CONTINUED DOWNWARD IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING, ENDING OFF BY MORE THAN ONE PERCENT. IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX ENDED THE DAY DOWN ALMOST 19 POINTS, JUST OVER FOUR-TENTHS PERCENT.

    AND IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX CLOSED OFF BY THREE-AND-ONE-HALF POINTS, ABOUT ONE-TENTH PERCENT.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR GAINED IN VALUE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK, THE JAPANESE YEN, AND THE BRITISH POUND.
    NEB/JWH/KL
    25-Apr-97 1:33 PM EDT (1733 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] FRANCE ELECTIONS (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=4/25/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213408
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRANCE'S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION CAMPAIGN IS IN FULL SWING JUST FOUR DAYS AFTER FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC DISSOLVED PARLIAMENT AND CALLED NEW ELECTIONS AT THE END OF MAY AND BEGINNING OF JUNE. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: ALTHOUGH FRANCE'S OFFICIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN DOES NOT OPEN UNTIL THE FIRST MONDAY IN MAY, THE MAIN POLITICAL PARTIES HAVE ALREADY STARTED THEIR VOTE-CATCHING EFFORTS IN EARNEST. ALREADY, THE CONSERVATIVE PRIME MINISTER ALAIN JUPPE HAS USED A PREVIOUSLY SCHEDULED VISIT TO THE PORT OF MARSEILLE TO ADDRESS A RALLY IN THE CITY. THERE, MR. JUPPE DENOUNCED A PACT THAT THE OPPOSITION SOCIALIST PARTY IS EXPECTED TO CONCLUDE WITH THE COMMUNIST PARTY.

    NEARER TO PARIS, SOCIALIST PARTY LEADER LIONEL JOSPIN WAS THE MAIN SPEAKER AT A MEETING IN ONE OF THE POOR SUBURBS THAT ARE A BYWORD IN FRANCE FOR UNEMPLOYMENT, DRUG-RELATED CRIME, AND A HOST OF OTHER SOCIAL PROBLEMS. MR. JOSPIN SAID THAT WHAT HE CALLED MR. JUPPE''S "BRUTAL" TONE SHOWS THE GOVERNMENT IS ON THE DEFENSIVE.

    ACCORDING TO ALL THE OPINION POLLS TAKEN SINCE PRESIDENT CHIRAC DISSOLVED THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY MONDAY, HIS RULING CONSERVATIVE COALITION SHOULD BE RETURNED AFTER THE SECOND AND FINAL ROUND OF VOTING ON JUNE FIRST. BUT, ITS SHARE OF SEATS WILL BE MUCH LOWER THAN ITS CURRENT CRUSHING 80 PERCENT MAJORITY IN PARLIAMENT.

    MR. CHIRAC'S MAIN REASON FOR CALLING ELECTIONS NINE MONTHS AHEAD OF SCHEDULE WAS TO HEAD OFF AN ELECTION CAMPAIGN NEXT MARCH JUST AS THE FINAL PARITIES FOR THE NEW EUROPEAN SINGLE CURRENCY ARE DUE TO BE FIXED.

    ANOTHER OBJECTIVE WAS TO HALT THE RISE OF THE EXTREME-RIGHT NATIONAL FRONT. WITH ITS ANTI-IMMIGRATION MESSAGE, THE PARTY HAS BEEN GAINING IN RECENT MONTHS. BUT IN THE FIRST POLLS SINCE THE DISSOLUTION, THE NATIONAL FRONT SHARE OF VOTER SUPPORT HAS SLIPPED SHARPLY.

    SOME OF MR. CHIRAC'S OPPONENTS SAY THE PRESIDENT WAS ALSO MOTIVATED BY FEARS THAT REVELATIONS ABOUT ILLEGAL FUNDING BY HIS OWN GAULLIST R-P-R PARTY ARE GOING TO HARM HIS INNER CIRCLE IN THE COMING MONTHS.

    THE GAULLIST PARIS MAYOR, JEAN TIBERI, HAS ALREADY BEEN CHARGED FOR SOME FINANCIAL MISDEEDS ARISING FROM INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE PARTY'S AFFAIRS. NOW, MR TIBERI COULD BE IN TROUBLE AGAIN. THE INVESTIGATIVE FRENCH WEEKLY LE CANARD ENCHAINE ALLEGES THAT THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF NAMES, SOME BELONGING TO PEOPLE WHO HAVE LONG BEEN DEAD, ILLEGALLY REGISTERED ON ELECTORAL LISTS IN MR. TIBERI'S PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCY IN PARIS.

    THE SOCIALIST CANDIDATE OPPOSING MR. TIBERI HAS LAID AN OFFICIAL COMPLAINT. IF THE COMPLAINT IS UPHELD, THE MAYOR OF PARIS COULD WELL BE DISQUALIFIED FROM HOLDING ELECTIVE OFFICE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/JWH
    25-Apr-97 10:44 AM EDT (1444 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/25/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10132
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON FRIDAY APRIL 25TH //

    INTRO: VIRTUALLY EVERY SUBJECT IN THE NEWS HAS FOUND ITS WAY INTO THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF THE NATION'S NEWSPAPERS THIS FRIDAY, AS THE COMMENTARIES COVER AN UNUSUALLY WIDE ARRAY OF TOPICS.

    CHIEF AMONG THEM IS THIS WEEK'S EXTENSION OF THE WHITEWATER GRAND JURY IN ARKANSAS. ALSO DISCUSSED ARE PRESIDENT CLINTON'S MEETING WITH JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER HASHIMOTO TODAY [4/25]; THE SITUATION IN ZAIRE AND THE REST OF AFRICA; THE VOLUNTEER SUMMIT SET FOR THIS WEEKEND AND THE SNAP ELECTION IN FRANCE.

    NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ____________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THIS WEEK, KENNETH STARR, THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL INVESTIGATING THE ARKANSAS REAL ESTATE DEAL KNOWN AS WHITEWATER, ASKED FOR AND GOT A SIX-MONTH EXTENSION OF HIS GRAND JURY [GRAND JURIES CAN BRING FORMAL CHARGES WHICH LEAD TO INDICTMENTS]. MR. STARR SUGGESTED HE IS PURSUING NEW INFORMATION ABOUT VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THIS AFFAIR. WHITEWATER AND ITS RELATED EVENTS INVOLVE THE PRESIDENT, MRS. CLINTON AND THEIR FRIENDS, INCLUDING FORMER ASSOCIATE ATTORNEY GENERAL WEBSTER HUBBELL. TODAY'S WASHINGTON TIMES COMMENTS ON THE EXTENSION:

    VOICE: "JUDGE WRIGHT'S DECISION TO KEEP THE JURY ACTIVE UNTIL NOVEMBER SEVENTH CONFIRMS NOT ONLY THE TREMENDOUS STONEWALLING MR. STARR'S INVESTIGATION HAS HAD TO CONTEND WITH, BUT ALSO THE VALUE OF FORMER WHITEWATER PARTNER JAMES ... MCDOUGAL'S ASSISTANCE. AND, THOUGH BILL AND HILLARY CLINTON SURELY WERE NO MORE SURPRISED THAN ANYONE ELSE, IT SEEMS SAFE TO SAY THAT THE PRESIDENT AND FIRST LADY WILL HARDLY BE COMFORTED BY THESE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS ...."

    TEXT: IN OTHER PAPERS, INCLUDING TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION, THERE IS A SUGGESTION THAT WHILE THE EXTENSION IS JUSTIFIED, MR. STARR NEEDS TO SHOW RESULTS.

    VOICE: "IT'S GETTING TO THE TIME WHEN [MR.] STARR MUST PRODUCE SOMETHING IMPORTANT. IT'S BEEN MORE THAN THREE YEARS SINCE THE WHITEWATER PROBE BEGAN. IT HAS HELPED GENERATE A LOT OF SUSPICION SURROUNDING [PRESIDENT] CLINTON, AND IN SOME CASES - - THE [WEBSTER] HUBBLE RESCUE EFFORT AMONG THEM - - APPARENTLY AMPLE GROUNDS FOR THAT SUSPICION. BUT SUSPICION IS ONLY THAT. SOMETIME IN THE EXTRA SIX MONTHS HE'S BEEN GRANTED, [MR.] STARR NEEDS TO START LAYING OUT THE COLD, HARD FACTS OF WHAT HE HAS FOUND."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN TODAY'S EDITION, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, WHICH HAS EDITORALIZED EXTENSIVELY ON THE WHITEWATER AFFAIR AND RELATED ISSUES, COMPARES IT TO WATERGATE AND THE ULTIMATE RESIGNATION OF PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON.

    VOICE: "WATERGATE WAS .... ABOUT THE ABUSE OF THE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENCY. THE .... HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE .... CHARGED THAT THE PRESIDENT, [NIXON] "HAS PREVENTED, OBSTRUCTED, AND IMPEDED THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE." ..... MR. STARR'S FILINGS THIS WEEK RING SIMILAR CHORDS, TALKING OF 'EXTENSIVE EVIDENCE OF POSSIBLE OBSTRUCTION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE,' OF RESISTANCE TO SUBPOENAS ..... PERJURY ... OBSTRUCTION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ... AND INTIMIDATION OF WITNESSES.' THESE PARALLELS ARE ALL THE MORE IRONIC BECAUSE HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON SERVED ON THE LEGAL STAFF OF THE WATERGATE COMMITTEE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON WELCOMES JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER RYUTARO HASHIMOTO TO THE WHITE HOUSE TODAY, CAUSING THE BOSTON GLOBE TO SPECULATE:

    VOICE: ".... THEY ARE EXPECTED TO SPEND RELATIVELY LITTLE TIME TALKING ABOUT THE MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES - - TRADE. THEY HAVE OTHER URGENT MATTERS TO DISCUSS: NORTH KOREA, THE STATUS OF AMERICAN MILITARY FORCES ON OKINAWA, AND POSSIBLE SEQUELS TO THE DRAMATIC FREEING OF HOSTAGES IN PERU. BUT PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL DO WELL TO EMPHASIZE THE POLITICAL UTILITY FOR [MR.] HASHIMOTO IN RELAXING BARRIERS AGAINST U-S PRODUCTS."

    TEXT: TURNING TO AFRICA, AND THE PUSH OF REBELS TOWARD ZAIRE'S CAPITAL OF KINSHASA, THE NEW YORK TIMES FINDS TROUBLING ELEMENTS IN THE REBELS' LEADERSHIP SO FAR, ESPECIALLY ITS TREATMENT OF HUTU REFUGEES.

    VOICE: "LAURENT KABILA, THE REBEL LEADER WHO MAY SOON BE ZAIRE'S NEW MASTER, PROMISES TO END THE MANIPULATION OF ETHNIC HATREDS BY PRESIDENT MOBUTU SESE SEKO FOR THE PAST THREE DECADES. BUT A CAMPAIGN OF STARVATION AND VIOLENCE AGAINST HUTU REFUGEES IN THE AREA OF ZAIRE NOW UNDER MR. KABILA'S CONTROL RUNS COUNTER TO THAT PROMISE. .... TRUE, THE HUTU NOW BEING VICTIMIZED ARE NOT A SYMPATHETIC GROUP OF REFUGEES. [OPT] THEY FLED RWANDA AFTER LOSING A CIVIL WAR THERE IN 1994 [IN WHICH] ... HUTU MILITIAS ... INSTIGATED THE KILLING OF MORE THAN HALF A MILLION TUTSI ..... [END OPT] [HOWEVER] .... NOW THE [KABILA-LED] REBELS HAVE CAUGHT UP WITH THEM, [THE HUTU REFUGEES] AND ARE EFFECTIVELY STARVING THEM TO DEATH ...... WHILE MR. KABILA SO FAR APPEARS LESS VENAL THAN HIS RIVAL, HE HAS GIVEN NO INDICATION OF BEING ANY MORE TOLERANT OR LESS ETHNICALLY DIVISIVE."

    TEXT: IN OTHER AFRICAN ISSUES, THE WASHINGTON POST SAYS MEETINGS HERE IN THE NATION'S CAPITAL MAY SOON DECIDE WHETHER MANY STRUGGLING AFRICAN DEMOCRACIES CAN SURVIVE THE ENORMOUS BURDEN OF THEIR INTERNATIONAL DEBTS.

    VOICE: "MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE SO BURDENED BY DEBT THAT A HUGE PORTION OF THEIR NATIONAL INCOME, INCLUDING THE AID THEY RECEIVE, IS IMMEDIATELY RECYCLED TO BANKS AND GOVERNMENTS TO THE NORTH. UGANDA SPENDS ABOUT SEVEN TIMES AS MUCH ON DEBT REPAYMENT AS ON PRIMARY EDUCATION, WHILE ABOUT ONE-THIRD OF ITS CHILDREN CAN'T GO TO SCHOOL AT ALL - - ALTHOUGH EDUCATION IS A CRUCIAL PREREQUISITE FOR DEVELOPMENT. ..... LAST FALL, WITH STRONG U-S LEADERSHIP, THE WORLD'S LEADING LENDERS AGREED THAT NATIONS WITH A STRONG COMMITMENT TO, AND RECORD OF, REFORM SHOULD GET SOME DEBT RELIEF, OR ELSE EVEN THE BEST POLICIES WOULDN'T SAVE THEM. .... UGANDA, [OPT] WITH ITS LONG AND IMPRESSIVE TRACK RECORD, [END OPT] SHOULD BE GIVEN AS MUCH HELP AS POSSIBLE, AND OTHER DESERVING NATIONS SHOULD FOLLOW SWIFTLY BEHIND."

    TEXT: THIS WEEKEND IN PHILADELPHIA, PRESIDENT CLINTON, JOINED BY FORMER PRESIDENTS BUSH, CARTER AND FORD, RETIRED ARMY GENERAL COLIN POWELL AND OTHER LEADERS, WILL DISCUSS HOW TO GET MORE AMERICANS INTERESTED IN VOLUNTEERING. THAT CAUSES NEWSDAY TO WONDER: "CAN PRESIDENTS REVIVE ... VOLUNTEERISM?"

    VOICE: "TODAY, THANKS TO ENORMOUS ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENORMOUS REDISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH, MOST AMERICANS HAVE NEVER HAD IT SO GOOD. YET MANY FEEL THAT AMERICA HAS LOST SOME OF ITS SOUL -- THE SELF-RELIANT COMMUNITARIAN SPIRIT THAT [FRENCH HISTORIAN AND BIOGRAPHER OF THE EARLY AMERICAN NATION, ALEXIS DE] TOCQUEVILLE SO ADMIRED. CAN THE POWERHOUSE PERSONALITIES IN PHILADELPHIA JUMP-START [ESTABLISH QUICKLY] THAT SPIRIT? IF THEY CAN, IT WILL BE A WORTHY CONFERENCE INDEED."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THAT REFERENCE TO THE GREAT FRENCH STUDENT OF THIS COUNTRY, ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE, LEADS US TO OUR LAST EDITORIAL, ABOUT MODERN DAY FRANCE, AND PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC'S DECISION TO HOLD A SUDDEN ELECTION. IT DRAWS THIS COMMENT FROM THE SUN IN BALTIMORE.

    VOICE: "MR. CHIRAC, WHOSE PRESIDENTIAL TERM RUNS UNTIL 2-THOUSAND-TWO, IS GAMBLING THAT FRENCH VOTERS WILL RETURN HIS CENTER-RIGHT COALITION WITH A MANDATE TO TAKE THE AUSTERITY MEASURES NEEDED TO QUALIFY FOR MEMBERSHIP IN A MONETARY UNION. ..... THIS WILL REQUIRE SPENDING CUTS THAT RUN COUNTER TO POPULAR SENTIMENT FOR A MORE ROBUST ECONOMIC GROWTH POLICY. FORTUNATELY FOR PRESIDENT CHIRAC, THE SOCIALIST OPPOSITION IS WOBBLY AT BEST ....."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    25-Apr-97 10:27 AM EDT (1427 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/25/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213437
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES WERE DOWN TODAY (FRIDAY) AS INTEREST RATE WORRIES RETURNED TO THE MARKET. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 67 HUNDRED 38, DOWN 53 POINTS. FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 35 POINTS. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT 765, DOWN FIVE POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY STOCK TRADERS SEEM TO HAVE TURNED THEIR ATTENTION AWAY FROM CORPORATE EARNINGS AND ARE AGAIN STARTING TO WORRY ABOUT INTEREST RATES. IN WASHINGTON, A GROUP OF LEGISLATORS APPEALED TO ALAN GREENSPAN, CHAIRMAN OF THE U-S CENTRAL BANK, NOT TO RAISE INTEREST RATES AGAIN NEXT MONTH.

    TOBACCO STOCKS WERE DOWN SHARPLY BECAUSE OF WHAT WAS PERCEIVED ON WALL STREET AS A MAJOR SETBACK FOR THE U-S CIGARETTE INDUSTRY. A FEDERAL JUDGE RULED THAT THE GOVERNMENT MAY REGULATE THE SALES AND LABELING OF CIGARETTES BUT HAS NO AUTHORITY OVER TOBACCO ADVERTISING. THE RULING APPEARS TO PUT THE INDUSTRY DIRECTLY UNDER FEDERAL REGULATION. ANALYSTS SAY IT COULD STRENGTHEN THE POSITION OF ANTI-SMOKING FORCES IN THE CURRENT NEGOTIATIONS TO SETTLE HEALTH-RELATED LAWSUITS AGAINST THE COMPANIES. BUT THE COURT RULING WILL BE APPEALED.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    A POLL OF AMERICAN ECONOMISTS SHOWS MOST OF THEM BELIEVE THE U-S ECONOMY WILL WEAKEN SLIGHTLY OVER THE NEXT TWO YEARS. HOWEVER, THE SURVEY WHICH WAS CONDUCTED BY THE REUTER NEWS SERVICE, ALSO SHOWS NONE OF THE 34 ECONOMISTS INTERVIEWED BELIEVES THERE WILL BE A RECESSION IN THE NEXT TWO YEARS.

    SALES OF EXISTING HOMES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN BY ALMOST THREE PERCENT LAST MONTH. ANALYSTS SAY HIGHER MORTGAGE INTEREST RATES AND BAD WEATHER IN MUCH OF THE COUNTRY WERE THE MAIN REASONS FOR THE DROP.

    THE STOCK OF THE ELECTRONIC DATA SYSTEMS COMPANY FELL 20 PERCENT AFTER THE COMPUTER SERVICES FIRM REPORTED SUBSTANTIALLY LOWER EARNINGS. THE COMPANY BLAMES RISING LABOR COSTS FOR MUCH OF THE PROFIT DROP.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    25-Apr-97 5:13 PM EDT (2113 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] THE U.S., THE U-N AND HUMAN RIGHTS

    DATE=APRIL 26, 1997
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00525
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT=

    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE

    ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "THE U.S., THE U-N AND HUMAN RIGHTS." HERE IS YOUR HOST, ROBERT REILLY.

    HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IS A STANDARD AGAINST WHICH EVERY NATION CAN BE MEASURED. EACH YEAR THE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION MEETS TO DISCUSS A VARIETY OF HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES. RESOLUTIONS ARE OFFERED CENSURING THE MOST EGREGIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATORS. BUT SUCH EFFORTS ARE OFTEN UNDERMINED BY COUNTRIES THAT SERVE ON THE COMMISSION AND THAT ARE THEMSELVES GROSS ABUSERS OF HUMAN RIGHTS. AT THIS YEAR'S SESSION, CHINA BLOCKED ANY CONSIDERATION OF ITS HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD.

    JOINING ME TODAY TO DISCUSS HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION ARE THREE EXPERTS. GARE SMITH IS U.S. DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOR. JOSHUA MURAVCHIK IS RESIDENT SCHOLAR AT THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE. AND STEPHEN RICKARD IS THE DIRECTOR OF THE WASHINGTON OFFICE OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, U.S.A.

    WELCOME TO THE PROGRAM.

    GARE SMITH, YOU ARE PART OF THE U.S. DELEGATION AT THE RECENT HUMAN RIGHTS COMISSION MEETING IN GENEVA FOR SIX WEEKS. CAN YOU TELL US IN SHORT FORM WHAT WERE THE U.S. OBJECTIVES AT THE MEETING AND HOW MANY OF THEM WERE MET?

    SMITH: SURE. IT WAS A VERY EXCITING SIX WEEKS AND FROM OUR PERSPECTIVE A VERY SUCCESSFUL SIX WEEKS. THE LARGEST GOAL THAT WE HAD, OF COURSE, AS ALL COUNTRIES HAVE IN GOING TO THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION, IS TO REAFFIRM THE UNIVERSALITY OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS. WE HAD SOME SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES AND COUNTRY RESOLUTIONS WE BROUGHT, ALL OF WHICH WE BROUGHT ON SUCCESSFULLY - A SUCCESSFUL POSITIVE MIDDLE EAST RESOLUTION, A YUGOSLAVIA RESOLUTION, A RESOLUTION ON THE SUDAN, A RESOLUTION ON CUBA. WE ALSO WORKED WITH A SERIES OF DRAMATIC ISSUES, PROMOTING WOMEN'S RIGHTS, FOCUSSING ON TORTURE, SEEKING TO PROTECT HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS AND N-G-OS, PROMOTING RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND OTHER THEMATIC ISSUES SUCH AS THAT.

    HOST: SO THERE IS A LOT OF FOCUS IN TERMS OF INTERNATIONAL NEWS ON THE FAILURE TO BRING A MOTION TO EVEN CONSIDER THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN CHINA, BUT THERE WERE THESE MANY OTHER ACCOMPLISHMENTS.

    SMITH: WELL, ONE OF THE IRONIES IS THAT CHINA RECEIVED A LOT OF PRESS AND A LOT OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS DID NOT RECEIVE ANY PRESS. SO WE ACTUALLY PASSED OVER A HUNDRED RESOLUTIONS, MANY OF WHICH WE WERE VERY, VERY PROUD OF. CHINA WAS A CASE WHERE WE DID NOT SECURE THE VOTES. BUT EVEN IF WE DID NOT SECURE THE VOTES, I WOULD ARGUE THAT WE ACHIEVED MANY OF OUR OBJECTIVES IN THE CHINA SITUATION.

    HOST: ALL RIGHT, LET ME GET JOSH MURAVCHIK'S REACTION TO THIS. IS THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION AN EFFECTIVE FORUM TO RAISE THESE ISSUES AND TO BRING ANY PRESSURE ON THE OFFENDERS?

    MURAVCHIK: WELL, SURE IT IS AN EFFECTIVE FORUM, BUT WE NEED TO UNDERLINE HERE THE WORD FORUM. THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION HAS NO POWERS OF ENFORCEMENT. IT IS JUST A SETTING IN WHICH THE TRUTH CAN BE TOLD, AND THAT IS WHY THE SERIOUS DEFEAT WE SUFFERED ON CHINA IS SO DISAPPOINTING. AND IT IS SO DISAPPOINTING THAT SOME OF OUR ALLIES, SOME OF THE MAIN DEMOCRATIC STATES OF EUROPE FAILED TO STAND WITH US ON CHINA. THIS WAS NOT ASKING THEM TO IMPOSE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ON CHINA OR TO TAKE SOME OTHER MATERIAL MEASURES THAT WOULD HAVE PUT THEM INTO SOME JEOPARDY. THIS WAS JUST ASKING THEM AS FELLOW DEMOCRACIES TO STAND TOGETHER AND TO TELL THE SIMPLE TRUTH ABOUT CHINA. NOT EVEN TELL THE TRUTH, BUT JUST ASK THE TRUTH TO BE INVESTIGATED BECAUSE THAT IS REALLY A MANDATORY AND THEY WOULD NOT DO THAT BECAUSE THEY WANTED TO TRY TO CURRY FAVOR WITH THE DICTATORS IN BEIJING AND THAT IS VERY DISAPPOINTING.

    HOST: AS A MATTER OF FACT, THERE WAS A STATEMENT MADE BY ANOTHER HUMAN RIGHTS GROUP, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, IN WHICH THEY SAID THAT THIS VOTE ON CHINA HAD "RAISED SERIOUS QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ABILITY OF THE COMMISSION TO ADDRESS ABUSES IN ECONOMICALLY POWERFUL COUNTRIES." STEPHEN RICKARD, HOW WOULD YOU REACT TO THAT? IS THIS UNDERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS COMMISSION AS A BEACON OF HOPE IN HUMAN RIGHTS?

    RICKARD: WELL, THERE WERE A NUMBER OF THINGS ABOUT THE SESSION THAT WERE DISAPPOINTING. AND THE VOTE ON CHINA IS CERTAINLY ONE OF THEM. CONVERSELY THERE WAS A POSITIVE STATEMENT MADE ON EAST-TIMOR, WHICH INVOLVES AN ECONOMICALLY POWERFUL AND CERTAINLY GROWING COUNTRY IN INDONESIA. AND WE WELCOMED THE FACT THAT THE UNITED STATES AT LEAST WAS GOING TO PUSH ON CHINA AND MAKE IT AN ISSUE. AND ALTHOUGH THE RESOLUTION WAS NOT SUCCESSFUL, IT REQUIRED THAT CHINA EXPEND A LOT OF ENERGY AND EFFORT TO DEFEAT IT. IT REALLY MADE CHINA'S RECORD MUCH THE FOCUS OF THE DEBATE BECAUSE THERE WAS SUCH A FIGHT OVER IT. I COMPLETELY AGREE THAT THE RESULT WAS VERY DISAPPOINTING, AND IT IS EXTREMELY DISAPPOINTING THAT COUNTRIES WOULD NOT BE WILLING EVEN TO STAND UP AND EVEN SAY THAT WE OUGHT TO INVESTIGATE THIS. BUT THERE WERE A NUMBER OF MAJOR HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSERS IN ADDITION TO CHINA WHO REALLY DID ESCAPE ANY SERIOUS CENSOR DURING THE SESSION AND THAT REALLY WAS DISAPPOINTING.

    HOST: WHO?

    RICKARD: WELL, IN ADDITION WE FELT THAT MUCH STRONGER STANDS COULD HAVE BEEN TAKEN ON THE SITUATION IN ALGERIA. CHINA, WE HAVE ALREADY MENTIONED... TURKEY IS A CASE WHERE, IF NOT A RESOLUTION, AT LEAST A CLEARCUT INVITATION TO HAVE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR TO INVESTIGATE THE SITUATION - THAT DID NOT HAPPEN. THE ARGUMENTS THAT QUIET DIPLOMACY WOULD BE BETTER DID NOT BEAR FRUIT IN THE CASE OF TURKEY, AND TO ADD INSULT TO INJURY, ONE OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS WHO - WAS IN GENEVA - INVITED, PARTICIPATED IN PARALLEL DISCUSSIONS - WAS ARRESTED WHEN HE RETURNED TO TURKEY, WHICH IS REALLY TURKEY'S WAY OF FLAUNTING ITS IMPUNITY AGAINST THE COMMISSION'S INVESTIGATIONS.

    HOST: LET ME GIVE GARE SMITH AN OPPORTUNITY TO RESPOND TO THOSE CONCERNS.

    SMITH: WELL, WITH RESPECT TO WHAT THE GENTLEMAN SAID ON CHINA, I AGREE WITH BOTH, JOSHUA AND STEVE, I CAN NOT SAY I AM NOT DISAPPOINTED THAT WE DID NOT WIN. ON THE OTHER HAND, CHINA REALLY HELPED US TO A LARGE EXTENT. IT PUT SO MUCH EFFORT AND SO MANY MILLION DOLLARS INTO LOBBYING TO WIN THAT IN EFFECT IT HELPED BRING THE SPOTLIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION UPON ITSELF. THE REASON CHINA WON THE VOTE IS QUITE CLEAR; THERE ARE REALLY THREE REASONS. ONE, THEY CUT ECONOMIC DEALS WITH SOME COUNTRIES; TWO, THEY THREATENED SOME SMALLER COUNTRIES LIKE NEPAL AND BHUTAN - YOUR GOVERNMENT CAN BE OVERTHROWN IN FOUR HOURS, YOU ARE NOT GOING TO VOTE AGAINST CHINA; AND THREE, THEY BASICALLY ENTERED IN A QUID PRO QUO WITH OTHER COUNTRIES THAT WERE AFRAID OF RESOLUTIONS BEING BROUGHT ON THEMSELVES. WE WON'T VOTE AGAINST YOU IF YOU WILL NOT VOTE AGAINST US. THAT BEING SAID AND OUR HAVING LOST THE VOTE, WE DO NOT REALLY MEASURE OUR SUCCESSES AT THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION STRICTLY BY VOTE AND WE DO NOT KEEP A TALLY OF HUMAN RIGHTS RESOLUTIONS WON AND LOST. THE BOTTOM LINE IS, HAS THERE BEEN POSITIVE PROGRESS ON THE GROUND? ARE HUMAN RIGHTS BETTER TODAY OR THIS YEAR THAN THEY WERE LAST YEAR BECAUSE OF EFFORTS OF THE COMMISSION?

    HOST: AND WHAT IS THE ANSWER TO THAT?

    SMITH: AND THE ANSWER TO THAT IS WE HAVE MADE SOME PROGRESS. CHINA AGREED DURING THE COURSE OF THE COMMISSION TO SIGN ON TO A COVENANT ON ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL RIGHTS. CHINA AGREED DURING THE COURSE OF THE COMMISSION TO ENTER INTO DISCUSSIONS WITH THE I-C-R-C ON PRISON VISITS.

    HOST: THE I-C-R-C?

    SMITH: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE RED CROSS.

    HOST: IS THAT AS MUCH AS WE WANT?

    SMITH: OF COURSE NOT. IF IT WERE AS MUCH AS WE WANT, WE WOULD NOT HAVE PURSUED RESOLUTIONS. BUT THEY ARE STEPS IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION AND I DO NOT THINK THEY WOULD HAVE OCCURRED HAVE WE NOT BEEN THERE FOCUSING ATTENTION ON THEM AT THE COMMISSION.

    HOST: IN GENERAL TERMS, THE UNITED STATES POLICY TOWARDS CHINA IS DESCRIBED AS A DELINKAGE BETWEEN TRADE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. BUT ON THE OTHER HAND, ARE YOU AT ALL CONCERNED THAT CHINA HAS NOT DELINKED THESE ISSUES? IN FACT, IF THEY THREATENED COUNTRIES WITH ECONOMIC SANCTIONS WHO REFUSE TO IGNORE THE HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES? I ASK THIS QUESTION BECAUSE OF THE RESPONSE OF THE DELEGATE FROM CHINA WHO MADE THIS PUBLIC STATEMENT, WHICH IS RATHER EXTRAORDINARY ABOUT DENMARK, WHICH BROUGHT THE RESOLUTION, AND I QUOTE IT: "THIS ANTI-CHINA RESOLUTION WILL IN THE END BECOME THE ROCK THAT SMASHES ON THE GOVERNMENT'S HEAD. DENMARK, THE BIRD THAT POKES OUT ITS HEAD, WILL SUFFER THE MOST."

    MURAVCHIK: THAT WAS QUITE AN ASTONISHING STATEMENT FOR THE CHINESE FOREIGN MINISTRY TO ISSUE, I WAS GOING TO QUOTE IT, TOO, BUT YOU BEAT ME.. AND IT IS ALL THE MORE ASTONISHING THAT SEVERAL OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WOULD REFUSE TO SUPPORT DENMARK ON THIS.. THAT IS, THEIR FELLOW MEMBERS OF THE E-U. THEY ARE PRESUMABLY ON A TRACK...

    HOST: IN FACT, THEY HAD SUPPORTED THIS RESOLUTION IN THE PAST. FRANCE, SPAIN, GERMANY, AUSTRALIA, COUNTRIES LIKE THIS THAT REFUSED TO DO SO THIS YEAR.

    MURAVCHIK: THAT IS RIGHT, AND THE QUESTION IS IF OTHER DEMOCRACIES ARE GOING TO STAND BACK AND TO MAKE THOSE KINDS OF THREATS, WE ARE ENTERING INTO A VERY BAD SITUATION. CHINA'S REGIME IS NOT MAKING SIGNIFICANT DECISIONS. I GRANT THAT THEY MADE THE ONES THAT YOU ALLUDED TO, BUT I DO NOT THINK THEY ARE VERY MEANINGFUL. AND ON THE CONTRARY EVER SINCE THE U.S. ADMINISTRATION DECIDED TO PULL BACK ON THE CHINESE HUMAN RIGHTS FRONT, MOSTLY WITH REGARD TO THE TRADE CONNECTIONS, THE CHINESE HAVE GONE ON THE DEFENSIVE AND THEY HAVE CRACKED DOWN HARDER ON THE DISSIDENTS. THEY PUT MORE PEOPLE IN JAIL AND REARRESTED PEOPLE WHO HAD BEEN RELEASED BRIEFLY AFTER LONG PRISON TERMS, AND THEY HAVE TAKEN THE LEAD IN THE U-N SETTING IN ORGANIZING AN ASIAN CAUCUS WHICH FUNDAMENTALLY DENIES THE BASIC IDEAS OF HUMAN RIGHTS THAT ARE EMBRACED IN THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION.

    HOST: LET ME GET GARE SMITH. I KNOW THAT HE HAS SOMETHING.

    SMITH: I'D JUST LIKE TO CLARIFY A POINT: ALL OF THOSE COUNTRIES WE CITED, GERMANY, FRANCE, ITALY, SPAIN DID NOT VOTE AGAINST THE RESOLUTION, THEY VOTED WITH THE UNITED STATES, THEY VOTED WITH DENMARK IN SUPPORTING THE RESOLUTION. THE DIFFERENCE WAS THIS YEAR THAT THEY WERE NOT CO-SPONSORS OF THE RESOLUTION. WHICH IS A DIFFERENCE AND IS A STEP BACK AND I AGREE IS DISAPPOINTING. BUT THEY DID VOTE FOR AND I'D LIKE JUST TO POINT OUT THAT WHAT WAS DIFFERENT ABOUT THIS VOTE IS IT WAS NOT A STRAIGHT VOTE ON A RESOLUTION, AS IS THE CASE WITH EVERY OTHER RESOLUTION THAT WE BRING. WHAT CHINA BROUGHT WAS A NO-ACTION MOTION WHICH ESSENTIALLY SAID WE WILL VOTE ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN EVERY OTHER COUNTRY IN THE WORLD BUT NO OTHER COUNTRY IN THE WORLD CAN VOTE ON OURS. AND IN PASSING THE NO-ACTION MOTION WE WERE NEVER ABLE TO DISCUSS THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN CHINA. IT PRECLUDED AN ACTUAL DISCUSSION IN THE INTERNATIONAL FORUM WHICH OF COURSE UNDERMINES THE VERY INTEGRITY OF THE COMMISSION.

    HOST: STEPHEN RICKARD.

    RICKARD: I THOUGHT IF I CAN RETURN TO YOUR QUESTION ABOUT DELINKING TRADE FROM HUMAN RIGHTS , I HAVE TO SAY THE PROBLEM WE HAVE RIGHT NOW IS NOT CONCERNING THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMUNITY. THE TRADE HAS BEEN DELINKED FROM HUMAN RIGHTS. AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, FOR INSTANCE, DOES NOT AS A GENERAL RULE TAKE A POSITION ON ECONOMIC SANCTIONS. THE PROBLEM RIGHT NOW IS THAT TRADE IS VERY MUCH LINKED TO HUMAN RIGHTS BUT IN AN INVERSE RELATIONSHIP. THAT IS TO SAY, COUNTRIES WHERE THERE ARE POWERFUL TRADING INTERESTS ARE ABLE TO GET MORE OF A FREE RIDE EVEN IN CRITICISM ON HUMAN RIGHTS. SO WHEN THE U.S. ADMINISTRATION SAYS, WE ARE NOT GOING TO LET TRADE, WE ARE NOT GOING TO LET ANY SINGLE ISSUE DOMINATE OUR RELATIONSHIP WITH CHINA, MEANING OF COURSE HUMAN RIGHTS, MY REACTION IS HALLELUJAH. THAT MEANS THEY ARE NOT GOING TO LET TRADE DOMINATE THE RELATIONSHIP WITH CHINA, BUT THE REALITY IS THAT THE CHINESE HAVE NOT DELINKED TRADE FROM HUMAN RIGHTS. THEY USE IT WHEN IT IS TO THEIR ADVANTAGE. WE HAVE NOT DELINKED ECONOMIC SANCTIONS FROM ISSUES WE HAVE WITH CHINA, WE JUST DO NOT USE THEM ON HUMAN RIGHTS, WE USE THEM ON PIRACY, COMMERCIAL PIRACY OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. SO THERE IS A LINKAGE THERE; IT IS JUST NOT A POSITIVE ONE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS.

    HOST: ON THE OTHER HAND, ONE OF THE RESOLUTIONS THAT DID PASS IN GENEVA, I BELIEVE, WAS ON BURMA.

    SMITH: ABSOLUTELY. IN FACT THAT WAS PASSED BY UNANIMOUS AGREEMENT OF ALL OF THE COUNTRIES THERE IN THE COMMISSION, ALL FIFTY-THREE. AND BURMA, AS YOU WELL KNOW, BOB, FROM A PREVIOUS DISCUSSION, IS AN AUTHORITARIAN REGIME THAT HAS REFUSED TO RECOGNIZE THE FREE AND FAIR DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS IN 1990 THAT BROUGHT AUNG SAN SUU KYI, THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER, AND THE NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRACY INTO POWER. THEY HAVE CONTINUED THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF THE PAST YEAR TO ARREST AND DETAIN DEMOCRATIC OPPOSITION LEADERS AND RELIGIOUS LEADERS, AND I WAS DELIGHTED TO BE ABLE TO CAST OUR VOTE IN SUPPORT OF THAT.

    HOST: AND IN RESPONSE TO THAT, STEPHEN RICKARD, HAVING MENTIONED TRADE, MADELEINE ALBRIGHT HAS NOW ANNOUNCED THAT THE U.S. WILL APPLY ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST BURMA. DO YOU THINK THAT IS A GOOD MOVE, JOSH MURAVCHIK?

    MURAVCHIK: I THINK IT IS A GOOD MOVE. THE BURMESE REGIME HAS ABSOLUTELY NOTHING TO BE SAID IN ITS FAVOR AND MAXIMIZING THE PRESSURE ON BURMA IS VERY MUCH IN ORDER. THE TRICK IS, WE NEED TO BE ABLE TO FIND THE COURAGE. WE, THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND THE GOVERNMENTS OF OUR FELLOW DEMOCRACIES, TO STAND TOUGH AGAINST REALLY POWERFUL REGIMES LIKE THE CHINESE REGIME AS WELL AS RELATIVELY WEAK ONES LIKE THE BURMESE.

    RICKARD: WELL I THINK THAT IS RIGHT IN A SENSE. THERE IS A REAL ISSUE OF INCONSISTENCY HERE. AND IF WE GET TO THE PLACE WHERE THE ONLY COUNTRIES THAT WE ARE PREPARED TO TAKE A TOUGH STANCE AGAINST, AND AGAIN, I THINK JOSH'S POINT IS AN EXCELLENT ONE -WHICH IS WHEN YOU ARE AT THE COMMISSION, YOU ARE REALLY TALKING ABOUT INVESTIGATING, DISCUSSING, REFERRING ISSUES TO SPECIAL RAPPORTUERS; IT IS REALLY JUST A QUESTION OF EXPOSING AN INVESTIGATING AND MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS. BUT WE REALLY ARE UNFORTUNATELY DRIFTING IN THE DIRECTION OF A HANDFUL OF COUNTRIES WHO EITHER BECAUSE THEY ARE SO INSIGNIFICANT FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF TRADE OR THEIR GEOSTRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE OR BECAUSE IT IS ACTUALLY A POSITIVE THING TO BE TOUGH WITH THEM FOR DOMESTIC POLITICAL REASONS, LIKE IRAN OR CUBA AND THEN WITH ANY COUNTRY WHETHER THERE IS ANY SERIOUS OTHER ISSUE, WE KIND OF SAY, WELL, HUMAN RIGHTS ARE IMPORTANT, BUT..

    HOST: BESIDES FROM CHINA, WHO DO YOU MEAN?

    RICKARD: WELL, I THINK WE WOULD LIKE TO SEE THE UNITED STATES BEING MUCH TOUGHER WITH HOST OF COUNTRIES WE HAVE VERY CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS WITH, TOUGHER IN THE SENSE OF BEING SIMPLY FRANK AND OCCASIONALLY BEING PUBLIC IN TERMS OF THE CONCERNS OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN TURKEY, IN ISRAEL, WITH THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY- A VERY IMPORTANT CASE, BECAUSE PRECEDENCE ARE BEING SET AND PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR ARE BEING ESTABLISHED - EGYPT, INDONESIA AND COMING BACK TO CHINA, EVEN WITH INDIA THERE REALLY HAS BEEN A MUTING OF PUBLIC CRITICISM SO THERE ARE ANY NUMBER OF COUNTRIES. THERE IS A HANDFUL OF COUNTRIES - THEY ARE CALLED BIG EMERGING MARKETS FOR INSTANCE AND IT IS ALL WELL AND GOOD, IN FACT IT IS VERY IMPORTANT AND POSITIVE TO TAKE A TOUGH LINE ON BURMA AND ON SOME OF THESE OTHER COUNTRIES WHO DO IN FACT HAVE ATROCIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS RECORDS.

    HOST: LET ME LET GARE SMITH RESPOND TO THAT.

    SMITH: SURE. I THINK STEVE MAKES A VERY GOOD POINT. BUT FRANKLY I DO NOT HAVE A PROBLEM WITH IT, AS SECRETARY [OF STATE MADELEINE] ALBRIGHT HAS SAID, WE HAVE ONE SET OF PRINCIPLES AND A VARIETY OF POLICIES BY WHICH THEY ARE CARRIED OUT. ABSOLUTELY WE ARE PURSUING A DIFFERENT POLICY WITH BURMA TO CARRY OUT TOWARDS A CERTAIN SET OF PRINCIPLES THAN WE ARE TOWARDS CHINA. AND ANYONE WHO DENIES THAT IS NOT LOOKING REALISTICALLY AT THE PICTURE. BUT BURMA AND CHINA ARE VERY DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. BURMA DOES NOT SIT ON THE THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL. BURMA DOES NOT HAVE NUCLEAR WEAPONS, BURMA IS NOT SEEKING TO HELP US KEEP NORTH-KOREA'S NUCLEAR CAPACITY IN CHECK.

    HOST: BURMA IS ONE OF THE BIGGEST DRUG..

    SMITH: BURMA IS THE MAJOR DRUG-TRADER IN THE WORLD AND THAT IS A GOOD REASON THAT WE CAN GET TO ROOT WITH ECONOMIC SANCTIONS WE ARE TAKING. AND I AM VERY PROUD OF THESE SANCTIONS AND I HOPE THEY WORK, AND I THINK THAT THEY ARE A GOOD BENCH-MARK FOR THE REST OF THE WORLD. WE HOPE TO GET ASIAN COUNTRIES AND OUR ALLIES IN EUROPE TO SUPPORT US ON THAT, BUT THE FACT THAT THEY WORK IN BURMA DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN THAT THEY ARE THE BEST TOOL TO USE IN SEEKING THE SAME PRINCIPLES AND THE SAME OBJECTIVES IN CHINA.

    HOST: AND IRAN AND IRAQ, WHICH ARE PERENNIAL SUBJECTS AT GENEVA.

    SMITH: RIGHT. THE RESOLUTIONS ON IRAN AND IRAQ BOTH PASSED, I CAN NOT RECALL THE EXACT VOTES, BUT IT WAS NOT CLOSE. BASICALLY, IN IRAN WE HAVE PARTICULARLY, NUMEROUS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES, PRESENT AND CONTINUING, PERSECUTION OF THE BAHA' IS, FAILING TO RECOGNIZE FUNDAMENTAL LIBERTIES, FREEDOM OF RELIGION, FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION, FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY. AND IRAQUE, OF COURSE, THEY ARE NOT COMPLYING WITH THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION ABOUT WHERE KUWAITIS HAVE DISAPPEARED, WHO IS DEAD, WHERE THEIR MATERIAL POSSESSIONS ARE, CONTINUING REPRESSION OF THE KURDS. ALL THESE WERE BROUGHT IN THE FORUM, AND THAT FACT THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY SPOKE SO LOUDLY WITH ONE VOICE AGAINST THESE REGIMES, I HOPE WE WILL MAKE A DIFFERENCE.

    HOST: I'M AFRAID THAT'S ALL THE TIME WE HAVE THIS WEEK. I'D LIKE TO THANK OUR GUESTS -- GARE SMITH, DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOR; JOSHUA MURAVCHIK FROM THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE; AND STEPHEN RICKARD FROM AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, U.S.A -- FOR JOINING ME THIS WEEK TO DISCUSS U.S POLICY AND HUMAN RIGHTS. FOR CURRENT INFORMATION REGARDING HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES, VISIT THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION AGENCY'S HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY SITE ON THE INTERNET. IT WILL LINK YOU TO THE STATE DEPARTMENT HUMAN RIGHTS REPORTS, AS WELL AS TO THE USIA PUBLICATION, "INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RIGHTS." THIS IS ROBERT REILLY FOR ON THE LINE.
    25-Apr-97 2:55 PM EDT (1855 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=4/25/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36277
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS CALLS ON THE LEADER OF THE REBELS IN ZAIRE TO SHOW RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AND STOP THE KILLING OF REFUGEES IN AREAS UNDER THEIR CONTROL; THE U-N GENERAL ASSEMBLY HOLDS AN EMERGENCY SESSION ON ISRAEL'S DECISION TO GO AHEAD WITH THE BUILDING OF NEW JEWISH HOMES IN EAST JERUSALEM; AND, U-N OFFICIALS -- WORKING TO TIGHTEN THE U-N BUDGET -- ANTICIPATE COST-CUTTING SAVINGS OF 100-MILLION DOLLARS THIS YEAR. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK.

    TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS IS STEPPING UP ITS COLLECTIVE PRESSURE ON REBELS IN ZAIRE TO ALLOW RELIEF AGENCIES TO REACH UP TO 100-THOUSAND HUTU REFUGEES FROM RWANDA. SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN -- IN HIS STRONGEST STATEMENT TO DATE ON THE CENTRAL AFRICAN CRISIS -- SAID HE IS SHOCKED AND APPALLED BY THE CONDITION OF THE HUTU IN EASTERN ZAIRE. HE CALLED ON REBEL LEADER LAURENT KABILA AND HIS REGIONAL BACKERS TO SHOW RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AND ALLOW HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE:

    //ANNAN ACT//

    I DON'T THINK THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY CAN STAND BY AS THOUSANDS OF MEN AND WOMEN AND CHILDREN ARE STARVED TO DEATH. YOU CAN KILL BY SHOOTING OR STARVATION. KILLING BY STARVATION IS WHAT IS GOING ON. AND IT IS OBVIOUSLY CLEAR IF MR. KABILA IS IN CHARGE OF HIS FORCES, HE HAS TO BRING THEM UNDER CONTROL. IF HE IS NOT, HE SHOULD TAKE MEASURES TO CONTROL THEM.

    //END ACT//

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL BACKED THE SECRETARY-GENERAL'S POSITION. IT ISSUED A FORMAL STATEMENT HARSHLY CRITICIZING MR. KABILA.

    THE REBEL ALLIANCE HAS VOWED TO TOPPLE LONGTIME RULER MOBUTU SESE SEKO. THE UNITED NATIONS IS TRYING TO MEDIATE A PEACEFUL SOLUTION. THE SECRETARY-GENERAL HAS ENCOURAGED THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO ACTIVELY HELP MANAGE ZAIRE'S TRANSITION TO A NEW POLITICAL ORDER.

    -0-

    THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY STEPPED UP PRESSURE ON ISRAEL THIS PAST WEEK AND OVERWHELMINGLY VOTED TO CONDEMN NEW JEWISH HOUSING PLANS IN EAST JERUSALEM. IT ALSO CALLED ON GOVERNMENTS TO STOP ALL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO ISRAEL THAT MIGHT BE USED TO SUPPORT SETTLEMENT ACTIVITY.

    IT WAS THE SECOND ASSEMBLY VOTE IN SIX WEEKS. THIS LATEST TOOK PLACE IN A TWO-DAY EMERGENCY SESSION REQUESTED IN PROTEST AGAINST A DEADLOCK IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL.

    THE UNITED STATES TWICE LAST MONTH VETOED RESOLUTIONS IN THE COUNCIL CRITICAL OF ISRAEL -- EVEN THOUGH IT OPPOSES THE NEW CONSTRUCTION. WASHINGTON BELIEVES U-N DEBATES ON THE SENSITIVE ISSUE OF JERUSALEM WILL COMPLICATE DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS TO RESTART THE PEACE PROCESS. U-S AMBASSADOR BILL RICHARDSON WARNED AN ANTI-ISRAELI VOTE WOULD LEAD TO A HARDENING OF POSITIONS ON BOTH SIDES:

    //RICHARDSON ACT//

    IT WILL ADD TO EXISTING TENSIONS IN THE REGION, COMPLICATE THE EFFORTS OF ALL PARTIES TO GET THE NEGOTIATIONS BACK ON A PRODUCTIVE TRACK, AND DISTRACT ATTENTION FROM THE MAIN OBJECTIVE: MAKING PROGRESS TOWARD A PEACEFUL, PROSPEROUS MIDDLE EAST.

    //END ACT//

    ISRAEL ACCUSED THE PALESTINIAN LEADERSHIP OF INCITING VIOLENCE IN JERUSALEM. THE PALESTINIANS SAID ISRAEL IS PROVOKING UNREST BY INSISTING ON NEW SETTLEMENTS.

    ASSEMBLY RESOLUTIONS ARE NOT BINDING. BUT WITH A VOTE OF 134 TO THREE, MOST DIPLOMATS BELIEVE THE ASSEMBLY'S ACTION THIS PAST WEEK AT LEAST HAS STRONG MORAL FORCE.

    -0-

    CRISES IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICA NOTWITHSTANDING -- U-N OFFICIALS ARE FORCED TO FOCUS SOME OF THEIR ATTENTION ON THE ORGANIZATION'S CHRONIC FINANCIAL STRAITS. THEY ANNOUNCED THIS PAST WEEK THAT PERSISTENT COST-CUTTING AND STREAMLINING HAS GIVEN THE U-N THE POSSIBILITY OF SAVING ABOUT 100-MILLION DOLLARS THIS YEAR.

    SECRETARY-GENERAL ANNAN HAS SET A GOAL OF MAKING MORE MONEY AVAILABLE FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROGRAMS BY CHANGING THE WAY THE ORGANIZATION DOES ROUTINE BUSINESS. FOR EXAMPLE, AN ESTMATED 21-MILLION DOLLARS COULD BE SAVED IN BRINGING U-N PEACEKEEPING TROOPS OUT OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA BY HIRING BOATS FOR SPECIFIED PERIODS OF TIME RATHER THAN PER VOYAGE. THESE ARE AREAS THAT FALL UNDER ADMINSTRATION AND MANAGEMENT. MR. ANNAN HAS PROMISED MORE EFFICIENCY.

    THE U-S CONGRESS IS MAKING PAYMENT OF THE HUGE AMERICAN DEBT TO THE UNITED NATIONS CONTINGENT ON SUCCESSFUL REFORMS. THE SECRETARY-GENERAL HAS ALREADY LAID DOWN A BUDGET FOR THE NEXT TWO YEARS THAT IS SUBSTANTIALLY LOWER THAN THE CURRENT ONE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EJ/RRM
    25-Apr-97 5:29 PM EDT (2129 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] WORLD BANK / WOLFENSOHN (L-ONLY) BY BILL WYATT (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/25/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213414
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: WORLD BANK PRESIDENT JAMES WOLFENSOHN HELD A PRESS BRIEFING FOR REPORTERS TODAY (FRIDAY), AHEAD OF NEXT WEEK'S MEETING OF THE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. ECONOMICS EDITOR BILL WYATT REPORTS MR. WOLFENSOHN ANNOUNCED THE APPROVAL OF A PLAN HE SAYS WILL FUNDAMENTALLY REFORM THE BANK TO MAKE IT MORE EFFECTIVE IN REDUCING WORLD POVERTY.

    TEXT: IT IS CALLED THE STRATEGIC COMPACT: A SERIES OF CHANGES OVER THE NEXT 30 MONTHS TO TRANSFORM THE WAY THE WORLD BANK DOES BUSINESS AND ESTABLISH CRITERIA BY WHICH PROGRESS WILL BE MEASURED. THE PLAN IS EXPECTED TO DEVELOP A NEW RANGE OF FINANCIAL PRODUCTS, REBUILD TECHNICAL EXPERTISE AND STRENGTHEN THE BANK'S INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.

    MR. WOLFENSOHN SAYS THE PLAN WILL INVOLVE A MASSIVE REORIENTATION OF MANAGEMENT AT THE WORLD BANK, CLOSER SCRUTINY OF BANK PROJECTS AND A DECENTRALIZATION OF ACTIVITES. THIS, THE WORLD BANK PRESIDENT SAYS, WILL INVOLVE SHIFTING RESOURCES FROM OVERHEAD AND ADMINISTRATION TO FRONT-LINE OPERATIONS.

    // WOLFENSOHN ACTUALITY #1 //

    LOOK, WE'VE GOT A (HELL OF A) LOT OF PROJECTS OUT THERE. LET'S TAKE A LOOK AT THE PROJECTS AS THEY ARE. AND BEFORE WE START DOING A GREAT DEAL MORE LENDING LET'S WORK WITH THE GOVERNMENTS ON THE AMOUNT OF MONEY THAT WE ALREADY HAVE TO SPEND IN THE NEXT FIVE TO SEVEN YEARS.

    // END WOLFENSOHN ACTUALITY #1 //

    MR. WOLFENSOHN SAID THE BANK HAS ALREADY BEGUN TO STREAMLINE MANY COUNTRY PROJECTS AND CUT OUT WASTE, WHAT HE TERMED "DEAD WOOD".

    // WOLFENSOHN ACTUALITY #2 //

    SO WE'RE ALL STARTING TO FEEL THAT OUR PORTFOLIO NOW IS MUCH MORE UNDER CONTROL; WE'RE NO LONGER PLAYING A NUMBERS GAME, WE'RE PLAYING A GAME OF HOW EFFECTIVE WE'RE GOING TO BE IN THE FIELD. AND I MUST TELL YOU THAT IT'S NOT ONLY GIVING US SOME PLEASURE HERE, BUT IT DOES APPEAR TO BE GIVING A LOT OF PLEASURE TO THE GOVERNMENTS WITH WHOM WE'RE DEALING.

    // END WOLFENSOHN ACTUALITY #2 //

    THE WORLD BANK PRESIDENT SAYS THE STRATEGIC COMPACT IS NOT JUST AN INTERNAL REORGANIZATION BUT A COMPREHENSIVE PLAN ROOTED IN THE BANK'S BUSINESS STRATEGY. HE SAID THE BANK MUST CHANGE IF IT IS TO BE EFFECTIVE IN THE RAPIDLY CHANGING GLOBAL ECONOMY, WHERE PRIVATE CAPITAL FLOWS ARE FIVE TIMES GREATER THAN OFFICIAL ASSISTANCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WW/MMK
    25-Apr-97 11:48 AM EDT (1548 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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