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Voice of America, 97-04-24

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] CHEMICAL WEAPONS VOTE (2ND L-UPDATE) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [02] CHILDREN OF WAR: THE BALKANS (PT.9) BY SUSAN CLARK (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] CHINA, LIBRARIES, CALIFORNIA, RENTALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] CONGRESS / NATO (L-ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [05] EDITORIAL: OPPOSITION WINS IN BULGARIA
  • [06] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [07] GERMANY / HAVEL (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [08] MEDIA CHANGE BY JOE CHAPMAN (NEW YORK)
  • [09] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [10] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [11] TURKEY / KURDS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

  • [01] CHEMICAL WEAPONS VOTE (2ND L-UPDATE) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213378
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S SENATE REPUBLICAN LEADER TRENT LOTT HAS ANNOUNCED HE WILL VOTE TO RATIFY THE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL WEAPONS TREATY -- A MOVE THAT COULD BRING PRESIDENT CLINTON A MAJOR FOREIGN POLICY VICTORY. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS, THE SENATE IS HEADING SLOWLY TOWARD FINAL ACTION ON THE ACCORD.

    TEXT: THE MAJORITY LEADER'S VOTE IS CONSIDERED CRUCIAL, BECAUSE IT COULD GUIDE SEVERAL OTHER REPUBLICANS, WHOSE SUPPORT THE WHITE HOUSE NEEDS TO PUSH THE TREATY THROUGH. AFTER WAITING UNTIL NEAR THE END OF A LONG DEBATE, MR. LOTT DECLARED HIS SUPPORT. WHILE HE STILL HAS DOUBTS ABOUT THE TREATY, MR. LOTT SAYS REJECTION WOULD HURT THE NATION'S CREDIBILITY -- AND RATIFICATION MIGHT HELP THE COUNTRY IN THE FUTURE.

    // LOTT ACT //

    I WILL VOTE FOR THE CONVENTION BECAUSE THE JUDGMENT OF THE MOST SENIOR FORMER AND CURRENT MILITARY COMMANDERS BELIEVE IT WILL MAKE OUR SOLDIERS, SAILORS, AIRMEN AND MARINES MORE SAFE IN POTENTIAL BATTLEFIELDS AND LESS LIKELY TO FACE THE HORRIBLE PROSPECT OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS. I WILL VOTE FOR THE CONVENTION BECAUSE I BELIEVE THE UNITED STATES IS MARGINALLY BETTER OFF WITH IT THAN WITHOUT IT.

    // END ACT //

    THE DECISION FOLLOWS AN INTENSE WHITE HOUSE EFFORT TO WIN THE BACKING OF UNDECIDED REPUBLICANS. IN A LETTER TO SENATOR LOTT, MR. CLINTON SAYS THE UNITED STATES IS PREPARED TO WITHDRAW FROM THE PACT IF IT UNEXPECTEDLY THREATENS NATIONAL SECURITY.

    THIS IS DESIGNED TO EASE CONCERNS THAT THE TREATY COULD FORCE THE UNITED STATES TO GIVE AWAY SENSITIVE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY TO HOSTILE NATIONS LIKE IRAN. HOWEVER, ASSISTANT MAJORITY LEADER DON NICKLES SAYS HE AND SOME COLLEAGUES ARE STILL WORRIED ABOUT THIS PROVISION.

    // NICKLES ACT //

    WE DON'T WANT TO PASS A TREATY THAT'S GOING TO BE ABUSED BY SOME COUNTRIES AS FAR AS EXPORTING CHEMICALS THAT MIGHT ENHANCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CAPABILITY.

    // END ACT //

    ALL 45 SENATE DEMOCRATS SHOULD TO VOTE TO RATIFY. TWENTY-TWO REPUBLICANS MUST JOIN THEM TO PROVIDE THE NEEDED TWO-THIRDS MAJORITY (67 VOTES OF 100 SENATORS).

    SEVENTY-FOUR NATIONS HAVE ALREADY RATIFIED THE TREATY, AND IT TAKES EFFECT NEXT WEEK NO MATTER WHAT THE (U-S) SENATE DOES. THE FINAL VOTE SHOULD COME LATE THURSDAY NIGHT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/TMD/RRM
    24-Apr-97 5:49 PM EDT (2149 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CHILDREN OF WAR: THE BALKANS (PT.9) BY SUSAN CLARK (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/24/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT:
    NUMBER=5-36259
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE COUNTRIES OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA HAVE EXPERIENCED CENTURIES OF CONFLICT. THE WAR THAT ACCOMPANIED THE BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA WAS PARTICULARLY BRUTAL. MORE RECENTLY THERE HAS BEEN CHAOS AND UNREST IN ALBANIA -- AND IN OTHER AREAS TENSIONS FESTER JUST BENEATH THE SURFACE, THREATENING TO ERUPT INTO FULL-FLEDGED CONFLICTS. WHEN TENSIONS LOOM AND VIOLENCE ERUPTS THOSE WHO ARE MOST LIKELY TO BE HARMED ARE OFTEN THE MOST VULNERABLE MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNITY -- THE CHILDREN. V-O-A'S SUSAN CLARK TAKES A CLOSER LOOK AT THE TROUBLE IN THE BALKANS AND ITS EFFECT ON CHILDREN THERE. (OPT. -- IN PART 9 OF OUR ONGOING SERIES, "CHILDREN OF WAR." END OPT.)

    TEXT:

    /// ACT. -- CHILD SCREAMING (ALBANIAN), FADE UNDER ///

    A 13 YEAR OLD BOY SCREAMS IN A HOSPITAL ROOM IN ALBANIA WHERE HE IS BEING TREATED FOR BURNS. ARJAN LOKU ( AHR-YAHN LOW-KOO) WAS INJURED WHEN SOMEONE IGNITED A BAG OF GUNPOWDER. HE IS ONE OF ABOUT 30 CHILDREN BROUGHT TO TIRANA'S MAIN HOSPITAL EACH DAY IN MARCH. SIXTEEN-YEAR-OLD BLERIM NIKA (IR-EEM NEE-KAH) WAS BURNED AT AN UNGUARDED ARMY WEAPONS DEPOT.

    /// ACT. BLERIM (ALBANIAN -- UP AND UNDER) ///

    BLERIM SAYS HE WAS JUST WALKING INTO THE BUILDING WHEN SOMEONE IGNITED THE AMMUNITION AND FLAMES CAME RUSHING OUT. TELEVISION REPORTS OF THE RECENT UNREST IN ALBANIA FEATURED NUMEROUS PICTURES OF YOUNG BOYS SHOOTING RIFLES -- CHILDREN CAUGHT UP IN THE VIOLENCE, JUST AS THEIR PARENTS WERE.

    THE UNREST IN ALBANIA MAY NOT BE CONSIDERED A WAR -- BUT THAT COULD BE SAID OF MANY OF THE 50 OR SO CONFLICTS RAGING AROUND THE WORLD AT ANY ONE TIME. RARELY IS ARMED CONFLICT A MATTER OF A DECLARED WAR BETWEEN TWO SOVEREIGN COUNTRIES -- USUALLY IT IS A CIVIL STRIFE WITHIN ONE COUNTRY. MOST OF THE VICTIMS ARE CIVILIANS, AND ABOUT HALF OF THEM ARE CHILDREN.

    NOT FAR FROM TIRANA, CHILDREN IN AN ORPHANAGE WERE FRIGHTENED BY THE SOUND OF GUNFIRE.

    /// ACT. SFAX: NURSE COMFORTING CHILDREN -- ESTABLISH AND FADE ///

    AT THE ORPHANAGE RUN BY A MISSIONARY ORDER IN ELBASAN, SISTER LASHERISH (LAH-SHAIR-EESH) AND HER COLLEAGUES TRIED TO COAX TRAUMATIZED CHILDREN JUST TO SAY HELLO. SHE SAYS THAT WHILE THE CHILDREN WERE SPARED ANY DIRECT ATTACK, THEY WERE STILL FRIGHTENED.

    /// ACT. LASHERISH (ENGLISH)///

    SURE, WHEN THEY HEAR SO MUCH SHOOTING THEY ARE REALLY FRIGHTENED, ESPECIALLY IN THE NIGHT. THEY ARE FRIGHTENED IN THEIR ROOMS.

    /// END ACT. ///

    THESE CHILDREN WERE NOT MADE ORPHANS BY WAR -- BUT, AS IN ANY CONFLICT, THOSE WHO ARE ALREADY HELPLESS ARE LIKELY TO SUFFER THE MOST. THE CHILDREN, RANGING IN AGE FROM THREE MONTHS TO 10 YEARS, ARE LIKELY TO BE AMONG THE FIRST TO SUFFER WHEN THERE IS NO FOOD.

    ///ACT. LASHERISH (ENGLISH)///

    THERE IS NO FOOD. IT'S VERY DIFFICULT TO BUY, IT'S VERY EXPENSIVE. EVEN YESTERDAY, I WENT TO THE MARKET, AND YOU CAN HARDLY GET FRUIT. AND WHAT IS THERE IS VERY EXPENSIVE.

    /// END ACT. ///

    THE STORY IS REMINISCENT OF ONE THAT TOOK PLACE FIVE YEARS AGO IN SARAJEVO. IN 1992, AT THE HEIGHT OF THE SARAJEVO SIEGE, THIRTY BOSNIAN CHILDREN CAME UNDER SNIPER FIRE AS THEY WERE EVACUATED FROM AN ORPHANAGE. THEY WERE ALREADY ORPHANS -- THE OLDEST WAS FIVE, THE YOUNGEST WERE BABIES -- AND AS THEY WERE BEING TAKEN FROM SARAJEVO THEY WERE SHOT AT AND HARASSED BY MILITIAS -- SOME WERE EVEN TAKEN OFF THE BUS. FINALLY THEY MADE IT SAFELY TO GERMANY, WHERE THEY HAVE LIVED FOR NEARLY FIVE YEARS. BUT NOW THE CHILDREN HAVE BEEN SENT BACK TO BOSNIA EVEN THOUGH THEY HAVE NO FAMILY THERE TO TAKE CARE OF THE THEM AND EVEN THOUGH MOST OF THEM SPEAK ONLY GERMAN. THEY HAVE BEEN SENT BACK TO SARAJEVO BECAUSE THE WAR IS OVER.

    A VERY FRAGILE PEACE HAS BEEN SETTLING IN FOR MORE THAN A YEAR IN BOSNIA -- BUT ANGER STILL ERUPTS IN MANY PLACES AND HOMES NEED TO BE FOUND FOR MORE THAN TWO MILLION PEOPLE DISPLACED BY THE WAR. MIRHUMISA KOMARICA (MEER-HOO-MEE-SAH KOH-MAHR-EETS-AH) AND HER TWO CHILDREN WERE AMONG THOSE TWO MILLION -- SHE NOW HEADS A PRIVATE ASSOCIATION OF REFUGEES AND DISPLACED PEOPLE. SHE SAYS SHE IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE FUTURE:

    /// ACT. KOMARICA (BOSNIAN -- UP AND UNDER) ///

    SHE SAYS EVEN THOUGH THEY LOST EVERYTHING, SHE'S HAPPY BECAUSE HER CHILDREN ARE HEALTHY AND NORMAL. LIKE SO MANY CHILDREN OF BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA, THEY ENDURED.

    AMONG THE THINGS THE CHILDREN OF BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA ENDURED WERE THE DESTRUCTION OF ENTIRE VILLAGES, SYSTEMATIC RAPE AND SEEMINGLY ENDLESS SHELLING. CHILDREN WERE DELIBERATELY TARGETED BY SNIPERS; THEY SAW THEIR PLAYMATES AND THEIR FAMILIES DIE; MANY LIVED IN CONSTANT TERROR. THEY WENT FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME WITH LITTLE FOOD, NO MEDICAL CARE, LITTLE CHANCE FOR AN EDUCATION. EVEN FOR THOSE WHO SURVIVED, THERE IS NO SECOND CHANCE AT CHILDHOOD.

    // BEGIN OPT //

    FOR IGOR STOJANOVIC (STOY-AHN-O-VEECH) THERE IS NO SECOND CHANCE AT ADOLESCENCE. HE'S NOW IN HIS EARLY 20'S -- SO THE TIME HE WOULD HAVE SPENT FINISHING HIS EDUCATION AND STARTING WORK HE SPENT TRYING TO SURVIVE A WAR. BUT HE IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE FUTURE, ALTHOUGH THE REBUILDING IS SLOW.

    /// ACT. STAJANOVIC (ENGLISH) ///

    IT'S GONNA BE BETTER FOR SURE. BUT YOU KNOW, FOR YOUNG PEOPLE A BETTER FUTURE IS COMING VERY SLOWLY. I ALREADY LOST FOUR YEARS IN THE WAR, AND NOW I HAVE TO LOSE A COUPLE MORE WAITING FOR A BETTER FUTURE.

    ///END ACT. -- END OPT. ///

    DESPITE IGOR'S OPTIMISM, THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE HAS BY NO MEANS BEEN ENDED IN THE BALKANS. TENSIONS REMAIN -- IN BANJA LUKA, THE BRCKO CORRIDOR, KOSOVO, ALBANIA, EVEN BULGARIA. SHOULD CIVIL STRIFE OR FULL-FLEDGED WAR BREAK OUT AGAIN -- IT WILL BE THE SAME TRAGIC STORY REPEATED -- MORE LIVES LOST -- MORE CHILDHOODS DESTROYED. // REST OPT// WE WILL LOOK AT WAYS TO END SUCH CYCLES OF DESTRUCTION ON AN UPCOMING INSTALLMENT OF "CHILDREN OF WAR. " (SIGNED)
    NEB/SC/SP
    24-Apr-97 5:16 PM EDT (2116 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] CHINA, LIBRARIES, CALIFORNIA, RENTALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/24/97
    TYPE=COMPUTER DIGEST
    NUMBER=3-27184
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: ON THIS EDITION OF COMPUTER DIGEST:

    A HIGH-TECH AGREEMENT WITH CHINA,

    PUBLIC LIBRARIES ARE PROVIDING INTERNET ACCESS,

    USING COMPUTERS AS PART OF ELECTION REFORM,

    AND, CYBERSPACE RENTALS. *****

    CHINA

    TEXT: ON WEDNESDAY (FYI - APRIL 23), THE THREE LEADING AMERICAN SOFTWARE TRADE ASSOCIATIONS -- THE BUSINESS SOFTWARE ALLIANCE, THE INTERACTIVE DIGITAL SOFTWARE ASSOCIATION, AND THE SOFTWARE PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATION -- ANNOUNCED THAT A CONTRACT WAS FINALIZED WITH THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OFFICE. THE GOVERNMENT AGENCY WILL PERFORM TITLE VERIFICATION SERVICES ON BEHALF OF THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY WITH THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA. AS A RESULT OF THE AGREEMENT, "U.S. SOFTWARE COMPANIES WILL HAVE A GREATER ABILITY TO MONITOR THE MANUFACTURING OF THEIR PRODUCTS TO HELP PREVENT THE PRODUCTION OF COUNTERFEIT SOFTWARE GOODS." *****

    LIBRARIES

    TEXT: NEARLY 30-PERCENT OF ALL AMERICAN PUBLIC LIBRARIES NOW OFFER USERS THE OPPORTUNITY TO LOG ON TO THE INTERNET. THE NUMBERS ARE EXPECTED TO INCREASE. THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER REPORTS THAT "TO LIBRARIANS, THE INTERNET MEANS A RETURN TO RELEVANCE, A CHANCE TO BRING ON-LINE RESOURCES TO THOSE WHO MIGHT NOT OTHERWISE HAVE ACCESS." BUT, SAYS USA TODAY, SOME INDIVIDUAL LIBRARIES ARE STRUGGLING WITH HOW TO HANDLE THE PRACTICAL DAILY CONSIDERATIONS OF USING COMPUTER NETWORKS. SOME FACILITIES "HAVE EVEN RESORTED TO SOFTWARE THAT FILTERS VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF OBJECTIONABLE MATERIAL TO PREVENT PUBLIC ACCESS." LUELLA KINNISON OF THE WELD LIBRARY DISTRICT IN GREELEY, COLORADO, NOTES THAT "IT'S A DILEMMA FOR ALL OF US. SOFTWARE," SHE ADDS, "CAN BLOCK OUT SOME VALUABLE INFORMATION, AND WHAT MIGHT BE JUDGED INAPPROPRIATE BY ONE PERSON MIGHT NOT BE BY ANOTHER." *****

    CALIFORNIA

    TEXT: THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR REPORTS THAT CALIFORNIA'S STATE LEGISLATURE "IS RAPIDLY MOVING ALONG A BILL THAT WILL REQUIRE ALL CANDIDATES TO ELECTRONICALLY FILE ALL THEIR CAMPAIGN-FINANCE INFORMATION, AND WOULD IMMEDIATELY POST IT ON THE INTERNET." KENTUCKY, HAWAII, AND MARYLAND ALREADY HAVE PASSED SIMILAR LEGISLATION. KIM ALEXANDER, HEAD OF THE CALIFORNIA VOTER FOUNDATION, SAYS THAT "OUR ENTRY INTO THIS WORLD OF DIGITAL DISCLOSURE IS GOING TO HAVE A BIG IMPACT ON MOVING THIS ISSUE FORWARD FOR ALL JURISDICTIONS." *****

    RENTALS

    TEXT: STORAGE TEK, A LOUISVILLE, COLORADO, COMPANY, PLANS TO RENT HIGH-TECH STORAGE SPACE TO USERS OF THE INTERNET. ACCORDING TO PC MAGAZINE, SUBSCRIBERS WOULD PAY $20 TO $50 A MONTH TO RENT SPACE IN 50 TO 100 MEGABYTE INCREMENTS. THE MAGAZINE SAYS THAT "SUCH MASSIVE STORAGE HAS BEEN THE DOMAIN PRIMARILY OF MAINFRAMES FOR MEDICAL IMAGING OR FOR CERTAIN BIG BUSINESSES, SUCH AS BANKS THAT DIGITIZE AND STORE IMAGES OF MILLIONS OF CHECKS. DAVID WEISS, STORAGE TEK'S CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER, SAYS THAT RENTERS COULD, FOR EXAMPLE, STORE DIGITIZED HOME VIDEO THAT WOULD OTHERWISE BE IMPOSSIBLE TO KEEP ON HARD DRIVES FOUND IN HOME PERSONAL COMPUTERS. *****
    24-Apr-97 3:32 PM EDT (1932 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] CONGRESS / NATO (L-ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213365
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S CONGRESS PLANS TO WEIGH IN WITH ITS OWN SET OF GUIDELINES FOR NATO EXPANSION. LEGISLATION IS BEING PREPARED FOR CONSIDERATION BY THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. AND AS V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS, SUPPORTERS HOPE THE MEASURE WILL BECOME LAW BEFORE THE JULY NATO MEETING IN MADRID.

    TEXT: A POWERFUL GROUP OF HOUSE MEMBERS IS SPONSORING THE BILL, INCLUDING THE CHAIRMEN OF THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEES. THEY ARE JOINED BY HOUSE REPUBLICAN LEADER DICK ARMEY.

    ////ARMEY ACT////

    I WANT TO MAKE IT VERY CLEAR. THIS CONGRESS SUPPORTS NATO ENLARGEMENT. WE EXPECT NATO ENLARGEMENT TO PROCEED. WE BELIEVE THAT NATO ENLARGEMENT WILL BRING CONTINUED PEACE TO EUROPE FOR GENERATIONS TO COME.

    ////END ACT////

    SUPPORTERS OF THE BILL SAY THE GOAL IS MAKE SURE ALL THE EMERGING DEMOCRACIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KNOW THEY WILL BE WELCOME IN NATO. HOUSE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN BENJAMIN GILMAN (A NEW YORK REPUBLICAN) NOTES ONLY THREE ARE LIKELY TO BE INVITED IN JULY. HE SAYS THE BILL INSTRUCTS THE PRESIDENT TO PREPARE A SECOND LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED FOR MEMBERSHIP AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.

    ////GILMAN ACT////

    THE FIRST-ROUND GROUP IS HUNGARY, POLAND AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC. WE ARE TALKING ABOUT OTHER NATIONS THAT ARE ALMOST THERE, BUT NEED A LITTLE MORE ATTENTION TO BE ABLE TO MEET THE CRITERIA.

    ////END ACT////

    THE BILL MENTIONS ROMANIA, ESTONIA, LATVIA AND LITHUANIA AS CANDIDATES FOR THE SECOND ROUND. HOUSE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN PORTER GOSS (A REPUBLICAN FROM FLORIDA) VISITED THE REGION RECENTLY AND SAYS THE REASSURANCE WILL BE WELCOME.

    ////GOSS ACT///

    ANY OR ALL OF THE BALTICS ARE ABOUT READY, IN MY VIEW, TO COME INTO THE NATO AREA. ANY OR ALL OF THE COUNTRIES THAT ARE OUT THERE AND ASKING TO COME IN ARE GOING THROUGH EXTREME EFFORTS IN TERMS OF THEIR NATIONAL DEFENSE, THEIR NATIONAL BUDGET, THEIR COMMITMENT TO THE WEST, DE-SOVIETIZATION OF THE MILITARY -- ALL OF THOSE REQUIREMENTS ARE BEING MET.

    ////END ACT////

    THE DRAFT LEGISLATION ALSO SAYS THAT RUSSIA'S CONCERNS SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT. IT SAYS NATO ENLARGEMENT SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT IN A WAY THAT ENHANCES THE SECURITY OF ALL THE COUNTRIES IN EUROPE, INCLUDING RUSSIA. AND IT CALLS FOR GREATER COOPERATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS.

    THERE IS SOME LANGUAGE IN THE BILL THAT MIGHT CREATE PROBLEMS FOR THE WHITE HOUSE -- MOST NOTABLY, A PROVISION THAT CALLS INTO QUESTION THE FATE OF THE ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE (A-B-M) TREATY. IT SAYS THIS IS A BILATERAL TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA, AND THERE IS NO NEED TO BRING IN OTHER FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS. SUPPORTERS OF THE BILL SEEM TO HAVE RECOGNIZED THE POTENTIAL FOR WHITE HOUSE OBJECTIONS. WHILE THE REST OF THE BILL WOULD BE BINDING ON THE PRESIDENT, THIS SECTION WOULD NOT. IT MERELY EXPRESSES THE POSITION OF THE LEGISLATURE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/RRM
    24-Apr-97 1:27 PM EDT (1727 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EDITORIAL: OPPOSITION WINS IN BULGARIA

    DATE= APRIL 25 , 1997
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07247
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE FIRST OF TWO EDITORIALS BEING RELEASED FOR
    BROADCAST APRIL 25, 1997.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    THE PRO-WESTERN UNION OF DEMOCRATIC FORCES DOMINATED BY THE UNITED DEMOCRATIC FORCE, OR U-D-F, WON AN OVERWHELMING VICTORY OVER THE DISCREDITED SOCIALISTS IN BULGARIA. IN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS HELD LAST WEEK, THE U-D-F AND ITS COALITION PARTNERS RECEIVED FIFTY-TWO PERCENT OF THE VOTE AND AN ABSOLUTE MAJORITY OF SEATS IN THE LEGISLATURE. THE SOCIALISTS WON ONLY TWENTY-TWO PERCENT OF THE VOTE. SMALLER PARTIES, WHICH GENERALLY FAVOR REFORM, POLLED NEARLY TWENTY PERCENT OF THE VOTE. THIS ELECTION CONSOLIDATES THE U-D-F'S POSITION FOLLOWING THE VICTORY OF U-D-F CANDIDATE, PETAR STOYANOV, IN THE PRESIDENTIAL CONTEST LAST NOVEMBER.

    THE OUTCOME OF THE BULGARIAN ELECTIONS IS NOT A SURPRISE. DISSATISFACTION WITH THE SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT INTENSIFIED IN DECEMBER AS THE ECONOMIC SITUATION IN BULGARIA CONTINUED TO DETERIORATE. CITIZENS IN SOFIA, THE CAPITAL, AND THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY HELD DAILY DEMONSTRATIONS, CALLING ON THE GOVERNMENT TO RESIGN. IN FEBRUARY, THE SOCIALISTS UNDER PRESSURE AGREED TO HOLD NEW ELECTIONS. IN THE INTERIM, THE PRESIDENT APPOINTED A TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT, WHICH BEGAN THE DIFFICULT PROCESS OF ECONOMIC REFORM.

    U-D-F CHAIRMAN IVAN KOSTOV, A FORTY-SEVEN-YEAR-OLD ECONOMIST, IS CREDITED WITH UNIFYING AND STRENGTHENING THE U-D-F DURING THE PAST YEAR. HE IS WIDELY TOUTED AS THE NEXT PRIME MINISTER. MR. KOSTOV HAS LISTED HIS FOUR PRIORITIES AS: CARRYING OUT ECONOMIC REFORMS AGREED ON WITH THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND; FIGHTING ORGANIZED CRIME AND CORRUPTION; OPENING SECRET POLICE FILES ON PUBLIC FIGURES; AND GAINING ADMISSION FOR BULGARIA INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION AND NATO.

    ELECTION OBSERVERS FROM WESTERN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES CALLED THE ELECTIONS WELL ORGANIZED AND FAIR. THE U.S. CONGRATULATES BULGARIA ON STRENGTHENING ITS DEMOCRATIC TRADITION BY HOLDING ANOTHER ROUND OF SUCCESSFUL ELECTIONS. THE U.S. ENCOURAGES THE NEW GOVERNMENT TO PRESS AHEAD WITH MUCH NEEDED ECONOMIC REFORMS. THAT IS THE WAY TO PROSPERITY FOR THE BULGARIAN PEOPLE WHO HAVE SUFFERED UNNECESSARILY DUE TO PAST ECONOMIC MISMANAGEMENT.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    24-Apr-97 4:15 PM EDT (2015 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=4/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213366
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES ROSE IN TRADING THURSDAY IN MAJOR EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA REPORTS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: PRICES WERE UP AGAIN IN ALL THREE MAJOR EUROPEAN MARKETS LONDON, PARIS, AND FRANKFURT -- BUT ONLY BY SLIM MARGINS..

    THE BIGGEST GAIN WAS IN PARIS. THE CAC-40 INDEX ROSE -- BUT ONLY BY A MERE SIX POINTS -- ABOUT TWO TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT.

    THE FRANKFURT MARKET ALSO WAS UP -- BUT ONLY A LITTLE. THE DAX-30 INDEX CLOSED WITH AN INCREASE OF ONLY ONE-AND-ONE-HALF POINTS IN LONDON, PRICES ROSE FOR AN EIGHTH DAY, BUT ONLY MARGINALLY. THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX CLOSED UP BY LESS THAN ONE POINT.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR GAINED IN VALUE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK. BUT IT LOST VALUE AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN AND THE BRITISH POUND.
    NEB/JWH/KL
    24-Apr-97 1:57 PM EDT (1757 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] GERMANY / HAVEL (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=4/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213364
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // NO ACTS AVAILABLE //

    INTRO: CZECH PRESIDENT VACLAV HAVEL HAS URGED GERMANS AND CZECHS TO USE WHAT HE CALLED A HISTORIC CHANCE TO OVERCOME THE BITTER LEGACY OF WORLD WAR TWO. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT KYLE KING IN BONN REPORTS THE CZECH PRESIDENT MADE THE APPEAL IN A SPEECH TO THE GERMAN PARLIAMENT.

    TEXT: IN HIS SPEECH TO GERMAN LAWMAKERS, PRESIDENT HAVEL SAID DEMOCRATIC LEADERS OF BOTH COUNTRIES HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY TO TRY TO OVERCOME MISTRUST AND TO WORK FOR EUROPEAN INTEGRATION.

    MR. HAVEL WAS GREETED WITH A STANDING OVATION AS HE ENTERED THE GERMAN PARLIAMENT. HE SAID HE HOPED THE TWO COUNTRIES WOULD NOT SQUANDER WHAT HE CALLED A HISTORIC CHANCE TO WORK TOGETHER.

    THE PRESIDENT'S VISIT TO GERMANY FOLLOWS THE SIGNING OF A JOINT DECLARATION OF RECONCILIATION BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES IN JANUARY.

    IN THE DECLARATION, GERMANY EXPRESSED ITS REGRET FOR THE NAZI OCCUPATION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN THE 1930'S. THE CZECH GOVERNMENT IN TURN EXPRESSED ITS REGRET FOR THE EXPULSION OF MORE THAN TWO-MILLION ETHNIC GERMANS AT THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO.

    /// OPT ///

    MR. HAVEL SAID NO ONE WAS SO NAIVE TO THINK THE DECLARATION WOULD, LIKE A MAGIC WAND, WIPE AWAY THE BITTER EXPERIENCES OF THE PAST.

    /// OPT ///

    SOME GERMANS EXPELLED FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA HAVE EXPRESSED REGRET THAT THE DOCUMENT FAILED TO ADDRESS THEIR CLAIMS TO PROPERTY THEY WERE FORCED TO LEAVE. /// END OPT ///

    MR. HAVEL SAID THE CZECH REPUBLIC COULD NOT GIVE BACK THE HOMES OF ETHNIC GERMANS WHO WERE EXPELLED AND HE SAID GERMANY COULD NOT BRING TO LIFE THE TENS OF THOUSANDS OF VICTIMS OF THE NAZIS.

    BUT HE SAID THE DECLARATION SHOWS THAT THE TWO COUNTRIES ARE DETERMINED TO PUT ASIDE THEIR DIFFICULT HISTORY AND WORK TOGETHER LIKE NEIGHBORS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/MMK
    24-Apr-97 1:09 PM EDT (1709 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] MEDIA CHANGE BY JOE CHAPMAN (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/24/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36266
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE ELECTRONIC INFORMATION AGE AND THE COMPUTER INTERNET ARE BLURRING SOME TRADITIONAL DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN NEWSPAPER AND BROADCAST JOURNALISTS. AS A RESULT, SOME VERY UN-TRADITIONAL NEWSPAPERS COULD COMPETE FOR THE PRESTIGIOUS PULITZER PRIZES IN JOURNALISM AS EARLY AS NEXT YEAR. V-O-A'S JOE CHAPMAN REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE QUESTION AT FIRST SEEMS RIDICULOUS, BUT EXACTLY WHAT IS A NEWSPAPER? FOR THE BOARD THAT GOVERNS THE PRESTIGIOUS PULITZER PRIZES, THE ISSUE IS SERIOUS -- AND A PANEL OF PROMINENT AMERICAN JOURNALISTS IS CONSIDERING TECHNOLOGY'S IMPACT ON HOW A NEWSPAPER IS DEFINED.

    MANY CONVENTIONAL NEWSPAPERS NOW HAVE ELECTRONIC EDITIONS ON THE INTERNET COMPUTER NETWORK. THE CONTENT SOMETIMES REFLECTS THE PRINTED EDITIONS. OTHER NEWSPAPERS PRODUCE STORIES OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THEIR INTERNET SUBSCRIBERS. THE NEW YORK TIMES, FOR EXAMPLE, IN ITS ELECTRONIC EDITION -- KNOWN AS THE "CYBERTIMES" PROVIDES EXTENSIVE COVERAGE OF TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS.

    BROADCASTERS, MAGAZINES AND CABLE T-V OPERATIONS ALSO HAVE NEWS-ORIENTED INTERNET SITES, AND MOST DEVELOP MATERIAL JUST FOR THE INTERNET. A FEW INTERNET NEWS SITES ARE GRAPHIC IMITATIONS OF NEWSPAPERS -- BUT HAVE NO CONNECTION TO ANY NEWSPAPER. SOME ELECTRONIC JOURNALISTS BELIEVE THEY ARE CREATING AN ENTIRELY NEW FORM OF JOURNALISM.

    MARTIN NISENHOLTZ, WHO DIRECTS THE ELECTRONIC EFFORTS OF THE NEW YORK TIMES, VIEWS THE ELECTRONIC "TIMES" EDITION AS A NEWSPAPER EXTENSION, WITH THE POTENTIAL OF EXPLOITING SOME SPECIAL OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH TECHNOLOGY. EVENTS IN BOSNIA LAST YEAR, MR. NISENHOLTZ SAYS, PROVIDED ONE SUCH OPPORTUNITY, A SPECIAL EDITION OF CYBERTIMES.

    //NISENHOLTZ ACT///

    MY PUBLISHER, ARTHUR SULZBERGER JUNIOR, FELT THAT THE QUALITY OF THIS PIECE WAS SUCH THAT WE DECIDED TO ENTER IT FOR A PULITZER PRIZE IN 1996. IN PART, THIS HAS PROMPTED THE PULITZER COMMITTEE TO FORM A TASK FORCE TO STUDY WHETHER AND HOW ELECTRONIC JOURNALISM MIGHT FIT INTO THIS MOST PRESTIGIOUS OF INSTITUTIONS.

    ///END ACT///

    WHAT MR. NISENHOLTZ TERMS A "PIECE" INCLUDES AS A CENTRAL ELEMENT 150 PHOTOGRAPHS OF BOSNIA BY ONE PHOTOGRAPHER. THE PHOTOGRAPHS AND THE REPORTING BY NEW YORK TIMES PRINT AND ELECTRONIC CORRESPONDENTS WERE THE FOCUS OF A "CYBERTIMES" ELECTRONIC FORUM.

    COMPUTER TERMINALS WERE INSTALLED AT THE UNITED NATIONS, AT THE HAGUE AND OTHER PLACES TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE "CYBERTIMES" MATERIAL AND ALLOW THESE "FORUM" PARTICIPANTS TO OFFER THEIR VIEWS ON BOSNIA AND THE "CYBERTIMES" CONTENT.

    WITHOUT THE PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS OF DISTANCE OR BUILDINGS OR THE LIMITED SPACE OF A DAILY NEWSPAPER, THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE USED THE INTERNET FORUM TO EXCHANGE VIEWS, SOMETIMES THOUGHTFUL, AT OTHER TIMES VITROLIC, AND, ALWAYS, UNFILTERED.

    JOURNALISTIC CRITICS SAY THE FORUM HELPED OPEN A CONSTRUCTIVE DIALOGUE IN BOSNIA. BUT THE THE NEW YORK TIMES ELECTRONIC EDITION WAS NEVER CONSIDERED FOR A PULITZER PRIZE FOR PUBLIC SERVICE. SEYMORE TOPPING, THE PULITZER AWARDS ADMINISTRATOR, DISQUALIFIED IT AND ANOTHER ELECTRONIC ENTRY. NORMALLY, PULITZER OFFICIALS DO NOT DISCUSS LOSING OR DISQUALIFIED ENTRIES. BUT MR. TOPPING TOLD REPORTERS THE 1997 RULES LIMITED ENTRIES TO CONVENTIONAL PRINTED NEWSPAPERS. MR. TOPPING SAID THE QUALITY OF THE ENTRIES REQUIRED A RE-EXAMINATION OF THOSE RULES.

    MARTIN NISENHOLTZ SAYS HE UNDERSTANDS THE DECISION -- AND DOES NOT BELIEVE JEALOUSY OR FEARS OF TECHNOLOGY WERE A FACTOR.

    ///NISENHOLTZ ACT ///

    THEY LOOK AT THE P-C (COMPUTER) AND THEY LOOK AT OUR WEBSITE AND SAY, "WELL GEE, YOU DO ALL THESE EXTRA THINGS, BUT FOR THE MOST PART, IT'S A LOT EASIER TO READ A NEWSPAPER. IT'S A LOT EASIER TO CARRY AROUND. AND IF YOU'RE TRYING TO CONVEY INFORMATION, PRINT IS STILL PRETTY GOOD.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. NISENHOLST IS PLEASED THAT THE PULITZER BOARD MOVED SO QUICKLY TO CONSIDER INCLUDING ELECTRONIC NEWSPAPER JOURNALISM.

    ///NISENHOLST ACT///BEGIN OPT//

    I THINK IT'S TERRIFIC NEWS THAT THEY'RE GOING TO BE JUDGING, OR AT LEAST FORMING A TASK FORCE TO POTENTIALLY JUDGE THEM IN THE FUTURE, IF THAT'S WHAT THEY DECIDE TO DO.

    ///END ACT///

    ///BEGIN OPT//

    MR. NISENHOLST BELIEVES THE PULITZER BOARD WILL GIVE ELECTRONIC NEWSPAPERS A FAIR HEARING.

    ///OPT//NISENHOLST ACT///

    I THINK WE'LL BE ABLE TO MAKE A PERSUASIVE CASE THAT WE'RE JOURNALISTS AND THAT WE'RE IN THIS BUSINESS TO CONVEY INFORMATION. BUT THAT SAID, THAT MAY NOT TRACK EXACTLY WITH WHAT THEY CONSIDER THEIR MISSION TO BE, AND I RESPECT THAT AND UNDERSTAND IT.

    ///END ACT///END OPT//

    THE PULITZER BOARD HAS PREVIOUSLY ADJUSTED THE RULES AND CATEGORIES TO RECOGNIZE DIFFERENT FORMS OF JOURNALISM, LITERATURE AND MUSIC. JAZZ MUSICIAN WINTON MARSALIS WON THE MUSIC AWARD THIS YEAR FOR HIS EPIC "BLOOD ON THE FIELDS." THE COMPOSITION WOULD HAVE BEEN DISQUALIFIED IN EARLIER YEARS BECAUSE IT INCLUDES IMPROVISED, UNSCORED ELEMENTS.

    BROADCAST JOURNALISTS, WHO ARE NOT ELIGIBLE FOR PULITZERS, ESTABLISHED THEIR OWN AWARDS PROGRAMS. IF THE PULITZER BOARD DOES NOT RECOGNIZE ELECTRONIC NEWSPAPERS, MEDIA EXPERTS SAY A NEW AWARDS COMPETITION MIGHT BE ESTABLISHED TO RECOGNIZE SUPERIOR ACHIEVEMENTS BY THE JOURNALISTS OF THE INTERNET. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/JMC/LSF/RRM
    24-Apr-97 5:28 PM EDT (2128 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213373
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (THURSDAY) IN A VOLATILE SESSION. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 67-HUNDRED-92, DOWN 20 POINTS. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 771, DOWN TWO AND ONE-HALF POINTS.

    STOCK PRICES EXPLODED EARLY IN THE SESSION, WITH THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINING ALMOST 80 POINTS. BUT ENTHUSIASM WORE OFF LATER IN THE DAY AS PROFIT-TAKING CAME INTO THE MARKET. BUT THE STOCK OF THE I-B-M COMPUTER WAS UP ABOUT SEVEN PERCENT IN REACTION TO ITS SURPRISINGLY STRONG EARNINGS REPORT, WHICH WAS RELEASED AFTER THE MARKET CLOSED ON WEDNESDAY.

    THE HEAD OF THE LARGEST U-S TOBACCO COMPANY HAS DECLINED TO COMMENT ON NEGOTIATIONS TO PAY BILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN COMPENSATION FOR SMOKING-RELATED ILLNESSES IN EXCHANGE FOR IMMUNITY FROM LAWSUITS. HOWEVER, GEOFFREY BIBLE, CHAIRMAN OF THE PHILIP MORRIS COMPANY, SAYS HE IS OPEN TO WHAT HE CALLS "REASONABLE MEASURES" TO RESOLVE THE LAWSUITS. MEANWHILE, A COALITION OF ANTI-SMOKING GROUPS HAS REGISTERED ITS STRONG OPPOSITION TO ANY GRANT OF IMMUNITY TO THE TOBACCO COMPANIES.

    THE PROCTER AND GAMBLE CONSUMER PRODUCTS COMPANY REPORTED A 16 PERCENT INCREASE IN QUARTERLY EARNINGS. NETSCAPE, THE INTERNET SOFTWARE COMPANY, REPORTED A SPECTACULAR 119 PERCENT RISE IN ITS PROFITS.

    ///REST OPT///

    BUT TWO FIRMS -- THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY AND THE MATTEL TOY CORPORATION -- SAID THE STRONG U-S DOLLAR RESULTED IN LOWER PROFITS FOR THE FIRST QUARTER. THE STRONG DOLLAR MAKES AMERICAN PRODUCTS MORE EXPENSIVE IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS.

    THE U-S JUSTICE DEPARTMENT HAS APPROVED THE 23 BILLION DOLLAR MERGER OF BELL ATLANTIC AND NYNEX, TWO REGIONAL TELEPHONE COMPANIES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. THE COMBINED COMPANY WILL BE THE SECOND-LARGEST TELECOMMUNICATIONS CORPORATION IN THE COUNTRY, BEHIND A-T AND T.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/RRM
    24-Apr-97 5:03 PM EDT (2103 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/24/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10129
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL. WATCH FOR UPDATES ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS TREATY VOTE //

    INTRO: COMMENTS ON THE DRAMATIC RESCUE OF THE HOSTAGES AT THE JAPANESE AMBASSADOR'S RESIDENCE IN PERU DOMINATE THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF MANY U-S NEWSPAPERS THIS THURSDAY.

    IN ADDITION, THE DAILIES ARE COMMENTING ON THE EXTRAORDINARY FLOODING OF THE RED RIVER OF THE NORTH, THE NEW SANCTIONS ON BURMA, THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS TREATY WHICH IS UP FOR A VOTE TODAY [4/24, APP. 1:00 PM EDT] IN THE U.S. SENATE, THE OKLAHOMA BOMBING TRIAL AND THE WHITEWATER INVESTIGATION OF PRESIDENT AND MRS. CLINTON.

    NOW, HERE IS _________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND A QUOTE OR TWO IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: LIKE MANY OTHER PAPERS, ALL FOUR NEW YORK DAILY NEWSPAPERS ARE LEADING THEIR EDITORIAL COLUMNS WITH REACTIONS TO THE PERUVIAN HOSTAGE RESCUE. PERHAPS THE MOST COMPLIMENTARY HEADLINE LEADS THE MIAMI HERALD'S TOP EDITORIAL: "PERU EMULATES ENTEBBE," ADDING:

    VOICE: "NOT SINCE ISRAELI COMMANDOS RESCUED 103 HOSTAGES IN A DARING MIDNIGHT RAID ON ENTEBBE AIRPORT IN UGANDA ON JULY 3-4, 1976, SUFFERING ONLY ONE DEAD RESCUER THEMSELVES, HAS THE WORLD SEEN EVEN ITS NEAR EQUAL. BUT YESTERDAY AFTERNOON, 140 PERUVIAN TROOPS PULLED OFF ENTEBBE REDUX. ..... PERU'S PRESIDENT - - LIKE ISRAEL IN 1976 - - SHOWS THE WORLD HOW TO DEAL WITH THOSE HOLDING HOSTAGES." .... HIS REFUSAL TO RELEASE THE GUERRILLAS' IMPRISONED COMRADES WAS ABSOLUTELY RIGHT."

    TEXT: IN BOSTON, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR SEES THE RAID AND ITS AFTERMATH AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PERU TO CHANGE.

    VOICE: "THIS DECADE'S SPREAD OF FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY IN SOUTH AMERICA HAS BEEN REMARKABLE. PERU'S PRESIDENT ALBERTO FUJIMORI INVOKED THE 'PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY' AS HE HAILED THE VICTORS AND MOURNED THE DEAD IN HIS MILITARY SOLUTION TO THE LIMA HOSTAGE CRISIS. NOW HE HAS THE OPPORTUNITY TO REVITALIZE DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES IN HIS OWN COUNTRY, GIVING THE LIE TO THOSE WHO PREDICT INCREASING SWAY BY THE MILITARY IN THE AFTERMATH OF TUESDAY'S RAID."

    TEXT: AND SPEAKING OF THAT RAID ITSELF, THE NEW YORK TIMES CALLS IT "A JUSTIFIABLE RESCUE" AND "AN ASTONISHING FEAT," WHILE THE WASHINGTON POST CALLS IT AN "AMAZING FEAT" IN ITS EDITORIAL HEADLINE. IN GEORGIA, THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION PICKS UP BOTH THE MIAMI HERALD'S COMPARISON, AND THE MONITOR'S THEME, NOTING THE "RESCUE OFFERS [A] TURNING POINT IN PERU."

    VOICE: "IN THE ANNALS OF DARING HOSTAGE RESCUES, PERU'S LIGHTNING LIBERATION OF THE JAPANESE .... [AMBASSADOR'S RESIDENCE] HAS TO RANK WITH ISRAEL'S FABLED ... RAID ON ENTEBBE AIRPORT ..... WHEN NEGOTIATIONS SEEMED AT AN IMPASSE AND THE OPPORTUNITY ROSE TO CATCH THE TERRORISTS OFF GUARD, [PRESIDENT] FUJIMORI STRUCK WITH A SWIFTNESS THAT SURPRISED EVERYONE. [OPT] THAT GOES ESPECIALLY FOR THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT AND PEOPLE, ACCUSTOMED AS THEY HAVE BECOME TO THE PRACTICE OF BUYING OFF TERRORISTS. A SON OF PERU HAS GIVEN THE LAND OF HIS ANCESTORS SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT. [END OPT] .... [HOWEVER] THE TERRORISTS DID HAVE ONE LEGITIMATE COMPLAINT: CONDITIONS IN PERU'S JAILS .... IT IS TIME FOR [MR.] FUJIMORI TO BE MAGNANIMOUS AND LEAD A CAMPAIGN TO RAISE PRISON STANDARDS IN PERU TO THE LEVEL OF DECENCY."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: USA TODAY SAYS SEVERAL LESSONS CAN BE LEARNED FROM HOW PRESIDENT FUJIMORI DEALT WITH THE SITUATION.

    VOICE: "IN LIMA, LESSON NUMBER ONE WAS PATIENCE. .... RATHER THAN RUSHING INTO A TEMPTING BUT PROBABLY DISASTROUS IMMEDIATE ATTACK, [MR.] FUJIMORI OPTED TO WAIT. ..... ULTIMATELY, THAT DISCIPLINE PAID OFF. .... LIMA LESSON NUMBER TWO: COMBINE PATIENCE WITH UNWAVERING BACKBONE [COURAGE]. [MR.] FUJIMORI STEADFASTLY REJECTED REBELS' DEMANDS THAT HUNDREDS OF THEIR COMRADES IN PERUVIAN JAILS BE RELEASED. .... WHEN THE ATTACK CAME, MOST OF THE REBELS, APPARENTLY LULLED INTO COMPLACENCY, WERE PLAYING SOCCER. THEY'D LEFT THE HOSTAGES CLUSTERED ON ONE FLOOR WITH ONLY THREE GUARDS. AND THIS LEADS TO LESSON NUMBER THREE: FEW HOSTAGES CRISES END SO TIDILY."

    TEXT: THURSDAY'S ORLANDO SENTINEL CALLS THE ACTION A "DECISIVE MOVE IN PERU," ADDING:

    VOICE: "CRITICS ....WILL SAY THAT THE PERUVIAN GOVERNMENT'S BLOODY HANDLING OF THAT AFFAIR COULD INVITE MORE VIOLENCE FROM THE REBELS' COMRADES. PERHAPS, WHICH IS A GOOD REASON FOR PERUVIANS TO REMAIN VIGILANT. AT THE SAME TIME, WOULD CAVING IN [GIVING IN] TO THE REBELS' DEMANDS HAVE BEEN BETTER? OF COURSE NOT. SUCH BEHAVIOR WOULD HAVE SMACKED OF [INDICATED] WEAKNESS, WHICH ALMOST CERTAINLY WOULD HAVE EMBOLDENED THE REBELS. THE PERUVIAN GOVERNMENT, AFTER DEMONSTRATING PATIENCE, WAS RIGHT TO ACT FIRMLY."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: REGARDING THE FLOODING IN THE DAKOTAS AND MINNESOTA, THE NEW YORK TIMES CALLS IT "NO ORDINARY DISASTER."

    VOICE: "THERE IS ALWAYS AN AIR OF DEFEAT SURROUNDING A FLOOD DISASTER, BUT THE SENSE OF SHOCK IS ESPECIALLY BITTER IN NORTH DAKOTA, WHERE THE MAIN ERROR WAS THAT EVERYONE WORKED HARD TO PREPARE FOR A FLOOD TWICE AS HIGH AS ANY IN THE RIVER'S HISTORY, ONLY TO DISCOVER LAST WEEKEND THAT IT WAS GOING TO BE NEARLY THREE TIMES AS HIGH. ..... THE DIKES, REACHING MORE THAN [15 METERS] IN MANY PLACES, PROVED NO MATCH FOR THE TSUNAMI-LIKE FORCE OF THE RIVER. .... THE DEVASTATION IS ALMOST ENTIRELY TESTIMONY TO THE FORCE OF NATURE."

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DECISION THIS WEEK TO IMPOSE TRADE SANCTIONS ON BURMA, DUE TO THE LACK OF HUMAN RIGHTS THERE, DRAWS THIS RESPONSE FROM THE WASHINGTON POST.

    VOICE: "THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S DECISION TO BAR FURTHER U-S INVESTMENT IN .... BURMA HAS SPARKED [ELICITED] CHARGES OF HYPOCRISY. WHY IMPOSE SANCTIONS ON BURMA BUT NOT CHINA? WHY ISOLATE CUBA BUT ENGAGE WITH NORTH KOREA? .....SANCTIONS AREN'T THE ANSWER FOR EVERY BAD REGIME ..... [HOWEVER] IN THE CASE OF BURMA, THE ADMINISTRATION - - WITH A BIG PUSH FROM CONGRESS - - HAS ENDED UP IN THE RIGHT PLACE. RARELY HAS A NATION BEEN MORE DESERVING OF ECONOMIC SANCTION."

    TEXT: THE LOS ANGELES TIMES ADDS TO THE POST'S THESIS:

    VOICE: "THOSE WHO PREACH ECONOMIC ENGAGEMENT IN MYANMAR SIMILAR TO WHAT WASHINGTON PRACTICES WITH CHINA AND INDONESIA IGNORE AN [IMPORTANT] DIFFERENCE: THE BURMESE VOTED THE MILITARY OUT. IT IS ONE THING TO KEEP TIES WITH A REGIME THAT HAS NOT DEMOCRATIZED, ANOTHER TO HOLD HANDS [COOPERATE] WITH A REGIME THAT HAS CRUSHED A DEMOCRATIC ELECTION."

    TEXT: THE SENATE IS SCHEDULED TO VOTE LATER TODAY [APPROXIMATELY 1:00 PM EDT] ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS TREATY. THE WASHINGTON TIMES CONTINUES TO URGE A "NO" VOTE, SAYING THAT ARTICLES CONCERNING THE SHARING OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS DEFENSES, THE ELIMINATION OF EXITING EXPORT CONTROLS AND THE TREATY'S RULES REGARDING TRADE IN CHEMICALS BETWEEN SIGNATORIES ARE DANGEROUS. [OPT] SAYS THE PAPER:

    VOICE: "AFTER ALL, THE IDEA HERE IS TO MAKE THE WORLD MORE SAFE, NOT LESS, AGAINST CHEMICAL WEAPONS. THAT'S WHY REPUBLICANS SHOULD VOTE NO TO THE C-W-C IN THE FORM PRESENTED TO THE SENATE TODAY."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: USA TODAY IS CONCERNED THAT THE EXTREME SECURITY MEASURES THAT INCLUDE SHIELDING THE JURY FROM PUBLIC VIEW AT THE OKLAHOMA BOMBING TRIAL MAY BE UNCONSTITUTIONALLY SEVERE.

    VOICE: "THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING WAS THE MOST PUBLIC OF CRIMES. NOW THE MAN ACCUSED OF COMMITTING IT IS GETTING THE MOST SECRET OF TRIALS. U-S DISTRICT JUDGE RICHARD MATSCH .... [HAS] ERECTED A WALL IN HIS COURT TO REMOVE [THE JURY] .... FROM PUBLIC VIEW. THAT WALL STANDS AS A MONUMENT TO THE JUDGE'S OBSESSIVE QUEST FOR SECRECY IN A CASE OF CONSUMING INTEREST AND IMPORTANCE. .... THERE'S A POINT AT WHICH SECRECY SUBVERTS JUSTICE, AND THE NATION PASSED IT EVEN BEFORE THE SIMPSON CASE BEGAN - - SO MUCH SO THAT THE IMPACT REACHES BEYOND THE FUNDAMENTAL NEED TO PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES COMMENTS ON THIS WEEK'S EXTENSION OF THE GRAND JURY IN LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS. THE GRAND JURY IS INVESTIGATING THE REAL ESTATE, FINANCIAL AND CRIMINAL MATTER KNOWN AS WHITEWATER. THE AFFAIR INVOLVED BOTH PRESIDENT AND MRS. CLINTON WHILE HE SERVED IN THE GOVERNOR'S OFFICE IN ARKANSAS. THE TIMES ASKS THAT THIS INVESTIGATION OF THE CLINTONS NOT GO ON INDEFINITELY.

    VOICE: "CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS HAVE TO RUN THEIR NATURAL COURSE, AND ANY INVESTIGATION THAT DIRECTLY INVOLVES THE PRESIDENT, CONJURING UP THE SPECTER OF AN IMPEACHMENT THREAT, MUST ESPECIALLY NOT BE CONSTRAINED. BUT THE WHITEWATER INVESTIGATION HAS BEEN GOING ON SINCE BEFORE THE MIDPOINT OF [MR.] CLINTON'S FIRST TERM. IT HAS COST TAXPAYERS MILLIONS OF DOLLARS AND COST THOSE WHO HAVE COME UNDER INVESTIGATION MILLIONS IN LEGAL FEES. POWERFUL EVIDENCE MAY YET EMERGE THAT WILL BRING DOWN THE MIGHTY. BUT AFTER THE LITTLE ROCK GRAND JURY SITS FOR ANOTHER SIX MONTHS, WHAT THEN ? ....ONE WAY OR ANOTHER, THE END POINT SHOULD BE IN SIGHT."

    TEXT: AND THAT CONCLUDES THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF COMMENTS ON THE DAY'S DEVELOPMENTS FROM SOME OF THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    24-Apr-97 10:53 AM EDT (1453 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] TURKEY / KURDS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=4/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-213354
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A TURKISH COURT HAS ORDERED THE ARREST OF TWO SECURITY OFFICERS WHO ARE ACCUSED OF BEING INVOLVED IN DRUG TRAFFICKING, EXTRA-JUDICIAL KILLINGS, AND EXTORTION IN THE TOWN OF YUKSEKOVA, IN THE MAINLY KURDISH PROVINCE OF HAKKARI. AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS SOME ANALYSTS BELIEVE THE INVESTIGATION INTO ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES OF THE SO-CALLED YUKSEKOVA GANG AND WHAT THEY TERM THE HIGHLY UNUSUAL ARRESTS OF THE OFFICERS MAY SIGNAL A TURNING POINT IN STATE POLICY IN THE MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEAST REGION.

    TEXT: THE SO-CALLED YUKSEKOVA SCANDAL IS THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF CORRUPTION PROBES INTO STATE INVOLVEMENT IN ORGANIZED CRIME THAT HAVE ROCKED TURKEY IN RECENT MONTHS.

    NIHAT CAKIR IS THE STATE PROSECUTOR WHO IS INVESTIGATING CHARGES THAT SOME MEMBERS OF THE SECURITY FORCES ARE LINKED TO ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES. HE SAYS THE CASE COULD HAVE MAJOR IMPLICATIONS FOR TURKISH POLICY IN THE MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEAST REGION.

    FOR THE PAST 14 YEARS, TURKISH SECURITY FORCES HAVE BEEN BATTLING REBELS OF THE SEPARATIST KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, OR P-K-K, IN THE MAINLY KURDISH AREA. THERE IS WIDESPREAD PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR THE FIGHT AGAINST THE P-K-K, WHICH REGULARLY ENGAGES IN TERRORIST ACTS. THESE INCLUDE THE MURDERS OF THOUSANDS OF INNOCENT CIVILIANS.

    YASAR TOPCU IS A MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT FROM THE MAIN OPPOSITION CONSERVATIVE MOTHERLAND PARTY, OR ANAP. MR. TOPCU IS ALSO ON A PARLIAMENTARY COMMISSION CHARGED WITH INVESTIGATING LINKS BETWEEN ORGANIZED CRIME AND MEMBERS OF THE STATE.

    /// TOPCU ACT - FADE UNDER ///

    HE IS QUICK TO SAY THE YUKSEKOVA CASE SHOULD NOT IN ANY WAY REFLECT ON THE MORAL STANDARDS OF THE TURKISH MILITARY, WHICH REMAINS THE MOST RESPECTED INSTITUTION IN TURKEY. HE ADDS THAT THE SPEED WITH WHICH THE MILITARY HAS INVESTIGATED THE ALLEGATIONS OF ABUSE WITHIN ITS RANKS AND WEEDED OUT THOSE OF ITS MEMBERS ACCUSED OF WRONGDOING FURTHER VINDICATES WHAT HE CALLS ITS EXEMPLARY ROLE FOR TURKISH SOCIETY.

    BUT OTHER MEMBERS OF OPPOSITION POLITICAL PARTIES AND INDEPENDENT HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS HAVE LONG ACCUSED SOME MEMBERS OF THE SECURITY FORCES OF INVOVLEMENT IN EXTORTION RACKETS AND EXTRA-JUDICIAL KILLINGS IN THE REGION. THEY SAY SUCH GROUPS HAVE A VESTED INTEREST IN SEEING THE WAR IN THE SOUTHEAST DRAG ON.

    THE FOILED KIDNAPPING OF A WEALTHY KURDISH BUSINESSMAN IN YUKSEKOVA LAST YEAR HAS LENT CREDENCE TO SOME OF THOSE CLAIMS.

    AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE AFFAIR REVEALED THAT SOME MEMBERS OF COUNTER-INSURGENCY UNITS, KNOWN AS THE SPECIAL TEAMS, PASSED THEMSELVES OFF AS P-K-K REBELS AND HAD HELPED ORGANIZE THE ABDUCTION OF THE BUSINESSMAN NECIP BASKIN. THEY WERE DEMANDING A HUGE RANSOM FOR HIS RELEASE.

    THE INTERVENTION OF LOCAL MILITARY COMMANDERS RESULTED IN THE FREEING OF MR. BASKIN AND THE ARREST OF THE SPECIAL TEAM MEMBERS ALONG WITH TWO OFFICERS ALSO IMPLICATED IN THE SO-CALLED YUKSEKOVA GANG AFFAIR.

    TESTIMONY OF THE ACCUSED HAS LED TO FURTHER ALLEGATIONS THAT THE GANG WAS ALSO HEAVILY INVOLVED IN HEROIN TRAFFICKING AND USED STATE-OWNED VEHICLES, INCLUDING MILITARY HELICOPTERS, TO CARRY THE DRUGS. THE MAYOR OF YUKSEKOVA HAS HAS ALSO BEEN JAILED FOR HIS ALLEGED CONNECTION IN THE AFFAIR.

    ALL ARE NOW FACING TRIAL IN THE SOUTHEASTERN PROVINCE OF DIYARBAKIR.

    VAHAP CANAN, THE SON OF A WEALTHY KURDISH TRIBAL CHIEF, DESCRIBES HIS FAMILY AS BEING AMONG THE VICTIMS OF THE YUKSEKOVA GANG. HIS FATHER WAS MURDERED EARLIER THIS YEAR IN YUKSEKOVA SHORTLY AFTER FILING A COMPLAINT AGAINST ONE OF THE OFFICERS ARRESTED ON CHARGES OF BEING A MEMBER OF THE YUKSEKOVA GANG. MR. CANAN BELIEVES HIS FATHER'S DEATH WAS ORDERED, IF NOT ACTUALLY CARRIED OUT, BY THE OFFICER (NAMED LIEUTENANT COLONEL MEHMET EMIN YURDAKUL).

    /// CANAN ACT - FADE UNDER ///

    LIKE MANY ETHNIC KURDS IN THE REGION, MR CANAN BELIEVES THAT IF IN HIS WORDS -- JUSTICE PREVAILS, HIS FATHER'S MURDER WILL HAVE BEEN AVENGED. MORE IMPORTANTLY, HE ADDS, THE CONVICTION OF THE YUKSEKOVA GANG COULD HELP SET AN HISTORIC PRECEDENT IN TERMS OF STRONGER STATE SCRUTINY OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES AND CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES IN THE MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEAST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/RRM
    24-Apr-97 11:10 AM EDT (1510 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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