THE TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS
SIGNED AT SÈVRES
AUGUST 10, 1920
PORTS, WATERWAYS AND RAILWAYS.
Turkey undertakes to grant freedom of transit through her
territories on the routes most convenient for international transit,
either by rail, navigable waterway or canal, to persons, goods,
vessels, carriages, wagons and mails coming from or going to the
territories of any of the Allied Powers, whether contiguous or
not; for this purpose the crossing of territorial waters shall be
allowed. Such persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and
mails shall not be subjected to any transit duty or to any undue
delays or restrictions, and shall be entitled in Turkey to national
treatment as regards charges, facilities and all other matters.
Goods in transit shall be exempt from all customs or other
All charges imposed on transport in transit shall be reasonable
having regard to the conditions of the traffic. No charge, facility
or restriction shall depend directly or indirectly on the ownership
or the nationality of the ship or other means of transport on
which any part of the through journey has been, or is to be,
Turkey undertakes neither to impose nor to maintain any
control over transmigration traffic through her territories beyond
measures necessary to ensure that passengers are bonâ fide in
transit; nor to allow any shipping company or any other private
body, corporation or person interested in the traffic to take any
part whatever in, or to exercise any direct or indirect infiuence
over, any administrative service that may be necessary for this
Turkey undertakes to make no discrimination or preference,
direct or indirect, in the duties, charges and prohibitions relating
to importations into or exportations from her territories, or, subject to any special provisions in the present Treaty, in the charges
and conditions of transport of goods or persons entering or leaving her territories, based on the frontier crossed, or on the kind,
ownership or fiag of the means of transport (including aircraft)
employed, or on the original or immediate place of departure
of the vessel, wagon or aircraft or other means of transport
employed, or its ultimate or intennediate destination, or on the
route of or places of trans-shipment on the journey, or on whether
any port through which the goods are imported or exported is a
Turkish port or a port belonging to any foreign country, or en
whether the goods are imported or exported by sea, by land or
Turkey particularly undertakes not to establish against the
ports and vessels of any of the Allied Powers any surtax or any
direct or indirect bounty for export or import by Turkish ports
or vessels, or by those of another Power, for example, by means
of combined tariffs. She further undertakes that persons or
goods passing through a port or using a vessel of any of the
Allied Powers shall not be subjected to any formality or delay
whatever to which such persons or goods would not be subjected if they passed through a Turkish port or a port of any
other Power, or used a Turkish vessel or a vessel of any other
All necessary administrative and technical measures shall be
taken to expedite, as much as possible, the transmission of goods
across the Turkish frontiers and to ensure their forwarding and
transport from such frontiers irrespective of whether such goods
are coming from or going to the territories of the Allied Powers
or are in transit from or to those territories, under the same
material conditions in such matters as rapidity of carriage and
care ent route as are enjoyed by other goods of the sarme kind
carried on Turkish territory under similar conditions of
In particular, the transport of perishable goods shall be
promptly and regularly carried out, and the customs formalities
shall be effected in such a way as to allow the goods to be carried
straight through by trains which make connection.
The seaports of the Allied Powers are entitled to all favours
and to all reduced tariffs granted on Turkish railways or navigable
waterways for the benefit of Turkish ports (without prejudice
to the rights of concessionaires) or of any port of another Power.
Subject to the rights of concessionaires, Turkey may not refuse
to participate in the tariffs or combinations of tariffs intended to
secure for ports of any of the Allied Powers advantages similar
to those granted by Turkey to her own ports or the ports of any
FREEDOM OF NAVIGATION.
The nationals of any of the Allied Powers as well as their vessels
and property shall enjoy in all Turkish ports and on the inland
navigation routes of Turkey at least the same treatment in all
respects as Turkish nationals, vessels and property.
In particular, the vessels of any one of the Allied Powers shall
be entitled to transport goods of any description and passengers
to or from any ports or places in Turkish territory to which
Turkish vessels may have access, under conditions which shall
not be more onerous than those applied in the case of national
vessels, they shall be treated on a footing of equality with national
vessels as regards port and harbour facilities and charges of
every description, including facilities for stationing, loading and
unloading, tonnage duties and charges, harbour, pilotage, lighthouse, quarantine and all analogous duties and charges of whatsoever nature levied in the name of or for the profit of the Government, public functionaries, private individuals, corporations
or establishments of any kind.
In the event of Turkey granting a preferential regime to any
of the Allied Powers or to any other foreign Power, this regime
shall be extended immediately and unconditionally to all the
There shall be no restrictions on the movement of persons or
vessels other than those arising from prescriptions concerning
customs, police, public health, emigration, and immigration and
those relating to the import and export of prohibited goods.
Such regulations must be reasonable and uniform and must not
impede traffic unnecessarily.
PORTS OF INTERNATIONAL CONCERN
The following Eastern ports are declared ports of international
concern and placed under the regime defined in the following
Articles of this section;
Constantinople, from St. Stefano to Dolma Bagtchi;
Trebizond (in the conditions laid down in Article 352);
Batum (subject to conditions to be subsequently fixed).
Free zones shall be provided in these ports.
Subject to any provisions to the contrary in the present Treaty,
the regime laid down for the above ports shall not prejudice the
In the ports declared of international concern the nationals
goods and flags of all States Members of the League of Nations
shall enjoy complete freedom in the use of the port. In this connection and in all respects they shall be treated on a footing of
perfect equality, particularly as regards all port and quay facilities and charges, including facilities for berthing, loading and
discharging, tonnage dues and charges, quay, pilotage, lighthouse,
quarantine and all similar dues and charges of whatsoever nature,
levied in the name of or for the profit of the Government, public
functionaries, private individuals, corporations or establishments
of every kind, no distinction being made between the nationals,
goods and flags of the different States and those of the State under
whose sovereignty or authority the port is placed.
There shall be no restrictions on the movement of persons or
vessels other than those arising from regulations concerning customs, police, public health, emigration and immigration and those
relating to the import and export of prohibited goods. Such
regulations must be reasonable and uniform and must not impede
(2) Dues and Charges.
All dues and charges for the use of the port or of its approaches,
or for the use of facilities provided in the port, shall be levied
under the conditions of equality prescribed in Article 336, and
shall be reasonable both as regards their amount and their application, having regard to the expenses incurred by the port
authority in the administration, upkeep and improvement of
the port and of the approaches thereto, or in the interests of
Subject to the provisions of Article 54, Part III (Political
Clauses) of the present Treaty all dues and charges other than
those provided for in the present Article or in Articles 338, 342,
or 343 are forbidden.
All customs, local octroi or consumption dues, duly authorised,
levied on goods imported or exported through a port subject to
the international regime shall be the same, whether the flag of
the vessel which effected or is to effect the transport be the flag
of the State exercising sovereignty or authority over the port or
any other flag. In the absence of special circumstances justifying
an exception on account of economic needs, such dues must be
fixed on the same basis and at the same tariffs as similar duties
levied on the other customs frontiers of the State concerned. All
facilities which may be accorded by such State over other land
or water routes or at other ports for the import or export of goods
shall be equally granted to imports and exports through the port
subject to the international regime.
In the absence of any special arrangement relative to the execution of works for maintaining and improving the port, it shall
be the duty of the State under whose sovereignty or authority
the port is placed to take suitable measures to remove any
obstacle or danger to navigation and to secure facilities for the
movements of ships in the port.
The State under whose sovereignty or authority the port is
placed must not undertake any works liable to prejudice the
facilities for the use of the port or of its approaches.
(4) Free Zones
The facilities granted in a free zone for the erection or use of
warehouses and for packing and unpacking goods shall be in
accordance with trade requirements for the time being. All goods
allowed to be consumed in the free zone shall be exempt from
customs, excise and all other duties of any description whatsoever
apart from the statistical duty provided for in Article 342. Unless
otherwise provided in the present Treaty, it shall be within the
discretion of the State under whose sovereignty or authority the
port is placed to permit or to prohibit manufacture within the
free zone. There shall be no discrimination in regard to any of
the provisions of this Article either between persons belonging to
different nationalities or between goods of different origin or
No duties or charges, other than those provided for in Article
336, shall be levied on goods arriving in the free zone or departing
therefrom, from whatever foreign country they come or for
whatever foreign country they are destined, other than a statistical duty which shall not exceed 1 per mille ad valorem. The
proceeds of this statistical duty shall be devoted exclusively to
the maintenance of the service dealing with the statistics relating
to the traffic of the free zone.
Subject to the provisions of Article 344, the duties referred to
in Article 338 may be levied under the conditions laid down in
that Article on goods coming from or going to the free zone on
their importation into the territory of the State under whose
sovereignty or authority the port is placed or on their exportation
from such territory respectively.
Persons, goods, postal services, ships, vessels, carriages, wagons and other means of transport coming from or going to the
free zone, and crossing the territory of the State under whose
sovereignty or authority the port is placed, shall be deemed to be
in transit across that State if they are going to or coming from
the territory of any other State whatsoever.
Subject to the provisions contained in Article 61, Part III
(Political Clauses), differences which may arise between interested
States with regard to the interpretation or to the application of
the dispositions contained in Articles 335 to 344, as well as, in
general, any differences between interested States with regard to
the use of the ports, shall be settled in accordance vvith the conditions laid down by the League of Nations.
Differences with regard to the execution of works liable to prejudice the facilities for the use of the port or of its approaches
shall be dealt with by an accelerated procedure, and may be the
object of an expression of opinion, or of a provisional decision
which may prescribe the suspension or the immediate suppression of the said works, without prejudice to the ultimate opinion
or decision in the case.
CLAUSES RELATING TO THE MARITSA AND THE DANUBE
On a request being made by one of the riparian States to the
Council of the League of Nations, the Maritsa shall be declared
an international river, and shall be subject to the regime of international rivers laid down in Articles 332 to 338 of the Treaty of
Peace concluded with Germany on June 28, 1919.
On a request being made to the Council of the League of
Nations by any riparian State, the Maritsa shall be placed under
the administration of an International Commission, which shall
comprise one representative of each riparian State and one
representative of Great Britain, one of France and one of Italy.
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 133, Part III
(Political Clauses), Turkey hereby recognises and accepts all the
dispositions relating to the Danube inserted in the Treaties of
Peace concluded with Germany, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria
and the regime for that river resulting therefrom.
CLAUSES GIVING TO CERTAIN STATES THE USE OF CERTAIN PORTS.
In order to ensure to Turkey free access to the Mediterranean
and Agean Seas, freedom of transit is accorded to Turkey over
the territories and in the ports detached from Turkey.
Freedom of transit is the freedom defined in Article 328, until
such time as a General Convention on the subject shall have
been concluded, whereupon the dispositions of the new Convention shall be substituted therefor.
Special conventions between the States or Administrations
concerned will lay down, as regards Turkey with the assent of
the Financial Commission, the conditions of the exercise of the
right accorded above, and will settle in particular the method of
using the ports and the free zones existing in them, the establishment of international (joint) services and tariffs, including
through tickets and way-bills, and the application of the Convention of Berne of October 14, 1890, and its supplementary
provisions, until its replacement by a new Convention.
Freedom of transit will extend to postal, telegraphic and telephonic services.
In the port of Smyrna Turkey will be accorded a lease in perpetuity, subject to determination by the League of Nations, of
an area which shall be placed under the general regime of free
zones laid down in Articles 341 to 344, and shall be used for the
direct transit of goods coming from or going to that State.
The delimitation of the area referred to in the preceding paragraph, its connection with existing railways, its equipment and
exploitation, and in general all the conditions of its utilisation,
including the amount of the rental, shall be decided by a Commission consisting of one delegate of Turkey, one delegate of
Greece, and one delegate appointed by the League of Nations.
These conditions shall be susceptible of revision every ten years
in the same manner.
Free access to the Black Sea by the port of Batum is accorded
to Georgia, Azerbaijan and Persia, as well as to Armenia. This
right of access will be exercised in the conditions laid down in
Subject to the decision provided for in Article 89, Part III
(Political Clauses), free access to the Black Sea by the port of
Trebizond is accorded to Armenia. This right of access will be
exercised in the conditions laid down in Article 349.
In that event Armenia will be accorded a lease in perpetuity,
subject to determination by the League of Nations, of an area
in the said port which shall be placed under the general regime
of free zones laid down in Articles 34x to 344, and shall be used
for the direct transit of goods coming from or going to that
The delimitation of the area referred to in the preceding
paragraph, its connection with existing railways, its equipment
and exploitation, and in general all the conditions of its utilisation, including the amount of the rental, shall be decided by a
Commission consisting of one delegate of Armenia, one delegate
of Turkey, and one delegate appointed by the League of Nations.
These conditions shall be susceptible of revision every ten years
in the same manner.
SECTION III .
CLAUSES RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT
Subject to the rights of concessionaire companies, goods coming from the territories of the Allied Powers and going to Turkey
and vice versa, or in transit through Turkey from or to the territories of the Allied Powers, shall enjoy on the Turkish railways
as regards charges to be collected (rebates and drawbacks being
taken into account), facilities and all other matters, the most
favourable treatment applied to goods of the same kind carried
on any Turkish lines, either in internal trafffic or for export, import or in transit, under similar conditions of transport, for example as regards length of route.
International tariffs established in acordance with the rates
referred to in the preceding paragraph and involving through
way bills shall be established when one of the Allied Powers
shall require it from Turkey.
From the coming into force of the present Treaty Turkey
agrees, under the reserves indicated in the second paragraph of
this Article, to subscribe to the conventions and arrangements
signed at Berne on October 14, 1890, September 20, 1893, July
16, 1895, June 16, 1898, and September 19, 1906, regarding the
transportation of goods by rail.
If within five years from the date of the coming into force of
the present Treaty a new convention for the transportation of
passengers, luggage and goods by rail shall have been concluded
to replace the Berne Convention of October 14, 1890, and the
subsequent additions referred to above, this new convention and
the supplementary provisions for international transport by rail
which may be based on it shall bind Turkey, even if she shall
have refused to take part in the preparation of the convention
or to subscribe to it. Until a new convention shall have been
concluded, Turkey shall conform to the provisions of the Berne
Convention and the subsequent additions referred to above, and
to the current supplementary provisions.
Subject to the rights of concessionaire companies, Turkey shall
be bound to co-operate in the establishment of through-ticket
services (for passengers and their luggage) which shall be required
by any of the Allied Powers to ensure their communication by
rail with each other and with all other countries by transit across
the territories of Turkey; in particular Turkey shall, for this purpose, accept trains and carriages coming from the territories of
the Allied Powers and shall forward them with a speed at least
equal to that of her best long-distance trains on the same lines.
The rates applicable to such through services shall not in any
case be higher than the rates collected on Turkish internal services for the same distance, under the same conditions of speed
The tariffs applicable under the same conditions of speed and
comfort to the transportation of emigrants going to or coming
from ports of the Allied Powers and using the Turkish railways
shall not be at a higher kilometric rate than the most favourable
tariffs (drawbacks and rebates being taken into account) enjoyed
on the said railways by emigrants going to or coming from any
Turkey shall not apply specially to such through services, or
to the transportation of emigrants going to or coming from the
ports of the Allied Powers, any technical, fiscal or administrative
measures, such as measures of customs examination, general
police, sanitary police, and control, the result of which would be
to impede or delay such services.
In case of transport partly by rail and partly by internal navigation, with or without through way-bill, the preceding Articles
shall apply to the part of the journey performed by rail.
Turkey undertakes that Turkish wagons used for international
traffic shall be fitted with apparatus allowing:
(1) Of their inelusion in goods trains on the lines of such of the
Allied Powers as are parties to the Berne Convention of May 15,
1886, as modified on May 18, 1907, without hampering the
action of the continuous brake which may be adopted in such
countries within ten years of the coming into force of the present
(2) Of the acceptance of wagons of such countries in all goods
trains on the Turkish lines.
The rolling-stock of the Allied Powers shall enjoy on the
Turkish lines the same treatment as Turkish rolling stock as
regards movement, upkeep and repair.
TRANSFERS OF RAILWAY LINES.
Subject to any special provisions concerning the transfer of
ports and railways, whether owned by the Turkish Government
or private companies, situated in the territories detached from
Turkey under the present Treaty, and to the financial conditions
relating to the concessionaires and the pensioning of the personnel,
the transfer of railways will take place under the following conditions:
(1) The works and installations of all the railroads shall be
left complete and in as good condition as possible.
(2) When a railway system possessing its own roiling stock is
situated in its entirety in transferred territory, such stock shall
be left complete with the railway, in accordance with the last
inventory before October 30, 1918, and in a normal state of
upkeep, Turkey being responsible for any losses due to causes
within her control.
(3) As regards lines, the administration of which will in virtue
of the present Treaty be divided, the distribution of the rolling
stock shall be made by agreement between the administrations
taking over the several parts thereof. This agreement shall have
regard to the amount of the material registered on those lines in
the last inventory before October 30, 1918, the length of track
(sidings included) and the nature and amount of the trafffic.
Failing agreement the points in dispute shall be settled by an
arbitrator designated by the League of Nations who shall also, if
necessary, specify the locomotives, carriages and wagons to be
left on each section, the conditions of their acceptance, and such
provisional arrangements as he may judge necessary to ensure
for a limited period the current maintenance in existing workshops of the transferred stock.
(4) Stocks of stores, fittings and plant shall be left under the
same conditions as the rolling stock.
The Turkish Government abandons whatever rights it possesses over the Hedjaz railway, and accepts such arrangements
as shall be made for its working, and for the distribution of the
property belonging to or used in connection with the railway, by
the Governments concerned. In any such arrangements the
special position of the railway from the religious point of view
shall be fully recognised and safeguarded.
When, as a result of the fixing of new frontiers, a railway connection between two parts of the same country crosses another
country, or a branch line from one country has its terminus in
another, the conditions of working, if not specifically provided for
in the present Treaty, shall be laid down in a convention between
the railway administrations concerned. If the administrations
cannot come to an agreement as to the terms of such convention,
the points of difference shall be decided by an arbitrator appointed
as provided in Article 359.
The establishment of all new frontier stations between Turkey
and the contiguous Allied States or new States, as well as the
working of the lines between those stations, shall be settled by
agreements similarly concluded.
A standing conference of technical representatives nominated
by the Governments concerned shall be constituted with powers
to agree upon the necessary joint arrangements for through traffic
working, wagon exchange, through rates and tariffs and other
similar matters affecting railways situated on territory forming
part of the Turkish Empire on August 1, 1914.
In default of any provision to the contrary, when as the result
of the fixing of a new frontier the hydraulic system (canalisation
inundation, irrigation, drainage or similar matters) in a State is
dependent on works executed within the territory of another
State, or when use is made on the territory of a State, in virtue
of pre-war usage, of water or hydraulic power the source of which
is on the territory of another State, an agreement shall be made
between the States concerned to safeguard the interests and
rights acquired by each of them.
Failing an agreement, the matter shall be regulated by an
arbitrator appointed by the Council of the League of Nations.
TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES.
Turkey undertakes on the request of any of the Allied Powers
to grant facilities for the erection and maintenance of trunk
telegraph and telephone lines across her territories.
Such facilities shall comprise the grant to any telegraph or
telephone company nominated by any of the Allied Powers of
(a) To erect a new line of poles and wires along any line of
railway or other route in Turkish territory;
(b) To have access at all times to such poles and wires or wires
placed by agreement on existing poles, and to take such
steps as may be necessary to ma nta n them in good
(c) To utilise the services of their own staff for the purpose of
working such wires.
All questions relating to the establishment of such lines, especially as regards compensation to private individuals, shall be
settled in the same conditions as are applied to telegraph or
telephone lines established by the Turkish Government itself.
Notwithstanding any contrary stipulations in existing treaties,
Turkey undertakes to grant freedom of transit for telegraphic
eorrespondence and telephonic communications coming from or
going to any one of the Allied Powers, whether contiguous with
her or not, over such lines as may be most suitable for international transit and in accordance with the tariffs in force. This
correspondence and these communications shall be subjected to
no unnecessary delay or restriction; they shall enjoy in Turkey
national treatment in regard to every kind of facility, and especially in regard to rapidity of transmission. No payment, facility
or restriction shall depend directly or indirectly on the nationality
of the transmitter or the addressee.
Where, in consequence of the provisions of the present Treaty,
lines previously entirely on Turkish territory traverse the territory of more than one State, pending the revision of telegraph
rates by a new international telegraphic convention, the through
charges shall not be higher than they would have been if the
whole of the territory traversed had remained under Turkish
sovereignty, and the apportionment of the through charges between the States traversed shall be dealt with by agreement
between the administrations concerned.
Turkey agrees to transfer the landing rights at Constantinople
for the Constantinople-Constanza cable to any administration
or company which may be designated by the Allied Powers.
Turkey renounces on her own behalf and on behalf of her
nationals in favour of the Principal Allied Powers all rights,
titles or privileges of whatever nature over the whole or part of
the Jeddah-Suakin and Cyprus-Latakia submarine cables.
If the cables or portions thereof transferred under the preceding paragraph are privately owned, the value, calculated on
the basis of the original cost less a suitable allowance for depreciation, shall be credited to Turkey.
Turkey shall carry out the instructions given her, in regard to
transport, by an authorised body acting on behalf of the Allied
(I) For the carriage of troops under the provisions of the present Treaty, and of material, ammunition and supplies for army
(2) As a temporary measure, for the transportation of supplies for certain regions, as well as for the restoration, as rapidly
as possible, of the normal conditions of transport, and for the
organisation of postal and telegraphic services.
DISPUTES AND REVISION OF PERMANENT CLAUSES.
Unless otherwise specifically provided for in the present Treaty,
disputes which may arise between interested Powers with regard
to the interpretation and application of this Part of the present
Treaty shall be settled as provided by the League of Nations.
At any time the League of Nations may recommend the revision of such of these Articles as relate to a permanent administrative regime.
The stipulations of Articles 328 to 334, 353 and 355 to 357
shall be subject to revision by the Council of the League of
Nations at any time after three years from the coming into
force of the present Treaty.
Subject to the provisions of Article 373 no Allied Power can
claim the benefit of any of the stipulations of the Articles enumerated above on behalf of any portion of its territories in which
reciprocity is not accorded in respect of such stipulations.
Without prejudice to the special obligations imposed on her
by the present Treaty for the benefit of the Allied Powers,
Turkey undertakes to adhere to any General Conventions regarding the international regime of transit, waterways, ports or
railways which may be concluded, with the approval of the
League of Nations, within five years of the coming into force of
the present Treaty.
Unless otherwise expressly provided in the present Treaty,
nothing in this Part shall prejudice more extensive rights conferred on the nationals of the Allied Powers by the Capitulations
or by any arrangements which may be substituted therefor.