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Voice of America, 99-04-30

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP/FRIDAY (L-ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] KOSOVO PENTAGON - L BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [03] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [04] YUGOSLAVIA / RUSSIAN ENVOY (S) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [05] SERBIAN UNITY BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] ALBANIA / K-L-A BY PETER HEINLEIN (DURRES)
  • [07] KOSOVO / RIGHTS (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [08] KOSOVO AID (L-ONLY) BY PETE HEINLEIN (DURRES, ALBANIA)
  • [09] MACEDONIA / NEW CAMP (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CEGRANE, MACEDONIA)
  • [10] U-N COUNCIL / KOSOVO (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [11] UNHCR KOSOVO REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [12] CLINTON-KOSOVO (L) BY PAULA WOLFSON (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [13] CLINTON-KOSOVO LAWSUIT (S-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [14] HOUSE VOTES CAST DOUBT ON U-S BALKAN RESOLVE BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [15] SENATE-KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [16] KOSOVO CONSEQUENCES BY LINDA CASHDAN (WASHINGTON)
  • [17] HUNGARY/NATO (L-ONLY) BY STEFAN BOS (BUDAPEST)
  • [18] YUGOSLAVIA ECONOMY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [19] MACEDONIANS REACT (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SKOPJE)
  • [20] PAK / KOSOVO / S BY SCOTT ANGER (ISLAMABAD)
  • [21] PAK / KOSOVO VISIT / L-O BY SCOTT ANGER (ISLAMABAD)
  • [22] NATO AT FIFTY
  • [23] U-S/KOSOVO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [24] TURKEY / OCALAN (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [25] SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT BY TREVOR GRUNDY (EDINBURGH)
  • [26] FRANCE CORSICA (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [27] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [28] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO WRAP/FRIDAY (L-ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248810
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO HAS AGAIN STEPPED UP ITS AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, THOUSANDS MORE ETHNIC ALBANIANS FLEE KOSOVO, THE TOP U-N HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICIAL CRITICIZES BOTH NATO AND BELGRADE, AND A DIPLOMATIC BREAKTHROUGH REMAINS ELUSIVE. CORRESPONDENT JIM MALONE REPORTS ON THESE AND OTHER DEVELOPMENTS FRIDAY IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    TEXT: NATO WARPLANES CARRIED OUT THEIR MOST INTENSIVE AIRSTRIKES SINCE THE START OF THE MILITARY CAMPAIGN FIVE WEEKS AGO.

    IN BRUSSELS, NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAID THE LATEST TARGETS INCLUDED TWO DEFENSE MINISTRY BUILDINGS AND A SPECIAL POLICE HEADQUARTERS IN BELGRADE. // OPT // IMPROVING WEATHER CONDITIONS ALSO HELPED NATO ATTACKS ON YUGOSLAV FORCES OPERATING IN KOSOVO.

    // END OPT //

    /// OPT ///

    SPOKESMAN SHEA SAYS THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN IS BEGINNING TO TAKE A HEAVY TOLL ON THE MORALE OF YUGOSLAV TROOPS.

    /// SHEA ACT ///

    BUT WHAT IS CLEAR IS, AS I SAID, A GENERAL WITHOUT TROOPS CANNOT DO VERY MUCH AND I THINK THE TROOPS ARE BEGINNING TO FALL AWAY AND WILL FALL AWAY AS WE STEP UP THIS OPERATION AND AS PEOPLE ARE BEING ASKED TO DO THINGS WHICH TROOPS ARE NORMALLY NOT ASKED TO DO. SO, AS I SAY, THE ROT IS SETTING IN FROM BELOW.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// END OPT ///

    BUT THE NATO AIR ATTACKS CAME UNDER FIRE FROM A TOP HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICIAL IN GENEVA FRIDAY. UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS CHIEF MARY ROBINSON SAYS THE AIR CAMPAIGN IS DOING GREAT DAMAGE TO YUGOSLAVIA'S CIVILIAN POPULATION.

    /// ROBINSON ACT ///

    THERE MUST BE A BETTER WAY. I CALL FOR REASON TO PREVAIL ON ALL SIDES AND FOR A RETURN TO DIPLOMACY AND PEACEMAKING.

    /// END ACT ///

    MS. ROBINSON ALSO LASHED OUT AT YUGOSLAV FORCES, CITING WHAT SHE CALLED CONSIDERABLE EVIDENCE OF A DELIBERATE EFFORT TO EXPEL ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM KOSOVO.

    THE REFUGEE EXODUS FROM KOSOVO CONTINUES. THOUSANDS MORE POURED ACROSS THE BORDER INTO ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA FRIDAY, FURTHER STRAINING THE INTERNATIONAL RELIEF EFFORT.

    /// OPT ///

    ALONG WITH THE REFUGEES COME MORE ALLEGATIONS OF ATROCITIES AT THE HANDS OF YUGOSLAV FORCES IN KOSOVO. IN WASHINGTON FRIDAY, SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT PROMISED ADDITIONAL U-S SUPPORT FOR INVESTIGATORS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL PROBING ALLEGED ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    WHEN IT COMES TO THE COMMISSION OF WAR CRIMES OR CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, JUST FOLLOWING ORDERS IS NO DEFENSE. THESE ARE CRIMES FOR WHICH INDIVIDUALS ARE RESPONSIBLE AND FOR WHICH INDIVIDUALS WILL BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// END OPT ///

    ON THE DIPLOMATIC FRONT, RUSSIA'S ENVOY TO THE BALKANS SAYS HE AND YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC MADE PROGRESS TOWARD FINDING A SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS. BUT FORMER RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN PROVIDED FEW DETAILS OF HIS TALKS IN BELGRADE.

    CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS MEANWHILE REJECTED A YUGOSLAV DEMAND THAT ANY PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN KOSOVO BE UNARMED. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC OUTLINED A SIX-POINT PEACE PLAN IN AN INTERVIEW WITH UNITED PRESS INTERNATIONAL, BUT WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART SAYS THE PROPOSAL IS INADEQUATE.

    U-S CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER THE REVEREND JESSE JACKSON WAS ABLE TO MEET WITH THE THREE AMERICAN SOLDIERS HELD AS PRISONERS OF WAR IN BELGRADE. YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS REJECTED HIS REQUEST FOR A QUICK RELEASE OF THE THREE P-O-W'S.

    /// OPT ///

    C-N-N BROADCAST VIDEO TAPE OF THE MEETING CLEARED BY YUGOSLAV CENSORS IN WHICH THE THREE U-S CAPTIVES SAID THEY ARE IN BASICALLY GOOD CONDITION BUT ARE KEPT ISOLATED FROM ONE ANOTHER. REVEREND JACKSON WAS ABLE TO GIVE THEM LETTERS FROM HOME BEFORE THEIR MEETING WAS INTERRUPTED BY AIR RAID SIRENS IN BELGRADE. // END OPT // FINALLY, A BIPARTISAN GROUP OF 17 MEMBERS OF THE U-S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HAS FILED A LAWSUIT AGAINST PRESIDENT CLINTON IN HOPES OF FORCING EITHER A DECLARATION OF WAR FROM CONGRESS OR THE WITHDRAWAL OF U-S FORCES FROM THE BALKANS. THE LAWMAKERS CHARGE THAT THE PRESIDENT IS VIOLATING THE SO-CALLED WAR POWERS ACT PASSED BY CONGRESS NEAR THE END OF THE VIETNAM WAR IN 1973. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JBM/JO
    30-Apr-99 4:55 PM EDT (2055 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] KOSOVO PENTAGON - L BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248815
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE PENTAGON SAYS NATO BOMBS ARE CUTTING OFF SUPPLIES OF FUEL AND AMMUNITION TO SERB-LED YUGOSLAV FORCES AND BADLY HURTING THE MORALE OF SERB TROOPS. THE NEW ASSESSMENT FOLLOWS PUBLISHED REPORTS SAYING THAT WEEKS OF AIR ATTACKS HAVE HARDENED SERB RESOLVE TO RESIST NATO IN THE KOSOVO CONFLICT. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: REAR ADMIRAL TOM WILSON SAYS MORE AND MORE SERB SOLDIERS ARE WALKING AWAY FROM THEIR MILITARY UNITS. HE SAYS A SERB PRISONER REPORTED THAT SEVEN MEN HAD DESERTED THE 20-MAN UNIT HE ONCE LEAD.

    /// ADM THOMAS WILSON ///

    MY ASSESSMENT IS THAT THERE ARE INCREASING MORALE PROBLEMS IN THE SERB MILITARY, WHICH IS SHOWING UP IN A NUMBER OF SOURCES, AND ULTIMATELY WILL SHOW UP IN THEIR ABILITY TO CONDUCT COMBAT OPERATIONS. THEY ARE STILL RESPONSIVE TO THEIR NATIONAL COMMAND AUTHORITY. THEY ARE STILL CARRYING OUT THEIR ORDERS. BUT ANYBODY WHO COULD BELIEVE THAT THIS ARMY HAS A HIGH STATE OF MORALE RIGHT NOW IS NOT SEEING THE SAME EVIDENCE THAT I AM.

    /// END ACT ///

    ADMIRAL WILSON SAYS NATO AIR ATTACKS ON OIL REFINERIES AND STORAGE FACILITIES ARE CAUSING SERIOUS FUEL SHORTAGES FOR SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO AS WELL AS THE CIVILIAN POPULATION OF YUGOSLAVIA. HE SAYS SOME MILITARY UNITS ARE LIMITING, SLOWING OR CANCELING OPERATIONS BECAUSE OF THE LACK OF GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUEL.

    HE SAYS BOMBS HAVE ALSO DESTROYED MANY CRITICAL AMMUNITION FACTORIES AND STORAGE AREAS, WHICH WILL EVENTUALLY HAMPER YUGOSLAV OPERATIONS IN THE FIELD.

    BUT FOR THE MEANTIME, ADMIRAL WILSON SAYS SERB FORCES ARE STILL ATTACKING ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. HE DISPLAYED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS THAT HE SAYS SHOWED THE RESULTS OF A SERB ASSAULT ON A CONVOY OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES.

    /// WILSON ACT ///

    WE FOUND THE EVIDENCE HERE, SOME BURNED OUT VEHICLES, VEHICLES PUSHED INTO A STREAM BED, AND ABANDONED ALONG THIS SMALL TRAIL HERE. WHICH WE THINK IS PHOTOGRAPHIC EVIDENCE OF THIS ATTACK WHICH WAS REPORTED VIA OTHER SOURCES, WHICH CONTINUES TO SHOW THE BRUTALITY WHICH IS BEING EXERCISED BY THE SERBS AS THEY CONDUCT OPERATIONS NOT JUST AGAINST THE K-L-A, BUT AGAINST INNOCENT PEOPLE IN THESE CONVOYS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ADMIRAL SAYS THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY APPEARS TO BE GROWING STRONGER WITH NEW MEMBERS RECRUITED FROM REFUGEE CAMPS JUST OUTSIDE KOSOVO'S TERRITORY. HE SAYS SERB FORCES ARE WORKING HARD TO KEEP THESE NEW RECRUITS, AND THE MILITARY SUPPLIES NEEDED TO SUSTAIN THEM, FROM ENTERING THE SERB PROVINCE OF KOSOVO.

    /// REST OPT ///

    MEANTIME, DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAID THAT 10 B-52'S (BOMBER AIRCRAFT) RECENTLY DISPATCHED TO THE NATO AIR OPERATION WOULD ARRIVE IN BRITAIN FROM U-S BASES SATURDAY.

    THE HUGE PLANES CAN RAIN DOZENS OF BOMBS OVER A WIDE AREA, SOMETHING CRITICS SAY COULD INCREASE THE CHANCES OF HITTING CIVILIANS INSTEAD OF SOLDIERS.

    A SENIOR DEFENSE OFFICIAL SAYS THE PLANES WILL BE USED WITH CARE TO AVOID CIVILIAN DEATHS. HE ALSO SAYS THAT SOME OF THE B-52'S CAN FIRE A 14-HUNDRED KILOGRAM PRECISION GUIDED WEAPON WITH ABOUT AN 80 KILOMETER RANGE.

    PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS THE WEEKS OF AIR WAR HAVE DEPLETED U-S STOCKS OF PRECISION GUIDED MUNITIONS. BUT HE SAYS CONTRACTORS ARE BOOSTING PRODUCTION, BY 300 PERCENT IN SOME CASES, AND HE SAYS U-S FORCES WILL NOT RUN SHORT OF BOMBS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/JO
    30-Apr-99 5:19 PM EDT (2119 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248799
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO HAS LAUNCHED WHAT IT CALLS ITS MOST INTENSIVE AIR ATTACK AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA'S CAPITAL, BELGRADE. V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN IN BRUSSELS REPORTS NATO SAYS IT PLANS TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF GOOD WEATHER TO KEEP THE PRESSURE ON YUGOSLAVIA.

    TEXT: IT HAS TAKEN FIVE WEEKS FOR NATO TO BOMB YUGOSLAVIA'S DEFENSE MINISTRY IN DOWNTOWN BELGRADE. SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS NATO HAS ALREADY BOMBED HIGHER-PRIORITY TARGETS ALL OVER YUGOSLAVIA, BUT THE DEFENSE MINISTRY HAS ITS OWN IMPORTANCE.

    /// SHEA ACT ONE ///

    IT'S REALLY A QUESTION OF TRYING TO IDENTIFY WHAT ARE THE LOCATIONS WHICH FIRST AND FOREMOST ARE THE BRAIN BEHIND THIS OPERATION, AND IN THAT RESPECT, THE PARTY HEADQUARTERS OF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND HIS WIFE, WHICH WERE ALSO STRUCK LAST WEEK, WERE DEEMED BY US TO BE THE PRIORITY TARGETS. BUT THE POINT WE MADE LAST NIGHT IS THE POINT WE HAVE MADE ALREADY THAT WE WILL GO FOR THE HEAD AS MUCH AS WE WILL GO FOR THE FEET.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO SAYS IT CARRIED OUT TWICE AS MANY ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA THURSDAY NIGHT AND FRIDAY MORNING AS IT HAS IN ANY PREVIOUS DAY OF AIR STRIKES. THERE WERE 600 FLIGHTS AND 200 ATTACKS. IN ADDITION TO THE DEFENSE MINISTRY, NATO AGAIN BOMBED THE SPECIAL POLICE HEADQUARTERS IN BELGRADE AS WELL THE TELEVISION TRANSMITTER ON MOUNT AVALA OUTSIDE THE CAPITAL.

    NATO CONFIRMS ONE MISSILE LANDED IN A RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD NEAR THE DEFENSE MINISTRY. NATO SAYS IT DOES NOT TARGET CIVILIANS, AND IT SAYS MISTAKES ARE ONLY A FRACTION OF ALL THE BOMBS AND MISSILES DROPPED ON YUGOSLAVIA.

    MR. SHEA MAINTAINS SOME OPTIMISM THAT ALL THIS BOMBING WILL EVENTUALLY PRODUCE SOME DISSENSION IN YUGOSLAVIA AND WITHIN THE MILITARY. THE NATO SPOKESMAN CITES THE INCREASING NUMBER OF SERBIAN OPPOSITION STATEMENTS FIVE WEEKS AFTER NATO BOMBING BEGAN. AS FOR THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY, HE SEES WEAKENING BELOW THE TOP LEVELS.

    /// SHEA ACT TWO //

    NO MATTER WHAT THE SITUATION IS WITH THE HEAD, WE HAVE MANY INDICATIONS THAT THE ROT IS BEGINNING TO SPREAD AT THE BOTTOM. AND AT THE END OF THE DAY, AN ARMY WITHOUT TROOPS OR A GENERAL WITHOUT TROOPS ISN'T A VERY POWERFUL GENERAL.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SHEA ALSO REPORTS THAT SERBIA HAS CARRIED OUT ETHNIC CLEANSING OF ALBANIANS FROM SERBIA PROPER. HE CITES REPORTS THAT ALBANIANS HAVE BEEN EXPELLED FROM THE SERB VILLAGE OF PRESEVO, JUST EAST JUST OF KOSOVO PROVINCE WHERE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF ALBANIANS HAVE ALREADY BEEN EXPELLED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    30-Apr-99 12:18 PM EDT (1618 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] YUGOSLAVIA / RUSSIAN ENVOY (S) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248793
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA'S SPECIAL ENVOY TO THE BALKANS, FORMER PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN, IS IN BELGRADE FOR TALKS WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW.

    TEXT: AN AIDE TO MR. CHERNOMYRDIN TOLD A RUSSIAN NEWS AGENCY THAT TALKS BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN ENVOY AND PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAD STARTED BY MID-DAY FRIDAY.

    THE INTERFAX NEWS AGENCY REPORTS MR. CHERNOMYRDIN INFORMED THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT THAT CONCERN IS GROWING EVEN IN NATO COUNTRIES ABOUT THE ESCALATION OF THE VIOLENCE. MR. CHERNOMYRDIN ALSO REPORTEDLY BRIEFED THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT ON THE RESULTS OF HIS PEACE TALKS THURSDAY IN BONN AND ROME.

    INTERFAX REPORTS THAT MR. CHERNOMYRDIN WAS DRIVEN THROUGH DOWNTOWN BELGRADE TO VIEW DESTRUCTION CAUSED BY NATO BOMBS.

    MR. CHERNOMYRDIN AND MR. MILOSEVIC WILL LIKELY CONTINUE TALKS INTO THE EVENING, AFTER WHICH RUSSIA'S ENVOY WILL RETURN TO MOSCOW AND POSSIBLY COMMENT ON THE TALKS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH
    30-Apr-99 9:44 AM EDT (1344 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] SERBIAN UNITY BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43283
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MANY PEOPLE INSIDE AND OUTSIDE SERBIA SAY NATO'S BOMBING OF SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA HAS UNITED SERBS AS THEY HAVE NOT BEEN SINCE PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC CAME TO POWER TEN YEARS AGO. FEW SERBS ACCEPT NATO'S JUSTIFICATION FOR THE BOMBING -- TO PREVENT A HUMANITARIAN DISASTER IN EUROPE. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR EXAMINES THE EXTENT OF SERB UNITY IN THE FACE OF CONTINUED AIRSTRIKES:

    TEXT: NATO HAS ALL ALONG SAID ITS BOMBING CAMPAIGN IS AIMED AT DISRUPTING THE SERB MILITARY'S ABILITY TO CONTINUE ETHNICALLY CLEANSING KOSOVO PROVINCE. BUT SO FAR THE BOMBS HAVE FAILED TO STOP THE REFUGEE EXODUS AND MANY ANALYSTS SAY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S POSITION IS NOW STRONGER THAN EVER.

    MANY SERBS HAVE DEFIANTLY TOLD WESTERN JOURNALISTS THAT IF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WERE TO HOLD ELECTIONS TODAY, HE WOULD WIN BY AN OVERWHELMING MAJORITY -- THANKS TO THE NATO ATTACKS. BUT NOT ALL SERBS ARE CONVINCED OF THIS. ALEKSA DJILAS, A LEADING BELGRADE WRITER AND THE SON OF THE LATE COMMUNIST DISSIDENT MILOVAN DJILAS, IS ONE OF THEM:

    // ACT ONE / DJILAS //

    THERE IS A CERTAIN MISUNDERSTANDING IN THE WEST. WE ARE ALL UNITED HERE AGAINST NATO, RESISTING WHAT WE CONSIDER AND I MYSELF CONSIDER, AN UNJUSTIFIED AND BRUTAL AGGRESSION. NEVERTHELESS THAT DOES NOT MEAN WE ARE UNITED BEHIND THE GOVERNMENT. MILOSEVIC HAS NOT BECOME A GREAT NATIONAL HERO. HE HAS NOT BECOME A SERBIAN CHURCHILL.

    // END ACT //

    MR. DJILAS SAYS IN FACT ONLY ABOUT ONE THIRD OF THE ELECTORATE SUPPORTS MR. MILOSEVIC AND HE DOUBTS THESE NUMBERS HAVE CHANGED SINCE THE NATO ATTACKS. BUT HE SAYS IT'S NAIVE OF THE WEST TO THINK BOMBING SERBIAN TOWNS AND INFRASTRUCTURE IS GOING TO CAUSE A POPULAR UPRISING:

    // ACT TWO / DJILAS //

    TO SAY TO THE SERBS THAT THEY SHOULD OUST THEIR LEADER BECAUSE BOMBS ARE FALLING ON THEIR HEADS, IT LOOKS LIKE A FORM OF BLACKMAIL AND MANY PEOPLE SAY 'NO, I WILL VOTE AGAINST MILOSEVIC WHEN THERE ARE ELECTIONS'. PEOPLE NOW AVOID CRITICIZING MILOSEVIC JUST BECAUSE THEY DON'T WANT TO APPEAR TO BE JUSTIFYING WESTERN BOMBING -- ITS AN ACT OF DEFIANCE (AGAINST THE WEST).

    // END ACT //

    A BALKAN ANALYST LIVING IN PARIS SAYS ITS UNDERSTANDABLE THAT THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN HAS UNITED THE SERBIAN PEOPLE BUT HE BELIEVES THE SERBS ARE AT A DANGEROUS MOMENT IN THEIR HISTORY IF THEY CONTINUE NOT TO QUESTION THE METHODS USED TO ACHIEVE LEGITIMATE GOALS. WILLIAM PFAFF IS A COLUMNIST FOR THE PARIS-BASED INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE:

    // ACT THREE / PFAFF //

    THE PROBLEM IS ENTIRELY HOW THE SERBS HAVE GONE ABOUT TRYING TO ACCOMPLISH WHAT ARE THEMSELVES DEFENSIBLE GOALS. IT'S THE MEANS THEY HAVE EMPLOYED. THERE'S A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WAR AND ATROCITIES AGAINST CIVILIANS. SERBIA IS A CHRISTIAN NATION THAT IS SUPPOSED TO UNDERSTAND THESE DISTINCTIONS. THEY PROFESS TO UNDERSTAND BUT IN PRACTICE THEY HAVE NOT OBSERVED THEM. POWERFUL COMPARTEMENTALIZATION GOING ON. WHEN YOU SAY WHAT DID YOU DO TO CROATS, BOSNIANS AND CROATS AND KOSOVARS, THERE'S A SHIFT OF SUBJECT AND THEY BEGIN TO TELL YOU 'IF ONLY YOU KNEW WHAT THEY DID TO US IN THE 19TH CENTURY, THE 16TH CENTURY, IN THE 13TH CENTURY'.

    // END ACT //

    IN RESPONSE TO THE CLAIM BY MANY SERBS THAT IN TIMES OF WAR, ATROCITIES ARE COMMITTED BY ALL SIDES, WILLIAM PFAFF REPLIED 'NOT AT THE END OF THE 20TH CENTURY':

    // ACT FOUR / PFAFF //

    HOWEVER IMPORTANT A DISPUTE BETWEEN COUNTRIES IS, WE DO NOT ATTEMPT TO SOLVE IT IN THE LATE 20TH CENTURY BY ATROCITY, MURDER, RAPE, ETHNIC CLEANSING. WE ATTEMPT TO SOLVE IT BY NEGOTIATION, ACCOMMODATION, OR COMPROMISE. OR IF WORSE COMES TO WORSE, BY WAR, BUT WAR THAT SPARES CIVILIANS AND RESPECTS THE CONVENTIONS OF WAR THAT HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED IN MODERN EUROPE.

    // END ACT //

    MR. PFAFF SAYS HE FEARS THAT IF MORE SERBS DON'T ACKNOWLEDGE THAT HORRIBLE CRIMES HAVE BEEN COMMITTED IN THEIR NAME IN THIS DECADE, THE ACCUSATION THAT THE WEST HATES SERBS COULD BECOME A SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/KL
    30-Apr-99 2:23 PM EDT (1823 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] ALBANIA / K-L-A BY PETER HEINLEIN (DURRES)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43269
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WHILE NATO CONTINUES ITS AIR ATTACKS AGAINST TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA, THE REBEL KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY IS CONTINUING ITS GUERRILLA WAR AGAINST THE SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS FROM THE ALBANIAN PORT OF DURRES, WHERE K-L-A RECRUITS -- MOST WITH NO MILITARY TRAINING ARE ARRIVING DAILY TO JOIN THE FIGHT.

    TEXT:

    /// MUSIC BLARING, PEOPLE CHATTING - FADE UNDER ///

    PATRIOTIC KOSOVAR SONGS FILL THE AIR, GREETING NEW ARRIVALS AT THE K-L-A'S MAIN RECEPTION CENTER IN DURRES.

    UNTIL RECENTLY, THE CENTER WAS A BEACHFRONT RESTAURANT ON ALBANIA'S ADRIATIC COAST. TODAY, WHILE BATHERS ROMP ON THE BEACH ONLY A FEW METERS AWAY, THE RESTAURANT IS THE GATHERING SPOT FOR YOUNG KOSOVAR VOLUNTEERS WHO HAVE MADE THEIR WAY TO DURRES FROM PLACES AROUND THE WORLD TO SIGN UP WITH THE K-L-A.

    MOST OF THE NEW RECRUITS WERE BORN IN KOSOVO, BUT EMIGRATED ELSEWHERE. NOW THEY SAY THEY ARE RETURNING TO THEIR NATIVE LAND TO JOIN THE FIGHT AFTER SEEING TELEVISION PICTURES OF SERBIAN ATROCITIES. ONE, A 24-YEAR OLD MAN WHO GAVE HIS NAME ONLY AS GAR, HAS JUST ARRIVED FROM CANADA, WHERE HE WENT TO WORK FOUR YEARS AGO. HE ADMITS HAVING NO MILITARY EXPERIENCE, AND SAYS HE KNOWS HE MIGHT BE KILLED IN BATTLE.

    /// GAR ACT ///

    I'M THROWING MYSELF FOR KOSOVO, AND EVEN IF I DIE FOR KOSOVO I WILL BE PROUD. AND THIS IS MY HAPPIEST DAY TO COME TO ALBANIA AND GO INTO KOSOVO TO FIGHT FOR MY COUNTRY.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE K-L-A RECEPTION CENTER, HALIM KRASNIQI (CROSS-NEECHEE), SAYS MORE THAN SEVEN THOUSAND VOLUNTEERS HAVE ARRIVED IN DURRES IN THE PAST MONTH. AFTER A COUPLE OF DAYS HERE, THEY ARE SENT TO CAMPS FOR A FEW WEEKS OF COMBAT TRAINING BEFORE MOVING ON TO THE FRONT. BUT MR. KRASNIQI SAYS HE HAS HAD TO TELL MANY POTENTIAL FIGHTERS NOT TO COME BECAUSE THERE ARE NO WEAPONS TO GIVE THEM.

    /// KRASNIQI ACT - IN ALBANIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS THE REASON THE K-L-A CANNOT TAKE MORE VOLUNTEERS IS BECAUSE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS EMBARGO. "SO WHAT IS THE POINT OF BRINGING IN RECRUITS FROM ABROAD," HE ASKS, "WHEN WE CAN'T EQUIP THEM WITH WEAPONS?"

    A WESTERN DIPLOMAT IN ALBANIA SPECIALIZING IN MILITARY AFFAIRS SAYS NATO BOMBERS AND APACHE ATTACK HELICOPTERS COULD BENEFIT GREATLY FROM AN INDIGENOUS FORCE ON THE GROUND HELPING TO LOCATE WELL-HIDDEN SERB TANKS AND ARTILLERY INSTALLATIONS. HE ADMITS THERE IS SOME COOPERATION, BUT SAYS MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO THE K-L-A IS PROHIBITED.

    K-L-A LEADERS COMPLAIN THE WEAPONS EMBARGO MEANS YOUNG FIGHTERS ARMED ONLY WITH A MOTLEY COLLECTION OF ANCIENT ASSAULT RIFLES AND SPORTING GUNS MUST DO BATTLE WITH A WELL-TRAINED AND WELL-EQUIPPED ARMY. SPOKESMAN VISAR REKA SAYS THE K-L-A HAS PLEADED IN VAIN WITH NATO FOR MILITARY AID.

    /// REKA ACT ///

    COOPERATION IS ONE SIDED FOR MOMENT, BECAUSE IT IS TRUE THAT THE K-L-A IS PROVIDING NATO WITH INFORMATION ABOUT SERB MILITARY POSITIONS AND MOVEMENTS. BUT IF WE EXCLUDE AIR STRIKES AS DIRECT HELP TO K-L-A, THEN COOPERATION IS ONE SIDED. IT'S NOT MUTUAL. WE HAVE NO DIRECT HELP OR ASSISTANCE FROM NATO.

    /// END ACT ///

    WESTERN ANALYSTS SAY EVEN WITHOUT OUTSIDE MILITARY SUPPORT, THE K-L-A HAS SOMETIMES SHOWN SURPRISING EFFECTIVENESS AND RESILIENCE IN THEIR FIGHT AGAINST THE SERBS. AS ONE DIPLOMAT SAID, NOBODY KNOWS THE TERRAIN BETTER THAN THE KOSOVARS DO.

    AND WHILE THEY ARE HAVING A DIFFICULT TIME ON THE BATTLEFIELD, THE K-L-A HAS WON AN IMPORTANT POLITICAL VICTORY, FORCING THEIR INSURGENCY IN A CORNER OF EUROPE TO THE TOP OF THE INTERNATIONAL AGENDA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH
    30-Apr-99 5:19 AM EDT (0919 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KOSOVO / RIGHTS (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248796
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE HEAD OF THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE, MARY ROBINSON, HAS CONDEMNED WHAT SHE CALLS A PATTERN OF ETHNIC CLEANSING BY SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS MS. ROBINSON -- IN A SPEECH TO THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION -- ALSO CRITICIZED NATO BOMBING ATTACKS IN YUGOSLAVIA, WHICH HAVE KILLED MANY CIVILIANS.

    TEXT: U-N HUMAN RIGHTS CHIEF MARY ROBINSON SAYS THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO HAS VICTIMIZED INNOCENT PEOPLE ON ALL SIDES -- SERBS AS WELL AS KOSOVARS AND OTHER NATIONALITIES.

    SHE SAYS THERE IS A LOT OF EVIDENCE THAT SERB FORCES HAVE DELIBERATELY DESTROYED THE HOMES AND PROPERTY OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND LOOTED THEIR PERSONAL BELONGINGS. SHE SAYS HER HUMAN RIGHTS INVESTIGATORS HAVE BEEN GATHERING REFUGEE TESTIMONY ABOUT KILLINGS, RAPES, AND FORCED EXPULSIONS BY THE SERBS.

    THE HUMAN RIGHTS CHIEF SAYS IT IS HARD TO AVOID THE CONCLUSION THAT A PATTERN OF ETHNIC CLEANSING IS BEING CARRIED OUT WITH WHAT SHE CALLS COLD-BLOODED DETERMINATION.

    /// ROBINSON ACT ONE ///

    UNLESS DIPLOMACY SUCCEEDS, KOSOVO WILL BE THOROUGHLY CLEANSED OF ALBANIANS WHILE SERBS WILL, ON PRESENT PERFORMANCE, BE BOMBED WITHOUT END. THERE MUST BE A BETTER WAY. I CALL FOR REASON TO PREVAIL ON ALL SIDES AND FOR A RETURN TO DIPLOMACY AND PEACEMAKING. I CALL FOR AN IMMEDIATE END TO ETHNIC CLEANSING.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// OPT ///

    MS. ROBINSON URGES THE GOVERNMENT OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO DECLARE UNEQUIVOCALLY THAT EVERY REFUGEE AND DISPLACED PERSON WILL BE ENTITLED TO RETURN TO HIS OR HER HOME IN SAFETY. /// END OPT ///

    SHE ALSO CRITICIZES NATO'S BOMBING CAMPAIGN WHICH, SHE SAYS, HAS INFLICTED A GREAT DEAL OF DAMAGE ON YUGOSLAVIA'S CIVILIAN POPULATION.

    /// ROBINSON ACT TWO ///

    IN THE NATO BOMBING OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA, LARGE NUMBERS OF CIVILIANS HAVE INCONTESTABLY BEEN KILLED, CIVILIAN INSTALLATIONS TARGETED ON THE BASIS THAT THEY ARE OR COULD BE OF MILITARY APPLICATION, AND NATO REMAINS THE SOLE JUDGE OF WHAT IS OR IS NOT ACCEPTABLE TO BOMB.

    /// END ACT ///

    MS. ROBINSON ESTIMATES THE NATO AIR STRIKES HAVE KILLED MORE THAN 500 PEOPLE IN YUGOSLAVIA AND HAVE INJURED MORE THAN FOUR-THOUSAND. SHE SAYS THE ATTACKS HAVE DESTROYED HOUSES, SCHOOLS, BRIDGES, WATER SUPPLIES, AND OTHER FACILITIES.

    /// OPT ///

    THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS CHIEF SAYS THOSE CARRYING OUT THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN SHOULD CONSIDER THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR ACTIONS ON YUGOSLAVIA'S CIVILIAN POPULATION. /// END OPT
    ///

    MS. ROBINSON WILL LEAVE SUNDAY FOR AN 11-DAY TRIP TO THE BALKANS. SHE HOPES TO MEET PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AT THE END OF HER VISIT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    30-Apr-99 10:42 AM EDT (1442 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] KOSOVO AID (L-ONLY) BY PETE HEINLEIN (DURRES, ALBANIA)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248818
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: HUMANITARIAN AGENCIES ARE COMPLAINING THAT AID SHIPMENTS INTENDED FOR KOSOVO REFUGEES ARE BEING DELAYED BY RED TAPE (BUREAUCRATIC OBSTACLES) AT ALBANIA'S LARGEST PORT, DURRES. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN WENT TO THE PORT, AND FOUND ANGRY AID WORKERS BATTLING IN VAIN AGAINST A PEN AND INK BUREAUCRACY (PLODDING).

    TEXT:

    ///SFX OF MEN UNLOADING GRAIN, THEN UNDER TO...///

    CHAOS REIGNS ALONG THE DOCKS OF DURRES. WHILE CREWS OF LONGSHOREMEN RUSH TO UNLOAD HUMANITARIAN CARGO, A LINE OF SHIPS LIES IDLE IN THE HARBOR, WAITING DAYS IN SOME CASES FOR THEIR TURN TO UNLOAD. ONCE THE GOODS ARE ON THE DOCKS, TRUCK DRIVERS OFTEN HAVE TO WAIT ADDITIONAL DAYS TO CLEAR THEIR SHIPMENTS THROUGH ALBANIA'S ANTIQUATED CUSTOMS SYSTEM.

    DEJECTED DRIVERS SIT SWEATING IN THE HOT ALBANIAN SUN, CURSING THE DELAYS.

    ///TRUCKERS ACT IN SLOVENIAN, THEN UNDER TO...///

    THIS TRUCKER, KEMAL DAUTOVICH, SHOWS US A DOCUMENT INDICATING HIS SHIPMENT OF BLANKETS, CLOTHING AND SHOES CAME FROM THE "SAVE THE CHILDREN" FOUNDATION IN BRITAIN, INTENDED FOR THE "CATHOLIC RELIEF SERVICES" IN TIRANA. HE SAYS CUSTOMS OFFICIALS HAVE REFUSED TO LET IT PASS BECAUSE THEY SAY THERE IS NO PROOF THE RECIPIENT WILL NOT SELL THE GOODS ON THE OPEN MARKET.

    MR. DAUTOVICH, A RESIDENT OF BOSNIA, SAYS HE HAS BEEN LIVING AT THE PORT FIVE DAYS WAITING FOR CLEARANCE.

    THE CRISIS STRUCK A MONTH AGO WHEN AID SHIPMENTS STARTED ARRIVING FOR THE INFLUX OF KOSOVO REFUGEES. OFFICIALS SAY THIS COUNTRY OF THREE AND A HALF MILLION PEOPLE -- THE POOREST IN EUROPE -- IS HOSTING NEARLY 370-THOUSAND REFUGEES. IT IS ALREADY STRETCHED TO THE BREAKING POINT.

    CUSTOMS OFFICIALS AT THE PORT SAY THEY ARE WORKING FROM MORNING TILL NIGHT DOING THE BEST THEY CAN TO GET AID MOVING TO THE REFUGEES. SUPERVISOR PANDI DURO HARDLY LOOKS UP FROM THE PILE OF PAPERS IN FRONT OF HIM AS HE EXPLAINS THE MOUNTAIN OF PROBLEMS HIS STAFF FACE.

    ///DURO ACT IN ALBANIAN, THEN FADE TO...///

    HE SAYS "THEY ARE ALL FOREIGNERS, AND FOREIGNERS DO NOT UNDERSTAND OUR REGULATIONS."

    WHEN ASKED IF ANYTHING COULD BE DONE TO SPEED UP THE PROCESSING OF AID SHIPMENTS, MR. DURO SHRUGS HIS SHOULDERS AND SAYS "WE'RE ALL AWARE OF THE EMERGENCY ALBANIA IS FACING, BUT WE CAN'T BREAK CUSTOMS PROCEDURES. WE HAVE TO FOLLOW THE RULES."

    RICK GRANT OF THE AID AGENCY "CARE" SAYS HE DOES NOT BELIEVE THE ALBANIAN CUSTOMS SERVICE IS CORRUPT, JUST SLOW.

    ///GRANT ACT///

    THE BIGGER PROBLEM IS BUREAUCRACY. THEY'VE GOT THIS REFINED TO A FINE OLD ART, I'LL TELL YOU. THIS IS A BUREAUCRACY THAT IS NOT MEAN MINDED. THERE'S NO MALICE BEHIND IT. BUT IT JUST TAKES FOREVER AND EVER TO GET ANYTHING DONE.

    ///END ACT///

    EVEN NATO HAS FOUND DIFFICULTIES IN GETTING HUMANITARIAN AID THROUGH THE DURRES PORT. ONE MEMBER OF THE ALLIANCE SENT ITS ASSISTANCE IN TRUCKS THAT WERE THEN TO BE DONATED TO ALBANIAN AID AGENCIES. BUT THE TRUCKS WERE HELD UP FOR DAYS IN THE PORT WHEN CUSTOMS OFFICIALS DEMANDED IMPORT DUTIES OF 25-HUNDRED DOLLARS PER TRUCK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JO
    30-Apr-99 6:01 PM EDT (2201 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] MACEDONIA / NEW CAMP (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CEGRANE, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248800
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NEWEST KOSOVAR REFUGEE CAMP OFFICIALLY OPENED IN MACEDONIA FRIDAY WITH TWICE AS MANY PEOPLE AS IT WAS BUILT TO HANDLE ALREADY CAMPED ON THE SITE. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM CEGRANE (CHEH GRAH NAY) CAMP ABOUT THE TENT CITY OF TEN THOUSAND THAT HAS SPRUNG UP IN THREE DAYS.

    TEXT: GERMAN SOLDIERS FROM NATO ARE RACING AGAINST THE CLOCK TO PUT UP MORE TENTS FOR ARRIVING REFUGEES. AS FAST THE TENTS GO UP, A KOSOVAR FAMILY IS THERE, WAITING TO MOVE IN. WITHIN 15 MINUTES LATE FRIDAY AFTERNOON ANOTHER 25 BUSES ARRIVED WITH ABOUT TWO-THOUSAND-500 MORE REFUGEES. THEY WERE COMING DIRECTLY FROM THE KOSOVO BORDER.

    THE NEW TENT CITY, WHICH SNAKES UP THE HILLSIDE ABOVE CEGRANE VILLAGE, IS SUPPOSED TO HOLD ABOUT TEN-THOUSAND REFUGEES. BUT ONLY HALF THE CAMP HAS BEEN COMPLETED SO FAR, AND NEARLY TEN-THOUSAND KOSOVAR REFUGEES ARE THERE ALREADY.

    U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SPOKESWOMAN PAULA GHEDINI SAYS THEY COULD NOT WAIT ANY LONGER.

    /// GHEDINI ACT ///

    WE KNOW WE'D RATHER DO THIS ONCE THE SANITATION, WATER, AND DRAINAGE FACILITIES WERE FULLY IN PLACE, BUT WE LITERALLY HAVE NO OTHER PLACE TO PUT THEM. AND TO PUT THEM INTO ANY OF THE OTHER CAMPS RIGHT NOW WOULD JUST SIMPLY MAKE THINGS WORSE.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// OPT ///

    MISS GHEDINI SAYS MORE SERVICES WILL BE INSTALLED IN THE NEXT FEW DAYS, BUT RIGHT NOW SHELTER IS MOST IMPORTANT.

    /// END OPT ///

    THE REFUGEES NOW IN CEGRANE HAVE BEEN ARRIVING FROM KOSOVO DURING THE PAST TWO DAYS.

    /// OPT ///

    ONE YOUNG MOTHER WAITING IN LINE TO SEE A MEDICAL TEAM HAD LEFT HER VILLAGE NEAR PRISTINA AT SEVEN IN THE MORNING FRIDAY WHEN SERB POLICE ORDERED EVERYONE ONTO BUSES BOUND FOR THE BORDER. /// END OPT ///

    MISS GHEDINI SAYS THERE IS NO WAY TO TELL HOW MANY MORE REFUGEES WILL CROSS IN THE COMING DAYS. NEARLY TEN-THOUSAND HAVE ENTERED MACEDONIA IN THE PAST TWO DAYS ALONE.

    /// GHEDINI ACT ///

    WE NEVER KNOW WHAT'S HAPPENING IN TERMS OF WHY THE TAP WILL SUDDENLY OPEN. BUT IT'S DEFINITELY OPEN BECAUSE PEOPLE ARE COMING IN FROM VARIOUS ENTRY POINTS, NOT JUST BLACE (BORDER CROSSING). IT'S FROM ABOUT SIX DIFFERENT MUNICIPALITIES AND IN FACT SOME OF THE PEOPLE ARE COMING IN FROM PROSEVA IN SERBIA PROPER -- IT'S AN ALBANIAN AREA OF SERBIA. BUT THE FACT IS, IT SHOWS THE CONFLICT IS INDEED SPREADING.

    /// END ACT ///

    MACEDONIAN AUTHORITIES SAY THEY HAVE TAKEN IN MORE THAN 180-THOUSAND REFUGEES ALREADY. AN ESTIMATED 90-THOUSAND HAVE FOUND SHELTER IN PRIVATE HOMES WITHIN MACEDONIA'S ETHNIC ALBANIAN COMMUNITY. BUT NEARLY 90-THOUSAND ARE SQUEEZED INTO SEVEN REFUGEE CAMPS.

    MACEDONIA SAYS IT CAN NOT BUILD ANY MORE AND HAS URGED OTHER EUROPEAN NATIONS TO ALSO PROVIDE TEMPORARY SHELTER AND HELP TO EASE THE BURDEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    30-Apr-99 12:58 PM EDT (1658 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] U-N COUNCIL / KOSOVO (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248820
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A RESOLUTION WAS INTRODUCED IN THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL TODAY (FRIDAY) CALLING FOR STEPPED-UP HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE TO DISPLACED PEOPLE IN AND AROUND YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. V-O-A'S U-N CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE PROPOSED RESOLUTION MARKS ONE OF THE FIRST PUBLIC EFFORTS TO INVOLVE THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS. THE RESOLUTION CALLS ON INTERNATIONAL RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS TO ASSIST INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN KOSOVO, MONTENEGRO AND OTHER PARTS OF YUGOSLAVIA. IT CALLS ON YUGOSLAVIA TO PROVIDE RELIEF WORKERS WITH ACCESS TO THOSE REGIONS. AND IT URGES U-N MEMBER STATES TO CONTRIBUTE RESOURCES FOR HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE.

    THE DRAFT RESOLUTION DOES NOT MENTION NATO AND AVOIDS THE POLITICAL AND MILITARY ISSUES THAT HAVE DIVIDED KEY COUNCIL MEMBERS ON THE SUBJECT OF KOSOVO. THE COUNCIL IS DIVIDED OVER WHETHER THE NATO STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA ARE JUSTIFIED. RUSSIA AND CHINA OPPOSE THE STRIKES. MOST OTHER MEMBER STATES SUPPORT THEM.

    THE DRAFT RESOLUTION WAS INTRODUCED BY GABON ON BEHALF OF THE 113 NATIONS BELONGING TO THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT. THE COUNCIL IS EXPECTED TO HOLD CLOSED-DOOR DISCUSSIONS ON THE DRAFT RESOLUTION NEXT WEEK.

    THE DRAFT RESOLUTION WAS INTRODUCED ON THE SAME DAY THAT U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN RETURNED TO NEW YORK AFTER A VISIT TO MOSCOW, WHERE HE ATTEMPTED TO LAY THE GROUNDWORK FOR A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    SENIOR U-N OFFICIALS INDICATE THE TRIP WAS GENERALLY SUCCESSFUL. THEY SAY A CONSENSUS IN SUPPORT OF A NEGOTIATED POLITICAL SOLUTION IS EMERGING. BUT THEY SAY IT WILL TAKE TIME TO DEVELOP. THEY SAY RUSSIAN OFFICIALS MADE IT CLEAR TO MR. ANNAN THAT THEY ARE CONVINCED YUGOSLAVIA WILL NOT STOP ITS CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO AS A RESULT OF THE NATO AIR STRIKES.

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE MOST DIFFICULT ISSUES NOW ARE TO DETERMINE THE CHARACTER OF A PROPOSED INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE FOR KOSOVO, THE PROCEDURES UNDER WHICH SUCH A FORCE WOULD BE DEPLOYED AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH YUGOSLAV ARMED PERSONNEL WOULD WITHDRAW FROM THE PROVINCE. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/PT
    30-Apr-99 5:57 PM EDT (2157 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] UNHCR KOSOVO REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248794
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE AGENCY, U-N-H-C-R, SAYS THOUSANDS OF NEW REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO ARE POURING INTO ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA, PUTTING FURTHER STRAINS ON CAMPS WHICH ARE ALREADY HOPELESSLY OVERCROWDED. LISA SCHLEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA.

    TEXT: THE U-N SAYS THE LATEST WAVE OF REFUGEES TELL OF MORE ATROCITIES CONFIRMING THAT SERB AUTHORITIES ARE ENGAGED IN DELIBERATELY RIDDING KOSOVO OF ITS ETHNIC ALBANIAN POPULATION.

    U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS AN ESTIMATED 18-HUNDRED PEOPLE CROSSED INTO NORTHERN ALBANIA LATE THURSDAY AFTERNOON. MOST CAME FROM THE TOWN OF PRIZREN. MR. JANOWSKI SAYS SERB AUTHORITIES NOW APPEAR TO BE DELIBERATELY TARGETING INTELLECTUALS AND PROFESSIONALS, FORCING OUT ENGINEERS, TEACHERS, DOCTORS, NURSES AND OTHERS IN PROFESSIONS.

    ///JANOWSKI ACT///

    FROM THEIR TESTIMONIES, THE PICTURE THAT EMERGES IS THAT THE SERBIAN AUTHORITIES ARE TRYING TO EMPTY THE TOWN OF ALL UNDESIRABLES, AS THEY SEE THEM, AND ARE ESSENTIALLY PUSHING THEM OUT OF THE COUNTRY.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. JANOWSKI SAYS WELL OVER SEVEN-THOUSAND REFUGEES ARRIVED IN MACEDONIA ON THURSDAY, ADDING MORE MISERY TO THOSE ALREADY IN THE OVERCROWDED CAMPS. HE SAYS THE SERBS APPEAR TO BE CHANNELING UP TO FOUR TIMES AS MANY REFUGEES TO MACEDONIA THAN TO ALBANIA. MR. JANOWSKI SAYS BUSES TRANSPORTED THE REFUGEES ALL NIGHT TO A NEW CAMP -- CALLED CEGRANE -- WHICH IS STILL UNDER CONSTRUCTION.

    ///SECOND JANOWSKI ACT///

    SOME PEOPLE HAD TO SPEND THE NIGHT IN THE OPEN. WE PUT IN NEW TENTS THERE HASTILY. THE CAMP ALREADY HOLDS OVER SEVEN-THOUSAND PEOPLE WHICH IS HALF OF ITS ULTIMATE CAPACITY EVEN BEFORE IT HAS BEEN FINISHED. SO THE SITUATION IN MACEDONIA CONTINUES TO BE CRITICAL IN TERMS OF OVERCROWDING.

    ///END ACT///

    AT THE RATE THE REFUGEES ARE NOW ARRIVING IN MACEDONIA, MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THE CEGRANE CAMP WILL BE FULL IN NO TIME. HE SAYS THE WEATHER IS EXTREMELY HOT, WHICH NOT ONLY CAUSES DISCOMFORT BUT HEIGHTENS THE PROSPECT OF DISEASE SPREADING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/PCF
    30-Apr-99 10:19 AM EDT (1419 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] CLINTON-KOSOVO (L) BY PAULA WOLFSON (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248808
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE WHITE HOUSE SAYS A NEW PROPOSAL ON KOSOVO BY YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS NOT ENOUGH TO END THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS.

    TEXT: FEW WESTERN JOURNALISTS ARE PERMITTED IN BELGRADE, BUT ONE WAS INVITED IN FOR A TWO-HOUR INTERVIEW WITH THE YUGOSLAV LEADER.

    MR. MILOSEVIC USED THE OCCASION TO SPELL OUT A SIX-POINT PLAN TO END THE CONFLICT. HE TOLD THE PRESIDENT OF UNITED PRESS INTERNATIONAL [ARNAUD DE BORCHGRAVE] HE WANTS TO SEE THE HOSTILITIES STOP, AND IS WILLING TO PULL MOST OF HIS TROOPS OUT OF KOSOVO.

    MR. MILOSEVIC SAYS THE WITHDRAWAL SHOULD OCCUR IN TANDEM WITH A PULL-BACK OF NATO FORCES IN BORDER AREAS OF ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA, AS A U-N PEACEKEEPING MISSION MOVES INTO KOSOVO.

    BUT THERE WERE CONDITIONS ATTACHED -- TOO MANY FOR THE WHITE HOUSE.

    /// LOCKHART ACT ///

    IT'S SOMETHING THAT IS CLEARLY INADEQUATE.

    /// END ACT ///

    SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART SAYS THE LATEST PROPOSAL FROM BELGRADE FALLS FAR SHORT OF MEETING NATO'S DEMANDS.

    /// OPT SECOND LOCKHART ACT ///

    ALL OF THE FORCES NEED TO LEAVE. THE REFUGEES NEED TO BE ALLOWED IN AND AN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCE WITH NATO AT ITS CORE NEEDS TO BE THERE TO SECURE IT.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    MR. LOCKHART SAYS THE BOMBING MISSION WILL CONTINUE AND INTENSIFY UNTIL CONDITIONS SET BY THE ALLIANCE ARE MET. AND HE SAYS IT APPEARS THE STEPPED-UP MILITARY ACTION IS HAVING AN IMPACT ON SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    /// THIRD LOCKHART ACT ///

    I THINK ANYONE CAN UNDERSTAND AFTER SPENDING LAST NIGHT IN BELGRADE WHY SOMEONE MIGHT WANT TO LOOK FOR A WAY OUT.

    /// END ACT ///

    EARLIER, THE WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCED PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL STOP IN BRUSSELS ON WEDNESDAY, ON HIS WAY TO VISIT WITH U-S TROOPS IN GERMANY. MR. CLINTON ALSO PLANS TO MEET WITH KOSOVO REFUGEES AND AID WORKERS DURING HIS BRIEF STAY ON GERMAN SOIL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/LTD/WTW
    30-Apr-99 3:24 PM EDT (1924 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [13] CLINTON-KOSOVO LAWSUIT (S-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248812
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S POLICY ON KOSOVO IS BEING CHALLENGED IN COURT BY SOME OF THE SAME LAWMAKERS WHO RECENTLY BATTERED HIM IN CONGRESS. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: IN A SUIT FILED (FRIDAY) IN FEDERAL COURT, 17 HOUSE MEMBERS CHARGE THE AIR WAR ON BELGRADE IS UNCONSTITUTIONAL. THE LEADER OF THE GROUP, REPUBLICAN TOM CAMPBELL, SAYS THE PRESIDENT MUST EITHER OBTAIN PERMISSION FROM CONGRESS FOR THE STRIKES, OR PULL U-S FORCES OUT.

    MR. CAMPBELL ALSO PRESSED FOR A WITHDRAWAL ON THE HOUSE FLOOR THIS WEEK. WHILE THAT EFFORT FELL SHORT, THE HOUSE DID VOTE TO RESTRICT THE POSSIBLE USE OF GROUND TROOPS AND REFUSED TO ENDORSE THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN. THOSE ACTIONS ARE STILL DRAWING FIRE FROM MR. CLINTON'S SUPPORTERS, LIKE DEMOCRATIC SENATOR JOHN KERRY.

    // KERRY ACT //

    WHAT HAPPENED YESTERDAY (EDS: WEDNESDAY) WAS GUTLESS AND CRAVEN. AND IT HAS A PROFOUND EFFECT ON THE NATIONAL ATTITUDE ABOUT THIS KIND OF A SERIOUS ISSUE.

    // END ACT //

    HOWEVER, THE LAWSUIT SEEMS UNLIKELY TO HAVE MUCH IMPACT. DEMOCRATS TRIED THE SAME TACTIC DURING THE PERSIAN GULF WAR AND IT FAILED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/PT
    30-Apr-99 4:57 PM EDT (2057 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [14] HOUSE VOTES CAST DOUBT ON U-S BALKAN RESOLVE BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/30/99
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11267
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: A NEW DEBATE HAS SPRUNG UP IN THE UNITED STATES PRESS REGARDING SEVERAL VOTES TAKEN THIS WEEK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, REGARDING THE CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS. IN THREE SEPARATE VOTES, THE HOUSE DENIED FUNDS FOR U-S PARTICIPATION IN A GROUND WAR WITHOUT FURTHER PRESIDENTIAL EXPLANATION, TIED ON SUPPORTING THE CURRENT NATO AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, AND TURNED DOWN A DECLARATION OF WAR.

    IN A FOURTH VOTE, THE MEMBERS VOTED AGAINST WITHDRAWING U-S TROOPS ALREADY INVOLVED IN THE CONFLICT. MANY U-S PAPERS ARE SUGGESTING THESE VOTES MAY SEND A CONFUSING SIGNAL TO BOTH OUR EUROPEAN ALLIES AND TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. OTHER NEWSPAPERS SUGGEST THE VOTES REPRESENT A FAILURE OF LEADERSHIP ON THE PART OF PRESIDENT CLINTON.

    WE GET A SAMPLING OF COMMENT NOW FROM ___________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: WE BEGIN IN BALTIMORE, WHERE "THE SUN" WRITES.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// SERBIA'S DICTATOR SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC COULD TAKE NO COMFORT FROM THE NATO SUMMIT, WHICH DISPLAYED UNANIMOUS RESOLVE FOR THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN TO REVERSE HIS DEPOPULATION OF KOSOVO. HE GOT IT INSTEAD FROM THE U-S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES' MUDDLED VOTING WEDNESDAY. ... /// END OPT /// WHAT THE HOUSE DID N O T DO WAS REPUDIATE SERBIA'S GENOCIDE, ENDORSE NATO'S DECISIONS, SUPPORT THE U-S PERSONNEL IN HARM'S WAY OR OFFER AN ALTERNATIVE POLICY. ... REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS IN EQUALLY SUBSTANTIAL NUMBERS CROSSED PARTY LINES. THIS WAS CONGRESSIONAL, NOT OPPOSITION REPUBLICAN, IRRESPONSIBILITY. /// OPT /// THE WHITE HOUSE DOES NOT GET HIGH MARKS IN FOREIGN POLICY ... BUT CONGRESS GETS A FAILING GRADE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THE KANSAS CITY STAR WONDERS IN ITS EDITORIAL IF THE HOUSE VOTE "SENDS ENCOURAGEMENT TO BELGRADE."

    VOICE: THE HOUSE HAS TAKEN DANGEROUS AND DEMORALIZING ACTION BY FAILING, ON A TIE VOTE,TO SUPPORT A NATO AIR CAMPAIGN THAT HAS BEEN UNDER WAY FOR WEEKS. ALTHOUGH THEIR ACTION NOW SHOULD HAVE LITTLE AFFECT ON THE WAR, IT SENT A TERRIBLE MESSAGE OF ENCOURAGEMENT TO THE BLOODTHIRSTY YUGOSLAV REGIME.

    TEXT: IN NEBRASKA, "OMAHA'S WORLD-HERALD" SAYS "TENSION BETWEEN CONGRESS AND THE WHITE HOUSE OVER KOSOVO IS HEALTHY," CONTINUING:

    VOICE: SINCE THE VIETNAM WAR THERE HAS BEEN A RUNNING ARGUMENT BETWEEN THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES ABOUT THE POWER TO COMMIT U-S FORCES IN HOSTILE SITUATIONS. ... THE PRESIDENT IS NOT A MONARCH WHO CAN MAKE WAR ARBITRARILY. /// OPT /// THERE IS NO CLEAR THRESHOLD WHERE A PROJECTION OF FORCE TO ASSERT A FOREIGN POLICY INTEREST BECOMES AN ACT OF WAR. THAT'S PROBABLY FOR THE BEST. ... ON THE OTHER HAND, THE ASSAULT ON YUGOSLAVIA IS NOT A QUICK, LIMITED STRIKE LIKE THOSE ON SUSPECTED TERRORIST BASES IN AFGHANISTAN AND SUDAN. ... STILL, THE HOUSE DEBATE SERVED A PURPOSE. 'I WOULD HOPE,' SAID HOUSE SPEAKER DENNIS HASTERT OF ILLINOIS, 'THAT THE PRESIDENT WOULD TAKE THIS DIVERSE DEBATE AS A SIGNAL THAT HE SHOULD BETTER EXPLAIN THE GOALS, THE COSTS AND THE LONG-TERM STRATEGY.' /// END OPT /// THE HOUSE IS ENTITLED TO DEMAND AN ACCOUNTING FOR WHAT THE UNITED STATES IS DOING IN THE BALKANS ...

    TEXT: IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA, "THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE" IS ALSO WORRIED ABOUT THE MESSAGE SENT OVERSEAS BY THE VOTING.

    VOICE: IT WOULD BE REGRETTABLE IF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC INTERPRETED THE HOUSE'S REJECTION OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S AIR-WAR STRATEGY AS A WEAKENING OF AMERICAN RESOLVE.

    /// OPT ///

    A FIVE-WEEK, U-S-LED NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN HAS UTTERLY FAILED TO CRUSH [MR.] MILOSEVIC AND HAS EVEN CONTRIBUTED TO HIS GROWING SUPPORT AMONG THE YUGOSLAVIAN PEOPLE ... [PRESIDENT] CLINTON PAINTED HIMSELF INTO A CORNER EARLY ON WITH HIS VOW THAT NO GROUND TROOPS WOULD BE USED, AN IMPRUDENT TIP-OFF TO [MR.] MILOSEVIC THAT HE COULD PURGE KOSOVO OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS WITHOUT FEAR OF INFANTRY OPPOSITION. ... FINALLY, AFTER SITTING BY FOR WEEKS AS SPECTATORS, HOUSE MEMBERS HAD THEIR FIRST FORMAL DEBATE ON THE WAR WEDNESDAY WHEN THEY VOTED TO BAN U-S GROUND FORCES FROM COMBAT WITHOUT CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL. ... AMERICA IS NOT SPEAKING WITH A SINGLE VOICE. CONGRESS IS DIVIDED, ECHOING GROWING PUBLIC DOUBTS ABOUT THE MISSION, THE STRATEGY AND U-S INTERESTS IN THE BALKANS. /// END OPT /// ... THE DIVISIVENESS OF THE HOUSE DEBATE SHOWS [MR.] CLINTON HAS FAILED TO PROVIDE THE PERSUASIVE AND DECISIVE LEADERSHIP SO NECESSARY FOR SUCH A COMPLEX AND DIFFICULT WAR.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: FOR ITS PART, '"THE WASHINGTON POST" SOUNDS DISGUSTED WITH THE NATION'S LAWMAKERS, AS IT COMMENTS ON THE VARIOUS VOTES:

    VOICE: IN OTHER WORDS, DON'T VOTE FOR THE WAR; DON'T VOTE TO STOP THE WAR; DON'T TAKE RESPONSIBILITY IN ANY WAY. COWARDICE TRIUMPHED OVER PRINCIPLE. /// OPT /// ... THERE ARE NO EASY OPTIONS IN KOSOVO; THERE WERE NONE FIVE WEEKS AGO, EITHER, WHEN THE ADMINISTRATION BEGAN ITS CAMPAIGN. BUT IN THE INTERVENING PERIOD, SOMETHING FUNDAMENTAL HAS CHANGED; MR. MILOSEVIC HAS ORCHESTRATED ONE OF THE MOST BRUTAL AND SWIFT CAMPAIGNS OF ETHNICALLY-BASED MURDER, RAPE AND FORCED EXPULSION SINCE WORLD WAR TWO. MANY HOUSE MEMBERS ...VOTED ... AS IF THAT, TOO, CAN BE WISHED AWAY./// END OPT ///

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: AND IN NEW YORK, "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" EDITORIAL PAGE, LONG EXTREMELY CRITICAL OF MR. CLINTON, RALLIES TO HIS DEFENSE ON THIS ISSUE.

    VOICE: THE ATMOSPHERE IN WASHINGTON TODAY IS PERFECTLY AWFUL. WEDNESDAY'S VOTES IN THE HOUSE ON THE KOSOVO CONFLICT COME ABOUT AS CLOSE AS WE GET UNDER OUR SYSTEM TO A NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE ... /// OPT /// BUT THIS ISN'T INDIA, AND THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ISN'T GOING TO FALL ANYTIME BEFORE JANUARY TWO-THOUSAND-AND-ONE. WHEN THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ELECT A PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS, THEY EXPECT A FULL TERM'S WORK, NOT TWO YEARS OF WHEEL-SPINNING AND MUTUAL RECRIMINATION AMID A MAJOR MILITARY CONFRONTATION. ... THERE IS A LOT OF TALK IN THE AIR AMONG SERIOUS PEOPLE ABOUT JUST WHAT CONSTITUTES THE U-S NATIONAL INTEREST IN THE BALKANS. /// END OPT

    /// THIS IS A WORTHY AND IMPORTANT DEBATE. BUT FOR ALL THE IDEOLOGICAL FISSURES OPENING OVER KOSOVO, THE ONE ASPECT WE'RE CERTAIN OF IS THAT IT IS NEVER IN THIS COUNTRY'S NATIONAL INTEREST TO HAVE ITS PRESIDENCY CUT ADRIFT. /// OPT /// A LOT OF ILL WILL HAS WASHED OVER THE FALLS DURING THE CLINTON YEARS, AND NO DOUBT IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO AVOID POLITICAL CALCULATION ON BOTH SIDES AS A BIG ELECTION APPROACHES TO DETERMINE CONTROL OF THE WHITE HOUSE AND CONGRESS. BUT SURELY BOTH SIDES CAN RECOGNIZE THE SERIOUS DANGERS TO THE UNITED STATES OF TRYING TO LUCK OUR WAY THROUGH ALMOST TWO YEARS IN A LEADERSHIP VACUUM. THERE ARE MANY HONORABLE WAYS FOR REPUBLICANS TO WIN BACK THE WHITE HOUSE, BUT THIS ISN'T ONE OF THEM. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: BACK IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA, "THE SAN JOSE MERCURY NEWS" TAKES A VERY DIFFERENT VIEW, EXCLAIMING:

    VOICE: THANK GOD FOR CONGRESS. /// OPT /// CLARITY WE DID NOT GET, DESPITE A GAME [ERNEST] EFFORT BY TOM CAMPBELL, A REPUBLICAN FROM HERE, TO IMPOSE SOME LOGIC. /// END OPT

    /// ... IF THE HOUSE WAS DIVIDED, SO IS THE AMERICAN PUBLIC. WE DISLIKE DOING NOTHING AS SERBS PERSECUTE ETHNIC ALBANIANS. BUT WE ARE FRUSTRATED THAT THE BOMBING HAS NOT HALTED THIS SO-CALLED 'ETHNIC CLEANSING,' YET HAS KILLED AND WOUNDED INNOCENT CIVILIANS. /// OPT /// WE ARE SHARPLY DIVIDED ABOUT USING AMERICAN SOLDIERS TO INVADE. YOU CAN'T FAIRLY BLAME CONGRESS FOR NOT LEADING US THROUGH THIS THICKET. THAT'S NOT ITS JOB. LEADERSHIP MUST COME FROM THE PRESIDENT. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, FROM "THE NEW YORK POST" WHICH FAULTS THE LEADERSHIP OF BILL CLINTON:

    VOICE: /// OPT /// ... THE FAULT HERE IS BILL CLINTON'S BECAUSE HE HAS SHOWN NO SIGNS THAT HE IS PROSECUTING A CAMPAIGN AGAINST SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. A BIPARTISAN GROUP OF LEGISLATORS HAD, THEREFORE, DELIVERED A VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE IN BILL CLINTON'S POLICY. ... IT HAS BECOME ABUNDANTLY CLEAR OVER THE PAST FEW WEEKS THAT THE WHITE HOUSE IS IN GENUINE CRISIS. /// END OPT /// [MR.] CLINTON, WHO ONCE DECLARED THAT HE LOATHED THE MILITARY, IS UNABLE OR UNWILLING TO EXERCISE HIS CONSTITUTIONAL ROLE AS COMMANDER IN CHIEF. ... THE ANSWER TO THIS CRISIS IS LEADERSHIP - - A QUALITY BILL CLINTON HAS NOT HERETOFORE SHOWN. IT'S NOT TOO LATE FOR HIM TO START - - BUT THE CLOCK IS TICKING.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL COMMENT ON THE VOTES THIS WEEK IN CONGRESS ON THE BALKAN WAR.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    30-Apr-99 1:50 PM EDT (1750 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] SENATE-KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248803
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // EDITORS: CAN BE USED THROUGHOUT THE WEEKEND //

    INTRO: THE U-S CONGRESS IS HEADED FOR ANOTHER VOTE ON THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO (MONDAY) -- THIS TIME ON WHETHER TO AUTHORIZE PRESIDENT CLINTON TO SEND IN GROUND TROOPS. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS ON THE RESOLUTION FACING THE SENATE.

    TEXT: THE MEASURE SIMPLY DECLARES THE PRESIDENT, WORKING TOGETHER WITH NATO, IS AUTHORIZED TO USE ALL NECESSARY FORCE TO PREVAIL IN THE BALKAN WAR. WHILE IT HAS BIPARTISAN BACKING, THE IDEA HAS ALSO DRAWN OPPOSITION FROM THOSE WHO CALL IT AT BEST PREMATURE AND AT WORST DANGEROUSLY BROAD.

    A SHARPLY DIVIDED FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE (FRIDAY) HAS SENT THE PROPOSAL ON TO THE FULL SENATE, WITH NO RECOMMENDATION ON WHETHER IT SHOULD PASS OR FAIL. THE PANEL'S CHAIRMAN, REPUBLICAN JESSE HELMS, IS AMONG THE CRITICS, SAYING MR. CLINTON SHOULD GO TO CONGRESS FOR APPROVAL -- NOT THE OTHER WAY AROUND.

    // HELMS ACT //

    AND I FEEL THAT GIVING THE PRESIDENT CARTE BLANCHE (COMPLETE FREEDOM) TO DO WHATEVER HE WANTS IN KOSOVO WITHOUT FIRST COMING TO CONGRESS TO EXPLAIN HIS MISSION AND ASK FOR AUTHORIZATION IS NOT A SOLUTION FOR THE PRESIDENT'S FAILURE TO FOLLOW THE CONSTITUTION.

    // END ACT //

    THE RESOLUTION'S SUPPORTERS ARGUE IT WOULD STRENGTHEN THE PRESIDENT'S HAND, EVEN THOUGH HE SAYS HAS NO INTENTION OF USING GROUND FORCES. DEMOCRATIC SENATOR JOHN KERRY BLASTED THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, WHICH EARLIER THIS WEEK REFUSED TO ENDORSE THE ONGOING AIR CAMPAIGN.

    // KERRY ACT //

    WHAT HAPPENED YESTERDAY (WEDNESDAY) WAS GUTLESS AND CRAVEN. AND IT HAS PROFOUND IMPACT ON THE NATIONAL ATTITUDE ABOUT THIS KIND OF A SERIOUS ISSUE.

    // END ACT //

    WHEN THE SENATE VOTES ON MONDAY, IT IS LIKELY TO SET THE MEASURE ASIDE. ITS BACKERS SAY THIS SHOULD NOT BE READ AS A PERMANENT REJECTION OF GROUND TROOPS OR LACK OF SUPPORT FOR THE AIR WAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/LTD/JO
    30-Apr-99 2:26 PM EDT (1826 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] KOSOVO CONSEQUENCES BY LINDA CASHDAN (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43278
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE WORLD IS PREOCCUPIED WITH THE DAY-TO-DAY HAPPENINGS OF THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO, BUT ANALYSTS WARN THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN COULD AFFECT THE REGION AS A WHOLE AND LAST LONG AFTER THE CRISIS IS OVER. V-O-A ECONOMICS CORRESPONDENT LINDA CASHDAN REPORTS THESE MAY INCLUDE THE ERADICATION OF TRADITIONAL TRADE ROUTES AND A REALIGNMENT OF BUSINESS PARTNERS.

    TEXT: THE DANUBE, WHICH FLOWS THROUGH SERBIA, HAS LONG BEEN A MAIN ARTERY, A CRUCIAL COMMERCIAL LINK CONNECTING THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES, THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, AND WESTERN EUROPE.

    AMERICAN UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL LAW PROFESSOR PAUL WILLIAMS SAYS NATO BOMBING ALONG THE DANUBE IN SERBIA HAS ALREADY DISRUPTED THAT ECONOMIC LIFELINE. IN ADDITION, MR. WILLIAMS SAYS, CENTRAL EUROPE'S MAIN NORTH-SOUTH ROAD LINK THROUGH BELGRADE TO MACEDONIA AND GREECE HAS ALSO BEEN CUT, DESTROYING SERBIA'S TRADITIONAL IMPORTANCE AS A TRADE AND A TRANSIT POINT FOR ITS NEIGHBORS

    // WILLIAMS ACT //

    YUGOSLAVIA WAS ALSO IMPORTANT FOR ITS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, AND ITS LIGHT AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING AND I THINK YOU ARE GOING TO FIND THAT THIS ECONOMIC BASE IS GOING TO BE VERY DIFFICULT TO REGAIN, THAT IT WILL BE TRANSFERRED TO STATES SUCH AS SLOVAKIA, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, AND HUNGARY. I THINK IN THE LONG TERM THIS WILL BE AN ECONOMIC BOON FOR SOME OF THESE STATES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE AT THE EXPENSE OF SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO.

    // END 1ST ACT //

    JANUSZ BUGAJSKI (PRON: YAH-NOOSH' BOO-GUY'-SKEE), DIRECTOR OF EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES AT WASHINGTON'S CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, SAYS THE EFFECTS OF NATO'S PROPOSED OIL EMBARGO -- DESIGNED TO DEPRIVE THE SERBIAN MILITARY OF FUEL -- WILL SPREAD ACROSS THE BALKAN STATES. SOME WILL FIND THEIR OWN OIL SUPPLIES CUT OFF, HE SAYS. OTHER DEPEND ON TRANSIT REVENUES THEY RECEIVE FOR OIL PIPELINES THAT GO THROUGH THEIR COUNTRIES TO SERBIA.

    AT THE MOMENT, MR. BUGAJSKI SAYS, IT IS DIFFICULT TO OFFER A TRUE EVALUATION OF THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES BECAUSE THERE ARE TOO MANY VARIABLES. HE SAYS A LOT DEPENDS ON HOW QUICKLY THE WAR ENDS AND HOW SUCCESSFUL NATO IS.

    // BUGAJSKI ACT //

    IF THERE IS AN OUTRIGHT VICTORY ON NATO TERMS AND THE KOSOVARS ARE ABLE TO RETURN, I THINK ALREADY COUNTRIES (IN THE WEST) ARE PLEDGING SOME MAJOR RECONSTRUCTION ASSISTANCE, NOT JUST FOR KOSOVO, BUT ALSO FOR THE NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. AND I THINK SEVERAL COUNTRIES -- INCLUDING BULGARIA, CROATIA, AND ROMANIA CAN ACTUALLY PLUG INTO THE KIND OF RECONSTRUCTION INFRASTRUCTURE AND OTHER AREAS WHICH WOULD NEED TO BE ACCOMPLISHED OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS.

    // END 2ND ACT //

    IF, ON THE OTHER HAND, THE WAR DRAGS ON OR ENDS IN SOME UNCLEAR COMPROMISE, MR. BUGAJSKI SAYS, IT IS VERY POSSIBLE THAT SANCTIONS WILL BE MAINTAINED, THEREBY LENGTHENING THE REGIONAL SUFFERING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LC/GE
    30-Apr-99 10:59 AM EDT (1459 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [17] HUNGARY/NATO (L-ONLY) BY STEFAN BOS (BUDAPEST)

    DATE=4/29/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248776
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR ORBAN OF HUNGARY, THE ONLY NATO MEMBER STATE BORDERING SERBIA, SAYS HIS COUNTRY FACES DIFFICULT TIMES DUE TO THE BOMBING NEXT DOOR IN YUGOSLAVIA. AS STEFAN BOS REPORTS FROM BUDAPEST, HUNGARY IS CONCERNED ABOUT POSSIBLE SERB ATTACKS AND THE EFFECT THEY MAY HAVE ON ITS ECONOMY.

    TEXT: SPEAKING IN PARLIAMENT THURSDAY, PRIME MINISTER ORBAN SAID MANY HUNGARIANS ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE ON-GOING NATO AIR CAMPAIGN, AND THE POSSIBILITY OF SERB ATTACKS ACROSS THE YUGOSLAV BORDER. HUNGARY, WHICH BECAME A FULL MEMBER OF NATO LESS THAN TWO MONTHS AGO, HAS GIVEN THE ALLIANCE PERMISSION TO USE ITS AIR SPACE AND AIRFIELDS, AND NATO IS PREPARING TO BASE 20 TANKER PLANES IN THE COUNTRY, TO SUPPORT WAR PLANES FLYING OVER YUGOSLAVIA.

    THERE HAVE BEEN NO CLASHES SO FAR, BUT DEFENSE OFFICIALS HERE SAY TWO SERB FIGHTER PLANES RECENTLY VIOLATED HUNGARY'S AIR SPACE.

    PRIME MINISTER ORBAN SAYS HE IS ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT POSSIBLE SERB ACTION AGAINST AN ESTIMATED 350-THOUSAND ETHNIC HUNGARIANS LIVING IN THE SERB PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA. HE SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS TO ACT TO STOP WHAT HE DESCRIBES AS VIOLATIONS OF BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS.

    /// ORBAN ACT IN HUNGARIAN -- ESTABLISH, FADE UNDER ///

    MR. ORBAN SAYS ALL AGGRESSION AGAINST HUNGARIANS LIVING IN VOJVODINA MUST STOP, AND HE ADDS THAT NO FORM OF ETHNIC CLEANSING CAN BE TOLERATED IN THE REGION.

    THE PRIME MINISTER INDICATES HE EXPECTS NATO TO PROVIDE SECURITY FOR HUNGARY AND THE ETHNIC HUNGARIANS LIVING IN YUGOSLAVIA. BUT THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY IS APPARENTLY NOT CONVINCED.

    ANALYSTS SAY HUNGARY'S DIFFICULT SECURITY SITUATION IS HARMING THE COUNTRY'S VITAL TOURIST INDUSTRY.

    ALTHOUGH THE TOURIST SEASON HAS JUST BEGUN, DOZENS OF TOURS AND CONFERENCES HAVE BEEN CANCELLED SINCE THE NATO BOMBING BEGAN.

    DAMAGE TO REFINERIES IN SERBIA HAS CUT INCOME FOR HUNGARY'S OIL AND GAS MONOPOLY (MOL), WHICH RELAYS ENERGY SUPPLIES FROM RUSSIA TO YUGOSLAVIA. AND BOMB DAMAGE TO DANUBE RIVER BRIDGES IN SERBIA HAS AFFECTED BARGE SHIPMENTS PASSING THROUGH HUNGARY.

    DESPITE THESE DIFFICULTIES, PRIME MINISTER ORBAN SAID IN A RECENT INTERVIEW, MOST HUNGARIANS STILL SUPPORT THEIR COUNTRY'S NATO MEMBERSHIP.

    /// OPT ORBAN ACT IN ENGLISH ///

    THE HUNGARIAN PUBLIC DECIDED ITSELF ON NATO MEMBERSHIP. HUNGARY IS THE ONLY COUNTRY WHERE A REFERENDUM CREATED A DECISION ABOUT JOINING OR NOT. A CONVINCING MAJORITY SAID YES, IT WAS ABOUT 85 PERCENT.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    STILL, MR. ORBAN HOPES THE NATO BOMBING WILL END SOON -- POSSIBLY IF RUSSIA'S PEACE INITIATIVE IS SUCCESSFUL -- ENABLING THE PEOPLE OF YUGOSLAVIA AND NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES TO REBUILD THEIR SCATTERED LIVES ONCE AGAIN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SB/WTW
    29-Apr-99 8:25 PM EDT (0025 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [18] YUGOSLAVIA ECONOMY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248821
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A GROUP OF ECONOMISTS SAYS THE DAMAGE FROM NATO'S AERIAL BOMBARDMENT OF YUGOSLAVIA HAS HAD A DEVASTATING IMPACT ON THE ALREADY DEPRESSED ECONOMY OF SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD HAS MORE.

    TEXT: THE ECONOMISTS CALL THEMSELVES THE GROUP OF 17 AND ARE LED BY MLADJAN DINKIC, A PROFESSOR AT BELGRADE UNIVERSITY. THE GROUP HAS LONG BEEN CRITICAL OF THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT. ITS MEMBERS INCLUDE ECONOMISTS AT THE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

    BUT IN A STATEMENT, THE GROUP SAYS THE BOMBARDMENT IS DESTROYING THE CIVILIAN ECONOMY AND PUNISHING THE ENTIRE YUGOSLAV NATION. MR. DINKIC CALLS THE BOMBING AN ECONOMIC AND HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE. THE GROUP BELIEVES THE DAMAGE FROM FIVE WEEKS OF ALLIED BOMBING IS GREATER THAN THAT ENDURED BY YUGOSLAVIA DURING WORLD WAR TWO.

    MR. DINKIC AND HIS COLLEAGUES SAY THE BOMBING HAS PROBABLY PUT 100-THOUSAND PEOPLE OUT OF WORK. UNEMPLOYMENT, PREVIOUSLY AT 27 PERCENT, MAY NOW BE AS HIGH AS 40 PERCENT OF THE WORKFORCE. THE COUNTRY'S INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE IS BEING SLOWLY DESTROYED -- WITH FACTORIES, OIL REFINERIES, RAIL LINES, AIRPORTS, AND BRIDGES BADLY DAMAGED. RIVER SHIPPING ON THE DANUBE HAS BEEN HALTED.

    THE GROUP SUGGESTS THAT BECAUSE OF THE WAR, PER CAPITA INCOMES IN YUGOSLAVIA HAVE PROBABLY FALLEN 30 PERCENT FROM THEIR ALREADY SHARPLY REDUCED LEVELS. IT ESTIMATES THAT EVEN IF THE WAR ENDS IMMEDIATELY, PER CAPITA INCOMES IN YUGOSLAVIA HAVE DROPPED TO BELOW ONE-THOUSAND DOLLARS PER YEAR; THAT IS A TWO-THIRDS REDUCTION FROM THE LEVEL OF 10 YEARS AGO.

    THE WORLD BANK THIS WEEK ANNOUNCED PLANS TO PROVIDE EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES IMPACTED BY THE WAR. BUT NONE OF THAT AID WILL GO TO YUGOSLAVIA. WORLD BANK VICE PRESIDENT JOHANNES LINN SAYS FOR THE BALKAN REGION TO FULLY RECOVER, YUGOSLAVIA HAS TO BE REINTEGRATED ECONOMICALLY WITH ITS NEIGHBORS.

    //LINN ACT//

    LOOKING FORWARD, OBVIOUSLY FOR THE REGION TO BE FULLY INTEGRATED AND FOR THE TRANSIT TRADE TO AGAIN BE FULLY RE-ESTABLISHED AFTER THE CONFLICT HAS BEEN SETTLED, THE INFRASTRUCTURE RECONSTRUCTION NEEDS ARE NOW HUMONGOUS. AND THE NEED FOR AN INTEGRATION OF YUGOSLAVIA -- FOR A LASTING ECONOMIC, LET ALONE POLITICAL SETTLEMENT -- INTEGRATION OF YUGOSLAVIA (INTO THE BALKAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY) WILL BE ESSENTIAL.

    //END ACT//

    BUT ANALYSTS SAY YUGOSLAVIA IS UNLIKELY TO BE ALLOWED BY THE WESTERN POWERS TO REJOIN THE I-M-F AND WORLD BANK AS LONG AS PRESIDENT SLOBODON MILOSEVIC REMAINS IN POWER. WITHOUT I-M-F MEMBERSHIP, YUGOSLAVIA WILL REMAIN INELIGIBLE FOR AID FROM INTERNATIONAL LENDERS.

    THE GROUP OF 17 ECONOMISTS PUT THE TOTAL COST OF THE DAMAGE TO YUGOSLAVIA THUS FAR AT FROM 40-BILLION TO 100-BILLION DOLLARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/RRM
    30-Apr-99 6:17 PM EDT (2217 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] MACEDONIANS REACT (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SKOPJE)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248809
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MACEDONIAN AUTHORITIES FEAR RISING TENSIONS IN THE COUNTRY AS MORE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES POUR IN FROM YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. BUT MANY ORDINARY MACEDONIANS HAVE MIXED FEELINGS ABOUT THE KOSOVO CONFLICT AND THE PRESENCE OF NATO TROOPS AND KOSOVAR REFUGEES. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN TOOK AN INFORMAL SAMPLING OF OPINIONS IN DOWNTOWN SKOPJE AND FILES THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: MACEDONIA'S ETHNIC ALBANIAN COMMUNITY REPRESENTS ABOUT ONE-THIRD OF THE TWO MILLION POPULATION AND IT HAS OPENED ITS ARMS TO TENS OF THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO. FAMILIES HAVE TAKEN IN COMPLETE STRANGERS IN A GESTURE OF GENEROSITY AND GOODWILL. AND SOME, LIKE SHIJAP (SHEE-AP), ALSO VOLUNTEER THEIR SERVICES IN THE REFUGEE CAMPS.

    ///SHIJAP ACT IN ALBANIAN -- ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    SHIJAP RUNS THREE BOOKSTORES IN SKOPJE, BUT HE SAYS HE TURNED THEM OVER TO HIS WIFE SO HE COULD HELP A FRENCH MEDICAL TEAM IN THE STENKOVAC (STEN KUH VAZ) REFUGEE CAMP NEAR SKOPJE. HE IS WORKING AS A TRANSLATOR, USING THE FRENCH HE LEARNED WHEN HE WORKED FOUR YEARS IN SWITZERLAND.

    NOT ALL MACEDONIANS HAVE REACTED IN THE SAME WAY. AN ELDERLY ETHNIC MACEDONIAN WOMAN AND HER HUSBAND OF 46 YEARS ARE ANGRY. SHE REFUSES TO GIVE HER NAME, BUT CONDEMNS THE NATO BOMBINGS IN SERBIA. SHE WANTS THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES TO LEAVE.

    /// WOMAN IN MACEDONIAN -- ESTABLISH AND FADE ///

    SHE COMPLAINS ABOUT THE LARGE KOSOVAR ALBANIAN FAMILIES AND SAYS THEY WILL STAY IN MACEDONIA AND TAKE AWAY HER LAND. WITH RISING EMOTION, SHE SAYS THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS SHOULD ALL GO TO ALBANIA OR ANYWHERE ELSE BUT MACEDONIA. HER HUSBAND NODS IN AGREEMENT.

    BUT JAMAL ADEMOVIC, WHO WORKS AT A SMALL CAFE IN THE OLD CENTER OF SKOPJE, SEES ANOTHER SIDE TO THE STORY. THE ARRIVAL OF NATO SOLDIERS, INTERNATIONAL AID WORKERS, REFUGEES AND JOURNALISTS HAS BEEN A BOON FOR HIS ONCE-FLOUNDERING BUSINESS.

    /// ADEMOVIC ACT ///

    BUSINESS IS BETTER NOW. BUSINESS IS SUPER.

    ///END ACT //

    AN ELDERLY GENTLEMAN LOUNGING NEARBY ON A PARK BENCH SAYS HE IS NOT WORRIED ABOUT STABILITY IN MACEDONIA. HE REMEMBERS WHAT MACEDONIA WAS LIKE IN WORLD WAR TWO.

    /// MAN IN MACEDONIAN -- ESTABLISH AND FADE ///

    DURING WORLD WAR TWO, HE SAYS, THERE WERE GERMANS AND ITALIANS AND BULGARIANS, BUT THERE WAS NO FIGHTING. MACEDONIA WAS PEACEFUL AND HE SAYS IT WILL STAY THAT WAY. AND HE SAYS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WOULD NOT BE SO FOOLISH ENOUGH TO PROVOKE MACEDONIANS -- HIS FELLOW SLAVS.

    MAYBE NOT. BUT AT LEAST ONE PRO-SERB POLITICIAN THINKS THE PRESENCE OF NATO TROOPS IS A PROVOCATION. DRAGISHA MILETICH OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF SERBS IN MACEDONIA WANTS NATO OUT. AND HE WARNS NATO AGAINST USING MACEDONIA TO LAUNCH ANY GROUND INVASION OF KOSOVO.

    /// MILETICH IN SERBIAN -- ESTABLISH AND FADE ///

    "THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD LISTEN TO ITS PEOPLE AND WE SAY NATO SHOULD LEAVE MACEDONIA," HE SAYS. MR. MILETICH WARNS IF NATO TROOPS ATTACK KOSOVO THEY SHOULD WATCH THEIR BACKS.

    MACEDONIAN AUTHORITIES HAVE EXPRESSED FEARS THE KOSOVO CONFLICT, THE PRESENCE OF 12-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS AND MORE THAN 170-THOUSAND ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES WILL FUEL TENSIONS BETWEEN ITS OWN ETHNIC COMMUNITIES. THE GOVERNMENT HAS URGED OTHER EUROPEAN STATES TO ABSORB THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS TO EASE THE BURDEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF/JO
    30-Apr-99 3:28 PM EDT (1928 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] PAK / KOSOVO / S BY SCOTT ANGER (ISLAMABAD)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248784
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PAKISTAN'S PRIME MINISTER HAS RETURNED TO HIS COUNTRY AFTER A VISIT TO ALBANIA TO SHOW SUPPORT FOR MUSLIM REFUGEES FLEEING THE WAR AND REPRESSION IN KOSOVO. AS CORRESPONDENT SCOTT ANGER REPORTS, PAKISTAN HAS ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST MUSLIM POPULATIONS AND IS SUPPORTING THE REFUGEES WITH HUMANITARIAN AID.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER NAWAZ SHARIF IS THE FIRST LEADER OF A MUSLIM COUNTRY TO VISIT WAR-WEARY REFUGEES IN ALBANIA, SINCE THE START OF NATO AIR STRIKES IN SUPPORT OF THE KOSOVAR PEOPLE.

    ON HIS RETURN TO PAKISTAN FRIDAY, PRIME MINISTER SHARIF SAYS THE RELIEF EFFORT IS SLOW AND NEEDS TO BE STEPPED UP. HE SAYS MORE RELIEF GOODS SHOULD BE SENT SOON -- SOMETHING PAKISTAN IS READY TO DO.

    ///SHARIF ACTUALITY///

    PAKISTAN WANTS TO PLAY A LARGER ROLE AND WOULD LIKE TO SUPPORT ALL THE ACTIVITIES WHICH ARE GOING ON TO PROVIDE RELIEF.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    THE PRIME MINISTER HAS URGED THE UNITED NATIONS TO AUTHORIZE PEACEKEEPING FORCES IN THE REGION AND SAYS PAKISTAN IS READY TO CONTRIBUTE TO SUCH A FORCE.

    PAKISTAN IS JUST ONE OF MANY MUSLIM COUNTRIES HELPING OUT IN THE CRISIS BY SENDING FOOD, BLANKETS AND TENTS TO THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM REFUGEES FLEEING SERB REPRESSION.

    IN THE MOSTLY-MUSLIM SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRY, MANY FEEL IT IS AN ISLAMIC DUTY TO AID FELLOW MUSLIMS. (SIGNED)
    NEB / SA / WD / WD
    30-Apr-99 6:07 AM EDT (1007 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] PAK / KOSOVO VISIT / L-O BY SCOTT ANGER (ISLAMABAD)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248778
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PAKISTAN'S PRIME MINISTER HAS RETURNED TO HIS COUNTRY AFTER A VISIT TO ALBANIA TO SHOW SUPPORT FOR MUSLIM REFUGEES FLEEING THE WAR IN KOSOVO. AS CORRESPONDENT SCOTT ANGER REPORTS, PAKISTAN HAS ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST MUSLIM POPULATIONS AND IS ONE OF MANY COUNTRIES SUPPORTING THE REFUGEES WITH HUMANITARIAN AID.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER NAWAZ SHARIF IS THE FIRST LEADER OF A MUSLIM COUNTRY TO VISIT WAR-WEARY REFUGEES IN ALBANIA, SINCE THE START OF NATO AIR STRIKES IN SUPPORT OF THE KOSOVAR PEOPLE.

    ON HIS RETURN TO PAKISTAN FRIDAY, PRIME MINISTER SHARIF TOLD V-O-A, THE RELIEF OPERATIONS ARE GOING A BIT SLOW AND NEED TO BE STEPPED UP. HE SAYS MORE RELIEF GOODS NEED TO BE SENT SOON -- SOMETHING PAKISTAN IS READY TO DO.

    ///SHARIF ACTUALITY///

    PAKISTAN WANTS TO PLAY A LARGER ROLE AND WOULD LIKE TO SUPPORT ALL THE ACTIVITIES WHICH ARE GOING ON TO PROVIDE RELIEF AND TO SETTLE THE REFUGEES. AND, AT THE SAME TIME, TO ENSURE SPEEDY RETURN OF THE REFUGEES TO THEIR HOMELAND.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    THE PRIME MINISTER CALLED FOR A SETTLEMENT TO THE CRISIS AND HAS URGED THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL TO AUTHORIZE PEACEKEEPING FORCES IN THE REGION. HE SAYS PAKISTAN IS READY TO CONTRIBUTE TO SUCH A FORCE.

    IN ADDITION TO A FIVE-MILLION-DOLLAR CASH DONATION, PAKISTAN HAS SENT FOUR PLANELOADS OF RELIEF SUPPLIES -- INCLUDING FOOD, BLANKETS AND TENTS -- TO THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM REFUGEES FLEEING SERB REPRESSION.

    PAKISTAN IS JUST ONE OF MANY MUSLIM COUNTRIES HELPING OUT IN THE CRISIS. SAUDI ARABIA, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES AND KUWAIT HAVE SENT PLANELOADS OF HUMANITARIAN AID TO ALBANIA, AND EGYPT'S MIDDLE EAST NEWS AGENCY REPORTS A TEAM OF DOCTORS HAS DELIVERED TONS OF MEDICAL SUPPLIES TO THE REFUGEE CAMPS.

    MOST OF PAKISTAN'S POPULATION IS MUSLIM AND MANY PEOPLE FEEL IT IS AN ISLAMIC DUTY TO AID FELLOW MUSLIMS. (SIGNED)
    NEB / SA / WD / WD
    30-Apr-99 4:04 AM EDT (0804 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] NATO AT FIFTY

    DATE=05/01/99
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00736 SHORT #1
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT= INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES.
    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE

    ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "NATO AT FIFTY." HERE IS YOUR HOST, --------.

    HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    LEADERS OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- NATO -- MET IN WASHINGTON TO COMMEMORATE THE ALLIANCE'S FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY. THEY ALSO WELCOMED THREE NEW MEMBERS, POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY, AND ADDRESSED THE CONTINUING CRISIS IN KOSOVO. THE NATO OPERATION TO STOP THE WAR AGAINST THAT PROVINCE'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS IS NOW IN ITS SECOND MONTH -- WITH NO END IN SIGHT.

    ROBERT SIMMONS IS SENIOR ADVISOR FOR NATO AFFAIRS AT THE U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT. HE SAYS THAT THE ALLIANCE SEEKS TO BRING STABILITY TO THE BALKANS. SIMMONS: TO GET NATO MORE ENGAGED POLITICALLY IN SECURITY TERMS IN THE WHOLE OF SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE WAS REALLY AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE PACKAGE THAT WAS PUT TOGETHER [AT THE SUMMIT]. AND WE HOPE WE CAN ENGAGE THEM [THE STATES OF SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE] WHILE MAINTAINING THE KEY CRITERIA FOR ENLARGEMENT, BUT STILL DO SOMETHING FOR THE SOUTHEAST OF EUROPE, ARGUABLY AS ENLARGEMENT HAS DONE FOR NORTH CENTRAL EUROPE.

    HOST: AMOS PERLMUTTER IS PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT AMERICAN UNIVERSITY. HE SAYS THAT NATO ACTION IN KOSOVO IS UNDERMINING THE ALLIANCE.

    PERLMUTTER: I HAVE A FEELING THAT WE ARE FOOLING OURSELVES TO BELIEVE THAT NATO ENLARGEMENT WILL GO ON AFTER KOSOVO. KOSOVO IS NOT GOING TO BE OVER. THERE'S NO QUESTION THE K-L-A [KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY] WILL TAKE OVER KOSOVO. THERE WILL BE A CONTINUING WAR BETWEEN THE SERBS AND THE K-L-A, AND NATO INVOLVED IN IT. IT WILL ACTUALLY IMPEDE THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO BECAUSE IT WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW DIFFICULT THE METHODS ARE WHEN IT COMES TO THE STABILIZATION OF SOUTHEAST EUROPE.

    HOST: PETER RODMAN IS DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL SECURITY PROGRAMS AT THE NIXON CENTER. HE SAYS THAT NATO MUST WIN IN KOSOVO. RODMAN: IF WE FAIL IN KOSOVO, I THINK IT DISCREDITS NATO IN A GENERAL WAY. IT DEFLATES NATO. IT MAY AFFECT WHETHER COUNTRIES WANT TO JOIN OR WHETHER NATO IS ABLE TO MOVE AHEAD WITH THE SAME ENERGY THAT WE HAVE JUST BEEN CELEBRATING IN THE LAST COUPLE OF WEEKS.

    HOST: ROBERT SIMMONS OF THE U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THAT NATO IS EXTENDING ITS MISSION BEYOND ITS ORIGINAL GOAL OF SELF-DEFENSE. FOR ON THE LINE, THIS IS --------.

    ANNCR: YOU'VE BEEN LISTENING TO "ON THE LINE" -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES. THIS IS --------.
    30-Apr-99 12:16 PM EDT (1616 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] U-S/KOSOVO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248804
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS PLEDGING TO HELP THE U-N INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL INVESTIGATE ALLEGED ATROCITIES BY SERB FORCES IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT DISCUSSED THE MATTER FRIDAY WITH JUSTICE LOUISE ARBOUR, THE CHIEF WAR CRIMES PROSECUTOR FOR YUGOSLAVIA. CORRESPONDENT JIM MALONE HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT SAYS THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION WILL ASK CONGRESS FOR ADDITIONAL FUNDS TO SUPPORT THE WORK OF THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL AND ITS INVESTIGATIONS IN KOSOVO.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    THE WORLD NEEDS TO KNOW EXACTLY WHAT IS HAPPENING THERE AND WE ARE COMMITTED TO HELPING DISCOVER IT. (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT) MILOSEVIC'S VICTIMS AND THOSE EVERYWHERE WHO LOVE JUSTICE NEED TO KNOW THAT THERE WILL BE NO IMPUNITY (LACK OF PUNISHMENT) FOR THOSE WHO COMMIT THESE HEINOUS OFFENSES. AND WE ARE COMMITTED TO HELPING THE TRIBUNAL ENSURE THAT THOSE RESPONSIBLE ARE HELD ACCOUNTABLE.

    /// END ACT. ///

    JUSTICE LOUISE ARBOUR SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL NEEDS FUNDING FOR ADDITIONAL INVESTIGATORS TO DOCUMENT ALLEGATIONS OF WIDESPREAD SERB ATROCITIES -- INCLUDING ETHNIC CLEANSING, MURDER AND RAPE OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. SHE IS ASKING BRITAIN AND FRANCE FOR HELP AS WELL.

    MS. ARBOUR IS ALSO URGING THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO EXECUTE OUTSTANDING ARREST WARRANTS FOR ALLEGED WAR CRIME SUSPECTS IN NEIGHBORING BOSNIA AS THE BEST WAY TO DETER FUTURE ABUSES INSIDE KOSOVO.

    /// ARBOUR ACT. ///

    I BELIEVE THAT THE STRONGEST DETERRENT MESSAGE THAT COULD HAVE BEEN SENT INTO KOSOVO AND THAT COULD STILL BE SENT WOULD BE THE IMMEDIATE APPREHENSION, NOT ONLY OF THE REMAINING INDICTEES WHO ARE PUBLICLY INDICTED, BUT OF THE PERSONS WHO ARE THE SUBJECT OF SEALED INDICTMENTS.

    /// END ACT. ///

    SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT ALSO ANNOUNCED THE UNITED STATES IS ALLOCATING 20-MILLION DOLLARS TO BEGIN PROCESSING SOME 20-THOUSAND KOSOVAR REFUGEES OVER THE NEXT FEW DAYS. SOME OF THE REFUGEES WILL BEGIN ARRIVING IN THE UNITED STATES EARLY NEXT WEEK FOR TEMPORARY RESETTLEMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JBM/JO
    30-Apr-99 2:39 PM EDT (1839 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [24] TURKEY / OCALAN (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248789
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A SPECIAL TURKISH COURT SAYS THE TRIAL OF KURDISH REBEL LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN WILL BEGIN ON MAY 31ST. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, THE KURDISH LEADER IS CHARGED WITH TREASON FOR FOUNDING AND LEADING THE SEPARATIST KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, P-K-K.

    TEXT: THE TRIAL OF P-K-K LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN WILL TAKE PLACE ON THE PRISON ISLAND OFF THE COAST OF ISTANBUL WHERE HE IS BEING HELD IN SOLITARY CONFINEMENT.

    THE ANKARA STATE SECURITY COURT SAID THE TRIAL WOULD TAKE PLACE ON THE ISLAND FOR WHAT PROSECUTORS DESCRIBED AS SECURITY REASONS. THEY SAID NO INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS WOULD BE PERMITTED TO ATTEND THE TRIAL.

    ABDULLAH OCALAN WAS CAPTURED IN THE KENYAN CAPITAL, NAIROBI, IN MID-FEBRUARY DURING A COVERT OPERATION BY TURKISH SPECIAL FORCES. PROSECUTORS ARE DEMANDING HE BE GIVEN THE DEATH SENTENCE FOR FOUNDING AND LEADING THE P-K-K.

    THE KURDISH REBELS HAVE BEEN WAGING A 15-YEAR LONG ARMED INSURGENCY FOR KURDISH SELF-RULE. MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE DIED IN THE CONFLICT. TURKISH OFFICIALS SAY NEARLY 10-THOUSAND OF THOSE KILLED WERE EITHER CIVILIANS OR MEMBERS OF THE TURKISH SECURITY FORCES.

    SCORES OF RELATIVES OF THOSE KILLED GATHERED OUTSIDE THE ANKARA COURTROOM FRIDAY. MANY CARRIED THE TURKISH FLAG AND PICTURES OF THEIR LOVED ONES. THEY CHANTED ANTI-P-K-K SLOGANS AND HECKLED LAWYERS WHO ARE DEFENDING THE P-K-K CHIEF. MANY HAVE FILED INDIVIDUAL LAW SUITS AGAINST THE KURDISH REBEL LEADER, DEMANDING COMPENSATION.

    A RIGHT WING NATIONALIST PARTY KNOWN AS THE M-H-P, WHICH CAMPAIGNED FOR ABDULLAH OCALAN'S EXECUTION, RECORDED HUGE GAINS IN NATIONWIDE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS TWO WEEKS AGO. ANALYSTS SAY THE M-H-P, WHICH NOW RANKS SECOND IN THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT WITH 129 SEATS, IS LIKELY TO BE PART OF A NEW COALITION GOVERNMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH
    30-Apr-99 7:34 AM EDT (1134 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [25] SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT BY TREVOR GRUNDY (EDINBURGH)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43284
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///WILL HOLD THROUGH WEEKEND USE ///

    INTRO: VOTERS IN SCOTLAND ARE PREPARING TO GO TO THE POLLS NEXT THURSDAY -- MAY SIXTH -- TO DECIDE WHO WILL REPRESENT THEM IN THE FIRST SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT ASSEMBLED IN ALMOST 300 YEARS. VOTERS IN WALES CAST BALLOTS ON THURSDAY AS WELL. IT IS PART OF AN EFFORT TO REGIONALIZE GOVERNING POWERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND. BUT AS TREVOR GRUNDY REPORTS FROM EDINBURGH -- THE VENUE OF THE NEW SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT -- THURSDAY'S VOTE IS LIKELY TO BE PROPORTIONED AMONG VARIOUS PARTIES, WHICH COULD LEAD TO SOME FRACTIOUS DEBATE.

    TEXT: THE NEW PARLIAMENTARY BODY WILL NOT MARK THE START OF FORMAL NATIONHOOD FOR SCOTLAND. MANY GOVERNMENTAL POWERS WILL REMAIN RESERVED TO THE ENTIRE BRITISH PARLIAMENT WHICH SITS IN LONDON'S WESTMINISTER. BUT LAWS ON MATTERS SUCH AS HEALTH SERVICES, HOUSING POLICIES AND EDUCATION WILL BE ON THE FUTURE AGENDA OF SCOTTISH LEGISLATORS. SOME SCOTS VIEW THIS AS AN INITIAL STEP TO INDEPENDENCE -- A PEACEFUL REVOLUTION, IF THAT'S WHAT IT ULTIMATELY BECOMES. UNLIKE ACROSS THE WATER IN NEIGHBORING NORTHERN IRELAND, SECTARIAN VIOLENCE IS VIRTUALLY UNKNOWN IN SCOTLAND.

    MANY VOTERS REMAIN UNCERTAIN AS TO HOW THEIR LIVES WILL CHANGE AFTER THURSDAY'S ELECTIONS. BUT THEY LOOK FORWARD TO THE VOTE, NEVERTHELESS.

    ERNIE ROSSIE IS A 46-YEAR-OLD ACTOR WHO LIVES IN EDINBURGH'S COSMOPOLITAN "BROUGHTON" DISTRICT. WHEN HE OPENS HIS DOOR EACH MORNING HE SEES NEIGHBORS WHO ORIGINALLY CAME FROM INDIA, PAKISTAN, AMERICA, HOLLAND, GERMANY -- AND EVEN NEIGHBORING ENGLAND. ASKED IF HE FEARS THE UPCOMING VOTE MIGHT BREAK-UP THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE BRITISH FAMILY OF PEOPLE, HE SOUNDED A BIT STARTLED.

    ///ROSSIE ACTUALITY///

    OH NO, WE'RE NOT THE SAME PEOPLE. THE CELTS AND THE ANGLO-SAXONS AND JUTES ARE ENTIRELY DIFFERENT RACES. THEY HAVE DIFFERENT D-N-AS (GENETIC MAKEUP), DIFFERENT HOPES AND DREAMS. THE SCOTS ARE NOT COLONIALISTS. THE SAXONS AND THE JUTES SOUTH OF HADRIAN'S WALL (DIVIDES SCOTLAND FROM ENGLAND) ARE VERY MUCH COLONIALISTS. WHERE EVER THEY'VE GONE THEY'VE STUCK THE BRITISH FLAG INTO THE GROUND AND YOU HAVE TO DO THINGS THE ENGLISH WAY.

    ///END ACT///

    DOING THINGS THE SO-CALLED "ENGLISH WAY" HAS ANGERED MANY SCOTS FOR CENTURIES. SOME EVEN BLAME IT FOR THEIR ECONOMIC DECLINE. GLASGOW'S ONCE-MIGHTY SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY TEETERS ON THE BRINK OF COLLAPSE. COAL MINING EMPLOYS FEWER AND FEWER. TOURISM, FINANCE AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY EMPLOYS MORE PEOPLE THESE DAYS, BUT MANY LAMENT THE LOSS OF HEAVY INDUSTRY.

    MORE AND MORE YOUNG PEOPLE LEAVING SCHOOL ARE QUITTING THE SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS AND ISLANDS AND ABANDONING A CENTURIES-OLD WAY OF LIFE, LOOKING FOR JOBS ELSEWHERE. FOR MANY SCOTS -- DESPITE WHAT THEY SAY PUBLICLY -- THE ROAD THAT LEADS TO ENGLAND REMAINS THEIR BEST BET FOR THE FUTURE.

    AGAINST THOSE CONCERNS, POLITICIANS FROM BRITAIN'S FOUR MAIN PARTIES -- LABOUR, CONSERVATIVE, LIBERAL DEMOCRAT, AND SCOTTISH NATIONAL -- ARE CANVASSING SCOTTISH VOTERS. POLICIES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT WILL FALL UNDER THE LEGISLATIVE MANDATE OF THE NEW SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT.

    JIMMIE LEWIS WAS BORN IN GLASGOW BUT NOW OWNS A SMALL RESTAURANT IN EDINBURGH. HE WANTS TO SEE SCOTLAND CONTROL ITS OWN DESTINY AND SOMEHOW TAKE A GREATER SLICE OUT OF THE PROFITS FROM NORTH SEA OIL AND GAS OFF THE SCOTTISH COASTLINE. BUT WHILE MR. LEWIS FAVORS LESS CONTROL BY A CENTRAL GOVERNMENT IN LONDON, HE'S ALSO NERVOUS ABOUT THE IDEA OF OPTING FOR INDEPENDENCE AND SKEPTICAL ABOUT DIVIDING GOVERNMENTAL POWERS IN GENERAL.

    /// LEWIS ACTUALITY ///

    I'M JUST WORKING CLASS. NO MATTER WHAT PARTY GETS IN, THE WORKING CLASS IS ALWAYS HELD UNDER EVERYONE ELSE'S THUMB, SO IT DOESN'T REALLY MATTER WHO GETS IN.

    ///END ACT///

    BUT SCOTTISH JOURNALIST AND AUTHOR FRED BRIDGLAND VIEWS THURSDAY'S VOTE AS A MILESTONE IN SCOTTISH POLITICAL HISTORY. MR. BRIDGLAND WRITES EDITORIALS FOR THE COUNTRY'S MAIN NEWSPAPER, "THE SCOTSMAN."

    /// BRIDGLAND ACTUALITY ///

    IT'S MASSIVE CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE, BECAUSE THIS IS THE FIRST ELECTED SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT FOR 300 YEARS SINCE THE SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH PARLIAMENTS WERE MERGED IN LONDON. EVER SINCE, THERE'S BEEN A FEELING AMONG SECTIONS OF THE SCOTTISH POPULATION THAT THE WESTMINSTER PARLIAMENT IS FAR TOO REMOTE FROM SCOTLAND.

    ///END ACT///

    OPINION POLLS PREDICT THAT BRITAIN'S RULING "LABOUR" PARTY WILL WIN BETWEEN 55 AND 60 OF THE 129 SCOTTISH PARLIAMENTARY SEATS. BUT THE POLLS SUGGEST THAT NO PARTY WILL WIN AN OUTRIGHT MAJORITY, SO A COALITION BUILT ON COMPROMISE IS SCOTLAND'S LIKELY GOVERNMENTAL COURSE.

    ANALYSTS WILL BE WATCHING CLOSELY TO SEE HOW THIS PEACEFUL SPLITTING OF BRITISH POLITICAL POWER WORKS. IT COMES AT A TIME WHEN EUROPE IS AGAIN AT WAR IN THE BALKANS, YET COMING TOGETHER THROUGH THE EUROPEAN UNION AND A SINGLE CONTINENTAL CURRENCY. THE ANSWER TO POLITICAL HARMONY, SOME HOPE, MAY ULTIMATELY PROVE TO BE SHROUDED IN THE SCOTTISH MIST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TN/PCF
    30-Apr-99 2:54 PM EDT (1854 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [26] FRANCE CORSICA (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248797
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: WILL HOLD THROUGH WEEKEND USE ///

    INTRO: ON THE FRENCH MEDITERRANEAN ISLAND OF CORSICA, THE INDICTMENT OF FOUR SENIOR POLICE OFFICERS -- ALL ACCUSED OF SETTING A BEACH RESTAURANT ON FIRE -- HAS RAISED QUESTIONS ABOUT OFFICIAL METHODS IN THIS VOLATILE PART OF FRANCE. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: THE MOST SENSITIVE PART OF FRANCE -- IN FACT, THE ONLY SENSITIVE PART OF FRANCE IN SECURITY TERMS -- IS THE ISLAND OF CORSICA.

    TWENTY YEARS AGO, AUTHORITIES THERE HAD TO DEAL WITH AN UPSURGE IN NATIONALIST VIOLENCE WHEN POLITICAL MILITANTS SEEKING AUTONOMY FOR CORSICA TOOK UP ARMS.

    AS A SERIES OF REFORMS WERE PUT INTO PLACE -- ESTABLISHING A REGIONAL ASSEMBLY, OR LOCAL PARLIAMENT, OR ALLOWING THE USE OF THE CORSICAN LANGUAGE FOR OFFICIAL BUSINESS AND GIVING RESIDENTS A SERIES OF TAX BREAKS -- MANY OF THE ORIGINAL MILITANTS RENOUNCED THEIR ARMED STRUGGLE.

    BUT THAT DID NOT END THE VIOLENCE. BOMB ATTACKS ON PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND OCCASIONAL MURDERS, USUALLY OF LOCAL POLITICAL FIGURES, CONTINUE. ALTHOUGH THE PERPETRATORS CLAIM NATIONALIST VALUES, THEIR DETRACTORS SAY THEY ARE JUST MAFIA-TYPE HOODLUMS EXPLOITING A VOLATILE POLITICAL SITUATION.

    ONE OF THE WORST EXAMPLES OF SUCH VIOLENCE WAS THE ASSASSINATION IN FEBRUARY LAST YEAR OF THE PREFECT OF CORSICA, THE MAIN REPRESENTATIVE OF THE CENTRAL FRENCH STATE. NOW, AFTER AN EMBARRASSING EPISODE, THERE ARE SUSPICIONS THAT EVEN THE POLICE HAVE "GONE NATIVE," USING SIMILAR METHODS FOR THEIR OWN ENDS. ON APRIL 20TH, A BEACH RESTAURANT NEAR THE SOUTHERN CORSICAN PORT OF AJACCIO SUDDENLY WENT UP IN FLAMES. THE RESTAURANT -- A FAVORED SEAFOOD HAUNT OF THE WEALTHY AND THE INFLUENTIAL -- WAS IN ANY CASE SCHEDULED FOR DEMOLITION LATER THIS YEAR BECAUSE IT WAS BUILT WITHOUT A LEGAL CONSTRUCTION PERMIT.

    BUT WHEN POLICE INVESTIGATORS ARRIVED AT THE FIRE SCENE, THEY FOUND A RADIO OF A TYPE USED BY ELITE COMMANDOS OF THE FRENCH "GENDARMERIE" -- A PARAMILITARY POLICE FORCE -- AS WELL AS A COMMANDO FACE-MASK.

    WITHIN A FEW DAYS, FOUR OFFICERS -- INCLUDING THE COLONEL IN CHARGE OF ALL THE GENDARMERIE ON CORSICA -- WERE ARRESTED. THEY WERE CHARGED WITH OFFENSES WHICH, IF CONVICTED, COULD BRING THEM UP TO 20 YEARS IN JAIL. ONE OF THEM WAS ALREADY BEING TREATED IN HOSPITAL FOR BURNS BEFORE HE WAS INDICTED.

    WHILE FRENCH PRIME MINISTER LIONEL JOSPIN TOLD PARLIAMENT THAT THE MATTER IS NOT "AN AFFAIR OF STATE," THE AFFAIR HAS FOCUSSED THE SPOTLIGHT ON THE CURRENT PREFECT OF CORSICA, BERNARD BONNET, WHO ARRIVED THERE LAST YEAR PROMISING TO BRING REFORMS TO THE ISLAND.

    THE CHIEF POLICE OFFICER -- NOW UNDER ARREST -- WAS MR. BONNET'S CHOICE FOR THE JOB. AND THE OTHER THREE ALL BELONG TO A UNIT THAT THE PREFECT CREATED PERSONALLY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/PCF
    30-Apr-99 11:03 AM EDT (1503 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [27] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/30/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248816
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE GENERALLY DOWN TODAY (FRIDAY) AS SOME TRADERS BEGAN WORRYING ABOUT INFLATIONARY PRESSURES. VOA BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 10 THOUSAND 789, DOWN 89 POINTS. BUT FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 100 POINTS, OR ALMOST ONE PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT 13 HUNDRED 35, DOWN SEVEN POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX GAINED MORE THAN ONE-HALF OF ONE PERCENT.

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED THE U-S ECONOMY GREW AT A STRONGER THAN EXPECTED RATE IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF THIS YEAR. THAT SPARKED CONCERN ABOUT POSSIBLE INFLATIONARY PRESSURES, CAUSING SELLING IN THE BOND MARKET WHICH LATER SPREAD TO STOCKS.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    DAVID JONES OF THE AUBREY LANSTON INVESTMENT COMPANY SAYS IT WOULD PROBABLY TAKE AN INTEREST RATE HIKE BY THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD, THE U-S CENTRAL BANK, TO SLOW THE RATE OF U-S GROWTH.

    /// JONES ACT ///

    IT IS FULL SPEED AHEAD FOR CONSUMERS, HOUSING ACTIVITY AND EVEN BUSINESS INVESTMENT. IT WILL TAKE SOME TIGHTENING BY THE FED IN TERMS OF HIGHER INTEREST RATES IN ORDER TO COOL OFF THIS SIZZLING PACE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE GREEK DEFENSE MINISTRY SAYS IT WILL BUY MORE THAN 50 F16 FIGHTER JETS FROM THE LOCKHEED MARTIN COMPANY OF THE UNITED STATES. THE DEAL IS WORTH ALMOST TWO BILLION DOLLARS.

    THE MINNESOTA MINING AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY SAYS ITS FIRST QUARTER EARNINGS WERE DOWN SLIGHTLY BUT STILL AHEAD OF WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS. THREE-M SAYS IT HAS NOTED SIGNS OF RECOVERY IN ASIAN MARKETS.

    THE NATIONAL RETAIL FEDERATION SAYS AMERICAN CONSUMERS NEED NOT WORRY ABOUT ABOUT YEAR 2000 COMPUTER PROBLEMS WHEN IT COMES TO USING CREDIT CARDS IN STORES. THE FEDERATION SAYS ITS MEMBERS WILL BE FULLY PREPARED FOR THE YEAR 2000 AND DISCOUNTED SPECULATION THAT STORES MAY ACCEPT ONLY CASH BECAUSE THEIR COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARE NOT YEAR 2000 COMPLIANT.

    SOURCES SAY PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL SOON ANNOUNCE NEW RULES TO REDUCE THE SULFUR CONTENT IN GASOLINE AND IMPOSE ON LIGHT TRUCKS AND SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES THE SAME EMISSIONS STANDARDS AS ON CARS. WHILE REDUCING AIR POLLUTION, THE MEASURES ARE ALSO EXPECTED TO RAISE THE PRICE OF GASOLINE AS WELL AS THE PRICES OF THE VEHICLES AFFECTED.

    AUTO ANALYSTS ESTIMATE APRIL WAS A GOOD MONTH FOR THE INDUSTRY WITH U-S SALES UP AS MUCH AS FOUR PERCENT. U-S AUTO MAKERS WILL OFFICIALLY REPORT THEIR SALES RESULTS NEXT WEEK.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    30-Apr-99 5:52 PM EDT (2152 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [28] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/30/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11266
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ////

    INTRO: THE U-S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES' VOTE DEFEATING A RESOLUTION TO SUPPORT NATO AIR STRIKES IN YUGOSLAVIA IS THE LEAD TOPIC IN EDITORIAL COMMENT IN FRIDAY'S PAPERS. A CLOSE SECOND IS GROWING CONCERN ABOUT THE EXTENT OF ALLEGED CHINESE NUCLEAR ESPIONAGE, IN WHICH MANY OF THIS COUNTRY'S CLOSEST HELD NUCLEAR BOMB SECRETS MAY HAVE BEEN LOST TO CHINESE AGENTS AT SEVERAL U-S LABS.

    OTHER TOPICS DRAWING COMMENT IN FRIDAY'S PRESS INCLUDE: THE AFTERMATH OF THE COLORADO SCHOOL MASSACRE; THE ISSUE OF FORGIVING THIRD WORLD DEBT: AND A DISPUTE OVER FREEDOM OF SPEECH AT MONDAY'S BASEBALL GAME IN MARYLAND BETWEEN THE BALTIMORE ORIOLES AND THE CUBAN NATIONAL TEAM. NOW, HERE WITH SOME EXCERPTS AND A CLOSER LOOK IS __________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIALS DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVE TOOK SEVERAL VOTES WEDNESDAY REGARDING THE CONFLICT IN YUGOSLAVIA, DECIDING TO WITHHOLD SUPPORT FOR GROUND TROOPS, AND VOTING -- IN A TIE -- ON WITHHOLDING SUPPORT FOR THE NATO AIRSTRIKES. THE ACTION IS DRAWING A GOOD DEAL OF COMMENT, MUCH OF IT UNFAVORABLE. MAINE'S "PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" SAYS IT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE "COUNTRY [TO] SPEAK WITH RESOLVE ON KOSOVO."

    VOICE: ONE CAN ONLY HOPE (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT) SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS CONFUSED RATHER THAN EMBOLDENED BY HOUSE REPUBLICAN-LED ASSAULTS ON PRESIDENT CLINTON'S KOSOVO POLICY. /// OPT /// ... WHAT THE HOUSE DID [UNDERSTOOD: IN O N E VOTE] ... INFLICTED HORRIBLE DAMAGE ON THE IMAGE OF RESOLVE THE ADMINISTRATION HAS BEEN PROJECTING IN THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN ... [SPLITTING] ... 213-213 ON A RESOLUTION OF SUPPORT FOR THE NATO AIRSTRIKES ... /// END OPT /// MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, REGARDLESS OF SOME MEMBERS' DISLIKE OF THE PRESIDENT OR DISAGREEMENT WITH OUR KOSOVO POLICY, HAVE TO REALIZE THAT DESPOTS REQUIRE LITTLE ENCOURAGEMENT TO CONTINUE THEIR BLOODY RAMPAGES.

    TEXT: ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE NATION, [EDITORS: MORE THAN 4-THOUSAND KILOMETERS AWAY] "THE OREGONIAN" IN PORTLAND, CONCLUDES ABOUT THE VOTE:

    VOICE: MAYBE IT BODES WELL FOR THE CAUSE OF INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING THAT THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT AND THE U-S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AGREE ON AT LEAST ONE THING - - NEITHER WANTS TO SEE AMERICAN GROUND TROOPS DEPLOYED IN THE WAR WITH YUGOSLAVIA. ... FOR OUR PART, AS WE'VE SAID BEFORE, WE'RE FOR THE WAR. ... WE LEARNED, OR SHOULD HAVE LEARNED, IN BOSNIA THAT THERE IS NO MIDDLE GROUND IN RESISTING ETHNIC WARFARE AND THE PURPOSEFUL DISPLACEMENT OF CIVILIANS. /// OPT /// ... IT'S ... IMPOSSIBLE TO TALK PEACE WHILE THE PEOPLE YOU ARE FIGHTING FOR ARE BEING SLAUGHTERED AND TREATED LIKE ANIMALS. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: AND IN AMERICA'S MIDDLE, "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" OFFERS THIS ASSESSMENT:

    VOICE: CLEARLY, WHATEVER EFFECT THE HOUSE VOTE HAS ON [PRESIDENT] CLINTON, IT HAS TO AFFECT NATO'S CONFIDENCE IN THE U-S. THE LONG-TERM LESSON FOR EUROPE MAY BE THAT IT MUST MOVE MORE QUICKLY TOWARD ASSUMING A GREATER SHARE OF THE BURDEN FOR ITS OWN DEFENSE AND SECURITY.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE DAY'S OTHER MAJOR STORY, THE ALLEGED PENETRATION OF AT LEAST TWO U-S NUCLEAR LABS, OVER THE PAST DECADE, BY CHINESE AGENTS, WHO MAY HAVE STOLEN PLANS FOR U-S NUCLEAR WEAPONS. "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" CALLS WHAT HAPPENED "BLUNDERS AT LOS ALAMOS."

    VOICE: THE POSSIBLE LEAK TO CHINA OF TOP-SECRET COMPUTER CODES - - IN ESSENCE, THE BLUEPRINTS TO THE ENTIRE U-S NUCLEAR ARSENAL - - IS PROBABLY THIS COUNTRY'S MOST SERIOUS ESPIONAGE LOSS IN A GENERATION AND PERHAPS RANKS WITH THE MOST SERIOUS IN ITS HISTORY. ... THE CIRCUMSTANCES THAT PERMITTED THE LOSS ... INDICATE A STARTLING LEVEL OF INCOMPETENCE AND A SLIPSHOD ATTITUDE TOWARD SECURITY AT TOP LEVELS OF THE NATION'S MILITARY-SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. /// OPT /// ...THE STORIES ... INDICATE TWO BASIC PROBLEMS: A LACK OF COMMUNICATION AND BAD JUDGMENT. IN GENERAL, THOSE WHO NEEDED TO KNOW ABOUT [FORMER U-S SCIENTIST WEN HO] LEE'S POTENTIAL BETRAYAL WERE NOT GIVEN THE INFORMATION TO ACT ACCORDINGLY, AND THOSE WHO DID HAVE THE INFORMATION DID NOT UNDERSTAND HOW SERIOUSLY IT SHOULD BE TAKEN. /// END OPT ///

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE MIAMI HERALD" IS EQUALLY UPSET, NOTING:

    VOICE: IF THE LAPSES AT THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY HAD OCCURRED AT FORT KNOX (SITE OF THE NATION'S MAJOR GOLD RESERVES), TONS OF GOLD BULLION WOULD BE MISSING THE AND GUARDS RESPONSIBLE FOR IT WOULD PROFESS TO BE CLUELESS AS TO WHAT HAPPENED AND HOW. THAT ONLY BEGINS TO DESCRIBE HOW BAD IS THE EVOLVING SCANDAL ABOUT SECRET U-S NUCLEAR CODES THAT MAY HAVE BEEN LEAKED TO CHINA ...

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE HIGH SCHOOL MASSACRE LAST WEEK IN A SUBURBAN DENVER HIGH SCHOOL, PRESIDENT CLINTON COMES IN FOR SOME SHARP CRITICISM FROM PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE PAT BUCHANAN, WHOSE COMMENTS ARE RUN IN TODAY'S "MANCHESTER [NEW HAMPSHIRE] UNION LEADER" IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMN.

    VOICE: IT IS PROFOUNDLY REGRETTABLE THAT THE PRESIDENT HAS CHOSEN TO EXPLOIT THE HORRIFIC PREMEDITATED MASSACRE AT LITTLETON TO, ONCE AGAIN, SCAPEGOAT SPORTSMEN, HUNTERS AND LAW-ABIDING AMERICANS WHO USE GUNS FOR PLEASURE OR PERSONAL AND FAMILY SAFETY. IT CALLS TO MIND AGAIN MR. CLINTON'S EFFORT TO DIVERT BLAME FOR THE MASSACRE IN OKLAHOMA CITY TO CONSERVATIVES AND REPUBLICANS WHO WERE CRITICAL OF BIG GOVERNMENT. /// OPT /// ... AT A TIME WHEN AMERICA DESPERATELY NEEDS TO HEAR AN AUTHENTIC VOICE OF MORAL AUTHORITY FROM THE WHITE HOUSE, THE OFFICE IS REGRETTABLY OCCUPIED BY A DRAFT DODGER IN THE CULTURAL WAR FOR THE SOUL OF AMERICA. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TAKING THE OPPOSITE SIDE, "THE AKRON [OHIO] BEACON JOURNAL" SAYS "THE PRESIDENT HAS IN MIND SOME REASONABLE STEPS THAT WOULD HELP TO KEEP THEM [KIDS AND GUNS] APART."

    VOICE: THE PRESIDENT OUTLINED SEVERAL REASONABLE STEPS AIMED AT CURBING EASY ACCESS TO GUNS. /// OPT /// HE CALLED FOR LIMITING THE PURCHASE OF HANDGUNS TO ONE PER MONTH FOR EACH PERSON. HE WOULD RESTORE A WAITING PERIOD FOR BUYING A HANDGUN. HE WOULD RAISE THE MINIMUM AGE FOR [POSSESSION] ... FROM 18 TO 21. [MR.] CLINTON WOULD BAN MINORS FROM POSSESSING SEMIAUTOMATIC ASSAULT RIFLES AND REQUIRE BACKGROUND CHECKS ON THOSE WHO BUY FIREARMS AT GUN SHOWS. /// END OPT /// ... FIFTEEN DEAD, 23 WOUNDED. THE COUNTRY HAS AN OPPORTUNITY TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT THE SCOURGE.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" WONDERS ABOUT THE EFFECT OF EXTREMELY VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES, TO WHICH MANY OF THE NATION'S YOUTH HAVE ACCESS.

    VOICE: THE SEARCH FOR CAUSE IN THE LITTLETON SHOOTINGS CONTINUES, AND MUCH OF IT HAS COME TO FOCUS ON VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES. EVERY HUMAN, ADOLESCENT OR ADULT, ENTERTAINS FANTASIES OF ONE KIND OR ANOTHER. WHAT MAKES THEM FANTASIES IS THE RECOGNITION, REINFORCED EVERY PASSING DAY, THAT THE WORLD DOES NOT BEND TO OUR WISHES. BUT AS ENTERTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES, IT BECOMES EASIER TO ACT OUT COMPUTER-SIMULATED VIRTUAL VERSIONS OF THE STEREOTYPED FANTASIES OUR CULTURE MARKETS SO WELL. SOMETHING PROVIDED A CONDUIT OF SORTS BETWEEN THE FANTASIES MR. HARRIS AND MR. KLEBOLD (EDS: THE TWO KILLERS) INDULGED AND THE REALITY THEY FORCED UPON THEIR CLASSMATES. FOR SEVERAL REASONS, SUSPICION POINTS TO VIDEO GAMES. ... ON PSYCHOLOGICALLY VULNERABLE CHILDREN, IT SEEMS PLAIN THAT SUCH GAMES MUST WREAK A KIND OF HAVOC, REINFORCING THEIR ISOLATION AND FORTIFYING THEIR ANGER.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THE ISSUE OF THIRD WORLD DEBT FORGIVENESS IS STILL IN THE NEWS, AS THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND MEETING CONCLUDES IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEK. "THE NEW YORK TIMES" MAKES THIS CASE FOR THE STRATEGY, WITH A PARTICULAR EXAMPLE:

    VOICE: /// OPT /// LAST YEAR WHEN UGANDA BECAME THE FIRST COUNTRY TO GET SOME RELIEF OF ITS EXTERNAL DEBT UNDER A NEW PROGRAM OF THE WORLD BANK AND THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, IT USED THE MONEY IT SAVED LARGELY TO ELIMINATE FEES CHARGED FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL. THE IMPACT WAS DRAMATIC. WHILE TWO YEARS AGO 54 PERCENT OF UGANDA'S CHILDREN ATTENDED PRIMARY SCHOOL, THIS YEAR 90 PERCENT DO. IN CONTRAST, NEIGHBORING ZAMBIA, WHICH SPENDS FIVE TIMES MORE EACH YEAR ON DEBT SERVICE THAN ON PRIMARY EDUCATION, HAD TO RAISE SCHOOL FEES. ENROLLMENT THERE IS DROPPING. DEBT MATTERS. /// END OPT /// ... PRODDED BY RELIGIOUS AND DEVELOPMENT GROUPS, THE WORLD BANK AND THE I-M-F BEGAN A PROGRAM IN 1996 TO HELP POOR COUNTRIES REDUCE THEIR DEBT. BUT THE PROGRAM IS FAR TOO LIMITED. BOTH INSTITUTIONS ARE NOW COMMITTED TO ENLARGING IT, A SUBJECT THEY DISCUSSED AT A MEETING IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEK. WHEN THEY MEET AGAIN IN SEPTEMBER ... [THE ] NEW PLAN ... SHOULD BE LARGE ENOUGH TO ALLOW MANY COUNTRIES TO REDIRECT THEIR MONEY TO FIGHTING POVERTY.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, THERE IS DISSENT FROM "THE MIAMI HERALD" TO THE BASEBALL CLUB'S REGULATIONS LIMITING PROTESTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS AT NEXT MONDAY'S INTERNATIONAL BASEBALL GAME BETWEEN THE CUBAN NATIONAL TEAM AND THE PROFESSIONAL BALTIMORE ORIOLES.

    VOICE: YOU WOULD ... EXPECT THESE TACTICS IN CUBA, WHOSE REGIME IS FAMOUS FOR ITS REPRESSION AND ABUSE OF HUMAN RIGHTS. NOT HERE, IN THE UNITED STATES, WHERE CONSTITUTIONALLY PROTECTED FREE SPEECH IS AS SACRED AS BASEBALL. WHAT'S NEXT, NO HOT DOGS? YES, PUBLIC AUTHORITIES MUST PROTECT PUBLIC SAFETY. ... BUT BANNING OVERLIFGHTS AND SIGNS INSIDE THE PARK ARE AN OUTRAGEOUS ATTEMPT TO STIFLE EXPRESSION, PLAIN AND SIMPLE. THE GAME SHOULD GO FORWARD AS MOST BASEBALL GAMES DO: A GLORIOUS CACAPHONY OF POSTERS, WHISTLES, COSTUMES, AND FANS ROOTING FOR THE HOME OR VISITING TEAM.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM SOME OF TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    30-Apr-99 11:44 AM EDT (1544 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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