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Voice of America, 99-04-27

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBANIA HELICOPTER CRASH (L-ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (TIRANA)
  • [02] ALBANIA/HELICOPTER CRASH (L-2ND UPDATE) BY PETER HEINLEIN (TIRANA)
  • [03] KOSOVO WRAP (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] RED CROSS/KOSOVO/ POWS (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [05] EAST EUROPE CHILDREN (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [06] MACEDONIA/REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (BLACE, MACEDONIA)
  • [07] MACEDONIA/VACCINATIONS (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (BRADZE, MACEDONIA)
  • [08] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [09] U-N COUNCIL / KOSOVO (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [10] CLINTON/KOSOVO OVERNIGHTER (S-ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [11] CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L-ONLY/ONITER) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [12] U-S / RUSSIA / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY CHARLES MAYNES (MOSCOW)
  • [13] KOSOVO RESERVES - L BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [14] KOSOVO RESERVES (S-UPDATE) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [15] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L ONLY) CQ BY CHRISTINE FURNELL (LONDON)
  • [16] MILITARY OPTIONS BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)
  • [17] NATO-KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [18] BALKAN ASSISTANCE (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [19] THE CONTINUING CRISIS IN KOSOVO
  • [20] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [21] ASSESSING THE NATO SUMMIT BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [22] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] ALBANIA HELICOPTER CRASH (L-ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248641
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A U-S APACHE HELICOPTER NEWLY ARRIVED IN ALBANIA AND ASSIGNED FOR ACTION IN KOSOVO HAS CRASHED AND BURNED AT THE TIRANA AIRPORT. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN IN TIRANA REPORTS THE CREW MEMBERS WERE UNHURT.

    TEXT: MILITARY OFFICIALS SAY THE APACHE WENT DOWN AT TIRANA'S RINAS (REENAHS) AIRPORT WHERE 24 OF THE TANK BUSTING CHOPPERS HAVE ARRIVED AND ARE PREPARING FOR ACTION IN AND AROUND YUGOSLAVIA. THERE IS NO IMMEDIATE WORD ON THE CAUSE OF THE CRASH, BUT OFFICIALS SAY THE CHOPPER WAS ON A TRAINING MISSION AND WAS NOT SHOT DOWN. THE TWO CREW MEMBERS ESCAPED WITHOUT INJURY.

    ON MONDAY THE LAST OF THE APACHE'S ASSIGNED FOR ACTION IN KOSOVO TOUCHED DOWN AT THE AIRPORT WHICH HAS BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO A HEAVILY GUARDED MILITARY AIR FIELD. IN ADDITION TO THE APACHE GUN SHIPS, SCORES OF OTHER U-S AND UNITED NATIONS HELICOPTERS AND PLANES ARE PARKED ALONG THE AIRPORT'S LONE RUNWAY. TRANSPORT PLANES WERE BUZZING ABOUT OVERHEAD UNLOADING THE TONS OF HUMANITARIAN AID AND OTHER CARGO ARRIVING DAILY.

    NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS THE ARRIVAL OF THE FULL APACHE CONTINGENT BRINGS THE TOTAL U-S COMBAT STRENGTH IN ALBANIA TO JUST OVER FIVE-THOUSAND TROOPS. MOST ARE LIVING IN TEMPORARY QUARTERS ADJACENT TO THE AIRPORT.

    NATO COMMANDER GENERAL WESLEY CLARK SAYS THE APACHES ARE LIKELY TO MOVE INTO ACTION IN KOSOVO SOON BUT HE GAVE NO FIRM DATE. THE APACHES ARE BEING BACKED UP BY A SIZABLE FORCE OF HEAVY WEAPONS INCLUDING 15 ABRAM M-1-A-1 TANKS, ACE HOWITZER HEAVY ARTILLERY UNITS, AND 28 BRADLEY FIGHTING VEHICLES.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE REPORTS ALBANIAN BORDER GUARDS EXCHANGED FIRE (WITH SERBIAN SOLDIERS) MONDAY IN A REMOTE FRONTIER DISTRICT. ALBANIAN MEDIA REPORTED SERB FORCES CROSSED OVER THE BORDER DURING THE FIGHTING BUT O-S-C-E SPOKESMEN SAY MONITORS WERE NOT PRESENT AND WERE NOT ABLE TO CONFIRM THE REPORTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PH/CB-T/PLM
    27-Apr-99 2:51 AM EDT (0651 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBANIA/HELICOPTER CRASH (L-2ND UPDATE) BY PETER HEINLEIN (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248656
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S MILITARY AUTHORITIES ARE TRYING TO DETERMINE WHY AN APACHE ATTACT HELICOPTER CRASHED AND BURNED DURING A TRAINING MISSION IN ALBANIA. FROM THE ALBANIAN CAPITAL, TIRANA, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS THE 16-MILLION DOLLAR CRAFT WAS DESTROYED, BUT THE CREW ESCAPED WITH MINOR INJURIES.

    TEXT: THE APACHE GUNSHIP, ONE OF 24 DISPATCHED FOR ACTION IN KOSOVO, WENT DURING A NIGHTTIME COMBAT SEARCH AND RESCUE EXERCISE ABOUT 50 KILOMETERS NORTH OF TIRANA'S AIRPORT. WITNESSES VIDEOTAPING THE EXERCISE FOR AN AMERICAN TELEVISION NETWORK SAY THE TAIL OF THE CHOPPER SEEMED TO DRAG AS IT WENT OVER THE RIDGE OF A HILL.

    THE TWO-MAN CREW ESCAPED WITH MINOR INJURIES, BUT THE CRAFT ERUPTED IN FLAMES AND WAS COMPLETELY DESTROYED. ARMY SPOKESMAN LIEUTENANT COLONEL GARY DORNAN SAYS THE APACHE WAS LOADED WITH MUNITIONS AT THE TIME IT WENT DOWN. UNOFFICIAL SOURCES SAY THAT INCLUDES FOUR MISSILES AND 38-ROCKETS.

    COLONEL DORNAN REFUSED TO SAY WHETHER THE WEAPONS EXPLODED DURING THE ACCIDENT. HE SAYS IT IS ROUTINE TO PERFORM COMBAT EXERCISES IN A FULL OPERATIONAL MODE.

    /// DORNAN ACT ///

    THIS IS A COMBAT MISSION. IT IS NOT A PEACEKEEPING MISSION, IT IS NOT A PEACE ENFORCEMENT MISSION. INHERENT IN ANY COMBAT OPERATION IS RISK.

    /// END DORNAN ACT ///

    COLONEL DORNAN BRISTLED AT REPORTERS' SUGGESTIONS THE ACCIDENT CALLS INTO QUESTION THE SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE APACHES. HE NOTED THE HELICOPTER GUNSHIPS DESTROYED MORE THAN 500-ENEMY TANKS DURING THE PERSION GULF WAR AND ARE PREPARING FOR SIMILAR ACTION IN KOSOVO.

    /// 2ND DORNAN ACT ///

    YOU HAVE TO TRAIN AN AGGRESSIVE MANNER TO GO INTO COMBAT. AND THE WAY WE TRAIN IS, WE TRAIN AT NIGHT UNDER BLACTOUT CONDITIONS, WE TRAIN IN A DEMANDING ENVIRONMENT, BECAUSE IN THE LONG RUN, THIS METHOD OF TRAINING WILL SAVE LIVES AND ACCOMPLISH THE MISSION. AND THAT IS REALLY IT. THE BOTTOM LINE IS AGAIN, YOU CAN NOT TAKE THE RISK OUT OF THIS BUSINESS. WE ARE FLYING IN MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN, UNFAMILIAR TERRAIN, AND WE ARE FLYING VERY, VERY STRICT MISSION PROFILES. SO IT IS A RISKY BUSINESS, AND THAT IS WHAT WE HAVE GOT TO ACCEPT.

    /// END 2ND DORNAN ACT ///

    NATO COMMANDER GENERAL WESLEY CLARK SAYS THE APACHES WILL SOON BE MOVING INTO ACTION IN KOSOVO. BUT COLONEL DORNAN WOULD NOT SPECULATE ON WHEN. HE SAYS THE FIRST TO KNOW WILL BE THE SERBS.

    BUT HE TOLD REPORTERS THE LOSS OF ONE HELICOPTER WOULD NOT AFFECT THE DEPLOYMENT SCHEDULE.

    /// 3RD DORNAN ACT ///

    THE EFFECT OF THIS IS NIL. WE WILL DRIVE ON UNDETERRED. WE ARE NOT GOING TO BE WAVERED BY THIS INCIDENT. IT IS ONE OF THE THINGS, THAT IS THE COST OF DOING BUSINESS, AND WE ARE DRIVING ON WITH OUR MISSION.

    /// END 3RD DORNAN ACT ///

    COLONEL DORNAN DECLINED TO IDENTIFY THE TWO CREW MEMBERS ABOARD THE CRASHED APACHE. HE SAID A MEDIVAC HELICOPTER HAD PICKED THEM UP WITHIN 11-MINUTES AFTER THE CRASH AND RUSHED THEM TO A HOSPITAL. BOTH MEN WERE SAID TO BE SUFFERING FROM CUTS AND BRUISES. THE MOST SERIOUS INJURY WAS A BROKEN FINGER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PH/ALW/RAE
    27-Apr-99 10:05 AM EDT (1405 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] KOSOVO WRAP (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248670
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO OFFICIALS SAY THE AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES WILL INTENSIFY -- WHILE IN MOSCOW, U-S AND RUSSIAN OFFICIALS TRY TO FIND A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS. IN THIS REPORT FROM WASHINGTON, CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT TUESDAY'S MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN AND AROUND KOSOVO.

    TEXT: NATO SENIOR COMMANDER U-S GENERAL WESLEY CLARK SAYS SINCE THE AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES BEGAN MARCH 24TH, NATO WARPLANES HAVE FLOWN MORE THAN 11-THOUSAND SUPPORT AND ATTACK MISSIONS.

    BRIEFING REPORTERS AT NATO HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS, GENERAL CLARK SAYS THE ATTACKS HAVE DONE SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE TO STRATEGIC TARGETS THROUGHOUT YUGOSLAVIA. HE SAYS AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS, KEY BRIDGES, COMMAND AND CONTROL CENTERS, AMMUNITION DEPOTS AND OIL REFINERIES HAVE BEEN HIT.

    GENERAL CLARK SAYS NATO ATTACKS ARE BEGINNING TO HIT HARD AT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S GROUND FORCES IN AND AROUND KOSOVO.

    // CLARK ACT //

    HIS PERSONNEL AND MATERIEL LOSSES ARE MOUNTING. HE HAS LOST THE USE OF MOST OF THE KEY FACILITIES THERE AND WE ARE PICKING UP INCREASING NUMBERS OF DESERTIONS AND DECLINING MORALE AMONG THE TROOPS.

    // END ACT //

    IN LONDON, BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK TOLD REPORTERS NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN IS DEFINITELY TAKING ITS TOLL ON SERB FORCES.

    // COOK ACT //

    WE HAVE HAD A NUMBER OF REPORTS OF CONFRONTATIONS BETWEEN SERB SOLDIERS TRYING TO WITHDRAW AND THE SPECIAL POLICE TURNING THEM BACK TO THE FRONT LINE. TO A COMMANDER, THIS IS WORRYING.

    // END ACT //

    NATO OFFICIALS ALSO SAY YUGOSLAV FORCES ARE FORTIFYING DEFENSIVE POSITIONS IN ANTICIPATION OF GROUND OPERATIONS. BUT AT THIS MOMENT, NATO HAS MADE NO DECISION TO SEND IN GROUND FORCES. MEANWHILE, DELEGATES FROM THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS - INCLUDING A DOCTOR - WERE ABLE TO MEET WITH THE THREE AMERICAN SOLDIERS CAPTURED LAST MONTH BY YUGOSLAV FORCES.

    A RED CROSS SPOKESWOMAN - SUZANNE VERGER - SAYS THE THREE MEN WERE FOUND TO BE IN SATISFACTORY CONDITION.

    // VERGER ACT //

    OUR DELEGATES WERE ABLE TO HOLD PRIVATE TALKS WITH EACH PRISONER OF WAR. THEY REGISTERED THEIR PERSONAL DETAILS AND THE PRISONERS OF WAR WERE ALSO GIVEN THE POSSIBILITY TO WRITE RED CROSS MESSAGES WHICH WE WILL TRANSMIT TO THEIR FAMILIES.

    // END ACT //

    MS. VERGER SAYS THE RED CROSS HOPES TO BE ABLE TO SEE THE THREE AMERICAN SOLDIERS AGAIN IN THE NEAR FUTURE. IN MOSCOW, U-S DEPUTY SECRETARY OF STATE STROBE TALBOTT MET WITH SENIOR RUSSIAN OFFICIALS -- INCLUDING FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV -- IN AN EFFORT TO FIND A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    FOLLOWING HIS MEETINGS, MR. TALBOTT TOLD REPORTERS NO BREAKTHROUGHS WERE ACHIEVED.

    // TALBOTT ACT //

    I WOULD SAY THAT OUR TALKS TODAY WERE CONSTRUCTIVE, SERIOUS AND FRANK. THERE IS NO QUESTION THAT THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA ARE WORKING TOGETHER ON THIS PROBLEM. THE PROBLEM IS EXTREMELY DIFFICULT. THIS IMPORTANT AND URGENT WORK CONTINUES - AND IT WILL CONTINUE IN THE DAYS TO COME.

    // END ACT //

    RUSSIA HAS BEEN STRONGLY CRITICAL OF NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES. BUT IN THE PAST FEW WEEKS, RUSSIA'S RHETORIC HAS SOFTENED. MANY ANALYSTS SAY MOSCOW IS TRYING TO PLAY A MEDIATING ROLE AT A TIME WHEN DIPLOMATIC CHANNELS BETWEEN THE WEST AND YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC ARE ALL BUT CUT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/WFR
    27-Apr-99 3:52 PM EDT (1952 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] RED CROSS/KOSOVO/ POWS (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248668
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS SAYS IT HAS BEGUN NEGOTIATIONS WITH YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES ON GETTING THE SECURITY GUARANTEES IT NEEDS FOR RED CROSS DELEGATES TO RESUME HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS IN KOSOVO. LISA SCHLEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA THAT THE RED CROSS SAYS PARALLEL NEGOTIATIONS ARE ALSO GOING ON WITH NATO.

    TEXT: THE RED CROSS SAYS IT CAN'T SET A DATE AS TO WHEN ITS DELEGATES ARE LIKELY TO RETURN TO KOSOVO. IT SAYS IT COULD TAKE DAYS AND PERHAPS WEEKS BEFORE THE ORGANIZATION GETS THE SECURITY GUARANTEES IT NEEDS TO RESUME ITS HUMANITARIAN ACTIVITIES IN KOSOVO. IT SAYS IT ALSO NEEDS TO HAVE SECURITY ASSURANCES FROM NATO.

    THE PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS, CORNELIO SOMMARUGA SAYS HE AND YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAD A FRANK DISCUSSION ABOUT THE KOSOVO CRISIS WHICH LASTED FOR ONE AND ONE HALF HOURS. HE SAYS ALTHOUGH THEY DISAGREED ABOUT A NUMBER OF ISSUES, THEY BOTH AGREED THAT THE RED CROSS SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO HELP THE CIVILIAN VICTIMS IN KOSOVO.

    /// SOMMARUGA ACT ///

    PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS GIVEN ME REPEATED ASSURANCES THAT HE AND HIS ARMED SECURITY FORCES WOULD ALLOW THE I-C-R-C TO MOVE FREELY IN KOSOVO, TO CARRY OUT OUR OWN SERVICE IN TOTAL INDEPENDENCE, TO ASSIST IMPARTIALLY ALL VICTIMS OF THE CURRENT CONFLICT AND TO GET ACCESS TO ALL PERSONS DETAINED.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SOMMARUGA SAYS THESE VERBAL ASSURANCES HAVE TO BE FOLLOWED UP WITH CONCRETE CONDITIONS FOR GUARANTEEING SECURITY. HE SAYS RED CROSS DELEGATES AND YUGOSLAV ARMY OFFICERS ARE NOW WORKING OUT THE SPECIFIC DETAILS. AND, IT'S LIKELY TO TAKE SEVERAL WEEKS TO WORK DOWN THE YUGOSLAV ARMY CHAIN OF COMMAND INSTRUCTING ALL SOLDIERS IN KOSOVO TO RESPECT THE RED CROSS EMBLEM.

    HE SAYS YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES WILL HAVE TO CONFIRM THESE GUARANTEES IN WRITING. BUT, THE RED CROSS WILL ACCEPT VERBAL ASSURANCES OF SAFETY FROM NATO.

    THE RED CROSS PRESIDENT SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC HAS KEPT HIS BARGAIN REGARDING RED CROSS VISITS TO THE THREE UNITED STATES SERVICEMEN WHO WERE CAPTURED LAST MONTH.

    /// 2ND SOMMARUGA ACT///

    I AM HAPPY TO ANNOUNCE THAT TODAY THE TEAM OF THE I-C-R-C IN BELGRADE INCLUDING A MEDICAL DOCTOR HAS HAD ACCESS TO THE THREE U-S SERVICEMEN, PRISONERS OF WAR.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SOMMARUGA WOULDN'T GIVE DETAILS ABOUT THE CONDITION OF THE AMERICAN SOLDIERS. BUT HE SAYS THE VISIT WAS CARRIED OUT WITHOUT ANY INTERFERENCE AND IN FULL ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW. HE SAYS THE AGENCY WILL VISIT THE SERVICEMEN REGULARLY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/ALW
    27-Apr-99 2:15 PM EDT (1815 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EAST EUROPE CHILDREN (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248658
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UNICEF, THE UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND, SAYS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL UPHEAVAL IN THE FORMER COMMUNIST STATES OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IS DISRUPTING THE LIVES AND WELL-BEING OF MILLIONS OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA SAYS A UNICEF REPORT IS WARNING EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS MUST ACT TO PREVENT A WHOLE GENERATION OF CHILDREN FROM LOSING OUT ON GOOD HEALTH AND EDUCATION.

    TEXT: UNICEF SAYS CHILDREN ARE PAYING A TERRIBLE PRICE AS A RESULT OF MILITARY AND ETHNIC CONFLICT, AND THE WAR IN KOSOVO IS ONLY THE LATEST TRAGEDY TO BEFALL THEM. IT SAYS PREVIOUS CONFLICTS IN PLACES SUCH AS CHECHNYA, NAGORNO-KARABAKH, AND TAJIKISTAN HAVE KILLED AND MAIMED THOUSANDS OF CHILDREN AND CAUSED MORE THAN THREE-MILLION OTHERS TO BECOME REFUGEES OR DISPLACED IN THEIR OWN COUNTRIES.

    THE REPORT SAYS MORE AND MORE FAMILIES ARE FALLING BELOW THE POVERTY LINE. UNICEF'S EASTERN EUROPEAN DEPUTY DIRECTOR, RUDOLF HOFFMANN SAYS THERE HAS BEEN A DRAMATIC DETERIORATION IN CHILDREN'S HEALTH DUE TO INFECTIOUS DISEASES, FAMILY VIOLENCE AND UNHEALTHY LIFE STYLES.

    HE SAYS THERE IS PARTICULAR CONCERN ABOUT THE SPREAD OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AMONG TEENAGERS, ESPECIALLY H-I-V/AIDS.

    /// HOFFMAN ACT ///

    THE WORLD COMMUNITY DEFINITELY UNDERESTIMATED THE DANGER. ONLY A COUPLE THOUSANDS CASES EXISTED SOME YEARS AGO. NOW WE ARE TALKING ABOUT HUNDREDS-OF-THOUSANDS OF CASES.

    /// END ACT ///

    TO HIGHLIGHT THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM, UNICEF NOTES THAT THREE-YEARS AGO, THE UKRAINIAN CITY OF ODESSA HAD 12-HUNDRED CASES OF H-I-V. NOW THERE ARE 13-THOUSAND NEW INFECTIONS.

    MR. HOFFMANN SAYS ECONOMIC HARDSHIP IS FORCING MANY PARENTS TO ABANDON THEIR CHILDREN. HE SAYS THESE CHILDREN END UP IN STATE INSTITUTIONS ALONG WITH MANY OTHERS WHO ARE ORPHANS OR MAY BE PHYSICALLY AND/OR MENTALLY DISABLED.

    UNICEF ESTIMATES ONE-MILLION-300-THOUSAND CHILDREN ARE IN PUBLIC CARE. THE UNICEF REPORT DESCRIBES CONDITIONS IN THESE PLACES AS INTOLERABLE. MR. HOFFMANN SAYS MANY INSTITUTIONS HAVE NO HEATING, CHILDREN ARE FED AN UNBALANCED DIET, VIOLENCE IS RAMPANT, AND DISEASES LIKE TUBERCULOSIS ARE SPREAD RAPIDLY.

    /// 2ND HOFFMANN ACT ///

    WHAT WE ARE CONCERNED WITH IS THAT WHEN CHILDREN ARE LEAVING INSTITUTIONS, AND NORMALLY THEY DO THIS AT AGE 18, THAT THEY ARE NOT WELL PREPARED FOR LIFE. MOST OF THEM ARE UNEMPLOYED. SOME OF THEM GET IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW AND SOME OF THEM COMMIT SUICIDE BECAUSE THEY DO NOT KNOW HOW TO HANDLE LIFE IN A RESPONSIBLE WAY.

    /// END ACT ///

    UNICEF SAYS GOVERNMENTS SHOULD NOTE THAT FAMILY SUBSIDIES AND FOSTER CARE IS A LOT CHEAPER THAN PUTTING CHILDREN IN INSTITUTIONS. IT URGES COUNTRIES IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE TO PROVIDE SAFETY NETS FOR VULNERABLE GROUPS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/ALW/RAE
    27-Apr-99 10:34 AM EDT (1434 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] MACEDONIA/REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (BLACE, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248664
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FOR THE FOURTH-STRAIGHT DAY, SEVERAL-THOUSAND KOSOVAR ALBANIAN REFUGEES ARRIVED AT THE BORDER CROSSING AT BLACE (BLAH ZEH), MACEDONIA. BUT U-N REFUGEE WORKERS SAY THE REFUGEE CAMPS ARE ALREADY BURSTING AT THE SEAMS. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN HAS MORE FROM BLACE.

    TEXT: MORE THAN FOUR THOUSAND MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN HAVE BEEN STANDING PATIENTLY FOR HOURS IN THE HOT SUN, WAITING TO BE BUSSED TO NEARBY REFUGEE CAMPS. THEY HAVE ARRIVED BY TRAIN AND BUS FROM IN AND AROUND THE KOSOVAR TOWN OF UROSEVAC - OR FERIZAJ,, IN ALBANIAN. MOST COME WITH REPORTS OF VILLAGE BURNINGS AND ATROCITIES THAT HAVE BECOME AN ALL-TOO-FAMILIAR REFRAIN.

    BUT U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN RON REDMAN SAYS THE REFUGEE CAMPS IN MACEDONIA ARE BURSTING AT THE SEAMS. THERE IS NO MORE ROOM, BUT HE SAYS AID WORKERS ARE NOW LAYING OUT SLEEPING BAGS AND PLASTIC SHEETING BETWEEN THE TENTS SO THE NEW ARRIVALS WILL PROBABLY END UP SLEEPING IN THE OPEN. FORTUNATELY, HE SAYS, THE RAIN HAS STOPPED AND THE WEATHER IS WARMER.

    MR REDMOND SAYS ANOTHER TWO THOUSAND KOSOVAR ALBANIANS HAVE CROSSED THE BORDER NORTHEAST OF SKOPJE NEAR THE VILLAGE OF LAJANI. HE SAYS THE NEW GROUP COMES FROM SOUTHERN SERBIA -- NEWS HE FINDS DISTURBING.

    ///REDMAN ACT ///

    THESE ARE PEOPLE FROM ACTUALLY AREAS WITHIN SERBIA ITSELF -- SOUTHERN SERBIA -- WHERE WE HAVE HAD REFUGEES FLOWING THROUGH THAT AREA IN RECENT WEEKS. BUT NOW IT APPEARS THEY ARE ACTUALLY CLEANSING SOME OF THE ALBANIAN POPULATION OUT OF THAT REGION.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR REDMAN SAYS THE U-N-H-C-R IS TRYING TO RUSH TO COMPLETION ANOTHER REFUGEE CAMP FARTHER TO THE WEST, BUT HE COMPLAINS THE MACEDONIAN CONTRACTORS CLEARING THE SITE ARE SLOWING THE WORK BECAUSE THEY WANT TO BUILD THE INFRASTRUCTURE TOO. MR REDMAN SAYS NON-GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ARE EXPERT AT THIS WORK AND CAN PUT IN SANITARY AND WATER FACILITIES WITHIN HOURS.

    /// REDMAN ACT TWO ///

    THEY HAVE DONE REFUGEE CAMPS ALL OVER THE WORLD. THEY CAN DO IT IN A MATTER OF HOURS. IF WE DEAL WITH THIS CONTRACTOR, WE ARE TALKING A FEW MORE DAYS, AND WE DO NOT HAVE DAYS TO SPARE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-N-H-C-R ALSO HAS STEPPED UP ITS APPEAL TO EUROPEAN STATES TO TAKE IN MORE REFUGEES TEMPORARILY

    BUT FOR IMER HASANI, A MACEDONIAN ETHNIC ALBANIAN FROM SKOPJE, THESE PROBLEMS ARE NOT HIS. THE ONLY THING THAT MATTERS IS TO SEE HIS RELATIVES FROM URESEVAC -- OR FERIZAJ IN ALBANIAN -- CROSS THE BORDER .

    /// HASANI ALBANIAN AND FADE ///

    HE SAYS -- I HAVE BEEN COMING HERE FOR THREE DAYS NOW AND I WILL WAIT FOR AS LONG AS IT TAKES UNTIL I KNOW MY FAMILY HAS REACHED SAFETY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/ALW/RAE
    27-Apr-99 12:10 PM EDT (1610 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] MACEDONIA/VACCINATIONS (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (BRADZE, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248667
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN MACEDONIA, THE U-N CHILDRENS' FUND -- UNICEF -- HAS LAUNCHED A VACCINATION PROGRAM TO IMMUNIZE MORE THAN NINE THOUSAND REFUGEE CHILDREN AGAINST POLIO, TUBERCULOSIS, MEASLES, MUMPS AND OTHER INFECTIOUS DISEASES. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM THE REFUGEE CAMP AT BRAZDE.

    TEXT: ///SOUND OF CRYING AND MOTHER'S SOOTHING WORDS//

    THE CHILDREN CRYING IN THIS REFUGEE TENT ARE CRYING FOR A GOOD REASON. THE TEARS THIS TIME ARE NOT FROM FEAR AND HUNGER THEY MAY HAVE SUFFERED BACK HOME IN KOSOVO. THE BRIEF PAIN NOW IS FROM A NEEDLE IN THE ARM TO VACCINATE THEM AGAINST INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

    UNICEF IS COORDINATING THE VACCINATION CAMPAIGN WHICH AIMS TO IMMUNIZE MORE THAN NINE THOUSAND REFUGEE CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF FIVE.

    UNICEF SPOKESMAN JEREMY HARTLEY SAYS THE DOCTORS ARE AVERAGING ONE THOUSAND VACCINATIONS A DAY. BUT THAT DOES NOT INCLUDE THE NEW FLOOD OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES THIS WEEK.

    /// HARTLEY ACT ///

    THAT IS EXACTLY ANOTHER PROBLEM. SO WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THEY ARE MOBILIZED TO COME HERE. WE LEAFLETED ALL THE TENTS IN THE CAMP IN ORDER TO ENCOURAGE THE PARENTS TO BRING THEIR CHILDREN FORWARD FOR VACCINATION. WHEN WE HAVE NEW ARRIVALS, THE BEST WAY TO CATCH THEM IS WHEN THEY COME INTO THE CAMP. BECAUSE ONCE THEY MOVE INTO THE TENTS, IT'S IMPOSSIBLE TO TELL THOSE WHO ARE NEW ARRIVALS AND THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN HERE BEFORE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR HARTLEY SAYS THE CHILDREN IN THE CAMPS SO FAR APPEAR IN GOOD HEALTH. BUT THEIR PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS ARE BEGINNING TO SURFACE.

    /// HARTLEY ACT TWO ///

    WE ALSO HAVE A HIGH INCIDENCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS WITH CHILDREN. WE DON'T KNOW THE EXTENT OF THAT BUT IT IS REPORTED FROM THE HEALTH CLINICS HERE OF CHILDREN TRAUMATIZED BY WHAT THEY'VE SEEN, UPSET BY WHAT'S HAPPENED TO THEIR LIVES, THE FACT THAT THEY'VE HAD TO MOVE TWO OR THREE TIMES AND THEN DISPLACED FROM THEIR HOMES TO ANOTHER COUNTRY.

    /// END ACT ///

    ///FADE UP AND UNDER CHILDREN SINGING///

    JUST A FEW METERS FROM THE VACCINATION TENT, YOUNG KOSOVOAR CHILDREN SING SONGS FROM HOME AND PLAY WITH NEWFOUND FRIENDS. AID WORKERS SAY IT IS IMPORTANT TO KEEP THEM BUSY SO THAT FOR A LITTLE WHILE AT LEAST THEY CAN FORGET THE NIGHTMARES THEY HAVE ENDURED.

    /// OPT THE REST ///

    ELMIJE VUNICI WIPES THE TEARS FROM THE FACE OF HER THREE YEAR OLD DAUGHTER, ARIANA, AFTER HER VACCINATION SHOT. MRS VUNICI SAYS SHE ARRIVED AT THE STENKOVIZ CAMP ON MONDAY.

    /// ALBANIAN AND FADE ///

    SHE SAYS SHE LEFT HER VILLAGE TEN MONTHS AGO AFTER THE SERB MILITARY KILLED ANOTHER FAMILY THERE AND THREATENED TO KILL HER YOUNG DAUGHTER IF SHE DID NOT GIVE THEM ALL HER JEWELRY.

    MRS VUNICI SAYS SHE AND HER FOUR CHILDREN MOVED FROM VILLAGE TO VILLAGE UNTIL HER CHILDREN COULD TAKE IT NO LONGER. SHE DECIDED IT WAS TIME TO LEAVE KOSOVO ALTOGETHER AND CROSSED THE BORDER THREE DAYS AGO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/ALW
    27-Apr-99 2:15 PM EDT (1815 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248652
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, U-N-H-C-R, SAYS THERE HAS BEEN ANOTHER SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES ARRIVING IN MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA. LISA SCHLEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA.

    TEXT: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS MORE THAN 35-HUNDRED KOSOVAR REFUGEES ARRIVED IN MACEDONIA ON MONDAY. IT SAYS THIS IS THE BIGGEST DAILY INFLUX IN MORE THAN ONE WEEK.

    THE AGENCY SAYS EXISTING CAMPS IN MACEDONIA ARE HOPELESSLY OVERCROWDED AND THE NEWLY ARRIVING REFUGEES WILL HAVE TO SLEEP ON THE GROUND UNDER PLASTIC SHEETS.

    THE AGENCY ALSO REPORTS AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF REFUGEES ARRIVING IN ALBANIA. IT SAYS MORE THAN 460 REFUGEES CROSSED INTO ALBANIA ON MONDAY, COMPARED TO JUST 13 ON SUNDAY.

    U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN, KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS HE DOES NOT KNOW WHAT IS BEHIND THIS ERRATIC MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE. BUT HE SAYS HE BELIEVES THERE ARE MANY TERRIFIED PEOPLE WHO WANT TO LEAVE KOSOVO BUT ARE PREVENTED FROM DOING SO.

    /// JANOWSKI ACT ONE ///

    THE LACK OF PEOPLE CROSSING IS IN A WAY AS OMINOUS AS BIG NUMBERS OF PEOPLE CROSSING. AT LEAST WHEN BIG NUMBERS (OF PEOPLE) CROSS, WE KNOW THAT THEY ARE ESCAPING TO SOME IMPERFECT, PERHAPS DIFFICULT, SAFETY. NONETHELESS SOME KIND OF SAFETY. THOSE WHO STAY BEHIND MAY BE TRAPPED BEHIND, ESSENTIALLY DELIVERED TO THEIR FATE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. JANOWSKI SAYS MANY OF THE REFUGEES WHO ARRIVE IN MACEDONIA SEEM TO CONFIRM EARLIER REPORTS OF KILLINGS BY SERB PARAMILITARY FORCES IN VILLAGES SOUTH OF KOSOVO'S CAPITAL, PRISTINA. HE SAYS OTHER TALES OF WIDESPREAD PHYSICAL ABUSE WERE RECOUNTED BY REFUGEES ARRIVING IN ALBANIA.

    HE SAYS A GROUP OF 250, MAINLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, REACHED ALBANIA LATE MONDAY, EMOTIONALLY AND PHYSICALLY EXHAUSTED, MANY IN TEARS. THE REFUGEES SAID THEIR MEN FLED AS FIGHTING ENGULFED THEIR TOWN. MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THE WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE THEN TAKEN BY SERB FORCES TO ANOTHER TOWN WHERE THEY WERE KEPT FOR TWO DAYS.

    /// JANOWSKI ACT TWO ///

    ALL THE WOMEN TOLD U-N-H-C-R FIELD STAFF THE GROUP WAS SEPARATED AND PUT INTO DIFFERENT ROOMS AND DIFFERENT HOUSES. THE ELDERS TRIED TO PROTECT THE YOUNGER WOMEN BY HIDING THEM UNDER BLANKETS OR GIVING THEM BABIES TO HOLD. HOWEVER, SOME OF THE YOUNGER WOMEN WERE LED AWAY, SOME FOR HALF AN HOUR, OTHERS FOR UP TO TWO HOURS. THE OLDER WOMEN IN THE GROUP SAID THAT SOME OF THESE WOMEN HAD BEEN, AS THEY PUT IT, "TOUCHED."

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THE WOMEN ARE RELUCTANT TO TALK ABOUT SUCH EXPERIENCES. BUT FROM THEIR DESCRIPTIONS, HE SAYS, IT IS CLEAR THAT SOME OF THE WOMEN HAD BEEN RAPED.

    THE U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN SAYS HIS AGENCY IS ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT THE FATE OF CIVILIANS IN SERBIA WHO ARE SUFFERING UNDER NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN. HE SAYS THE U-N-H-C-R IS DISTURBED BY THE DEATHS OF CIVILIANS, REFUGEES AND RESIDENTS ALIKE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH/KL
    27-Apr-99 8:19 AM EDT (1219 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-N COUNCIL / KOSOVO (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248673
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS' HUMANITARIAN COORDINATOR IS (TUESDAY) WARNING THAT AN OIL EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA COULD HAVE A SERIOUS IMPACT ON HUMANITARIAN WORK IN THE REGION. V-O-A'S U-N CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: U-N HUMANITARIAN COORDINATOR SERGIO VIEIRA DE MELLO ISSUED THE WARNING IN A CLOSED-DOOR MEETING WITH THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL, AT WHICH HE BRIEFED COUNCIL MEMBERS ON HUMANITARIAN CONDITIONS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. HE SAID THE THREAT OF AN OIL EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA RAISES TWO CONCERNS FOR HUMANITARIAN WORK THERE. HE SAID IT WOULD ADVERSELY AFFECT THE WELFARE OF CIVILIANS THROUGHOUT YUGOSLAVIA AND FURTHER RESTRICT THE ABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN AGENCIES TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TO THOSE PEOPLE.

    /// VIEIRA DE MELLO ACT ///

    THE SITUATION IS ALREADY DIFFICULT FOR HUMANITARIAN AGENCIES, FOR SECURITY REASONS, BECAUSE OF A LACK OF FUEL, BECAUSE OF RESTRICTIONS, BECAUSE OF THE DESTRUCTION OF INFRASTRUCTURE. SO AN ADDITIONAL SHORTAGE OF FUEL CAN ONLY COMPLICATE THE MATTER EVEN FURTHER, AND CLEARLY THE CIVILIAN POPULATION WOULD SUFFER AND THE STATED OBJECTIVE -- WHICH IS TO REDUCE THE LOGISTICAL CAPACITY OF YUGOSLAV FORCES -- MAY COME LATER. THIS IS STRICTLY FROM A HUMANITARIAN POINT OF VIEW.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. VIEIRA DE MELLO DESCRIBED THE DISPLACEMENT OF HUNDREDS-OF-THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE IN KOSOVO AS A MAJOR HUMANITARIAN DISASTER, SAYING HE IS MOST CONCERNED BY REPORTS THAT CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO ARE BEING USED AS HUMAN SHIELDS AND SUBJECTED TO EXECUTION, RAPE AND ROBBERY BY PARAMILITARY FORCES. HE SAID THE SYSTEMATIC ACTS OF TERROR AGAINST THE KOSOVAR POPULATION REPRESENT CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY THAT MUST BE PUNISHED. YUGOSLAVIA IS CURRENTLY BANNING AID WORKERS FROM ENTERING THE COUNTRY.

    AFTER THE MEETING, THE COUNCIL ISSUED A BRIEF STATEMENT EXPRESSING CONCERN ABOUT THE HUMANITARIAN SITUATION IN KOSOVO. DIPLOMATS SAY THE COUNCIL WAS UNABLE TO AGREE ON STRONGER ACTION BECAUSE OF DIVISIONS OVER POLITICAL ISSUES SURROUNDING YUGOSLAVIA. RUSSIA AND CHINA STRONGLY OBJECT TO THE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. BRITAIN, FRANCE AND THE UNITED STATES SUPPORT THOSE STRIKES.

    THE U-N AMBASSADORS FROM MALAYSIA AND BAHRAIN SAY THEY HAVE BEGUN WORK ON A DRAFT RESOLUTION ON KOSOVO THAT WOULD DEAL ONLY WITH HUMANITARIAN ISSUES. THE RESOLUTION CALLS FOR IMMEDIATE HUMANITARIAN ACCESS TO ALL OF YUGOSLAVIA, INCLUDING KOSOVO. THE TWO AMBASSADORS SAY THE FACT THAT COUNCIL MEMBERS ARE DIVIDED ON THE POLITICAL AND MILITARY ASPECTS OF THE ISSUE SHOULD NOT PREVENT THEM FROM TAKING ACTION ON THE HUMANITARIAN ISSUES. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/PT
    27-Apr-99 3:54 PM EDT (1954 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] CLINTON/KOSOVO OVERNIGHTER (S-ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248681
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON MEETS WITH CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS AND MEMBERS OF KEY COMMITTEES TODAY TO DISCUSS THE MILITARY OPERATION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS MR. CLINTON PLANS TO BRIEF THEM ON THE NATO SUMMIT AND THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE ALLIED AIR CAMPAIGN.

    TEXT: THIS MEETING COMES AT A TIME WHEN SEVERAL PIECES OF LEGISLATION DEALING WITH THE NATO MISSION ARE BEFORE CONGRESS. OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THE WHITE HOUSE IS THE PRESIDENT'S REQUEST FOR EMERGENCY FUNDS TO PAY FOR THE MILITARY OPERATION FOR THE REST OF THE FISCAL YEAR.

    THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS ASKED FOR SIX BILLION DOLLARS. BUT REPUBLICANS IN CONGRESS SAY MUCH MORE IS NEEDED AND THEY ARE WILLING TO SPEND A TOTAL OF 13 BILLION.

    NEITHER SIDE IS SAYING MUCH ABOUT ANOTHER MATTER PENDING IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES: A PAIR OF RESOLUTIONS CHALLENGING THE PRESIDENT'S ABILITY TO DEPLOY TROOPS WITHOUT A FORMAL DECLARATION OF WAR.

    CONGRESSMAN TOM CAMPBELL - - A CALIFORNIA REPUBLICAN - - DEMANDED A VOTE ON THE TWO RESOLUTIONS.. HE INVOKED A 1973 LAW WHICH SAYS THE PRESIDENT CANNOT PUT AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN HARMS WAY FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD WITHOUT APPROVAL FROM CONGRESS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/WFR
    27-Apr-99 6:13 PM EDT (2213 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L-ONLY/ONITER) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248680
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S HOUSE (OF REPRESENTATIVES) IS EXPECTED TO VOTE TOMORROW (WEDNESDAY) ON WHETHER TO DECLARE WAR ON YUGOSLAVIA - AND ALSO ON WHETHER TO PULL AMERICAN FORCES OUT OF THE REGION. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS, NEITHER PROPOSAL IS LIKELY TO PASS - AND BOTH ARE PART OF A LONG-SIMMERING DEBATE OVER WHO HAS THE POWER TO COMMIT TROOPS TO BATTLE.

    TEXT: MANY LAWMAKERS HAVE CRITICIZED OR QUESTIONED THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S HANDLING OF THE AIR WAR OVER KOSOVO. HOWEVER, THE UPCOMING VOTE IS LARGELY THE WORK OF ONE MAN - REPUBLICAN CONGRESSMAN TOM CAMPBELL OF CALIFORNIA.

    // CAMPBELL ACT //

    WE ARE AT WAR. AND CONGRESS HAS NOT DECLARED THAT. AND THAT'S UNCONSTITUTIONAL.

    // END ACT //

    USING THE LAW CALLED "THE WAR POWERS ACT," MR. CAMPBELL IS IN EFFECT FORCING THE HOUSE TO ACT ON TWO MEASURES - A SHOWDOWN REPUBLICAN LEADERS HOPED TO AVOID. ONE RESOLUTION IS AN OUTRIGHT DECLARATION OF WAR WITH YUGOSLAVIA. THE OTHER WOULD REQUIRE THE PRESIDENT TO WITHDRAW THE U-S MILITARY FROM THE BALKANS INSTEAD. OTHERWISE, MR. CAMPBELL SAYS, AMERICAN GROUND TROOPS MAY SOON BE IN COMBAT WITH SERBIA - WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF CONGRESS.

    // CAMPBELL ACT //

    THE GROUND WAR COULD START TOMORROW. WOULD ANY OF US BE SURPRISED IF A GROUND WAR STARTED TOMORROW AND THE PRESIDENT SAID THAT HE HAD THE AUTHORITY TO DO SO?

    // END ACT //

    THE NOTION OF A PULLOUT ENJOYS SUPPORT FROM SOME CONSERVATIVE REPUBLICANS AND AT LEAST A FEW LIBERAL DEMOCRATS. BUT CRITICS WARN IT WOULD UNDERMINE NATO AND GIVE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC A FREE HAND. DEMOCRATIC CONGRESSMAN SAM GEJDENSON LOUDLY DENOUNCED THE PROPOSAL.

    // GEJDENSON ACT //

    YES, I WOULD RATHER THIS WAS OVER SOONER THAN LATER. BUT TO VOTE HERE TODAY TO REMOVE OUR COMMITMENT TO ENDING THIS SLAUGHTER IS AN OUTRAGE AGAINST HUMANITY.

    // END ACT //

    OTHERS SAY THERE IS NO NEED TO FORMALLY DECLARE WAR - AN ACTION CONGRESS HAS TAKEN ONLY A HANDFUL OF TIMES AND DID NOT TAKE IN KOREA, VIETNAM OR THE PERSIAN GULF. DEMOCRAT WILLIAM DELAHUNT ARGUES THE MOVE COULD BE DANGEROUSLY COUNTERPRODUCTIVE.

    // DELAHUNT ACT //

    I WOULD SUGGEST THAT IF WE WERE TO DECLARE WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA IT IS HARD TO IMAGINE THAT RUSSIA WOULD CONTINUE TO PLAY THAT CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE. AND I DARE SAY IT COULD PUSH RUSSIA TO PLAY A DESTRUCTIVE ROLE.'

    // END ACT //

    THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE VOTED AGAINST BOTH RESOLUTIONS (TUESDAY), URGING THE FULL HOUSE TO FOLLOW SUIT. NEITHER IS EXPECTED TO PREVAIL. BUT UNLESS THE FIGHTING ENDS QUICKLY THE PRESIDENT'S POLICY IS LIKELY TO FACE MORE CHALLENGES IN THE DAYS AHEAD. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/PHW/WFR
    27-Apr-99 6:49 PM EDT (2249 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] U-S / RUSSIA / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY CHARLES MAYNES (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248660
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: OFFICIALS FROM RUSSIA AND THE UNITES STATES CONTINUED TALKS TUESDAY, SEEKING WAYS TO SOLVE THE YUGOSLAVIA CRISIS. CHARLES MAYNES REPORTS FROM MOSCOW.

    TEXT: U-S DEPUTY SECRETARY OF STATE STROBE TALBOTT ARRIVED IN MOSCOW HOPING TO LEARN WHAT, IF ANY, PROGRESS RUSSIA HAD MADE IN ITS EFFORTS TO FIND A PEACE IN THE BALKANS.

    BUT IT WAS CLEAR FROM MR. TALBOTT'S COMMENTS TO REPORTERS AFTER A SERIES OF CLOSED-DOOR MEETINGS THAT THERE IS STILL NO BREAKTHROUGH. IF ANYTHING, THE TALKS MERELY SERVED AS THE LATEST ROUND OF U-S AND RUSSIAN DIALOGUE ABOUT KOSOVO.

    /// TALBOTT ACT ///

    I WOULD SAY THAT OUR TALKS TODAY WERE CONSTRUCTIVE, SERIOUS, AND FRANK. THERE'S NO QUESTION THAT THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA ARE WORKING TOGETHER ON THIS PROBLEM. THE PROBLEM IS EXTREMELY DIFFICULT. IT IS IMPORTANT, AND URGENT WORK CONTINUES, AND IT WILL CONTINUE IN THE DAYS TO COME.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT FOR ALL THE WORDS OF COOPERATION, BIG DISAGREEMENTS REMAIN. RUSSIA'S SPECIAL ENVOY ON THE YUGOSLAV CRISIS, VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN, INSISTED NATO EITHER HALT OR SUSPEND AIRSTRIKES TO RESTART PEACE TALKS. NATO HAS REPEATEDLY REJECTED THE IDEA.

    IN ADDITION, MR. TALBOTT AND MR. CHERNOMYRDIN ALSO APPEARED TO DISAGREE OVER NATO'S PROPOSED OIL EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. RUSSIA IS A LEADING OIL SUPPLIER TO YUGOSLAVIA AND IT HAS SAID IT WILL NOT HONOR THE BLOCKADE. HOWEVER, RUSSIA -- FOR NOW -- HAS SUSPENDED OIL DELIVERIES. MEANWHILE, THE UNITED STATES CONTINUES TO LOOK TO RUSSIA TO WIELD ITS INFLUENCE OVER YUGOSLAVIA TO EASE ACCEPTANCE OF NATO DEMANDS. BUT OBSERVERS SAY THE LIKELIHOOD OF SUCH AN OUTCOME IS IN QUESTION. ALL RUSSIAN DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS -- SO FAR -- TO FIND A PEACE SETTLEMENT IN YUGOSLAVIA HAVE ENDED IN EITHER FAILURE OR MISUNDERSTANDING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CM/JWH
    27-Apr-99 11:32 AM EDT (1532 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] KOSOVO RESERVES - L BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248676
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // EDS: CUT TAPE TO CONFORM TO TEXT //

    INTRO: CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES ARE SENDING MORE TROOPS TO JOIN NATO FORCES NEAR YUGOSLAVIA, AND THOSE FORCES ARE GETTING SOME HELP FROM ONE OF NATO'S NEWEST MEMBERS, HUNGARY. TUESDAY, PRESIDENT CLINTON APPROVED A PENTAGON REQUEST TO ORDER PERHAPS 33-THOUSAND RESERVISTS TO ACTIVE DUTY.

    TEXT: PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY THE INTENSIVE AIR BOMBARDMENT OF SERB TARGETS ACROSS YUGOSLAVIA HAS PUT A STRAIN ON U-S ACTIVE DUTY FORCES.

    THE NEW PART-TIME TROOPS ARE NEEDED TO FLY AND FIX SOME OF THE THREE HUNDRED U-S PLANES THAT WILL SOON JOIN THE FIGHT. ABOUT 21-HUNDRED OF THE RESERVISTS WILL BE CALLED UP IMMEDIATELY, WITH ADDITIONAL DEPLOYMENTS AS THE WAR PROGRESSES. PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS THE NEW FORCES WILL HELP NATO COMMANDER WESLEY CLARK INTENSIFY THE AIR CAMPAIGN.

    /// BACON ACT ///

    SO HE CAN MOVE TO MORE ROBUST, 24 HOUR A DAY OPERATIONS, AND HIT A BROADER RANGE OF TARGETS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MANY OF RESERVISTS OPERATE THE LARGE PLANES THAT REFUEL OTHER AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT. IN-FLIGHT REFUELING ALLOWS FIGHTERS AND BOMBERS TO FLY FARTHER, STAY ALOFT LONGER, AND STRIKE MORE OFTEN AT YUGOSLAV TARGETS.

    SOME OF THOSE TANKERS WILL BE BASED NEXT DOOR TO YUGOSLAVIA IN ONE OF NATO'S NEWEST MEMBERS, HUNGARY. THE GOVERNMENT IN BUDAPEST HAS JUST GRANTED A NATO REQUEST TO USE THE NATION'S AIR FIELDS AND AIR SPACE. MEANTIME, MILITARY OFFICERS IN OTTAWA SAY CANADA WILL MEET A NATO REQUEST TO SENT 800 TROOPS TO MACEDONIA. THE CANADIAN RECOGNIZANCE UNIT HAS ARMORED VEHICLES AND HELICOPTERS. IT WILL JOIN ABOUT 12-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA WHO WERE SUPPOSED TO ENFORCE A PEACE AGREEMENT IN KOSOVO.

    BUT SERB MEDIA REPORT THAT YUGOSLAV SOLDIERS ARE NOT INTIMIDATED BY NATO'S GROWING FORCE. THE GENERAL COMMANDING SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO SAYS ANY FORCE THAT ENTERS YUGOSLAVIA WILL "PAY DEARLY" AND VOWED TO KEEP ANYONE FROM TEARING AWAY A PIECE OF YUGOSLAVIA'S "HOLIEST LANDS." (KOSOVO) (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/JO
    27-Apr-99 4:53 PM EDT (2053 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] KOSOVO RESERVES (S-UPDATE) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248675
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    //EDS: CUT TAPE TO CONFORM TO TEXT -- CUT PHRASE IN LAST GRAF //

    INTRO: CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES ARE SENDING MORE TROOPS TO JOIN NATO FORCES NEAR YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON, WHERE OFFICIALS SAY THE PRESIDENT HAS APPROVED CALLING UP TO 33-THOUSAND RESERVISTS TO ACTIVE DUTY.

    TEXT: THE INTENSIVE AIR BOMBARDMENT OF SERB TARGETS ACROSS YUGOSLAVIA HAS PUT A STRAIN ON U-S ACTIVE DUTY FORCES. THE NEW PART-TIME TROOPS ARE NEEDED TO FLY AND FIX SOME OF THE THREE HUNDRED U-S PLANES THAT WILL SOON JOIN THE FIGHT. PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY THE RESERVISTS WILL BE CALLED UP GRADUALLY, WITH ABOUT 21 HUNDRED IN THE FIRST GROUP.

    MANY OF THOSE RESERVISTS OPERATE THE LARGE PLANES THAT REFUEL OTHER AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT. SOME OF THOSE TANKERS WILL BE BASED IN YUGOSLAVIA'S NEIGHBOR, HUNGARY, WHICH HAS JUST GRANTED A NATO REQUEST TO USE ITS AIRFIELDS. MEANTIME, MILITARY OFFICERS IN OTTAWA SAY CANADA WILL MEET A NATO REQUEST TO SENT 800 TROOPS TO MACEDONIA. THEY WILL JOIN ABOUT 12-THOUSAND NATO FORCES THERE WHO WERE SUPPOSED TO ENFORCE A PEACE AGREEMENT IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/JO
    27-Apr-99 4:34 PM EDT (2034 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L ONLY) CQ BY CHRISTINE FURNELL (LONDON)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248661
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /////

    FIXES SPELLING OF BATON HAXHIU AND DITORE IN TEXT GRAF 5 OF CR2-248657. //////

    INTRO: BRITISH OFFICIALS SAY FIVE-WEEKS OF AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA HAVE SERIOUSLY WEAKENED SERB MILITARY CAPABILITIES AND THEY SAY MORALE AMONG SERB TROOPS IS CRUMBLING. V-O-A'S CHRISTINE FURNELL IN LONDON REPORTS THE DAILY BRITISH BRIEFING INCLUDED A SATELLITE LINK-UP WITH THE EDITOR OF KOSOVO'S MAIN ALBANIAN-LANGUAGE NEWSPAPER WHICH IS NOW BEING PUBLISHED IN EXILE IN MACEDONIA.

    TEXT: THE CHIEF OF BRITAIN'S DEFENSE STAFF, CHARLES GUTHRIE, SAID NATO HAD LAUNCHED 474 ATTACKS AGAINST 227 SITES. HE SAID THE ATTACKS HAVE DAMAGED OR DESTROYED NINE OF SERBIA'S 17 MILITARY AIR FIELDS, 71 AIRCRAFT HANGERS, 20 ROAD AND RAIL BRIDGES AND SIX OF THE NINE MAJOR BRIDGES ACROSS THE DANUBE RIVER. HE SAID 70-SERB COMBAT AIRCRAFT HAVE BEEN DESTROYED ALONG WITH NINE STRATEGIC SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE RADAR SYSTEMS.

    BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK SAID THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS APPROVED SEVEN FURTHER SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, INCLUDING AN OIL EMBARGO AND A FREEZE ON THE PERSONAL BANK ACCOUNTS OF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND HIS OFFICIALS.

    MR. COOK SAID TOP OFFICIALS OF THE BELGRADE GOVERNMENT ARE GETTING THE MESSAGE THAT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S POLICIES ARE A DISASTER FOR THE COUNTRY. HIS REMARKS WERE MADE IN REFERENCE TO COMMENTS BY YUGOSLAVIA'S DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER, VUK DRASCOVIC, FOR THE PEOPLE TO BE TOLD THE TRUTH.

    /// COOK ACT ///

    THE TRUTH IS FEARED AS MUCH AS BOMBS BY THE BELGRADE GOVERNMENT. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS A LONG HISTORY OF SUPPRESSING INDEPENDENT MEDIA, OF MAKING T-V AND RADIO A FAMILY BUSINESS, AND OF STARVING HIS PEOPLE OF THE TRUTH BY FEEDING THEM A DIET OF LIES. THE ONLY THING THAT HAS CHANGED SINCE THE CONFLICT BEGAN IS THE INTENSITY OF THE REPRESSION AND THE DESPERATION OF THE LIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE LONDON BRIEFING INCLUDED A SATELLITE LINK-UP WITH BATON HAXHIU (PRON. HAD-JO) EDITOR OF "KOHA DITORE", KOSOVO'S MAIN ALBANIAN-LANGUAGE NEWSPAPER. THE NEWSPAPER IS CURRENTLY PUBLISHED IN EXILE AND WAS DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT KOSOVO REFUGEE CAMPS IN MACEDONIA FOR THE FIRST TIME MONDAY.

    /// SURROI ACT ///

    KOHA DITORI IS THE BRIDGE BETWEEN KOSOVO AND THE DEPORTED PEOPLE. WE HOPE WITH YOUR SUPPORT, OUR NEWSPAPER CAN GIVE HOPE TO THESE DEPORTED PEOPLE TO BE BACK VERY SOON INSIDE KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    BRITAIN PROVIDED THE FUNDING FOR COMPUTERS, INTERNET LINKS, AND PAPER TO ENABLE THE NEWSPAPER TO BE PUBLISHED AND DISTRIBUTED. FOREIGN SECRETARY COOK SAID THE NEWSPAPER GIVES THE REFUGEES A PLATFORM FROM WHICH THEY CAN TELL THE WORLD OF THEIR EXPERIENCES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CEF/JWH
    27-Apr-99 11:21 AM EDT (1521 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] MILITARY OPTIONS BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43238
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SOME MILITARY EXPERTS AND MEMBERS OF CONGRESS SAY AIR STRIKES ALONE WILL NOT BE ENOUGH TO DEFEAT YUGOSLAVIA IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS. BUT SOME NATO MEMBERS STRONGLY OPPOSE SENDING GROUND TROOPS INTO WHAT THEY FEAR WOULD BE A BLOODY AND COSTLY FIGHT. SINCE NATO OPERATES BY CONSENSUS, THIS POLITICAL OPPOSITION HAS, SO FAR, BLOCKED A GROUND INVASION THAT MANY EXPERTS SAY WOULD TAKE MONTHS TO PREPARE. BUT AS V-O-A'S CAROL PINEAU REPORTS, ONE MILITARY ANALYST SAYS NATO'S HIGHLY MANEUVERABLE FORCES COULD GET INTO PLACE QUICKLY AND WIN.

    TEXT: MILITARY EXPERT, PROFESSOR AND AUTHOR MICHAEL O'HANLON SAYS NATO TROOPS COULD BE DEPLOYED AND READY FOR ACTION IN KOSOVO WITHIN ONE MONTH. MR. O'HANLON, A FORMER DEFENSE ANALYST FOR THE U-S GOVERNMENT, SAYS LARGE NUMBERS OF HELICOPTERS COULD GIVE ALLIANCE TROOPS THE MOBILITY TO GET IN PLACE QUICKLY, AND THE AGILITY TO ATTACK EFFECTIVELY.

    /// O'HANLON ACT ///

    YOU PROBABLY NEED NEED TWO WEEKS TO GET THE EQUIPMENT INTO ITALY, FOR EXAMPLE OR TO SOME EXTENT INTO ALBANIA, DEPENDING ON WHICH UNITS ARE GOING WHERE, AND ANOTHER WEEK OR SO TO SET UP AN ADVANCED STAGING BASE WITHIN ALBANIA FROM WHICH YOU CAN THEN LEAP FROG INTO KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. O'HANLON SAYS HELICOPTERS CAN CARRY TROOPS, TRUCKS, LIGHTLY ARMED VEHICLES AND ANTI-TANK WEAPONRY. MOST IMPORTANTLY, THEY CAN ATTACK SERB WEAKNESSES AND DODGE ENEMY DEFENSES.

    /// O'HANLON ACT ///

    YOU BYPASS LAND MINES, YOU BYPASS CONGESTED ROADS, YOU BYPASS TO A LARGE EXTENT MOUNTAINS AND YOU TRY TO BYPASS SERBIAN DEFENSES. THEY DON'T KNOW WHERE YOU ARE COMING IN, AND THEY CANNOT REINFORCE YOUR CHOSEN LANDING PLACE VERY EASILY BECAUSE YOU CONTROL THE AIR AND YOU ARE MOVING FAST BY HELICOPTER.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT IT HAS TAKEN NATO WEEKS TO GET A RELATIVELY SMALL FORCE OF 33-HUNDRED TROOPS AND 24 TANK-KILLING HELICOPTERS INTO ALBANIA, AND THAT UNIT HAS STILL NOT GONE INTO COMBAT.

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY SERB TROOPS HAVE A FORMIDABLE FORCE OF ABOUT 300 TANKS AND HUNDREDS OF OTHER ARMORED VEHICLES IN OR NEAR KOSOVO. WHILE NATO HAS PLENTY OF TANKS, IT TAKES ONE HUGE CARGO PLANE TO MOVE EACH OF THESE MASSIVE VEHICLES. AND HELICOPTERS CAN NOT MOVE THEM AT ALL.

    BUT MR. O'HANLON ARGUES ALLIANCE FORCES COULD STILL MANAGE TO HAUL A SMALL NUMBER OF TANKS -- PERHAPS ONE HUNDRED --- INTO POSITION REASONABLY QUICKLY.

    /// O'HANLON ACT ///

    PEOPLE UNDERSTAND THAT YOU CAN'T FLY HEAVY ARMOUR AROUND THE WORLD. AND THAT IS TRUE. BUT THE UNITED STATES HAS ROUGHLY FOUR-HUNDRED STRATEGIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, TWO TYPES OF WHICH CAN CARRY TANKS: THE C-5 AND THE C-17. WE HAVE ABOUT 150 OF THOSE AIRPLANES COMBINED. IF EACH ONE OF THOSE AIRPLANES TAKES JUST ONE TANK, AND THE C-5 IN THEORY CAN TAKE TWO, BUT IF EACH JUST TAKES ONE TANK, THAT'S ENOUGH FOR THE OPERATION TO WORK.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. O'HANLON SAYS WITH ALL AIRCRAFT MAKING THREE TO FOUR ROUND TRIPS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND ITALIAN AIR BASES, NATO COULD GET IN THE AIR ASSAULT DIVISIONS, FOUR TO FIVE THOUSAND MARINE TROOPS AND ALL THE NECESSARY TANKS AND OTHER EQUIPMENT. FROM ITALY, SUPPLIES AND MANPOWER WOULD BE FERRIED BY HELICOPTER INTO ALBANIA.

    WHILE THE ONE MONTH TIME FRAME DOES DEPEND ON ITALY GIVING ACCESS TO ITS BASES, MR. O'HANLON SAYS EQUIPMENT COULD BE SENT BY SEA, WITH A DELAY OF ONE TO TWO WEEKS.

    BUT PENTAGON OFFICIALS CRITICIZE MR. O'HANLON'S PLAN ON SEVERAL COUNTS. THEY SAY SERBIAN AIR DEFENSES ARE STILL DANGEROUS FOR FAST HIGH-FLYING, HIGHLY MANEUVERABLE JET FIGHTERS -- AND WOULD BE DEADLY FOR LOW FLYING, LUMBERING CARGO HELICOPTERS. THEY ALSO POINT OUT THAT ALBANIAN SEA AND AIRPORTS ARE NOT EQUIPPED TO HANDLE THE HUGE VOLUME OF CARGO NEEDED TO DEPLOY A MAJOR FIGHTING FORCE WITH ITS MASSES OF HEAVY TANKS, FUEL, AMMUNITION AND OTHER SUPPLIES. THE AIRPORT AT TIRANA, WHICH HAS BEEN UPGRADED BY NATO WITH NEW RADAR, LIGHTS AND SOME ADDITIONAL RAMP SPACE IS ALREADY OVERWHELMED BY TASK OF HAULING FOOD AND TENTS TO REFUGEES. (SIGNED).
    NEB/CP/JO
    27-Apr-99 6:09 PM EDT (2209 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] NATO-KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248665
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO'S MILITARY COMMITTEE IS CONSIDERING THE RULES OF ENGAGEMENT FOR THE ALLIANCE'S PLAN TO VISIT AND SEARCH SHIPS CARRYING OIL TO YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS ON HOW NATO'S MILITARY COMMANDER WILL DEAL WITH YUGOSLAVIA'S OIL SUPPLY.

    TEXT: IT IS CLEAR THAT NATO HAS NO INTENTION OF CHALLENGING RUSSIAN OR ANY OTHER SHIPS THAT INTEND TO DELIVER OIL TO YUGOSLAVIA. HOWEVER, NATO'S MILITARY COMMANDER, GENERAL WESLEY CLARK, TELLS REPORTERS HE PLANS TO STOP YUGOSLAVIA FROM TRANSFERRING THAT OIL TO ITS MILITARY FORCES.

    /// CLARK ACT ///

    WE'RE BUSY MAKING SURE THAT IT IS VERY DIFFICULT FOR HIM TO MOVE ONWARD THE OIL THAT IS RECEIVED IN BAR. NOW REALISTICALLY, WE KNOW THAT TAKING OUT BRIDGES AND RAILROAD LINES AND OTHER THINGS LIKE THAT WILL NEVER TOTALLY STOP THE ONWARD MOVEMENT OF THE OIL, BUT IT SURE IS MAKING IT DIFFICULT FOR THEM.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL CLARK SAYS YUGOSLAVIA IS NOW RECEIVING 10 OIL TANKERS A DAY AT THE PORT OF BAR IN THE REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO. THAT IS COMPARED TO TWO OR THREE TANKERS A DAY BEFORE NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION DECIDED TO CUT OFF OIL DELIVERIES TO YUGOSLAVIA BY SEA. THE RULES OF ENGAGEMENT FOR NATO'S POLICY OF VISITING SHIPS SUSPECTED OF CARRYING OIL TO YUGOSLAVIA WILL BE DETERMINED BY NATO'S MILITARY COMMITTEE AND NATO AMBASSADORS.

    GENERAL CLARK SAYS NATO WILL NOT CONFRONT RUSSIAN SHIPS.

    /// CLARK ACT ///

    THERE'S GOING TO BE AN EFFORT TO MAKE IT A COOPERATIVE REGIME IN THAT WE ARE GOING TO ENCOURAGE SHIPPERS TO CONTACT US FOR PRE-CLEARANCE. BUT ESSENTIALLY A NAVAL REGIME LIKE THIS IS PRECISELY WHAT IT SUGGESTS, WE INTEND WITHIN THE AUTHORITY GRANTED TO US TO STOP THE ONWARD FLOW OF OIL TO SERBIA, AND THAT'S WHAT WE INTEND TO DO.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO'S MILITARY COMMANDER ESTIMATES THAT NATO AIR STRIKES HAVE ALREADY CRIPPLED YUGOSLAVIA'S ABILITY TO REFINE OIL AND HAVE CUT ITS MILITARY RESERVES BY ONE THIRD. "TIGHTENING THE NOOSE" IS GENERAL CLARK'S PHRASE DESCRIBING THE DAMAGE TO YUGOSLAVIA'S OIL SUPPLIES.

    IN HIS ASSESSMENT OF FIVE WEEKS OF AIR STRIKES, GENERAL CLARK TELLS REPORTERS HE SEES SIGNS OF DESERTIONS FROM THE YUGOSLAV ARMY AND DECLINING MORALE. A SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM, THE GENERAL SAYS, BUT NOT A CRUSHING PROBLEM. HE INSISTS THE AIR STRIKES ARE SUCCEEDING STEP BY STEP, BIT BY BIT, ESPECIALLY IN SLOWING DOWN THE YUGOSLAV ARMY'S ACTIVITIES IN KOSOVO.

    /// CLARK ACT ///

    WHENEVER THE WEATHER IS GOOD, WHENEVER THERE ARE NATO AIRCRAFT, THEY ARE STATIONARY AND HIDDEN. THEY ARE KNOCKING DOWN THE WALLS OF HOUSES, BACKING INTO THE FORESTS, GETTING UNDER HAYSTACKS AND GENERALLY CEASING ALL ACTION WHENEVER WE'RE IN THE AREA BECAUSE THEY VERY MUCH FEAR WHAT NATO AIR IS DOING TO THEM AND WE ARE DOING SOMETHING TO THEM THERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL CLARK'S STATISTICS SHOW THE HUMAN COST OF THE YUGOSLAV ARMY'S EFFORTS TO CLEAR KOSOVO OF ITS ALBANIAN MAJORITY POPULATION. 850 THOUSAND ARE INTERNALLY DISPLACED IN KOSOVO, HE SAYS, WHILE 700 THOUSAND HAVE TAKEN REFUGE IN NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/ALW
    27-Apr-99 1:43 PM EDT (1743 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] BALKAN ASSISTANCE (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248682
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TOP FINANCE OFFICIALS OF MULTI-LATERAL LENDERS AND MAJOR INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES ARE MEETING TUESDAY EVENING IN WASHINGTON TO DISCUSS EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE FOR THE BALKAN COUNTRIES MOST AFFECTED BY THE WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE SPECIAL MEETING FOLLOWS A DAY LONG SESSION AT THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. EUROPEAN AND U-S OFFICIALS EXPECT A CONSIDERABLE AID PACKAGE TO EMERGE, PERHAPS AS EARLY AS THIS WEEK. THE AID WILL BE TARGETTED PRINCIPALLY AT ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA, THE COUNTRIES CARRYING THE HEAVIEST BURDEN OF COPING WITH THE FLOOD OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO. WORLD BANK PRESIDENT JAMES WOLFENSOHN SAYS OTHER COUNTRIES WILL ALSO RECEIVE SPECIAL ATTENTION.

    //WOLFENSOHN ACT//

    THE FRONT LINE ARE REALLY MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA. BUT I DID MENTION ROMANIA, BULGARIA, CROATIA AND BOSNIA. ..I'M SURE THAT WE'LL TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE IMPACT OF THE WAR WHEN WE COME TO THE FIGURES AND LOOK AT THEIR NEEDS. THERE HAVE BEEN NO DEFINITIVE DECISIONS. BUT EVERYONE IS PREPARED TO LOOK AT THOSE COUNTRIES AND BE SUPPORTIVE.

    //END ACT//

    MR. WOLFENSOHN SPOKE IN ADVANCE OF TUESDAY EVENING'S MEETING EARLIER TUESDAY THE PARIS CLUB OF CREDITOR NATIONS, AT THE INITIATIVE OF THE FRENCH AND GERMAN FINANCE MINISTERS, ANNOUNCED THAT MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA WILL HAVE THEIR DEBT PAYMENTS TO CREDITOR GOVERNMENTS POSTPONED FOR THE NEXT 12 MONTHS. THAT MEASURE IS LIKELY TO SAVE THEM OVER 100 MILLION DOLLARS.

    THE MOST IMPACTED BALKAN COUNTRIES (THOSE MENTIONED BY MR. WOLFENSOHN) SAY THE REFUGEE CRISIS AND DISRUPTED TRADE ARE LIKELY TO COST THEM OVER TWO BILLION DOLLARS THIS YEAR. ALL OF THE COUNTRIES ARE BORROWERS OR PROSPECTIVE BORROWERS FROM THE I-M-F AND WORLD BANK. THE BANK SAYS IT IS PREPARED TO BOOST ITS LENDING AND WESTERN GOVERNMENTS SAY THE SAME THING. ANALYSTS IN EUROPE SAY INVESTOR CONFIDENCE HAS BEEN BADLY SHAKEN THROUGHOUT THE BALKANS.

    //OPT//

    CROATIA'S VITAL TOURISM INDUSTRY IS BEING ADVERSELY IMPACTED. ROMANIA, HUNGARY AND BULGARIA ARE SUFFERING FROM DISRUPTION OF SHIPPING ON THE DANUBE RIVER. //END OPT//

    THE WORLD BANK IS PLANNING A FOLLOW-UP AID MEETING IN PARIS NEXT WEEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PHW/WFR
    27-Apr-99 6:26 PM EDT (2226 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] THE CONTINUING CRISIS IN KOSOVO

    DATE=04/24/99
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00734 SHORT #1
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT= INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES.
    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE

    ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "THE CONTINUING CRISIS IN KOSOVO" HERE IS YOUR HOST, --------.

    HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    NATO HAS BEGUN ITS SECOND MONTH OF MILITARY ACTION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, AS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S FORCES CONTINUE TO TARGET ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. THE NUMBER OF REFUGEES -- ALREADY IN THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS -- IS GROWING. ACCORDING TO NATO, THE ATTACKS WILL CONTINUE UNTIL A PEACE ACCORD IS ACCEPTED. AS PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON SAID, "WE WANT THE SERB FORCES OUT OF KOSOVO. WE WANT THE REFUGEES TO BE ABLE TO GO HOME, PROTECTED BY AN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCE AS THEY WORK TOWARDS SELF-GOVERNANCE."

    HELMUT SONNENFELDT IS A GUEST SCHOLAR AT THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION AND A FORMER COUNSELOR AT THE U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT. HE SAYS THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN HAS SO FAR FAILED TO ACHIEVE ANY OF NATO'S GOALS:

    SONNENFELDT: "THE BOMBING HASN'T SLOWED DOWN THE CHAOS AND TRAGEDY INSIDE KOSOVO OR OUTSIDE KOSOVO WHERE THE REFUGEES LIVE IN PRETTY MISERABLE CONDITIONS. THE QUESTION IS WHETHER CONTINUATION OF A SUSTAINED BOMBING CAMPAIGN IS GOING TO MOVE THINGS ON THE SERBIAN SIDE, EITHER BECAUSE THEIR CAPABILITIES ARE SERIOUSLY ERODED IN TERMS OF WHAT THEY'RE DOING IN KOSOVO, OR BECAUSE MILOSEVIC MIGHT HAVE A CHANGE OF MIND, IN TERMS OF THE DAMAGE THAT'S BEING DONE TO HIS INFRASTRUCTURE, OR THIRDLY BECAUSE SOMEBODY MAY WANT TO GET RID OF HIM BECAUSE OF THE DISASTER."

    HOST: JOSHUA MURAVCHIK IS RESIDENT SCHOLAR AT THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE. HE SAYS THAT TO SUCCEED, NATO WILL HAVE TO INTRODUCE GROUND FORCES: MURAVCHIK: "THE BOMBING IS REALLY A HOPELESS STRATEGY, THE CHANCE OF BOMBARDING THESE PEOPLE INTO JUST GIVING UP AND GIVING AWAY KOSOVO IS VIRTUALLY NIL AND IN FACT WHAT WE'VE DONE IS WE'VE IMPELLED MORE OF THE SERBS TO RALLY AROUND MILOSEVIC AND THE CONCLUSION THAT THAT LEADS ME TO IS THAT THERE'S NO ESCAPING THE USE OF GROUND FORCES AND FULL-SCALE MILITARY ACTION THERE AND THE SOONER WE FACE UP TO THAT, THE BETTER OFF WE'LL BE."

    HOST: MIHAJLO MIHAJLOV IS A FORMER YUGOSLAVIAN DISSIDENT AND WRITER WHO WAS IMPRISIONED UNDER MARSHAL TITO. HE SAYS THE WEST HAS MISJUDGED PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC: MIHAJLOV: "I BELIEVE EVEN MONTH OF BOMBING WILL NOT CHANGE ANYTHING. YOU CAN KNOW WHAT PRESIDENT CLINTON OR GENERAL WESLEY CLARK USED TO STATE THAT WE ARE GOING TO DESTROY WHAT MILOSEVIC VALUES MOST, BUT HE VALUES POWER, NOTHING ELSE. HE DOESN'T VALUE BRIDGES, ARMIES, EVERYTHING ELSE AND HE NEVER HAD SUCH POWER AS NOW. HE LIQUIDATES ALL OPPOSITION."

    HOST: JOSHUA MURAVCHIK OF THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE SAYS NOTHING LESS THAT NATO'S FUTURE AS AN ALLIANCE IS AT STAKE IN THE WAR OVER KOSOVO. FOR ON THE LINE, THIS IS --------.

    ANNCR: YOU'VE BEEN LISTENING TO "ON THE LINE" -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES. THIS IS --------.
    27-Apr-99 1:43 PM EDT (1743 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/27/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-248678
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (TUESDAY) WITH TWO MAJOR AVERAGES CLOSING AT RECORD HIGHS. VOA BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH 10 THOUSAND 831, UP 113 POINTS OR ONE PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH 13 HUNDRED 62, UP TWO POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX FELL 50 POINTS REFLECTING PROFIT TAKING IN MANY TECHNOLOGY STOCKS AFTER FIVE STRAIGHT SESSIONS OF GAINS.

    ///BEGIN OPT///

    ART CASHIN OF THE PAINE WEBBER INVESTMENT COMPANY SAYS STRONG CORPORATE EARNINGS HAVE FUELED THE RECENT STOCK MARKET ADVANCE BUT WONDERS IF THOSE EARNINGS GAINS CAN CONTINUE.

    ///OPT///CASHIN ACT///

    WE HAVE HAD MOST OF THE EARNINGS OUT NOW. THEY HAVE BEEN TERRIFIC. BUT THE QUESTION NOW IS WHETHER THAT EARNINGS GROWTH CAN BE SUSTAINED IN THE FUTURE AND HOW IT WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED.

    ///END ACT///END OPT///

    A MONTHLY SURVEY OF AMERICAN CONSUMER CONFIDENCE WAS UP IN APRIL FOR THE SIXTH STRAIGHT MONTHLY GAIN.

    EXISTING HOME SALES IN THE UNITED STATES GAINED BY SIX-TENTHS OF A PERCENT IN MARCH TO A RECORD ANNUAL RATE.

    THE HEAD OF THE U-S CENTRAL BANK, ALAN GREENSPAN, IS BEING QUOTED AS SAYING THE RISK OF A MAJOR PLUNGE IN THE U-S STOCK MARKET HAS EASED. BILL BIRCH, NEW ZEALAND'S TREASURER, SAYS THAT, IN A RECENT CONVERSATION, MR. GREENSPAN MOVED AWAY FROM HIS PREVIOUS VIEW THAT SOME OF THE STOCK MARKET EXUBERANCE IS "IRRATIONAL."

    ///REST OPT///

    THE PARK PLACE ENTERTAINMENT COMPANY WILL PAY THREE BILLION DOLLARS IN CASH FOR CAESARS WORLD, THE CASINO-RESORT UNIT OF THE STARWOOD HOTELS COMPANY. PARK PLACE GAINS ONE OF THE BEST-KNOWN BRAND NAMES IN CASINO GAMBLING AND STARWOOD GETS OUT OF A BUSINESS WHICH ITS EXECUTIVES VIEWED AS A DIVERSION FROM ITS PRIMARY HOTEL OPERATIONS.

    AMERICA ON-LINE, THE COMPUTER SERVICES PROVIDER, REPORTED BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED QUARTERLY EARNINGS. I-B-M, THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER COMPANY, SAYS IT WILL RAISE ITS QUARTERLY DIVIDEND BY NINE PERCENT. THE COMPANY'S SHAREHOLDERS ALSO APPROVED A PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED PLAN FOR A TWO-FOR-ONE STOCK SPLIT.

    THE A-T AND T TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANY ENJOYED A 39 PERCENT JUMP IN FIRST QUARTER PROFITS. AT THE SAME TIME, A-T AND T ANNOUNCED IT HAS FORMED A PARTNERSHIP WITH N-T-T OF JAPAN TO PROVIDE DATA SERVICES TO LARGE CORPORATIONS.

    ESTEE LAUDER, THE COSMETICS AND PERSONAL CARE COMPANY, ANNOUNCED A TWO-FOR-ONE STOCK SPLIT AND AN EIGHTEEN PERCENT INCREASE IN ITS QUARTERLY STOCK DIVIDEND.

    TWO MAJOR U-S FILM AND ENTERTAINMENT COMPANIES REPORTED OPPOSITE RESULTS. VIACOM EARNED 32 MILLION DOLLARS IN THE FIRST QUARTER AFTER A 14 MILLION DOLLAR LOSS IN THE SAME PERIOD LAST YEAR. BUT WALT DISNEY SAYS ITS PROFITS FELL MORE THAN 40 PERCENT AS A DROP IN HOME VIDEO SALES COUNTERED A STRONGER PERFORMANCE AT THE COMPANY'S THEME PARKS.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    27-Apr-99 5:16 PM EDT (2116 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] ASSESSING THE NATO SUMMIT BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/27/99
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11260
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THE POLITICAL LEADERS AND GENERALS OF NATO'S 19-MEMBER NATIONS HAVE RETURNED TO THEIR RESPECTIVE CAPITALS AFTER THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT AND CELEBRATIONS HERE IN WASHINGTON.

    THE U-S PRESS IS BUSY ANALYZING THE MEETING AND THE FUTURE OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ALLIANCE, AS WE HEAR NOW, IN THIS SAMPLING FROM _______________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: WHAT WAS PLANNED AS A GALA, GOLDEN JUBILEE, CELEBRATING THE END OF THE COLD WAR, AND NATO'S TRIUMPH OVER THE NOW-DEFUNCT SOVIET UNION, TURNED, INSTEAD INTO A SOMBER WAR COUNCIL.

    THERE IS GROWING CONCERN IN THE U-S PRESS THAT AFTER 50 SUCCESSFUL YEARS OF PLANNING, AND OF NEVER HAVING TO FIRE A SHOT IN ANGER, NATO'S FUTURE RESTS ON THE SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME OF THE BALKAN WAR. THERE IS ALSO CONCERN ABOUT A POSSIBLE NAVAL BLOCKADE OF YUGOSLAVIA, AND OTHER FEARS THAT NATO IS NOT AS UNITED ON PURSUING THE WAR AS VARIOUS MEMBERS SAY THEY ARE.

    WE BEGIN WITH "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" WHERE STEFAN HALPER, CHAIRMAN OF THE AMERICAN JOURNALISM FOUNDATION AND A FORMER WHITE HOUSE AND STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL WRITES A COLUMN. HE SAYS U-S FOREIGN POLICY LACKS BALANCE.

    VOICE: WHILE MR. MILOSEVIC'S ACTIONS ARE DESPICABLE, ABSENT FROM THE DEBATE IS ANY SENSE OF SCALE OR STRATEGIC RATIONALE. THE CIVIL WAR IN SUDAN, FOR EXAMPLE, HAS CLAIMED MORE LIVES THAN ALL THE ARAB-ISRAELI WARS OR, INDEED, ALL THE POST-WORLD WAR TWO WARS IN THE MIDDLE EAST COMBINED - - AND WE DID NOTHING. MOREOVER, MR. MILOSEVIC'S INTENT IS TO REMOVE THE ALBANIAN POPULATION, N O T TO EXTERMINATE THEM AS ADOLF HITLER INTENDED FOR A WHOLE PEOPLE. AT THE CENTER OF THE ADMINISTRATION'S OVERDRAWN ANALOGY [TO HITLER] IS THE INABILITY TO ESTABLISH LIMITS. CRITICS [OF CURRENT NATO / U-S POLICY] ARE TOLD 'BECAUSE YOU CAN'T DO EVERYTHING, IT DOESN'T MEAN YOU DO NOTHING.' BUT IN FACT NATO'S ANTISEPTIC AIR WAR HAS DONE NOTHING - - OR VERY LITTLE - - TO STOP THE ETHNIC CLEANSING AND SO, BY ITS OWN CRITERION, HAS FAILED TO EITHER JUSTIFY ITS EFFORT OR TO PROGRESS TO A RESOLUTION. ... TODAY'S MOBILIZATION IN SUPPORT OF A NEW HUMANITARIAN IDEOLOGY HAS BROUGHT AN OPEN-ENDED COMMITMENT TO UNTANGLE THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHESS GAME THAT HAS CONVULSED THE BALKANS FOR 700 YEARS - - OR LONGER.

    TEXT: "THE BOSTON GLOBE," WORRIED ABOUT NATO'S VIEW OF ITSELF, SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: WHEN THE REASON FOR CONTINUING A WAR SHIFTS FROM ITS ORIGINAL GOALS AND TOWARD MAINTAINING CREDIBILITY, THE POLICY IS IN TROUBLE. IN A SUBTLE WAY, THAT IS WHAT IS HAPPENING TO NATO. THE ORGANIZATION SHOULD NOT REJECT A CHANCE TO END THE WAR JUST BECAUSE THE ORGANIZATION NEEDS TO SAVE FACE. WITH EACH ESCALATION THERE ARE NEW AND OFTEN UNFORSEEN CONSEQUENCES.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS DISAPPOINTED THE NATO LEADERS FAILED TO AGREE ON AT LEAST PREPARATIONS FOR A GROUND WAR, BUT SEES THE POSSIBLE NAVAL BLOCKADE OF YUGOSLAVIA AS A GOOD MOVE, PROVIDING A CONFRONTATION WITH RUSSIA CAN BE AVOIDED.

    VOICE: AS THE WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA ENTERS ITS SECOND MONTH, NATO IS SEARCHING FOR A COMBINATION OF FORCE AND DIPLOMACY THAT WILL INDUCE MR. MILOSEVIC TO REACH FOR A PEACE DEAL. LAST WEEKEND'S NATO SUMMIT MEETING ... ENDORSED SEVERAL POTENTIALLY PRODUCTIVE STEPS IN THAT DIRECTION, INCLUDING THE NAVAL ACTION, INTENSIFICATION OF THE AIR WAR AND A SUBTLE BUT SIGNIFICANT SHIFT IN THE ALLIANCE'S CONDITIONS FOR A CEASE-FIRE. ... THE INTERDICTION OF OIL TANKERS WILL NOT CUT OFF PETROLEUM SUPPLIES TO SERBIA ... BUT AFTER BOMBING SERBIAN REFINERIES, IT WOULD BE A MISTAKE NOT TO TRY TO LIMIT THE FLOW OF OIL THROUGH YUGOSLAV PORTS. RUSSIA HAS BEEN SENDING OIL TO SERBIA, AND NATO MUST WORK WITH MOSCOW TO AVOID A CONFRONTATION WITH TANKERS CARRYING RUSSIAN FUEL.

    TEXT: IN CONNECTICUT, "THE HARTFORD COURANT" IS WORRIED ABOUT THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF DISPERSING KOSOVO REFUGEES FAR FROM THEIR ANCESTRAL HOME.

    VOICE: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S DECISION TO PERMIT AS MANY AS 20-THOUSAND ALBANIAN REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO TO ENTER THE UNITED STATES IS NO DOUBT DRIVEN BY HUMANITARIAN CONSIDERATIONS. BUT IT COULD HAVE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES. THE FARTHER AWAY FROM HOME THE REFUGEES ARE SETTLED, THE LESS LIKELY THEY WILL RETURN HOME. ...

    /// OPT ///

    U-S OFFICIALS ACKNOWLEDGE IN PRIVATE THAT THE LIKELIHOOD OF THEIR RETURNING TO KOSOVO AFTER THE WAR IS REMOTE AT BEST. ... AMERICANS OF ALBANIAN DESCENT ARE OBJECTING TO THE RELOCATION PLAN. MANY REMAIN CONVINCED THAT A RETURN TO KOSOVO IS CLOSE ENOUGH AT HAND THAT RELOCATING REFUGEES HALFWAY ACROSS THE GLOBE ISN'T NECESSARY. /// END OPT /// IF OUR INTENT IS INDEED TO RETURN KOSOVO TO ITS ALBANIAN INHABITANTS, A BETTER SOLUTION THAN BRINGING THEM TO AMERICA MAY BE TO CONTINUE SETTLING THEM IN COUNTRIES CLOSE TO KOSOVO. REPATRIATION WOULD PROCEED AT A MUCH FASTER PACE.

    TEXT: "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE," SAYS U-S LEADERSHIP IN NATO, ESPECIALLY DEALING WITH THE BALKAN WAR, CONTINUES TO BE ESSENTIAL. "THE TRIB" SAYS WE MUST LEAD UNTIL THE EUROPEANS ARE COMFORTABLE ENOUGH WITH EACH OTHER TO PROVIDE A TRULY UNIFIED FRONT TO ALL FUTURE THREATS.

    VOICE: ARGUABLY, THE EUROPEAN MEMBERS OF NATO SHOULD HAVE DEVELOPED MORE CAPABILITY FOR HANDLING SITUATIONS LIKE KOSOVO - - AND BOSNIA BEFORE IT - - THAN THEY HAVE. THAT THEY HAVE NOT IS AT LEAST PARTLY BECAUSE THEY KNOW UNCLE SAM WILL BE THERE WITH THE AIRLIFT AND LOGISTICAL CAPABILITIES AND OTHER MILITARY ASSETS THAT THE EUROPEAN ALLIES HAVE NOT CHOSEN TO INVEST IN. AT THE SAME TIME, DESPITE MOVES TOWARD ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL UNION, ALL OF THE OLD NATIONAL BARRIERS AND SUSPICIONS HAVE NOT DISAPPEARED IN EUROPE. RESENTED THOUGH IT OFTEN IS, THE AMERICAN PRESENCE THERE THROUGH NATO ALLOWS THE EUROPEANS TO ACT AS IF THEY TRUST AND RESPECT EACH OTHER FULLY - - UNTIL THE DAY WHEN THEY TRULY DO SO.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, THIS COMMENT FROM "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE.

    VOICE: THE MOST PERCEPTIVE POSTMORTEM ON NATO'S MEETING CAME FROM YUGOSLAV DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER VUK DRASKOVIC, A FORMER OPPONENT WHO JOINED THE MILOSEVIC MACHINE AND ESPOUSED ITS CRIMES AGAINST ALBANIANS. HE TOLD SERBIAN COMPATRIOTS ON BELGRADE TELEVISION: 'THE PEOPLE SHOULD BE TOLD THAT NATO IS NOT FACING A BREAKDOWN, THAT RUSSIA WILL NOT HELP YUGOSLAVIA MILITARILY AND THAT WORLD PUBLIC OPINION IS AGAINST US.' IF THE SOMBER NATO SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON INDUCED SERBIA'S LEADERSHIP TO GRAPPLE WITH THAT REALITY, IT ACCOMPLISHED ALL THAT COULD HAVE BEEN EXPECTED.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT ON THE JUST-CONCLUDED NATO SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON.
    NEB/ANG/WFR
    27-Apr-99 2:13 PM EDT (1813 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/27/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11259
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ////

    INTRO: THE U-S PRESS IS BUSY THIS TUESDAY ANALYZING THE NATO 50TH ANNIVERSARY AND SUMMIT HELD THIS PAST WEEKEND IN WASHINGTON, ESPECIALLY AS IT RELATES TO NATO'S WAR IN THE BALKANS. THERE IS A DIVERGENCE OF OPINION OVER HOW UNITED THE ALLIANCE IS AT ITS GOLDEN JUBILEE, AND THERE ARE QUESTIONS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RUNNING A WAR BY COMMITTEE.

    OTHER COMMENTS DEAL WITH THE SCHOOL SHOOTING IN COLORADO; AND MORE HELP FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD FROM THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. NOW, HERE IS __________ WITH SOME EXCERPTS IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THERE IS A GOOD DEAL OF ASSESSMENT REGARDING THE STATE OF NATO FOLLOWING ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON. "THE ST. PETERSBURG [FLORIDA] TIMES" SAYS:

    VOICE: AS BIRTHDAY PARTIES GO, IT WAS A SUBDUED AFFAIR. BEHIND THE SHOW OF SOLIDARITY ARE GROWING TENSIONS AMONG THE LEADERS, AND IT WAS OBVIOUS TO ALL THAT NATO'S FUTURE WAS LESS LIKELY TO BE DETERMINED BY THE TOUGH TALK IN WASHINGTON THAN BY THE OUTCOME OF ITS WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// OPT ///

    ... IN ITS FIRST HALF CENTURY, NATO SUCCEEDED IN ENDING THE COLD WAR AND SHIELDING THE 'FREE WORLD' FROM SOVIET AGGRESSION - - ALL WITHOUT FIRING A SHOT. NOW IT FINDS ITSELF BOGGED DOWN IN A WAR IN THE BALKANS, THE OUTCOME OF WHICH MAY DECIDE NOT ONLY NATO'S FUTURE ROLE BUT WHETHER THE ALLIANCE WILL EVEN HAVE A FUTURE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: IN TEXAS, "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS" WRITES THAT THE ALLIANCE REACHED NO DECISION ON EITHER THE USE OF GROUND TROOPS OR A FULL-SCALE NAVAL BLOCKAGE ON YUGOSLAVIA:

    VOICE: STILL, NATO AFTER WASHINGTON APPEARS STRONGER THAN BEFORE. THE 19 MEMBER STATES REMAIN DEDICATED TO INTENSIFYING THE AIR WAR TO FURTHER STRANGLE THE SERBS' FIGHTING CAPACITY; AND THEY EVEN MANAGED TO GET THE COOPERATION OF NON-NATO COUNTRIES SUCH AS MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA.

    TEXT: AS TO THE PROSPECT OF A NAVAL BLOCKAGE OF YUGOSLAVIA, "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" WORRIES:

    VOICE: ... A NAVAL BLOCKADE WITHOUT UNITED NATIONS APPROVAL COULD LEAD TO A DIRECT CONFRONTATION WITH MOSCOW. RUSSIAN LEADERS HAVE VOWED NOT TO RESPECT A NATO EMBARGO. /// OPT /// IF NATO VESSELS SHOULD TRY TO STOP OR FIRE UPON A DEFIANT RUSSIAN SHIP BRINGING OIL TO MONTENEGRO, EVEN FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC ACKNOWLEDGES THAT WOULD BE 'AN ACT OF WAR.' FORMER RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN ... WARNED OMINOUSLY THAT NATO'S CAMPAIGN COULD PRECIPITATE 'A THIRD WORLD WAR, THE FINAL WAR.' /// END OPT ///... [PRESIDENT] CLINTON OUGHT TO DROP THE IDEA. THERE ARE OTHER WAYS TO REACH THE SAME ENDS ...

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE RALEIGH [NORTH CAROLINA] NEWS & OBSERVER," AFTER ARGUING AGAINST DEPLOYING GROUND FORCES, SUGGESTS THAT MAY BE THE ONLY WAY TO WIN.

    VOICE: ... AS SENSIBLE AS THOSE AND OTHER ARGUMENTS AGAINST GROUND WAR ARE, THEY HAVE TO WEIGHED AGAINST ONE SIMPLY, HORRIFYING TRUTH: WITH EVERY DAY THAT PASSES, MORE INNOCENT KOSOVARS ARE VIOLENTLY FORCED FROM THEIR HOMES, BRUTALIZED, SOMETIMES MURDERED. NATO'S IMMEDIATE GOAL OUGHT TO BE TO DO WHAT IT CAN TO HALT THAT PITILESS BLOODSHED, AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. ... IT'S BECOMING AND MORE QUESTIONABLE WHETHER THOSE OUTRAGES CAN BE STOPPED WITHOUT CONFRONTING HEAD-ON THOSE WHO ARE COMMITTING THEM ...

    TEXT: LASTLY ON THIS TOPIC, "THE MANCHESTER [NEW HAMPSHIRE] UNION LEADER," SAYS THE PRAISE FOR NATO'S MASTERY OF THE COLD WAR IS JUSTIFIED, BUT THE CURRENT BATTLE MAY TURN OUT TO BE A PYRRHIC VICTORY (I.E. VICTORY WON AT A STAGGERING COST).

    VOICE: NATO, LED BY THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT, HAS PAINTED ITSELF INTO A CORNER. IF THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN DOES NOT SUCCEED IN BRINGING SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO HEEL - - AND THERE IS LITTLE SIGN OF THIS - - THEN THE PROSPECTS OF A COSTLY AND BLOODY GROUND WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA CANNOT BE EXCLUDED. ... IF, THAT IS, THE ALLIANCE CAN BE HELD TOGETHER FOR SUCH AN 0PERATION. BOMBING FOR ALLEGEDLY HUMANITARIAN REASONS IS ONE THING; SENDING AN ARMY TO INVADE THE TERRITORY OF A SOVEREIGN NATION IS QUITE ANOTHER.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: NEXT, COMMENTS ON THE SCHOOL MASSACRE LAST WEEK IN LITTLETON, COLORADO, THE DENVER SUBURB, WHERE TWO STUDENTS KILLED A DOZEN FELLOW STUDENTS AND A TEACHER, AND THEN THEMSELVES. PORTLAND'S "OREGONIAN," RESPONDING TO PLEAS FOR TEACHERS TO BE MORE ALERT TO TROUBLED STUDENTS, RESPONDS:

    VOICE: THE PUBLIC CANNOT EXPECT TEACHERS TO SPOT [ANTICIPATE] TROUBLE AT THEIR SCHOOLS IF [SCHOOL] DISTRICTS DON'T SHARE VITAL INFORMATION ABOUT VIOLENCE-PRONE KIDS. /// OPT /// ... IT'S HARD TO HOLD CLASSROOM TEACHERS EVEN PARTLY RESPONSIBLE IF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS WON'T SHARE VITAL INFORMATION ABOUT STUDENTS WITH DEMONSTRATED TENDENCIES TOWARD TROUBLE AND VIOLENCE. UNHAPPILY, THAT FAILURE TO INFORM IS HAPPENING TODAY IN DISTRICTS ACROSS OREGON. ... TEACHERS FROM ALL OVER THE STATE COMPLAIN ABOUT AN EXCESS OF CONFIDENTIALITY AND A LACK OF INFORMATION AND COMMON SENSE. /// END OPT ///

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: ANOTHER TOPIC OF THE LITTLETON MASSACRE, IS CRITICISM OF THE PRESS BY THE PRESS, AS IN TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD," WHICH CALLS THE SATURATION COVERAGE A "MEDIA MASSACRE."

    VOICE: NOW, NEARLY A FULL WEEK AFTER THE SHOOTINGS, IT'S TIME FOR THE MEDIA TO POLITELY PULL BACK, AS WOULD ANY VISITOR WHO RECOGNIZES THE APPROPRIATE MOMENT TO LEAVE A ROOM TO ALLOW A GRIEVING FAMILY TO HAVE PRIVACY. IT'S TIME, TOO, FOR THOSE OF US IN THE MEDIA TO ANALYZE OUR COVERAGE HERE IN SEARCH OF LESSONS THAT MIGHT CURB SOME OF OUR MORE OBNOXIOUS - - AND DANGEROUS - - TENDENCIES. THIS IS NOT TO ARGUE THAT BROADCASTERS, NEWSPAPERS AND WIRE SERVICES SHOULD CEASE REPORTING THE NEWS. ... BUT WE DO ARGUE FOR MORE RESTRAINT BEFORE WE ... PROLONG THE TRAUMA.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" WONDERS, EDITORIALLY, WITH SO MANY INDICATIONS THAT SOMETHING WAS WRONG, HOW COULD THE WHOLE TOWN NOT HAVE NOTICED, ESPECIALLY THE PARENTS?

    VOICE: /// OPT /// ... MOST IMPORTANT, START AT HOME. START WITH WHAT WAS FOUND ON OPEN DISPLAY WHEN THE HOMES OF THE BOYS WERE SEARCHED: HATE LITERATURE; A DIARY WITH COPIOUS WRITING ON HOW TO CARRY OUT THE PLOT AT THE SCHOOL; BOMB PARTS AND THE SAWED-OFF BARREL OF A SHOTGUN. THROW IN A THREATENING, VIOLENCE-LACED WEB SITE [A PAGE ON THE PERSONAL-COMPUTER-LINKED TO THE WORLD WIDE WEB] AND AN ADDICTION TO VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES AND YOU'VE GOT A RECIPE FOR DISASTER. /// END OPT /// ... RECRIMINATIONS MATTER FAR LESS THAN TAKING THE LESSONS OF LITTLETON TO HEART. IT'S PAST TIME FOR AMERICA'S PARENTS TO LOOK INTO THE MIRROR AND THEN LOOK DEEPLY INTO THE EYES OF OUR CHILDREN.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: IN HOUSTON, TEXAS THERE IS A THREE DAY SUMMIT ON AFRICA. "THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE" IS PLEASED THAT POSITIVE DEVELOPMENTS IN GABON WILL BE ON DISPLAY.

    VOICE: WHILE THE HEADLINES OFTEN FOCUS ON THE NEGATIVES, THERE IS PERHAPS NO BETTER ILLUSTRATION OF THE POSITIVE POSSIBILITIES, BOTH DEMOCRATIC AND ECONOMIC, THAN PRESIDENT EL HADJ OMAR BONGO OF GABON, WHO WILL RECEIVE, APPROPRIATELY, THE [CORPORATE] COUNCIL'S PEACE AND STABILITY AWARD. ... [MR.] BONGO WON RE-ELECTION IN GABON'S SECOND DEMOCRATIC ELECTION AND HAS AGGRESSIVELY PROMOTED FREE-MARKET REFORMS AND ECONOMIC MODERNIZATION. HE ALSO HAS EARNED A PLACE AS A TRUSTED GO-BETWEEN TO MEDIATE PEACEFUL SOLUTIONS IN OTHER NATIONS IN THE CENTRAL AFRICA REGION. [PRESIDENT] BONGO EMPHASIZES THE CONNECTION BETWEEN PEACE, PROSPERITY AND TRUE DEMOCRACY AND HIS MESSAGE ABOUT GABON, WHICH HAS PROBLEMS OF ITS OWN, SHOULD SERVE AS A MODEL TO OTHER AFRICAN NATIONS ...

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS DELIGHTED THAT THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND HAS DECIDED, AT ITS CURRENT MEETING, TO INCREASE AID TO DESERVING, BUT NEEDY COUNTRIES.

    VOICE: THE WORLD'S FINANCIAL LEADERS ... GOT OFF TO A PROMISING START BY APPROVING RESERVE FUNDS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THAT FALL INTO FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES DESPITE EARNEST EFFORTS TO REFORM THEIR ECONOMIES. THE SAME HELPING HAND SHOULD BE EXTENDED TO THE POOREST COUNTRIES THROUGH AGREEMENT TO EASE THE CRIPPLING BURDEN OF THEIR FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS.

    TEXT: WITH A LARGE NUMBER OF AMERICANS SOON REACHING RETIREMENT AGE -- TYPICALLY AGE 65 -- THERE IS A DEBATE OVER REFORMING THE FEDERAL SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM, WHICH PROVIDES GOVERNMENT SUBSISTENCE CHECKS FOR MANY OLDER RESIDENTS. "THE WASHINGTON POST" IS NOT PLEASED SO FAR AT THE EFFORTS TO DO THIS.

    VOICE: THE PRESIDENT NOW DENOUNCES THE CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS FOR REFUSING TO TAKE A STEP ON SOCIAL SECURITY THAT THE PRESIDENT HIMSELF HAS CONSISTENTLY SHUNNED. THE REPUBLICAN LEADERS SAY THEY WON'T BRING UP A BILL THIS YEAR TO RESTRUCTURE THE PROGRAM SO THAT IN THE LONG TERM REVENUE WILL COVER COSTS; THEY DON'T WANT TO TAKE THE POLITICAL RISK THIS CLOSE TO THE NEXT ELECTION. ... BUT HE [MR. CLINTON] NO MORE THAN THEY HAS SAID HOW HE WOULD MAKE WHAT HE ONCE AGAIN CALLED 'THE TOUGH CHOICES NEEDED TO SECURE THE TRUST FUND OVER THE LONG TERM.' ... HIS PLAN ... WOULD CLOSE ONLY A LITTLE MORE THAN HALF THE LONG-TERM GAP BETWEEN SOCIAL SECURITY REVENUES AND COSTS.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM TUESDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    27-Apr-99 12:20 PM EDT (1620 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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