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Voice of America, 99-04-02

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO / CHILDREN (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [02] KOSOVO: A TALE OF TWO WOMEN BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [04] NATO ATTACKS / REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (SKOPJE)
  • [05] NATO-KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [06] CLINTON / KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [07] NATO / GROUND TROOPS BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [09] ISRAEL / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (JERUSALEM)
  • [10] RUSSIA / SHIP (S) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [11] RUSSIA / SHIP (L) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [12] U-S / RUSSIA SANCTIONS (S) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [13] U-S / RUSSIA WRAP (L) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [14] KURDS COMPARE THEIR PROBLEM TO KOSOVO BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTON)
  • [15] YUGOSLAV DIRECTORS ON YUGO CRISIS BY KATAYOUN BEGLARI (WASHINGTON)
  • [16] FRANCE TUNNEL (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [17] RENAULT-NISSAN: TROUBLE AHEAD? BY JOHN BIRCHARD (WASHINGTON)
  • [18] MORE ON THE BALKAN WAR BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [19] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO / CHILDREN (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247570
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MANY OF THOSE LEFT HOMELESS IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS ARE CHILDREN. RELIEF WORKERS SAY UP TO ONE-THIRD OF THE HUNDREDS-OF-THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE FLEEING KOSOVO ARE UNDER 18 YEARS OLD. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON SPOKE IN NEW YORK WITH THE DIRECTOR OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND, CAROL BELLAMY, ABOUT INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS TO HELP THE YOUNGEST VICTIMS OF THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO.

    TEXT: UNICEF DIRECTOR CAROL BELLAMY SAYS CHILDREN ARE AMONG THE MOST VULNERABLE OF THE REFUGEES WHO ARE HIDING IN OR HAVE FLED FROM KOSOVO. SHE SAYS EMERGENCY AID IS REACHING MANY OF THEM NOW, BUT THE SITUATION COULD WORSEN.

    /// BELLAMY ACT ///

    SO IT IS THE BASIC EXPOSURE, LACK OF ENOUGH FOOD ... IT WILL ALL GO TO BASICALLY TEARING DOWN THE BODY, AND CHILDREN ARE THE MOST VULNERABLE AT THIS POINT, OTHER THAN PREGNANT WOMEN, SO THEY ARE THE MOST LIKELY TO SUCCUMB TO SOME KIND OF DISEASE IF IT STARTS TO MOVE THROUGH LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN THE SHORT TERM, U-N RELIEF AGENCIES ARE TRYING TO MEET FOOD AND SHELTER NEEDS AND PREVENT THE SPREAD OF DISEASE. THE U-N HIGH COMMISSION FOR REFUGEES IS LEADING THOSE EFFORTS. THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM IS ASSISTING WITH FOOD NEEDS. THE U-N CHILDREN'S FUND -- UNICEF -- IS FOCUSSING ON HEALTH AND WATER CONDITIONS.

    UNICEF DIRECTORY CAROL BELLAMY SAYS SHE IS ALREADY LOOKING AHEAD TO THE NEXT STAGE OF RELIEF EFFORTS, WHEN MORE WORK WILL BE DONE TO ASSIST WITH THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF REFUGEE CHILDREN.

    /// BELLAMY ACT ///

    IN THE LONGER TERM WE WILL BE DEALING WITH THINGS LIKE TRYING TO CREATE AN ENVIRONMENT WHERE KIDS CAN GO BACK TO SCHOOL, EVEN WHERE THERE IS NOT A SCHOOL THAT IS AVAILABLE, BUT THEY WILL GET SOME EDUCATION. WE ALSO HAVE A COUPLE OF TEAMS THAT ARE DEALING WITH THE IMMEDIATE TRAUMA THAT THE CHILDREN ARE EXPERIENCING, SO THIS WOULD BE A TEAM THAT COMBINES MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPETENCIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MS. BELLAMY SAYS IT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER THAT THERE ARE AT LEAST THREE DISTINCT GROUPS OF VICTIMS OF THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO. THE MOST VISIBLE ARE THE REFUGEES WHO HAVE FLED TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. BUT SHE SAYS THERE ARE ALSO THOUSANDS OF HOMELESS PEOPLE HIDING IN THE MOUNTAINS OF KOSOVO WHO WILL NEED HELP. AND, SHE SAYS THOUSANDS OF RESIDENTS OF NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES, SUCH AS ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA, ARE ALSO FACING DIFFICULT CONDITIONS CAUSED BY THE INFLOW OF SO MANY REFUGEES.

    LOOKING TOWARDS THE FUTURE, MS. BELLAMY HAS A NUMBER OF CONCERNS. ONE OF THOSE IS THE FACT THAT SO MANY PEOPLE LEAVING KOSOVO HAVE HAD ALL THEIR IDENTITY DOCUMENTS SEIZED OR DESTROYED BY SERBIAN FORCES. SHE SAYS THIS PHENOMENON IS RARE, EVEN IN WAR SITUATIONS, AND WILL MAKE IT MORE DIFFICULT FOR REFUGEES TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES.

    MS. BELLAMY IS ALSO CONCERNED THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MAY LOSE INTEREST IN THE REFUGEE PROBLEMS CONCERNING KOSOVO ONCE THE TELEVISION CAMERAS LEAVE. SHE SAYS THE HUMANITARIAN CRISIS WILL CONTINUE LONG AFTER THE MEDIA HAVE LEFT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/UN/MPR/LSF
    02-Apr-99 2:51 PM EST (1951 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO: A TALE OF TWO WOMEN BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43014
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ONE WAY TO TRY AND UNDERSTAND TODAY'S TRAGEDY IN KOSOVO IS IN THE VERY DIFFERENT STORIES OF TWO WOMEN IN YUGOSLAVIA -- ONE A SERB, THE OTHER AN ETHNIC ALBANIAN. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR REPORTS:

    TEXT: NATO OFFICIALS SAY THEY DECIDED TO BOMB THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AFTER RECEIVING COMPELLING EVIDENCE SERBIAN TROOPS WERE ADVANCING ON ETHNIC ALBANIAN CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO. BUT WHEN IT WAS LATER ANNOUNCED THERE WOULD ALSO BE STRIKES ON BELGRADE, SERBS BECAME UNITED IN A WAY NOT SEEN SINCE YUGOSLAVIA BEGAN TO DISINTEGRATE IN 1991.

    EVEN BELGRADE'S INDEPENDENT JOURNALISTS -- THOSE MOST TARGETED IN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S MEDIA CRACKDOWNS -- ARE ANGRY AT THE UNITED STATES AND THE WEST. ONE OF THEM, WHOM WE WILL CALL VESNA, SAYS THE NATO ATTACKS HAVE FINALLY UNITED ALL SERBS -- NATIONALISTS AND MODERATES ALIKE.:

    // ACT ONE/ VESNA //

    THEY'RE NOT BOMBING MILOSEVIC, THEY'RE BOMBING US. WE CAN SEE BLASTS, WE CAN HEAR BOMBS, HEAR AIRPLANES ON ALL SIDES OF THE CITY. THEN YOU HEAR THE SIRENS BUT IT'S TOO LATE FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE TO GO DOWN TO THE SHELTERS. OTHERWISE YOU CAN STAY THE WHOLE DAY THERE BUT IT IS VERY, VERY UNCOMFORTABLE AND COLD DOWN THERE AND YOU CAN'T STAY AND IT MAKES YOU PSYCHOLOGICALLY CRAZY IF YOU STAY THERE.

    // END ACT //

    VESNA SAYS THE NATO ATTACKS HAVE BROUGHT ALL SERBS BACK OUT ONTO THE STREETS FOR DAILY DEMONSTRATIONS AGAIN, JUST LIKE THE THREE MONTHS OF DAILY PROTESTS WHICH BEGAN IN LATE 1996 AND WHICH NEARLY UNSEATED PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. VESNA SAYS THIS TIME THE DEMONSTRATIONS ARE DIFFERENT -- THEY ARE AGAINST THE WEST:

    // ACT TWO / VESNA //

    THE PEOPLE WHO ARE IN THE STREETS OF BELGRADE TODAY, THEY'RE THE SAME PEOPLE. THIS IS A FIGHT THAT REALLY, REALLY UNITED ALL KINDS OF PEOPLE THAT COULD NEVER EVEN TALK TO EACH OTHER BEFORE. IT'S CLOSING THE COUNTRY DOWN. IT TAKING THE COUNTRY MORE AND MORE AWAY FROM THE IDEAS OF THE WEST. SO WHERE CAN WE TURN NOW? IF HE (PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC) IS A SMART GUY AND HE ALWAYS WAS A SMART GUY, HE WOULD HOLD ELECTIONS TOMORROW AND HE WOULD HAVE 95 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION BEHIND HIM. IT'S RUINED EVERYTHING THE OPPOSITION HAS DONE IN THIS COUNTRY IN THE LAST TEN YEARS.

    // END ACT //

    (OPT) VESNA SAYS THE ANGER OF MANY SERBS TOWARD NATO AND THE WEST IS SUCH THAT PEOPLE LIKE HERSELF ARE WARY OF EVEN SPEAKING TO FOREIGN JOURNALISTS NOW:

    // ACT THREE //

    YOU HAVE SEEN THE ANGER THESE PEOPLE SHOW TO ANYTHING THAT IS CONNECTED TO THE UNITED STATES AND EVEN SPEAKING

    TO YOU (VOA) IS MAYBE VERY DANGEROUS FOR ME.

    // END ACT / END OPT //

    ANOTHER JOURNALIST IN THE AREA IS AFERDITA KELMENDI, WHO MANAGES AN ETHNIC ALBANIAN INTERNET RADIO SERVICE KNOWN AS 'RADIO 21'. AFTER THE NATO AIRSTRIKES BEGAN ON MARCH 24, SHE AND HER FAMILY AND CO-WORKERS BECAME TRAPPED IN PRISTINA, THE CAPITAL OF KOSOVO, AS SERB FORCES CLOSED IN ON THE CITY. MORE THAN A WEEK LATER, AFERDITA AND HER FRIENDS AND FAMILY MADE IT TO MACEDONIA -- EXHAUSTED, HUNGRY AND SCARED. SHE DESCRIBES THE DIFFICULT JOURNEY FROM PRISTINA, WHICH BEGAN AFTER SERB PARAMILITARY TROOPS RANSACKED AND BURNED THE OFFICES OF RADIO 21:

    // ACT FOUR //

    WE JUST WENT OUTSIDE, GOT INTO OUR CARS WITHOUT ANYTHING AND LEFT THE PLACE. WE TOOK NOTHING, JUST MY BAG WHERE I HAD MY PASSPORT AND NOTHING MORE. WE WERE 21 (PEOPLE) WITH THREE CARS. AT THAT MOMENT, A BIG CAR CAME WITH PARAMILITARY FORCES INSIDE. ONE OF THEM HAD A GUN AND HE SAID 'IF YOU WANT TO GO OUT, YOU HAVE TO PAY FOR EACH OF YOU, 200 DEUTSCHMARKS'. I HAD THE MONEY AND I PAID FOR ALL OF US. HE WAS GOOD IN THAT HE DIDN'T KILL US OR BEAT US. MY GOD, THANK GOD I HAD THE MONEY BECAUSE THE OTHERS, THEY DIDN'T HAVE A PENNY.

    // END ACT //

    AFERDITA SAYS THE GROUP SPENT THREE DAYS AND TWO NIGHTS ON THE ROAD, TRAVELING IN A LONG CONVOY OF CARS TO THE MACEDONIAN BORDER. THE TRIP NORMALLY TAKES LESS THAN THREE HOURS.

    // ACT FIVE //

    FOR THREE DAYS WE ATE NOTHING, JUST DRANK WATER, AND I REALIZED THAT WITH ONLY WATER YOU CAN SURVIVE SEVERAL DAYS. THE NIGHTS WERE VERY FRIGHTENING. AROUND US (THERE) WERE WOLVES, REAL WOLVES, WHO CAME FROM THE MOUNTAINS AND ON THE OTHER SIDE WERE THESE PARAMILITARY FORCES KNOCKING ON YOUR (CAR) WINDOWS ASKING FOR MORE MONEY. THANK GOD THE SOLDIERS, ORDINARY SOLDIERS, WERE MORE HUMAN (THAN THE PARAMILITARY FORCES). THEY SCREAMED AT US, BUT THEY DID NOTHING ELSE.

    // END ACT //

    AFERDITA SAYS THE GROUP WITNESSED OTHER ETHNIC ALBANIANS BEING FORCED TO HAND OVER PASSPORTS, BIRTH CERTIFICATES AND OTHER PAPERS, BUT SHE SAYS THE PEOPLE IN HER GROUP ESCAPED THIS FATE. THEY ALL SAY THEY WANT TO RETURN TO KOSOVO AND THAT THEY DON'T PLAN TO REMAIN IN MACEDONIA. RIGHT NOW, HOWEVER, THEY ARE WORRIED ABOUT WORSENING ETHNIC TENSIONS IN MACEDONIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/KL
    02-Apr-99 2:27 PM EST (1927 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247551
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, U-N-H-C-R, SAYS IT IS OVERWHELMED BY THE HUGE NUMBER OF REFUGEES FLEEING KOSOVO. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS OFFICIALS SAY THE RAPIDLY ESCALATING NUMBER OF REFUGEES IS PUTTING AN ENORMOUS STRAIN ON THE ABILITY OF RELIEF AGENCIES TO COPE WITH THE EMERGENCY.

    TEXT: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS THAT DURING THE PAST NINE DAYS, 230-THOUSAND PEOPLE FROM KOSOVO HAVE ARRIVED IN ALBANIA, MACEDONIA AND MONTENEGRO, BRINGING THE TOTAL NUMBER OF REFUGEES IN THE REGION TO MORE THAN 330-THOUSAND.

    A U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN, JEFF CRISP, SAYS THAT ON THURSDAY, SEVEN TRAINS PACKED WITH ABOUT 40-THOUSAND PEOPLE FROM THE KOSOVO CAPITAL, PRISTINA, ARRIVED AT THE MACEDONIAN BORDER. HE SAYS ABOUT 200 PEOPLE WERE CROWDED INTO EACH OF THE TRAIN'S CARS.

    /// CRISP ACT ONE ///

    THESE ARE PEOPLE WHO ARE REALLY CRAMMED IN, MOST OF THEM STANDING UP. VERY LITTLE SPACE, PACKED LIKE SARDINES. UNFORTUNATELY, MOST OF THEM HAVE BEEN TOLD OR FORCED TO LEAVE THEIR HOMES AT VERY SHORT NOTICE, SOMETIMES AT GUNPOINT. THEY'VE NOT BEEN ABLE TO COLLECT THEIR BELONGINGS. THEY ARE LITERALLY ARRIVING WITH THEIR CLOTHES THAT THEIR WEARING (AND) PERHAPS A SMALL SUITCASE, A SMALL BAG. BUT, CERTAINLY, THEY'VE NOT BEEN ABLE TO PREPARE FOR A JOURNEY OF THIS KIND WHICH AGAIN ADDS TO THE PRESSURE ON THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES AND ON RELIEF AGENCIES OPERATING IN MACEDONIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE REFUGEE AGENCY REPORTS THAT TWO OLD PEOPLE DIED DURING THE CRUSH OF BEING HERDED ONTO A TRAIN IN PRISTINA. THE AGENCY SAYS THREE WOMEN GAVE BIRTH DURING THAT SAME TRAIN VOYAGE TO MACEDONIA.

    THE PRE-WAR POPULATION OF PRISTINA WAS MORE THAN 200-THOUSAND. REFUGEES ARRIVING IN MACEDONIA TELL RELIEF WORKERS THAT THE ONCE BUSTLING KOSOVO CAPITAL NOW RESEMBLES A "GHOST TOWN."

    MR. CRISP SAYS RELIEF AGENCIES ARE DISMAYED BY THE SUDDEN, HUGE INFLUX OF REFUGEES.

    /// CRISP ACT TWO ///

    WE'RE TRYING NOT TO PANIC. WE'RE TRYING TO SET UP A VERY SYSTEMATIC, WELL ORGANIZED RELIEF PROGRAM. AS IN EVERY REFUGEE EMERGENCY, WHEREVER IT TAKES PLACE AROUND THE WORLD, WHEN LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE ARRIVE IN VERY FRIGHTENED AND HUNGRY CONDITIONS IN A VERY SHORT PERIOD OF TIME, THERE ARE ALL KINDS OF CONSIDERATIONS THAT HAVE TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT. AND, IT'S NOT EASY TO ESTABLISH A NEAT AND WELL-ORGANIZED RELIEF PROGRAM. BUT, THAT'S CERTAINLY WHAT WE'RE AIMING AT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CRISP SAYS THE MOST IMMEDIATE NEED IS TO FIND SHELTER FOR THE MANY THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES WHO ARE STREAMING INTO MACEDONIA, ALBANIA AND MONTENEGRO. HE SAYS THE AGENCY IS WORKING TO PROVIDE TENTS, BLANKETS AND SLEEPING BAGS SO THAT NONE OF THE REFUGEES WILL HAVE TO SLEEP OUTDOORS. HE SAYS THERE ARE LARGE STOCKS OF FOOD IN THE AREA. AND MR. CRISP SAYS IT IS ABSOLUTELY CRUCIAL TO PROVIDE CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION TO PREVENT EPIDEMICS OF CHOLERA AND OTHER DISEASES FROM BREAKING OUT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH/PLM
    02-Apr-99 6:44 AM EST (1144 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] NATO ATTACKS / REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (SKOPJE)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247560
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NATO AIR WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA IS FAILING TO STOP THE EXODUS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM KOSOVO PROVINCE OR THE ATROCITIES THEY SAY ARE BEING CARRIED OUT AGAINST CIVILIANS WHO REMAIN BEHIND. CORRESPONDENT NICK SIMEONE REPORTS FROM KOSOVO'S BORDER WITH MACEDONIA.

    TEXT: EVEN THOUGH THERE IS CLEAR SUPPORT AMONG KOSOVAR ALBANIANS FOR NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERBS, REFUGEES FLOODING OVER THE MACEDONIAN BORDER SAY NATO ATTACKS ARE IN EFFECT BACKFIRING -- FUELING SERB REPRISALS RATHER THAN HALTING THEM. SINCE NATO INTERVENTION IS WHAT YOU WANTED, SERB FORCES ARE TELLING THEM, LET NATO COME AND SAVE YOU NOW.

    BUT NATO IS KEEPING ITS INTERVENTION LIMITED TO AIRSTRIKES. THE 12-THOUSAND NATO SOLDIERS ALREADY IN MACEDONIA, WHO COULD MOVE INTO KOSOVO IN JUST MINUTES, HAVE NO MANDATE TO DO SO WITHOUT A KOSOVO PEACE AGREEMENT BEING IN PLACE FIRST. AND WITHOUT TROOPS ON THE GROUND, REFUGEES, LIKE THIS ONE HAVE NO REASON TO FEEL SAFE AT HOME.

    // REFUGEE ACT /SIMEONE //

    I CAN NOT FIND THE WORDS TO DESCRIBE IT. IT'S THE WORST NIGHTMARE. YOU CAN NOT IMAGINE THAT THIS IS HAPPENING AT THE ENTRANCE (AT THE START) OF THE 21ST CENTURY IN THE MIDDLE OF EUROPE. I'VE BEEN AT GUNPOINT TWICE, ALMOST SHOT DEAD TWICE, THEY STOLE EVERYTHING, MY MOBILE (PHONE), CAR.

    Q: SERB SOLDIERS?

    A: ONE CAN NOT MAKE A DIFFERENCE NOW. EVERYONE IS ARMED. EVERYONE THAT SPEAKS SERBIAN THERE IS HEAVILY ARMED AND THERE IS NO COMMAND, THERE IS TOTAL ANARCHY THERE.

    // END ACT //

    A THEATRE DIRECTOR IN PRISTINA DECLARES HIMSELF READY TO RETURN HOME AND TAKE UP ARMS WITH THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY.

    // SECOND ACT //

    THE PROBLEM IS NATO THOUGHT IT WAS DEALING WITH SANE PEOPLE, A SANE NATION AND SOMEONE WHO WAS REASONABLE. THAT'S THE ONLY MISTAKE BY NATO. THEY (SERBS) ARE NOT SANE, THEY ARE NOT REASONABLE.

    // END ACT //

    BY FRIDAY, TENS OF THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS BRAVING THE COLD AND RAIN HAD MADE IT TO THE MACEDONIA BORDER. BEHIND THEM, A RIVER OF HUMANITY WAS CONTINUING TO FLOW DOWN THE MOUNTAINS, THOUSANDS UPON THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE HOPING TO CROSS THE FRONTIER.

    AND FURTHER IN THE DISTANCE, EVEN MORE WERE COMING, MEN, WOMEN, THE OLD AND YOUNG, MANY CRYING. OTHERS, LIKE THIS WOMAN WALKING WITH A SICK CHILD, SAID THE FLOOD OF PEOPLE BEHIND HER SPOKE LOUDER THAN SHE COULD ABOUT THE ATROCITIES BEING CARRIED OUT JUST OVER THE HORIZON.

    // REFUGEE ACT //

    WHAT (IS THERE) TO SAY? I THINK YOU CAN SEE FOR YOURSELF. I THINK YOU DON'T NEED ANY COMMENT FOR THIS. IT TALKS (SPEAKS) FOR ITSELF.

    // END ACT //

    HUMANITARIAN GROUPS ARE AT THE BORDER WITH FOOD SUPPLIES. BUT IT WAS TOO LATE FOR SOME WHO HAD ALREADY COLLAPSED FROM EXHAUSTION OR ILLNESS AND HAD TO BE CARRIED OFF IN STRETCHERS. DESPITE ALL OF THIS, THESE PEOPLE KNOW THEY ARE THE LUCKY ONES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/KL
    02-Apr-99 10:59 AM EST (1559 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] NATO-KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247561
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO AMBASSADORS HAVE ORDERED THE STANDBY PEACEKEEPING FORCES WAITING IN MACEDONIA TO ASSIST THE STREAM OF REFUGEES FLOODING OUT OF THE NEIGHBORING SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS, THE PROBLEM GROWS WHILE NATO'S AIR ATTACKS CONTINUE ON YUGOSLAVIA.

    TEXT: NATO IS STARTING TO MOBILIZE ON A STAGGERING PROBLEM IT DID NOT ENVISAGE WHEN IT LAUNCHED AIR STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA. THE SERBS HAVE BEEN MORE EFFICIENT IN EXPELLING KOSOVO'S ALBANIANS THAN NATO'S BOMBERS HAVE BEEN IN STOPPING ETHNIC CLEANSING.

    NATO AMBASSADORS WANT THE 12-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS STATIONED IN MACEDONIA TO HELP THAT GOVERNMENT DEAL WITH THE FLOOD OF REFUGEES. //OPT// THAT ALREADY-POOR COUNTRY IS PROCESSING 17-THOUSAND-500 MORE REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO WITH 25-THOUSAND MORE ON THE WAY. //END OPT//

    THE TROOPS IN MACEDONIA ARE THE BASIS FOR A NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING FORCE THAT WAS NOT ALLOWED BY YUGOSLAVIA TO DEPLOY IN KOSOVO. THE TROOPS HAVE BEEN ON GUARD AGAINST A SPILLOVER OF THE CONFLICT ACROSS THE BORDER. NATO IS LENDING ITS LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORTATION SKILLS TO THE UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE ORGANIZATION.

    //OPT//

    NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS REFUGEES ARE LEAVING KOSOVO WITHOUT THE BASIC NECESSITIES.

    ///SHEA ACT///

    WE SEE FAMILIES WITH VERY LITTLE LUGGAGE. LADIES IN SLIPPERS, CHILDREN WITH NO SHOES OR SOCKS AND OFTEN WE HAVE REPORTS THAT THEY HAVE HAD TO HAND OVER THEIR LIFE SAVINGS TO THE SERB SECURITY FORCES IN ORDER TO BE ... FINALLY ABLE TO LEAVE, THEREBY DEPRIVING THEM OF THE MEANS, ALBEIT LIMITED, TO BE ABLE TO BUILD SOME KIND OF LIFE AS REFUGEES IN THE NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. THIS IS AN EXTORTION RACKET I WOULD DESCRIBE AS INSTITUTIONAL GANGSTERISM.

    ///END ACT///

    THE NATO SPOKESMAN RAISES THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE DISPLACED FROM THEIR HOMES IN KOSOVO SINCE CONFLICT BEGAN 14 MONTHS AGO FROM A HALF MILLION TO 634-THOUSAND. THAT'S ONE-THIRD OF KOSOVO'S PRE-WAR POPULATION. //END OPT//

    NATO CONTENDS ITS AIR STRIKES ARE SLOWING DOWN YUGOSLAV MILITARY OPERATIONS INSIDE KOSOVO. A NATO MILITARY SPOKESMAN SAYS ONE YUGOSLAV BATTLE GROUP HAS BEEN IMMOBILIZED IN SOUTHWEST KOSOVO BY NATO'S AIR ATTACKS ON THEIR TANKS AND THEIR FUEL STORAGE FACILITIES.

    MILITARY SPOKESMAN DAVID WILBY APOLOGIZES FOR NOT SHOWING REPORTERS EVIDENCE THAT NATO MILITARY ACTION IS SLOWING THE ETHNIC CLEANSING.

    ///WILBY ACT///

    WE ARE HITTING HARD. WHAT I HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO SHOW YOU -- AND FOR THAT I AM DEEPLY SORRY -- IS I HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO GIVE YOU EVIDENCE OF THE FORCES, THE TANKS ON THE GROUND IN KOSOVO THAT WE HAVE BEEN STRIKING.

    //OPT//

    THAT, PARTIALLY BECAUSE OF THE WEATHER AND PARTIALLY BECAUSE THE SORT OF IMAGERY AND THE SORT OF REPRODUCTION WE CAN GIVE YOU, IS DIFFICULT FOR YOU TO MAKE OUT, UNLESS YOU LOOK AS A TRAINED PERSON UNDER A TRAINED SCOPE. //END OPT//

    ///END ACT///

    THE MORE COMPELLING EVIDENCE IS THE 10-KILOMETER LONG LINE OF KOSOVO ALBANIAN REFUGEES THAT NATO REPORTS IS WAITING TO ENTER NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/PCF
    02-Apr-99 10:41 AM EST (1541 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] CLINTON / KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247572
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON TODAY (FRIDAY) CONVENED OFFICIALS OF GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE AID ORGANIZATIONS TO DISCUSS A HUMANITARIAN SITUATION IN KOSOVO HE DESCRIBED AS "GRAVE." HE ALSO SAID THE WORLD MUST STOP YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC FROM CARRYING OUT WHAT HE SAID IS A DRIVE TO RID KOSOVO OF ITS ETHNIC ALBANIAN MAJORITY. MORE FROM VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST AT THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: MR. CLINTON PROMISED THE AID OFFICIALS THE ADMINISTRATION WOULD SUPPORT THEM IN EVERY WAY IT CAN IN THE FACE OF A CRISIS THAT HAS ALREADY MADE REFUGEES OF A THIRD OF KOSOVO'S POPULATION.

    IN A TALK WITH REPORTERS AFTER THE TWO-HOUR MEETING, THE PRESIDENT SAID THAT IN ADDITION TO THE TENS OF THOUSANDS OF KOSOVAR ALBANIANS WHO HAVE FLED THE PROVINCE, THERE ARE MANY OTHERS DISPLACED INTERNALLY WHO ARE VULNERABLE TO ATTACK BY SERB FORCES.

    HE SAID NATO IS ALTERING ITS AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY TO TRY TO PROTECT THEM:

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY///

    THAT IS WHY OUR AIR STRIKES ARE INCREASINGLY FOCUSSED ON MILITARY TARGETS THERE. THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT WHAT MR. MILOSEVIC WANTS TO DO IS TO KEEP THE LAND OF KOSOVO AND RID IT OF ITS PEOPLE. WE CANNOT LET THAT HAPPEN WITH IMPUNITY, I SAID YESTERDAY IN VIRGINIA TO OUR TROOPS

    ///END ACT///

    MR. CLINTON AGAIN URGED PATIENCE AND DETERMINATION WITH THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN, AND SAID HE STILL BELIEVES THE ALLIES CAN ACHIEVE THEIR OBJECTIVES WITHOUT THE INTRODUCTION OF GROUND TROOPS:

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY TWO///

    WE ARE MAKING THE AIR CAMPAIGN MORE INTENSE WE'RE ADDING TARGETS. WE ARE KEEPING THE NATO ALLIES TOGETHER. AND I BELIEVE WE HAVE QUITE A GOOD CHANCE OF ACHIEVING OUR OBJECTIVES WITH THE RETURN OF THE KOSOVARS, TO LIVE IN SECURITY WITH THE MEASURE THAT THEY ENJOYED UNDER THE OLD YUGOSLAV CONSTITUTION BEFORE MR. MILOSEVIC TOOK IT AWAY FROM THEM.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. CLINTON, WHO HAS THUS FAR COMMITTED NEARLY 150-MILLION DOLLARS IN U-S GOVERNMENT FUNDS TO HELP KOSOVO REFUGEES URGED GREATER EFFORTS BY OTHER GOVERNMENTS AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS -- AN APPEAL ECHOED BY PARTICIPANTS IN THE MEEETING.

    FRANK CARLIN, THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF CATHOLIC RELIEF SERVICES, COMPARED THE KOSOVO CRISIS TO THE FORCED RELOCATION OF SOVIET MINORITIES IN THE STALIN ERA, AND SAID THE PROBLEM EXCEEDS THE CURRENY CAPABILITIES OF THE RELIEF COMMUNITY:

    ///CARLIN ACTUALITY///

    WE ARE TALKING ABOUT THIS AS THOUGH ITS A REFUGEE CRISIS SIMILAR T9O0 A LOT OF THE OTHER REFUGEE CRISES IN PAST DECADES. IT'S NOT. THIS IS DE-POPULATION, AND THE ONLY THING SIMILAR TO IT IN RECENT HISTORY IS STALIN'S SOCIAL ENGINEERING IN THE 1930'S. AND IN HIS CASE WE'RE TALKING ABOUT TWO MILLION PEOPLE. AND THEY'RE STARTING TO SHOW UP IN SUCH NUMBERS, WITH SUCH A SURE THAT THEY'RE OUTPACING THE CAPACITY ON THE GROUND.

    ///END ACT///

    OTHERS WHO TOOK PART EMPHASIZED THE CRITICAL STRAINS THE REFUGEE FLOW IS PUTTING ON ALBANIA, MACEDONIA AND MONTENEGRO. THEY URGED MR. CLINTON TO PRESS OTHER COUNTRIES IN THE REGION INCLUDING ITALY, TURKEY, GREECE AND BULGARIA TO AT LEAST TEMPORARILY SHELTER SOME REFUGEES TO EASE THE STRAIN ON THOSE FRONT-LINE PARTIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/KL
    02-Apr-99 3:07 PM EST (2007 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] NATO / GROUND TROOPS BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43010
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: WASHINGTON

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS SENDING MORE MISSILE-EQUIPPED SHIPS AND STEALTH FIGHTER JETS TO REINFORCE NATO'S BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AS THE CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS INTENSIFIES. MEANWHILE, IN THE UNITED STATES, THERE IS WAR-OF-WORDS OVER WHETHER TO SEND IN GROUND TROOPS. CAROL PINEAU TALKS TO EXPERTS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ISSUE.

    TEXT: THE NEWS IS FULL OF HEARTBREAKING IMAGES OF KOSOVAR ALBANIAN REFUGEES FROM YUGOSLAVIA FLOODING INTO MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA -- AS THEY ESCAPE A SERB-LED ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN WHICH HAS INTENSIFIED UNDER NATO AIR STRIKES. EXPERTS AGREE SOMETHING MUST BE DONE, BUT THERE IS LITTLE AGREEMENT ON WHAT.

    GENERAL WILLIAM ODOM, DIRECTOR OF SECURITY STUDIES AT THE CONSERVATIVE POLICY RESEARCH GROUP HUDSON INSTITUTE, SAYS THE UNITED STATES MUST CONVINCE ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES TO SEND IN GROUND TROOPS TO DEFEAT YUGOSLAVIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. HE SAYS NO COUNTRY HAS EVER WON A WAR WITH ONLY AIR POWER.

    /// ODOM ACT ///

    WE STARTED A WAR WHICH HE (MILOSEVIC) IS NOW WINNING. I DON'T THINK THAT WOULD BE A GOOD OUTCOME FOR NATO, FOR SECURITY IN EUROPE OR HUMAN RIGHTS....I THINK WE ARE JUST SUFFERING AN ILLUSION IF WE THINK WE CAN HAVE THE POWER WE HAVE, EXERCISE THE LEADERSHIP WE THINK WE SHOULD EXERCISE, AND ARE NOT WILLING TO USE GROUND FORCES AND PAY THE CASUALTIES. OUR BLUFF WILL BE CALLED. MILOSEVIC IS CALLING IT IN THIS CASE.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL ODOM SEVERELY CRITICIZED THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION FOR INSISTING MILITARY PLANNERS NOT USE GROUND FORCES.

    BUT PROFESSOR WILLIAM SCHABAS, SENIOR FELLOW AT THE U-S INSTITUTE OF PEACE IN WASHINGTON SAYS HE WOULD HAVE AGREED WITH SENDING IN GROUND TROOPS ONE WEEK AGO, BUT NOW HE SAYS IT IS TOO LATE.

    /// SCHABAS ACT ///

    THE ONLY WAY TO REALLY HELP THE KOSOVARS WAS TO PUT SOMEBODY IN BETWEEN THE VICTIMS AND THE PERPETRATORS. YOU CAN'T DO THAT BY FLYING OVER THEM AT 10,000 FEET AND DROPPING SMART BOMBS ON MILITARY TARGETS. YOU HAVE TO GO IN AND PROTECT THE PEOPLE. IT APPEARS NOW THAT IT'S TOO LATE TO CORRECT THE SITUATION THAT THE BOMBING HAS CREATED -- A SITUATION WHERE THERE ARE ENORMOUS REFUGEE FLOWS. THE IDEA OF ESCALATING IT NOW IS SIMPLY MAKING A BAD THING WORSE. THERE'S NOBODY NOW TO PUT GROUND TROOPS IN BETWEEN. IT'S TOO LATE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SCHABAS SAYS NATO MUST STOP BOMBING SERB TARGETS AND CALL FOR A CEASEFIRE AND THEN WORK TOWARD A NEW DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION -- PREFERABLY WITH THE RUSSIANS.

    /// SECOND SCHABAS ACT ///

    I THINK THE RUSSIANS HAVE TO BE INVOLVED IN THE SOLUTION. CUTTING THEM OUT AND GOING AGAINST THEM AND REFUSING TO PASS THROUGH THE (U-N) SECURITY COUNCIL MADE THAT EXTREMELY DIFFICULT, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE. THEY WERE OPPOSED TO NATO GROUND TROOPS AND THEY WERE SUPPORTING MILOSEVIC UP TO AN EXTENT. BUT THEY ARE NOT FERVENT PALS OF MILOSEVIC AND I THINK THAT THE RUSSIANS WOULD BE OPEN TO SOME SORT OF DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVE IN ORDER TO PREVENT HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN THE AREA AND TO ATTEMPT TO RESTORE SOME SORT OF ACCEPTABLE SITUATION IN KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES INSIST INTENSE DIPLOMACY DIDN'T WORK JUST A MONTH AGO -- WHEN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND THE YUGOSLAV SERB DELEGATION REFUSED TO SIGN AN AUTONOMY PLAN FOR KOSOVO THAT CALLED FOR NATO PEACEKEEPERS TO BE DEPLOYED. AND A HIGH-LEVEL DIPLOMATIC MISSION TO BELGRADE EARLIER THIS WEEK ALSO FAILED. FOR NOW, THE WEST REFUSES TO ALTER THE MAIN OUTLINES OF THE DEAL AND SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC CAN STOP THE BOMBING ANYTIME BY ACCEPTING THE ACCORD.

    FOR HIS PART GENERAL ODOM SAYS THERE IS NO CLEAN WAY OUT AND A SUSTAINED MILITARY INTERVENTION IS THE BEST OPTION AT THIS POINT IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN THE BALKANS:

    /// SECOND ODOM ACT ///

    WINNING THE MILITARY VICTORY IS I THINK QUITE FEASIBLE IN NOT A TERRIBLY LONG TIME. BRINGING ABOUT A POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION SO THAT THE COUNTRY WON'T BACKSLIDE INTO DISORDER AND CIVIL WAR WILL REQUIRE MUCH LONGER (COMMITMENT).

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL ODOM SAYS IT IS TOO LATE TO SAVE THE KOSOVARS, BUT IT IS NOT TOO LATE TO SAVE MACEDONIA ITS BALKAN NEIGHBOR FROM A SPREAD OF ETHNIC CONFLICT . HE SAYS WITH THE CURRENT FLOOD OF REFUGEES FROM THE YUGOSLAV PROVINCE, ALBANIANS WILL SOON BE THE LARGEST ETHNIC GROUP IN MACEDONIA. THAT COULD PRODUCE A NEW ROUND OF ETHNIC TENSIONS WHICH COULD ONCE AGAIN TIP THE FRAGILE BALANCE OF POWER IN THIS VOLATILE REGION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CP/JO
    02-Apr-99 11:03 AM EST (1603 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247557
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAVE EVIDENCE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS PLOTTING A COUP IN THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO, WHOSE LEADERSHIP HAS DISTANCED ITSELF FROM BELGRADE. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN HAS THE STORY IN LONDON.

    TEXT: SENIOR BRITISH DEFENSE MINISTRY OFFICIAL EDGAR BUCKLEY SAYS NATO HAS EVIDENCE PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IS PLOTTING TO OUST MONTENEGRO'S DEMOCRATICALLY-ELECTED GOVERNMENT, LED BY MILO DJUKANOVIC.

    /// BUCKLEY ACT ///

    AS A FIRST STEP, HE (MILOSEVIC) HAS ALREADY REPLACED THE ARMY COMMANDER-GENERAL MARTINOVIC BY A NEW GENERAL HE CAN RELY UPON TO FOLLOW HIS ORDERS. THESE MOVES MUST BE RECOGNIZED FOR WHAT THEY ARE -- A PLOT TO DISLODGE AN ELECTED GOVERNMENT. WE WILL BE WATCHING THIS SITUATION VERY CAREFULLY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MONTENEGRO'S REFORM-MINDED PRESIDENT HAS DISTANCED HIS GOVERNMENT FROM BELGRADE'S POLICIES OVER KOSOVO. NATO SAYS IT HAS LIMITED ITS STRIKES AGAINST MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN MONTENEGRO, FOCUSSING MOSTLY ON SITES LINKED TO YUGOSLAVIA'S INTEGRATED AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS.

    BRITAIN'S TOP COMMANDER OF AIR OPERATIONS SAYS DESPITE BAD WEATHER, NATO STRIKES ARE INFLICTING DAMAGE ON THE SERB MILITARY, INCLUDING FUEL SUPPLIES FOR ARMY OPERATIONS IN KOSOVO.

    BRITISH OFFICIALS SAY THE SERB MILITARY CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO PROVINCE APPEARS AIMED, IN PART, AT REDUCING THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN POPULATION TO PARITY-LEVEL WITH THE SERBS. BEFORE THE MILITARY OPERATIONS, SERBS ACCOUNTED FOR LESS THAN 10 PERCENT OF KOSOVO'S ESTIMATED TWO MILLION INHABITANTS.

    THE BRITISH DEFENSE OFFICIALS DISPLAYED A CHART FOR REPORTERS TO SHOW WHAT THEY CALL THE SERB FOCUS ON CLEARING THREE KOSOVAR CITIES -- PEC, PRIZREN AND PRISTINA -- WHICH WERE POPULATED MOSTLY BY ETHNIC ALBANIANS.

    MR. BUCKLEY SAYS THERE ALSO IS EVIDENCE THAT SERBS ARE BEING RELOCATED INTO KOSOVO AS ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE PUSHED OUT.

    /// SECOND BUCKLEY ACT ///

    WE HAVE SEEN SOME REPORTS OF SERBIAN REFUGEES FROM KRAJINA (REGION) ENTERING KOSOVO -- AND THAT IS SOMETHING, IF IT HAPPENED ON A LARGE SCALE, (THAT) WOULD BE VERY WORRYING INDEED.

    /// END ACT ///

    SERBS CONSIDER KOSOVO THE BIRTHPLACE OF THE SERB NATION AND HAVE ALWAYS REJECTED GIVING UP CONTROL OVER THE PROVINCE.

    THE RAMBOUILLET PEACE PLAN WOULD HAVE GIVEN KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIAN MAJORITY LIMITED SELF-RULE -- SIMILAR TO WHAT THEY HAD BEFORE PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC STRIPPED AWAY AUTONOMY 10 YEARS AGO. THE KOSOVAR ALBANIAN DELEGATION SIGNED THE PLAN, BUT THE SERB DELEGATION REFUSED, CITING NUMEROUS OBJECTIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF
    02-Apr-99 8:12 AM EST (1312 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] ISRAEL / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (JERUSALEM)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247554
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ISRAELI FOREIGN MINISTER ARIEL SHARON IS SEEKING TO CLARIFY CONTROVERSIAL REMARKS HE IS REPORTED TO HAVE MADE CRITICAL OF THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS FROM JERUSALEM.

    TEXT: ISRAEL'S MOST WIDELY-READ NEWSPAPER, YEDIOT AHRONOT, QUOTES MR. SHARON EXPRESSING OPPOSITION TO NATO'S ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, SAYING ISRAEL COULD ONE DAY BE TARGETED IN A SIMILAR WAY.

    THE REPORT SAYS MR. SHARON TOLD A CLOSED-DOOR MEETING EARLIER IN THE WEEK THAT -- IN HIS WORDS -- 'THE MOMENT ISRAEL WILL EXPRESS SUPPORT FOR THE SORT OF ACTION WE ARE WITNESSING IN KOSOVO, IT COULD BE THE NEXT VICTIM.'

    THE NEWSPAPER SAYS THE FOREIGN MINISTER EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT NATO MIGHT USE FORCE TO IMPOSE A RESOLUTION OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT.

    AIDES TO MR. SHARON DISMISSED THE REPORT AS INCORRECT, BUT THEY DECLINED TO ELABORATE.

    THE FOREIGN MINISTER HIMSELF DID NOT COMMENT ON THE ARTICLE FRIDAY, BUT ISSUED A STATEMENT SAYING "ISRAEL TAKES A GRAVE VIEW OF EVERY ACT OF KILLING, HARM, OR EXPULSION OF INNOCENT CITIZENS."

    HIS STATEMENT SAID, "AS LOYAL FRIENDS OF THE UNITED STATES, WE EXPECT THE UNITED STATES AND THE NATO COUNTRIES TO DO EVERYTHING TO HALT THE SUFFERING OF THE INNOCENT AND REVIVE THE TALKS BETWEEN THE SIDES AS SOON AS POSSIBLE."

    THE STATEMENT CAME AS ISRAEL SENT A PLANE LOAD OF CLOTHING, BLANKETS, AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES TO ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES FLEEING KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAT/JWH
    02-Apr-99 7:45 AM EST (1245 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] RUSSIA / SHIP (S) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247547
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A RUSSIAN RECONNAISSANCE SHIP HAS SET SAIL FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN TO MONITOR NATO VESSELS PARTICIPATING IN AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW.

    TEXT: RUSSIA'S NAVY PRESS SERVICE SAYS THE RECONNAISSANCE SHIP OF THE BLACK SEA FLEET HAS DEPARTED FROM ITS BASE IN SEVASTAPOL AND IS NOW EN-ROUTE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN.

    RUSSIA'S DEFENSE MINISTER HAS SAID THE SHIP IS PART OF RUSSIA'S RESPONSE TO NATO BOMBINGS ON YUGOSLAVIA AND IS BEING SENT -- IN HIS WORDS -- TO "COLLECT INFORMATION VITAL TO RUSSIA'S SECURITY."

    SIX MORE RUSSIAN SHIPS ARE ON STANDBY FOR DEPLOYMENT TO THE MEDITERRANEAN WHERE NATO AND ALLIED SHIPS ARE LOCATED. NEWS AGENCIES REPORT TURKEY HAS APPROVED PASSAGE THROUGH THE BOSPHORUS OF EIGHT RUSSIAN WARSHIPS IN TOTAL.

    RUSSIA OPPOSES THE NATO ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA -- A TRADITIONAL SLAV AND ORTHODOX ALLY. THE RECONNAISSANCE SHIP IS DUE TO ARRIVE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SATURDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH/PLM
    02-Apr-99 3:44 AM EST (0844 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] RUSSIA / SHIP (L) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247555
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A RUSSIAN RECONNAISSANCE SHIP HAS SET SAIL FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN TO MONITOR NATO VESSELS PARTICIPATING IN AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A MOSCOW CORRESPONDENT EVE CONANT REPORTS SIX MORE RUSSIAN SHIPS ARE ON STANDBY FOR DEPLOYMENT.

    TEXT: RUSSIA'S NAVY PRESS SERVICE SAYS THE RECONNAISSANCE SHIP OF THE BLACK SEA FLEET HAS DEPARTED FROM ITS BASE IN SEVASTAPOL AND IS NOW EN-ROUTE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN.

    RUSSIA'S DEFENSE MINISTER HAS SAID THE SHIP IS PART OF RUSSIA'S RESPONSE TO NATO BOMBINGS ON YUGOSLAVIA AND IS BEING SENT TO -- IN HIS WORDS -- "COLLECT INFORMATION VITAL TO RUSSIA'S SECURITY." RUSSIA OPPOSES THE NATO ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA -- A TRADITIONAL SLAV AND ORTHODOX ALLY.

    THE RECONNAISSANCE SHIP, NAMED THE "LIMAN," IS DUE TO ARRIVE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SATURDAY -- SUNDAY AT THE LATEST. SIX MORE RUSSIAN SHIPS ARE ON STANDBY FOR DEPLOYMENT TO THE MEDITTERANEAN WHERE NATO AND ALLIED SHIPS ARE LOCATED.

    THE CHIEF OF THE RUSSIAN NAVY'S PRESS DEPARTMENT, IGOR DEGALO, TELLS V-O-A THE SIX SHIPS ALSO HAVE RECEIVED PERMISSION FROM TURKEY FOR PASSAGE THROUGH THE BOSPHORUS. HE GIVES A GENERAL IDEA OF THE MILITARY CAPABILITY OF THOSE SHIPS.

    /// DEGALO ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS THESE ARE SHIPS OF VARIOUS TYPES AND ARE EQUIPPED WITH ALL THE NECESSARY WEAPONRY TO PERFORM ANY TASK. HE SAYS THE SIX SHIPS HAVE MISSILE, ARTILLERY, AND TORPEDO WEAPONS.

    MR. DEGALO WOULD NOT COMMENT WHEN ASKED IF RUSSIA WAS CONSIDERING SENDING MORE THAN SEVEN SHIPS IN TOTAL TO THE MEDITERRANEAN. HE REITERATES RUSSIA'S OFFICIAL STANCE THAT IT WILL NOT GET INVOLVED MILITARILY IN THE YUGOSLAV CONFLICT.

    /// DEGALO ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS RUSSIA WILL FIRMLY KEEP TO THE PRINCIPLE EXPRESSED BY THE PRESIDENT. HE SAYS DEPLOYMENT OF SHIPS DOES NOT MEAN RUSSIA IS GETTING INVOLVED IN THE WAR.

    /// OPT ///

    MR. DEGALO RESPONDS TO WESTERN AND RUSSIAN REPORTS THAT RUSSIA'S DESTITUTE MILITARY COULD NOT PROVIDE A SERIOUS FORCE EVEN IF IT WANTED TO.

    /// OPT // DEGALO ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    /// OPT ///

    HE SAYS THE RUSSIAN NAVY HAS WHAT IT NEEDS TO CONTINUE OPERATING AS IT IS NOW. HE SAYS STATEMENTS ABOUT RUSSIA'S INCAPACITY AND WEAKNESS ARE PREMATURE. /// END OPT
    ///

    MILITARY ANALYST AND THE CHIEF DEFENSE CORRESPONDENT FOR RUSSIA'S "SEVODNYA" MAGAZINE, PAVEL FELGENHAUER, SAYS HE BELIEVES POSSIBLE DEPLOYMENT OF MORE RUSSIAN SHIPS GIVES NATO REASON FOR CONCERN.

    /// FELGENHAUER ACT ///

    THIS CAN DRASTICALLY CHANGE THE WHOLE STRATEGIC BALANCE IN THE BALKANS. OF COURSE ONE SHIP DOES NOT MAKE A HUGE DIFFERENCE. BUT IF THERE'S GOING TO BE A STRING OF RUSSIAN SHIPS IN THE NEUTRAL WATERS OF THE ADRIATIC, THEY COULD GIVE THE SERBS THE EYES THAT THEY DON'T HAVE RIGHT NOW. RIGHT NOW THE SERBS ARE FIGHTING BLINDFOLDED, THEY CAN'T SWITCH ON THEIR RADARS BECAUSE THESE RADARS WILL BE DESTROYED BY NATO BOMBS. BUT IF THERE WILL BE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENCE GATHERING SHIPS IN THE ADRIATIC, THEIR RADARS WILL BE WORKING 24-HOURS A DAY. THEY'LL SEE EVERY MOVEMENT OF EVERY NATO PLANE IN AND OUT OF YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    RUSSIA'S LEADERSHIP AND TOP DEFENSE OFFICIALS ALL STRESS THE RECONNAISSANCE MISSION IS DESIGNED ONLY TO PROTECT RUSSIA'S SECURITY INTERESTS. NAVY SPOKESMAN IGOR DEGALO SAYS THE RECONNAISSANCE SHIP THAT SET SAIL FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN FRIDAY WILL "REPORT ON THE SITUATION IN THE REGION." HE GAVE NO FURTHER DETAILS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH
    02-Apr-99 8:38 AM EST (1338 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] U-S / RUSSIA SANCTIONS (S) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247571
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS IMPOSED SANCTIONS ON THREE RUSSIAN FIRMS FOR ALLEGEDLY SUPPLYING ANTI-TANK MISSILES TO SYRIA -- A COUNTRY WASHINGTON CONSIDERS A SPONSOR OF TERRORISM. FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: U-S OFFICIALS SAY THE SANCTIONS WERE IMPOSED AFTER SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT MADE THE DETERMINATION THAT THE THREE FIRMS WERE DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THE TRANSACTIONS.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS THE RUSSIAN FIRMS ARE SPECIFICALLY ACCUSED OF TRANSFERRING GUIDED ANTI-TANK MISSILES TO SYRIA.

    // RUBIN ACT //

    IN ADDITION TO THE ASSISTANCE CUT OFF TO THESE ENTITIES, THE DEPARTMENT, IN CONSULTATION WITH RELEVANT AGENCIES, DECIDED TO BAN U-S GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT FROM AND TO PROHIBIT THE EXPORT OF U-S MUNITIONS LIST ITEMS TO THESE ENTITIES.

    // END ACT //

    MR. RUBIN SAID THE SECRETARY OF STATE DECIDED NOT TO IMPOSE SANCTIONS ON THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT, A MOVE THAT WOULD HAVE CUT OFF ABOUT 90 MILLION DOLLARS IN ASSISTANCE. U-S LAW ALLOWS THE SECRETARY OF STATE TO WAVE SANCTIONS IF IT IS IN THE U-S NATIONAL INTEREST.
    NEB/KK/ENE/JO
    02-Apr-99 2:48 PM EST (1948 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] U-S / RUSSIA WRAP (L) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247578
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS IMPOSED SANCTIONS ON THREE RUSSIAN FIRMS FOR ALLEGEDLY SUPPLYING ANTI-TANK MISSILES TO SYRIA -- A COUNTRY WASHINGTON HAS DESIGNATED AS A SPONSOR OF TERRORISM. THE ACTION IS THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF DISPUTES BETWEEN WASHINGTON AND MOSCOW, AND COMES AMID RUSSIAN ANGER AT NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT HAS ALREADY BEEN NOTIFIED THAT SANCTIONS ARE BEING IMPOSED ON THREE RUSSIAN FIRMS.

    // RUBIN ACT //

    IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAW, THE SECRETARY HAS DETERMINED THAT RUSSIA HAS TRANSFERRED LETHAL MILITARY EQUIPMENT, SPECIFICALLY ANTI-TANK GUIDED MISSILES TO SYRIA. SHE HAS DECIDED TO SANCTION THE THREE RUSSIAN FIRMS DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THE TRANSACTIONS.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    THE SANCTIONS CUT OFF ALL U-S ASSISTANCE TO THE FIRMS (EDS: THE TULA DESIGN BUREAU, THE VOLSK MECHANICAL PLANT AND THE TZNIITOCHMASH) AND BAN THE U-S GOVERNMENT FROM DOING BUSINESS WITH THEM. IT WAS NOT IMMEDIATELY CLEAR HOW MUCH MONEY THE FIRMS WOULD LOSE, BUT THE SANCTIONS ARE TO REMAIN IN EFFECT FOR ONE YEAR AFTER THE TRANSFERS HAVE ENDED OR UNTIL THE SECRETARY OF STATE DECIDES TO WAVE THEM. // END OPT //

    MR. RUBIN SAID THE SECRETARY OF STATE DECIDED NOT TO IMPOSE SANCTIONS ON THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT, A MOVE THAT WOULD HAVE CUT OFF ABOUT 90 MILLION DOLLARS IN BADLY NEEDED ASSISTANCE.

    SANCTIONS AGAINST THE CASH STRAPPED RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT WOULD HAVE BEEN ANOTHER SETBACK FOR ALREADY STRAINED RELATIONS BETWEEN WASHINGTON AND MOSCOW.

    IN JANUARY, THE UNITED STATES IMPOSED SANCTIONS AGAINST TWO KEY RUSSIAN NUCLEAR RESEARCH INSTITUTES, AFTER THEY WERE ACCUSED OF HAVING ILLICIT TIES WITH IRAN.

    RUSSIA HAS ALSO SHARPLY CRITICIZED NATO'S WEEK OLD BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE SERB-LED YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT. PRESIDENT YELTSIN HAS DISPATCHED AN INTELLIGENCE GATHERING SHIP TO THE MEDITERRANEAN AND IS CONSIDERING SENDING OTHER WARSHIPS.

    STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS SAY DESPITE THEIR DISAGREEMENTS, THE TWO COUNTRIES CONTINUE TO HAVE AREAS OF COMMON INTEREST, AND SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT HAS BEEN IN REGULAR CONTACT WITH RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS HE UNDERSTANDS RUSSIAN OBJECTIONS TO NATO ACTIONS IN YUGOSLAVIA, BUT HE BELIEVES THE RUSSIANS WANT TO PLAY A CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    THEY ARE LOOKING FOR WAYS TO CONTINUE TO OPPOSE WHAT NATO IS DOING BUT TO LEAVE OPEN THE PROSPECT THAT THEY CAN PLAY A VERY CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE IN MAKING PEACE. I DON'T THINK ANYONE WANTS THIS CONFLICT TO ESCALATE AND I CERTAINLY DON'T THINK THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT DOES.

    // END ACT //

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY IT WOULD BE A GRAVE MISTAKE FOR RUSSIA TO MOVE FROM SYMPATHY TO ANY DIRECT ASSISTANCE TO THE SERBS. THE RUSSIANS SAY THEY HAVE NO PLANS TO DO SO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JO
    02-Apr-99 4:36 PM EST (2136 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] KURDS COMPARE THEIR PROBLEM TO KOSOVO BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43013
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE IMAGES OF TENS OF THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES POURING FROM YUGOSLAVIA INTO NEIGHBORING MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA HAS AWOKEN MEMORIES AMONG IRAQI KURDS HERE. AS WITH THE KOSOVARS, THE COLUMNS OF KURDISH REFUGEES FLEEING IRAQI PRESIDENT SADDAM HUSSEIN'S BRUTAL REPRESSION IN 1991 DREW INTERNATIONAL SYMPATHY AND HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE. BUT, NEJLA SAMMAKIA REPORTS PROMINENT IRAQI KURDISH LEADERS SAY THEIR PEOPLE WANT MORE FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY.

    TEXT: IRAQI KURDISH LEADERS SAY THERE ARE STRONG SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE PLIGHT OF THEIR PEOPLE, CONCENTRATED IN NORTHERN IRAQ, AND THAT OF THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. BOTH ARE ETHNIC MINORITIES WHO HAVE BEEN VICTIMS OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES BY THEIR CENTRAL GOVERNMENTS. THE BRUTAL PERSECUTION OF BOTH HAS TRIGGERED WESTERN AIR RAIDS AGAINST THEIR GOVERNMENTS. NATO ALLIES ARE BOMBING YUGOSLAV TARGETS, AND THE UNITED STATES AND BRITAIN HAVE BEEN ATTACKING IRAQI AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS OVER THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN IRAQI NO-FLY ZONE.

    HOSHYAR ZEBARI IS THE WASHINGTON REPRESENTATIVE OF THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY, OR K-D-P. HE SAYS RECENT TELEVISION IMAGES HAVE JOLTED HIS MEMORY.

    // ZEBARI ACT//

    THE IMAGES OF KOSOVARS LEAVING TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES ARE REMINISCENT OF THE KURDS IN 1991 AFTER THE GULF WAR WHO FLED TO TURKEY IN THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS. TO IRAN AND NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. IT NEEDED AN INTERNATIONAL EFFORT BY THE ALLIED FORCE TO RESETTLE THESE PEOPLE, TO ESTABLISH A SAFE HAVEN FOR THE KURDS IN NORTHERN IRAQ IN ORDER TO BE PROTECTED.

    //END ACT//

    THE KURDISH POPULATION IS SPREAD OUT OVER TURKEY, IRAQ, IRAN AND SYRIA. THOSE IN TURKEY AND IRAQ HAVE BEEN VOCAL IN DEMANDING AUTONOMY OR CULTURAL RIGHTS, AND HAVE COME UNDER VARYING DEGREES OF REPRESSION.

    MR ZEBARI OF THE K-D-P HE SEES LITTLE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE YUGOSLAV AND IRAQI LEADERSHIP.

    //ZEBARI ACT//

    IF WE LOOK AT THE POWER STRUCTURE, BOTH COUNTRIES ARE DOMINATED BY AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES, WITH STRONG NATIONALIST FLAVOR. BOTH COUNTRIES ARE MULTI-ETHNIC COUNTRIES BUT THE RULERS OF THESE COUNTRIES WANT TO SUPPRESS THE MINORITIES TO FORM A UNITARY STATE BY FORCE, WITH CONCEDING VERY LITTLE ON AUTONOMY OR DEVOLUTION AND SO ON.

    //END ACT//

    MR. ZEBARI BELONGS TO ONE OF THE TWO MAJOR IRAQI KURDISH GROUPS. THE OTHER IS THE PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN, OR P-U-K. ITS WASHINGTON REPRESENTATIVE, BARHAM SALIH, SAYS THAT UNLIKE THE KOSOVAR SITUATION, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S ENGAGEMENT WITH THE KURDISH ISSUE REMAINS ON A HUMANITARIAN LEVEL AND LACKS A POLITICAL DIMENSION. HE SAYS HE WOULD LIKE TO SEE STRONGER SUPPORT TO ENSURE THAT THE KURDISH PEOPLE CAN LIVE PERMANENTLY IN A MORE SECURE ENVIRONMENT.

    // SALIH ACT //

    I'M HEARTENED AND ENCOURAGED TO SEE THE WESTERN POWERS ADAMANT ABOUT A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT FOR THE PLIGHT OF THE KOSOVARS BASED ON RECOGNITION AND RESPECT FOR THEIR NATIONAL IDENTITY AND THEIR RIGHT TO GOVERN THEIR AFFAIRS. I HOPE THAT THAT KOSOVO PRECEDENCE WILL BE OF RELEVANCE TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S ENGAGEMENT WITH THE PLIGHT OF THE KURDISH PEOPLE IN IRAQ.

    //END ACT//

    ANOTHER KURDISH ORGANIZATION SEES THINGS DIFFERENTLY. THE AMERICAN KURDISH INFORMATION NETWORK, RUN BY KANI XULAM (PRON. ZULAM), SAYS THERE IS A DOUBLE STANDARD IN THE NATO ATTITUDE ABOUT THE KOSOVARS AND THE KURDS. HE SAYS HE WANTS NATO TO SPEAK UP FOR THE RIGHTS OF BOTH THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND THE KURDISH MINORITY IN TURKEY.

    //XULAM ACT//

    TURKEY, NOW A PART OF THE NATO FORCE, WITH ELEVEN OF ITS F-15 FIGHTER PLANES BOMBING SERBIA, HAS THE SAME HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS GOING ON IN ITS OWN COUNTRY, IN ITS OWN BACKYARD, SO TO SPEAK. THE KURDS -- A MINIMUM OF 15 TO 20 MILLION PEOPLE -- ARE DENIED THEIR LANGUAGE SINCE 1923, THEY CANNOT RUN THEIR SCHOOLS THEY CANNOT SHAPE THEIR LIVES. FOR MR CLINTON TO SAY THAT THIS IS WRONG FOR (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT) MR MILOSEVIC TO DO AGAINST THE ALBANIANS OF KOSOVO, HE SHOULD SAY THE SAME THING FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF TURKEY.

    //END ACT//

    THE KURDS OF TURKEY HAVE BEEN CLAMORING FOR CULTURAL RIGHTS. AND A NUMBER OF THEIR POLITICAL LEADERS HAVE BEEN JAILED. SOME HAVE TAKEN UP ARMS AND JOINED THE KURDISH WORKERS PARTY, OR P-K-K, WHOSE LEADER, ABDULLAH OCALAN, WAS ARRESTED IN FEBRUARY AND FACES TREASON CHARGES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NS/GE
    02-Apr-99 2:50 PM EST (1950 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] YUGOSLAV DIRECTORS ON YUGO CRISIS BY KATAYOUN BEGLARI (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43017
    CONTENT=
    NOT VOICED:

    // RE-ISSUING TO CORRECT BACKGROUND NUMBER //

    INTRO: TWO YUGOSLAV FILM DIRECTORS WHO HAVE LONG BEEN CRITICAL OF THE MILOSEVIC REGIME ARE NOW VOICING CRITICISM OF THE NATO ATTACKS ON YUGOSLAVIA AND EXPRESSING THE HOPE THAT PEACEFUL NEGOTIATIONS WILL RESUME. VOA'S KATAYOUN BEGLARI TALKED TO THE DIRECTORS AND FILED THIS REPORT

    TEXT: EMIR KUSTURICA AND GORAN PASKALJIEVIC ARE TWO OF YUGOSLAVIA'S BEST-KNOWN DIRECTORS. EACH HAS WON MANY INTERNATIONAL AWARDS. BOTH MEN HAVE USED THEIR FILMS TO EXPRESS THEIR ANGER ABOUT THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    ALTHOUGH BOTH DIRECTORS ARE OUTSPOKEN OPPONENTS OF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, THE SERB LEADER, THEY DO NOT APPROVE THE CURRENT STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA, AND QUESTION THE PURPOSE OF THE STRIKES. MR. KUSTURICA (OPT) WHOSE FILM 'UNDERGROUND,' A GLOOMY PORTRAIT OF YUGOSLAVIA UNDER COMMUNISM, WON THE GOLDEN PALM AT THE CANNES FILM FESTIVAL IN 1996 (END OPT) FREQUENTLY DISCUSSEES POLITICAL THEMES IN HIS WORK. HE SAYS HE WILL EXPRESS HIS FRUSTRATION OVER THE CRISIS IN A FUTURE FILM.

    THE DIRECTOR WONDERS WHY PRESIDENT CLINTON AND NATO OFFICIALS, WHO SAY THEY ARE ACTING TO PROTECT THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN MINORITY IN SERBIA, DOES NOT APPLY THE SAME METHODS TO PROTECT THE KURDISH MINORITY IN TURKEY.

    /// KUSTURICA ACT///

    YOU ASK ME, I WILL ALWAYS GO FOR THE PEACE. AFTER THE BOSNIAN TRAGEDY THAT WAS BASICALLY FOLLOWING OUR LIVES IN THE LAST TEN YEARS, I WILL DO EVERYTHING FOR PEACE. WHAT I'VE LEARNED FROM MY EXPERIENCE IS THE DOUBLE STANDARD THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS APPLYING TO US. I HAVE A QUESTION, WHY DOESN'T HE (PRESIDENT CLINTON) BOMB TURKEY ON BEHALF OF THE KURDS WHO ARE SUFFERING FROM EXTERMINATION AND ETHNIC CLEANSING FOR THE PAST 20 YEARS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. KUSTURICA, WHO WAS BORN IN SARAJEVO, SAYS HE BELIEVES THE BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA WILL STRENGTHEN MR. MILOSEVIC POLITICALLY BECAUSE IT WILL ENABLE HIM TO PORTRAY HIMSELF AS A VICTIM OF A SUPERPOWER.

    THIS POINT OF VIEW IS SHARED BY GORAN PASKALJIEVIC. LIKE MR. KUSTURICA, HE HAS LONG OPPOSED MR. MILOSEVIC, BUT HE OPPOSES THE NATO BOMBING OF BELGRADE AND STILL HOLDS OUT HOPE FOR A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION.

    /// PASKALJIEVIC ACT///

    I COULDN'T IMAGINE THAT THIS KIND OF MISTAKE WOULD BE POSSIBLE. I STRONGLY BELIEVE THAT BOMBING OF BELGRADE IS A HORRIBLE MISTAKE. WE CAN NOT SAY WHOSE MISTAKE. I DON'T BLAME ANYBODY, BUT YOU MUST UNDERSTAND (WONDER) THAT WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN AFTER THE BOMBING IS OVER. THAT IS MY QUESTION.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN ONE OF HIS FILMS, "POWDER KEG," WHICH WAS NOT A GOVERNMENT FAVORITE BUT WAS A BIG HIT AT THE BOX OFFICE, MR. PASKALJEVIC PORTRAYED A NATION CAUGHT UP IN A SPIRAL OF BALKAN MADNESS, AND HE FEARS THAT THE WAR COULD SPREAD TO OTHER COUNTRIES AND LEAD TO A REAL LIFE SPIRAL OF MADNESS.

    BOTH DIRECTORS ARE NOW IN PARIS, BUT THEY SAY THEY HAVE TO GO BACK TO YUGOSLAVIA SO THEY CAN BE WITH THEIR FAMILIES. MR. KUSTURICA SAYS AT THIS TIME OF TRAGEDY FOR HIS PEOPLE, IT IS IMPORTANT FOR HIM TO BE WITH HIS PEOPLE.

    /// KUSTURICA ACT ///

    I HAVE TO GO, AND IF THE FINAL STAGE OF THIS DRAMA GOES INTO THE BIG TRAGEDY, WE HAVE TO BE PART OF THE TRAGEDY. HOW CAN WE SIT HERE AND SEE THE BOMBS ARE FALLING AROUND OUR PEOPLE AND BEING KILLED.

    /// END ACT ///

    BOTH DIRECTORS EXPRESSED THEIR CONCERN TO VOA THAT THE LATEST CRISIS COULD IGNITE A NEW WAVE OF NATIONALISM IN YUGOSLAVIA. IF THEY COULD GIVE A MESSAGE TO THEIR PEOPLE, THEY SAID, IT WOULD BE TO STAY CALM AND RESTRAINED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KB/KL (YUGOSLAV MUSIC FROM KUSTERICA'S FILM "TIME OF THE GYPSIES" AVAILABLE TO BE USED AT THE END OF THE FEATURE)
    02-Apr-99 5:00 PM EST (2200 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] FRANCE TUNNEL (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247562
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC, VISITING THE MONT BLANC ROAD TUNNEL BETWEEN FRANCE AND ITALY WHERE AT LEAST 40 PEOPLE DIED IN A FIRE ON MARCH 24TH, HAS PROMISED A FULL INVESTIGATION INTO THE TRAGIC ACCIDENT. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: LAYING A WREATH AT THE MONT BLANC TUNNEL WHERE FIRE RAGED FOR MORE THAN TWO DAYS, FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC CALLED FOR SAFER RAIL TRANSPORT SHUTTLES TO BE DEVELOPED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CARRYING FREIGHT TRUCKS ACROSS THE ALPS.

    AS HE DID SO, MR. CHIRAC PROMISED A THOROUGH INVESTIGATION INTO THE TUNNEL'S SAFETY SYSTEM BEFORE IT IS REOPENED. A PRELIMINARY SAFETY REPORT IS DUE ON APRIL NINTH.

    FRANCE'S TRANSPORT MINISTER SAYS THE SINGLE TUNNEL, IN WHICH ROAD TRAFFIC HAS TRAVELED BOTH WAYS SINCE IT WAS OPENED IN 1965, WILL BE CLOSED FOR ABOUT A YEAR FOR REPAIRS. SO FAR, POLICE AND FIRE-FIGHTERS HAVE FOUND 40 BODIES IN THE TUNNEL. BUT PART OF THE TUNNEL LINING COLLAPSED AND AUTHORITIES FEAR MORE BODIES MIGHT BE FOUND WHEN THE RUBBLE IN THAT PART OF THE TUNNEL IS FINALLY CLEARED.

    IT'S BEEN A WEEK SINCE THE FULL EXTENT OF THE TRAGEDY BECAME CLEAR, AND THERE IS A GROWING CONTROVERSY IN FRANCE OVER SAFETY IN THE TUNNEL. THE POPULAR NEWSPAPER "FRANCE-SOIR" HAS CALLED FOR THE RESIGNATION OF THE TUNNEL OPERATING COMPANY'S CHAIRMAN AND THE SENIOR GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVANT IN THE REGION.

    A NUMBER OF DRIVERS IN THE TUNNEL SAY THAT SOME EMERGENCY TELEPHONES WERE NOT WORKING ON THE DAY THE FIRE BROKE OUT.

    THE MAYOR OF THE NEARBY FRENCH ALPINE RESORT OF CHAMONIX SAID HE ASKED THE TUNNEL OPERATING COMPANY TO COME UP WITH MONEY TO HELP PAY FOR AN EXTRA TEAM OF FIRE-FIGHTERS TO BE BASED NEAR THE TUNNEL ENTRANCE. THE MAYOR SAYS THE COMPANY REFUSED.

    THE CHAIRMANSHIP ON THE FRENCH SIDE OF THE MONT BLANC TUNNEL COMPANY HAS, IN THE PAST, SEEN SOME ILLUSTRIOUS INCUMBENTS.

    ONE OF THEM WAS EDOUARD BALLADUR, WHO, BEFORE HE ENTERED GOVERNMENT AND ROSE TO BECOME FRANCE'S CONSERVATIVE PRIME MINISTER IN 1993, HELD THE POSITION FOR A FULL 13 YEARS FROM 1968 TO 1981.

    MR. BALLADUR, ONCE A CLOSE POLITICAL ALLY OF PRESIDENT CHIRAC, BECAME HIS BITTER RIVAL WHEN HE UNSUCCESSFULLY CHALLENGED MR. CHIRAC FOR THE FRENCH PRESIDENCY IN 1995. NOW, WITH THE FRENCH MEDIA ALLEGING THAT THERE HAVE BEEN SERIOUS SAFETY FAULTS IN THE MONT BLANC TUNNEL SINCE ITS OPENING AND THAT NECESSARY MODERNIZATION WAS REPEATEDLY NEGLECTED, PRESIDENT CHIRAC HAS PROMISED A FULL INVESTIGATION THAT WILL ESTABLISH ALL THE RESPONSIBILITIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/PCF
    02-Apr-99 11:01 AM EST (1601 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] RENAULT-NISSAN: TROUBLE AHEAD? BY JOHN BIRCHARD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/2/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43016
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: WHEN RENAULT ANNOUNCED IT WAS BUYING A STAKE IN THE NISSAN MOTOR COMPANY ON MARCH 27TH, THE DEAL CREATED THE FOURTH LARGEST AUTO MAKER IN THE WORLD. V-O-A'S JOHN BIRCHARD ASSESSES THE DIFFICULTIES THIS EAST-MEETS-WEST BUSINESS "MARRIAGE" MUST OVERCOME.

    TEXT: NOW COMES THE HARD PART. WHILE THE FRENCH AUTOMAKER HAS BOUGHT INTO NISSAN, RENAULT HAS NOT PURCHASED ENOUGH NISSAN STOCK -- UNDER FORTY PERCENT -- TO REQUIRE IT TO ASSUME THE COMPANY'S HUGE DEBT. THIS TACTIC, ANALYSTS SAY, HAS ENABLED RENAULT TO AVOID RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE DEBT, BUT IT MAY ALSO PREVENT NISSAN FROM INTRODUCING MEANINGFUL CHANGES IN THE STRUGGLING FIRM.

    MARYANN KELLER, AUTOMOTIVE ANALYST WITH I-N-G BARING FURMAN SELZ IN NEW YORK, SAYS THE COMMENT BY ONE ANALYST THAT THIS WAS "A MARRIAGE OF TWO WEAK PARTNERS," WHILE CRUEL, IS PROBABLY ACCURATE.

    /// KELLER ACTUALITY ///

    NISSAN WAS ABSOLUTELY ON THE VERGE OF BANKRUPTCY. THERE'S NO OTHER REASON ON EARTH WHY NISSAN WOULD HAVE, ESSENTIALLY, SURRENDERED CONTROL OF ITSELF TO RENAULT FOR FIVE-AND-A-HALF BILLION DOLLARS. AND RENAULT IS VERY MUCH OF A REGIONAL AUTOMOTIVE COMPANY THAT HAS NOT DEMONSTRATED ANY CAPABILITY OF BEING ABLE TO SELL ITS PRODUCTS OUTSIDE OF A FEW MARKETS.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    MS. KELLER POINTS OUT THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT ROLE TO THIS AGREEMENT WITH NISSAN.

    /// KELLER ACTUALITY ///

    THE DEAL WITH NISSAN HAS BEEN VERY MUCH SUPPORTED BY THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT WHICH, OF COURSE, STILL OWNS 44-PERCENT OF RENAULT. AND THAT, BY THE WAY, IS VERY SIGNIFICANT IN WHY THIS DEAL WORKS FOR THEM AND COULDN'T WORK FOR ANOTHER AUTO COMPANY.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    SHE SAYS A COMPANY OWNED BY STOCKHOLDERS WOULD INSIST ON "MORE VISIBLE RETURNS MORE QUICKLY" THAN WILL THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT, WHICH SHE DESCRIBES AS A "PASSIVE SHAREHOLDER".

    RENAULT ACQUIRED 36-POINT-8 PERCENT OF NISSAN'S STOCK. MARYANN KELLER SAYS THAT'S ENOUGH TO EFFECTIVELY TAKE CONTROL OF THE JAPANESE COMPANY AND, IF NECESSARY, VETO DECISIONS AT SHAREHOLDERS' MEETINGS. BUT SHE SAYS TURNING NISSAN AROUND WILL TAKE MORE THAN THAT.

    /// KELLER ACTUALITY ///

    THE REAL PROBLEM FOR THEM IS NOT CONTROL OF DECISIONS LIKE THAT, BECAUSE THOSE THINGS ARE NOT GOING TO REALLY MAKE MUCH OF A DIFFERENCE IN THE COMPANY, FRANKLY, FOR THE NEXT FIVE YEARS. IT'S WHETHER OR NOT THEY CAN CONTROL THE HEARTS AND MINDS OF THE MIDDLE MANAGEMENT WHO REALLY RUN THE COMPANY ON A DAY-TO-DAY BASIS. AND I'M NOT SURE THAT THEY CAN.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    AT THE PRESS CONFERENCE ANNOUNCING THE RENAULT-NISSAN DEAL, THE TWO COMPANY HEADS INSISTED THERE WOULD BE NO CORPORATE CULTURAL CLASH, THAT THINGS WOULD GO SMOOTHLY AS THEY JOIN FORCES. MS. KELLER BEGS TO DIFFER.

    /// KELLER ACTUALITY ///

    NISSAN IS A GIGANTIC BUREAUCRACY. IT IS A CULTURE THAT IS ABOUT AS FOREIGN FROM A FRENCH COMPANY AS AN AMERICAN COMPANY IS FROM A JAPANESE COMPANY.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    A RENAULT VICE PRESIDENT WILL SERVE AS NISSAN'S CHIEF OPERATING OFFICER AND THE COMPANY PLANS TO SEND ABOUT THREE-DOZEN OF ITS PEOPLE TO HELP RE-STRUCTURE NISSAN'S POLICIES TO IMPROVE ITS FINANCIAL FOOTING AND TO FACILITATE A TECHNOLOGY FLOW BACK TO FRANCE. MARYANN KELLER IS SKEPTICAL ABOUT CHANCES FOR SUCCESS.

    /// KELLER ACTUALITY ///

    THAT'S GOING TO HAVE TO INVOLVE COOPERATION OF PEOPLE WHO DO NOT SPEAK FRENCH, WHO ARE PROBABLY NOT THRILLED BY THIS, WHO ARE PROBABLY QUITE, IN FACT, EMBARRASSED BY THE FACT THAT THEIR COMPANY GOT INTO THIS DESPERATE SITUATION THAT, IN EFFECT, REQUIRED A BAILOUT.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    (OPTIONAL)

    WHETHER RENAULT CAN REALLY PRODUCE MEANINGFUL CHANGE IN NISSAN IS A MAJOR QUESTION, SAYS MS KELLER.

    /// KELLER ACTUALITY ///

    THEY DO WANT TO BE ABLE TO EXERCISE MANAGERIAL CONTROL AND, IN THEORY, THE PEOPLE THAT THEY'VE BROUGHT IN AND THE POSITIONS THAT THEY OCCUPY GIVE THEM A WHOLE LOT MORE SWAY (INFLUENCE) OVER THIS COMPANY THAN SIMPLY THE FACT THAT, YOU KNOW, THEY HAVE A FEW BOARD SEATS.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    (END OPTIONAL SECTION)

    MARYANN KELLER SAYS MIDDLE MANAGEMENT IS ONE OF THE KEYS TO SUCCESS FOR THIS DEAL, THE PLACE WHERE RENAULT MUST GET "COMMITMENT AND LOYALTY AND ACQUIESCENCE". IF THE FRENCH AUTOMAKER CAN'T ACHIEVE THAT, THEN THE OTHER COMPANY PROBLEMS -- HIGH PARTS COSTS AND TOO MANY EMPLOYEES TO NAME TWO -- WILL REMAIN BEYOND RENAULT'S ABILITY TO SOLVE. MS. KELLER SAYS "IF THE FRENCH CAN DO IT, (HER) HAT IS OFF TO THEM." (SIGNED) NEB/
    02-Apr-99 4:35 PM EST (2135 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] MORE ON THE BALKAN WAR BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/02/99
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11223
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THE CAPTURE BY SERB FORCES ON THE KOSOVO - MACEDONIAN BORDER OF THREE U-S ARMY TROOPS HAS INTENSIFIED THE EDITORIAL FOCUS OF THE NATION'S NEWSPAPERS ON THE BALKAN CONFLICT.

    HERE WITH A SAMPLING OF THE LATEST COMMENTS IS ______________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: WITH VERY FEW EXCEPTIONS, MAJOR DAILY NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS WERE DISCUSSING THE NATO AIR WAR AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, THE CAPTURE OF THE THREE U-S TROOPS, AND OTHER ASPECTS OF THE CONFLICT.

    WE BEGIN WITH THIS EDITORIAL FROM OHIO'S LARGEST DAILY, "THE [CLEVELAND] PLAIN DEALER," WHICH SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS NO ONE BUT ITSELF TO BLAME IF AMERICANS HAVE CONCLUDED THAT ITS MISSION IN KOSOVO IS ON THE VERGE OF FAILURE. AS ETHNIC ALBANIANS CONTINUE TO FLEE THE PROVINCE BY THE THOUSANDS, WHITE HOUSE SPIN DOCTORS [E.G. PRESS AIDES] HAVE FELT OBLIGED TO ASSERT THAT THEY NEVER MEANT TO SUGGEST THEY COULD STOP AN ASSAULT ON THE KOSOVO ALBANIANS IF ONE GOT STARTED. THEIR PLAN, THEY NOW SAY, WAS ONLY TO DETER YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC FROM LAUNCHING SUCH A VENTURE. IN THAT, THEY QUITE CLEARLY HAVE FAILED. BUT PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON AND HIS AIDES CONTINUE TO PROPOUND FUZZY GOALS AND ATTEMPT TO PUT A LUDICROUS GLOSS ON SETBACKS.

    TEXT: "AN OMINOUS TURN" IS HOW "THE MIAMI [FLORIDA] HERALD" EDITORIAL HEADLINE DESCRIBES THIS LATEST DEVELOPMENT IN THE ESCALATING WAR. VOICE; THE CAPTURE OF U-S SOLDIERS ... AND THE THREAT OF THEIR KANGAROO TRIAL [EDITORS: A TRIAL WHICH HAS A FORGONE OUTCOME OF GUILTY] ... IS ONE OF THE SCENARIOS DREADED MOST BY U-S POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS. MAKE NO MISTAKE: THIS, COMING ALONG WITH THE CEASELESS HORROR OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES STREAMING IN A TRAIL OF TEARS OVER NEIGHBORING BORDERS, PUSHES THE UNITED STATES EVER CLOSER TO FULL SCALE WAR.

    TEXT: ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, "NEWSDAY" WORRIES THAT THE CAPTURE OF THE THREE MEN WILL DEFLECT NATO FROM ITS GOAL.

    VOICE: THE CAPTURE OF THREE U-S SOLDIERS ... IS ONE MORE DISHEARTENING EVENT IN NATO'S ILL-STARRED ATTEMPT TO PREVENT THE ETHNIC CLEANSING OF KOSOVO'S ALBANIANS. /// OPT /// ... THE MOMENT THE SERBS GRABBED THOSE THREE GIS, THEY WERE HOSTAGES TO THE WHIM OF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. BUT SO ARE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED AND HARRIED ALBANIAN KOSOVARS, AND NATO'S OVERWHELMING CONCERN NOW MUST BE TO PROVIDE THE FOOD AND SHELTER THEY NEED - - IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY IF POSSIBLE, OTHERWISE IN NATIONS BORDERING ON KOSOVO. BEYOND THAT, THE ALLIANCE MUST CONTINUE TO PUNISH [MR.] MILOSEVIC'S BRUTALITY WITH AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERBIAN TROOPS AND TANKS IN THE FIELD. /// END OPT /// ... YES, IT'S A TERRIBLE THING TO BE CAPTURED BY THE ENEMY IN WARTIME. BUT A NATION MUST EXPECT EVEN WORSE THINGS TO HAPPEN WHEN IT GOES TO WAR, AND IT SHOULD BE PREPARED TO ENDURE SOME PAIN EVEN AS IT INFLICTS MORE.

    TEXT: IN THE PACIFIC STATE OF HAWAII, "THE HONOLULU BULLETIN" CALLS "THE SOLDIERS' CAPTURE [A] ... PAINFUL DOSE OF REALITY."

    VOICE: THE CAPTURE ... DESTROYS THE ILLUSION THAT IT WOULD BE POSSIBLE TO ATTACK YUGOSLAVIA WITHOUT PAYING A HUMAN PRICE. /// OPT /// EVERY AMERICAN HOPES ... THE THREE WILL BE RELEASED WITHOUT HARM, BUT THAT CAN'T BE ASSUMED. RATHER, THE LIKELIHOOD IS THAT THERE WILL BE MORE INCIDENTS OF AMERICANS CAPTURED, WOUNDED AND KILLED. /// END OPT /// ... HAVING ENCOURAGED THE PUBLIC TO THINK THE UNITED STATES CAN WAGE WAR WITHOUT CASUALTIES, [PRESIDENT] CLINTON MAY HAVE TRAPPED HIMSELF. THE ALTERNATIVES MAY BE TO LET [MR.] MILOSEVIC WIPE OUT THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS OR TO SEND IN GROUND FORCES TO STOP HIM, WITH THE GREATER RISK OF CASUALTIES THAT WOULD ENTAIL ...

    TEXT: IN NEW YORK, "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL," SAYS THE ISSUE OF MR. CLINTON'S CHARACTER IS PLAYING AN IMPORTANT, AND AS THE "JOURNAL" SEES IT, NEGATIVE PART IN THIS CONFLICT.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// WE WERE TOLD, LONG BEFORE MONICA (LEWINSKY)... THAT IT [HIS CHARACTER] DIDN'T MATTER. ... THERE IS DANGER HERE TO BROADER U-S INTERESTS. IT IS NOT MERELY A MATTER OF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC; (IRAQ'S) SADDAM (HUSSEIN) IS TAKING THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT'S MEASURE. SO OBVIOUSLY ARE THE VOLATILE NORTH KOREANS AND THOSE ELEMENTS OF THE CHINESE LEADERSHIP THAT WANT TO TAKE TAIWAN OR WHO TALKED BLITHELY AWHILE BACK OF LOBBING MISSILES AT LOS ANGELES. /// END OPT /// MR. CLINTON HAS STUMBLED INTO THIS ONLY SIX WEEKS AFTER THE IMPEACHMENT VOTE THAT MIGHT HAVE GIVEN US A NEW LEADERSHIP; HE HAS NEARLY TWO YEARS LEFT TO GO, AND THE PRICE MAY MOUNT. NOW A MOMENT HAS ARRIVED THAT OFFERS MR. CLINTON A CHANCE TO PROVE US CRITICS WRONG. HAVING MADE THIS MESS, THE ONLY THING THAT CAN REDEEM IT IS THE REMOVAL FROM POWER OF [MR.] MILOSEVIC.

    TEXT: IN DENVER, HOLGAR JENSEN, SENIOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS COLUMNIST OF "THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS" IS ALSO FRUSTRATED AT THE LATEST TURN OF EVENTS, AND WHAT HE PERCEIVES AS THE MISREADING BY PRESIDENT CLINTON OF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    VOICE: AMERICANS ARE AN IMPATIENT LOT. SINCE VIETNAM, WE HAVE COME TO PREFER QUICK, IN-AND-OUT WARS WITH NO CASUALTIES, FIRM TIME LIMITS AND NO LONG-TERM COMMITMENTS. THE TROOPS GO IN, WE DECLARE VICTORY, THEY COME HOME AND LET OTHERS CLEAN UP THE MESS. /// OPT /// GRENADA, PANAMA, IRAQ. WE DIDN'T EVEN WANT TO FIGHT THE GULF WAR LONG ENOUGH TO GET RID OF SADDAM HUSSEIN. AND THE DEATH OF 14 GIS WAS ENOUGH TO SEND US RUNNING FROM SOMALIA. [MR.] MILOSEVIC HAS THREE AMERICAN SOLDIERS .... THEY MAY SOON BE JOINED BY SHOT-DOWN PILOTS AND,

    /// END OPT ///

    IF [MR.] CLINTON SENDS IN GROUND TROOPS, THERE WILL BE MANY MORE HOSTAGES TO WORRY ABOUT. WHAT WILL THE AMERICAN PUBLIC SAY THEN? AND WHAT WILL [PRESIDENT] CLINTON DO, BESIDE ISSUING YET MORE UNHEEDED THREATS. /// OPT /// HOLDING [MR.] MILOSEVIC 'PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE' FOR THE SAFETY OF THREE GIS IS ABOUT AS EFFECTIVE AS HOLDING HIM 'PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE' FOR THE ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO. HE JUST DOESN'T CARE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF THE LATEST COMMENT ON THE NATO AIR ASSAULT ON YUGOSLAVIA.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    02-Apr-99 2:32 PM EST (1932 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/02/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11222
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: U-S NEWSPAPERS ARE FILLED WITH COMMENT ON THE CAPTURE OF THE THREE U-S SOLDIERS ON THE YUGOSLAVIAN / MACEDONIAN BORDER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACTION. THE BALKAN WAR, AND RELATED TOPICS, CONTINUES TO DOMINATE THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS TO THE EXCLUSION OF MANY OTHER FOREIGN AND NATIONAL ISSUES.

    /// OPT ///

    AMONG THE FEW OTHER EDITORIAL TOPICS, THIS GOOD FRIDAY IN THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, THE RECENT CHAOS IN PARAGUAY; THE RENEWED TENSION IN THE IRISH PEACE EFFORT; GENERAL PINOCHET'S FUTURE; AND THE CASE OF THE WEST AFRICAN MAN KILLED IN AN APPARENTLY UNJUSTIFIED POLICE SHOOTING IN NEW YORK CITY. /// END OPT /// NOW, HERE IS ________________ WITH SOME EXCERPTS IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: IN OHIO'S CAPITAL, "THE COLUMBUS DISPATCH" PROPOSES A SOLUTION TO THE CURRENT SITUATION IN THE BALKANS:

    VOICE: AS DISTASTEFUL AS IT IS, THE ONLY SOLUTION IN SIGHT WOULD BE ... TO CREATE A PEACE PLAN THAT WOULD ALLOW [MR.] MILOSEVIC TO APPEAR AS THOUGH HE BEAT NATO BY GETTING IT TO CEASE BOMBING AND BY N O T PERMITTING NATO TROOPS INTO KOSOVO. AT THE SAME TIME, [MR.] MILOSEVIC WOULD AGREE TO A THREE-YEAR, STOPGAP AUTONOMOUS ARRANGEMENT FOR KOSOVO AND THE DEPLOYMENT OF ... UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING FORCES. /// OPT /// WASHINGTON COULD SWEETEN THE PICTURE ... BY OFFERING TO INCLUDE RUSSIAN TROOPS UNDER A UNIFIED COMMAND OF ANOTHER FLAG. ... NOW IS THE TIME FOR NEW TACTICS./// END OPT ///

    TEXT: CALIFORNIA'S "SAN JOSE MERCURY NEWS" IS UPSET WITH THE WAY PRESIDENT CLINTON IS HANDLING THE SITUATION.

    VOICE: PLEASE, MR. PRESIDENT, GET CLEAR ABOUT KOSOVO. YOU SAID THURSDAY, 'OUR OBJECTIVE IS TO RESTORE THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO TO THEIR HOMES.' IN THE SAME SPEECH YOU TOLD US THAT THEIR HOMES HAVE BEEN BURNED AND THEIR PROPERTY RECORDS DESTROYED. THIS IS MORE THAN A SEMANTIC CONTRADICTION. THE HARSH TRUTH IS THAT NATO'S BOMBING CAMPAIGN HAS MADE YOUR GOAL OF AN AUTONOMOUS KOSOVO MUCH MORE DIFFICULT, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE. ... MR. PRESIDENT, WE WON'T PRESUME TO SAY WHETHER YOU SHOULD STOP THE BOMBING OR CONTINUE IT; YOU HAVE THE INTELLIGENCE REPORTS ... BUT WE WILL POINT OUT THE OBVIOUS: AT LEAST IN THE SHORT TERM, IT HAS MADE THINGS WORSE. /// OPT /// AND WE ARE STUNNED THAT YOU AND THE OTHER NATO LEADERS SEEM TO HAVE HAD NO CONTINGENCY PLAN TO FALL BACK ON, WHEN THE BOMBING BACKFIRED [EDITORS: SLANG FOR SOMETHING THAT CAUSES THE OPPOSITE RESULT FROM WHAT WAS INTENDED.] /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" WARNS ABOUT THE GROWING SENTIMENT FOR THE USE OF GROUND TROOPS, CALLING SUCH A MOVE "PREMATURE AND POLITICALLY UNSUSTAINABLE AT THIS TIME." AND "THE DETROIT NEWS" QUESTIONS WHETHER WE EVEN HAVE THE TROOPS TO SEND IN, IF NECESSARY.

    VOICE: ... THERE ARE SERIOUS DOUBTS THAT AMERICAN COULD FIGHT THE GULF WAR AGAIN IF IT HAD TO. THE BATTLE TO THROW IRAQ OUT OF KUWAIT TOOK SEVEN DIVISIONS. BACK THEN THE UNITED STATES HAD 18 DIVISIONS, BUT IT HAS ONLY T E N ACTIVE DIVISIONS NOW. ... COULD THE JOB BE DONE IN THE BALKANS? ... PROBABLY YES. BUT NOBODY CAN PRETEND IT WOULD BE EASY, AND IT WOULD ALMOST CERTAINLY ... LEAVE AMERICA WITH ONLY PAPER DEFENSES ELSEWHERE. /// OPT /// ... WE ALSO AREN'T REASSURED BY THE LACK OF BASIC MILITARY AND DIPLOMATIC COMPETENCE SHOWS SO FAR BY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IN THIS AFFAIR. /// END OPT ///

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES," NOTING THE TRIO'S CAPTURE, IS COUNSELING BOTH "PATIENCE AND TENACITY IN KOSOVO."

    VOICE: FOR A SUPERPOWER LATELY GROWN ACCUSTOMED TO SWIFT, DECISIVE AND RELATIVELY BLOODLESS MILITARY VENTURES ABROAD, THE WAR IN KOSOVO SEEMS LIKELY TO REQUIRE GREAT PATIENCE AND A HIGH TOLERANCE FOR UNCERTAINTY. ... PRESIDENT CLINTON AND HIS ADVISERS ... MUST RESIST THE TEMPTATION TO REACT TO EVERY BATTLEFIELD REVERSAL WITH AN INSTANT, IMPROVISED ESCALATION OF COMBAT.

    TEXT: AND "THE NEW YORK TIMES" ALSO SAYS: KEEP BOMBING. "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE SUMS UP ITS POSITION IN THIS EDITORIAL HEADLINE: "THE SCALE OF ATROCITY REQUIRES THE BOMBING."

    /// END OPT ///

    IN NEW YORK, "THE POST" WORRIES ABOUT THE HUGE MEDIA ATTENTION ALREADY BEING GIVEN THE THREE CAPTURED MEN, AND THEIR FAMILIES, UNDER THE HEADLINE OF "THE YELLOW RIBBON SYNDROME."

    VOICE: WE JOIN WITH ALL AMERICANS IN WISHING THE SOLDIERS A SWIFT RETURN HOME. WE SIMPLY HOPE ... THE FACE OF THE THREE ... DOES NOT BECOME 'THE DRIVING FORCE BEHIND U-S POLICY. (CALL IT 'YELLOW-RIBBON SYNDROME.') THAT WOULD GO WITHOUT SAYING. BUT THIS IS N O NORMAL ADMINISTRATION. TIME AND AGAIN IT HAS SHOWN ITSELF WILLING TO SUBORDINATE THE NATION'S BEST INTERESTS TO ITS OWN.

    /// OPT ///

    IF THE PRESIDENT WANTS TO TIE A YELLOW RIBBON TO SOMETHING, LET IT BE TO ONE OF THOSE HIGH TECH SATELLITE-GUIDED CLUSTER BOMBS. AND LET IT BE POINTED RIGHT BETWEEN SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S EYES.

    TEXT: "THE BOSTON GLOBE" TRIES TO PUT THE PRESENT BATTLE INTO HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, AS OPPOSED TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    VOICE: UNLIKE BOSNIA, KOSOVO IS A PROVINCE OF SERBIA WITH GREAT HISTORIC AND EMOTIONAL SYMBOLISM. SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC ROSE TO POWER ON THE ISSUE OF PROTECTING THE KOSOVO SERBS, AND THEY CANNOT BE SOLD OUT AS EASILY AS WERE THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS, WHOM [MR.] MILOSEVIC DESPISED AND WANTED TO UNDERCUT. ... TODAY, WITH NATO'S MISCALCULATIONS AND [MR.] MILOSEVIC'S HIDEOUS MASS EXPULSION OF ALBANIAN KOSOVARS, THE EQUATION THAT EXISTED AT RAMBOUILLET HAS CHANGED, AND A SIMILAR AGREEMENT MAY NO LONGER BE POSSIBLE. AN EFFORT SHOULD BE MADE TOWARD A FACE-SAVING FORMULA ..... IT IS NAUSEATING TO HAVE TO MAKE A DEAL WITH [MR.] MILOSEVIC, BUT WHAT IS NEEDED NOW ARE COOL HEADS TO STOP THE GREAT TRAGEDY THAT IS UNFOLDING AND PREVENT THE TRAGEDIES THAT WILL COME IF THE WAR CONTINUES MUCH LONGER.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING BRIEFLY TO OTHER ISSUES, PARAGUAY HAS GONE THROUGH ITS OWN CRISIS, GREATLY OVERSHADOWED BY THE BALKAN CONFLICT, IN WHICH THE VICE PRESIDENT WAS ASSASSINATED, THE PRESIDENT AND HIS CHIEF EX-MILITARY BACKER IMPLICATED, AND THEN THOSE MEN WERE FORCED INTO EXILE BY STUDENT DEMONSTRATIONS, ALL IN A WEEK'S TIME. "THE WASHINGTON POST," WRITES ABOUT HOW VERY VULNERABLE SOME LATIN AMERICAN DEMOCRACIES STILL ARE.

    VOICE: THE UPHEAVAL IN PARAGUAY READS LIKE A BAD NOVEL UNTIL YOU REALIZE IT REFLECTS A PAINFULLY REAL CONDITION OF DEMOCRATIC FRAGILITY FOUND TOO OFTEN IN SOUTH AMERICA AND IN OTHER NEWLY DEMOCRATIC PLACES. BUT THE UPHEAVAL ALSO INVITED PARAGUAY, STILL RECOVERING FROM 35 YEARS OF DICTATORSHIP BY GENERAL ALFREDO STROESSNER, TO STRENGTHEN THE POLITICAL SYSTEM ON WHICH EVERYTHING ELSE RESTS.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: AS FOR THE FUTURE OF GENERAL AGUSTO PINOCHET, FORMER DICTATOR OF CHILE, STILL FACING LEGAL DIFFICULTIES IN BRITAIN AFTER A LAW LORDS DECISION, BOSTON'S "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" SAYS:

    VOICE: NO MATTER HOW THE CURRENT LEGAL CONTROVERSY PLAYS OUT, IT SHOULD HELP SOLIDIFY A GROWING INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS THAT ACTS OF HORROR BY GOVERNMENTS AND RULERS WILL NOT BE QUIETLY FILED AWAY AND FORGOTTEN.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THERE IS MORE WORRY THAT THE NORTHERN IRELAND PEACE ACCORD, SO CAREFULLY CRAFTED DURING THE PAST YEAR WITH HELP FROM FORMER SENATOR GEORGE MITCHELL, IS COMING APART, OVER THE ISSUE OF DISARMING THE MILITIAS. "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" SAYS OF THE CURRENT IMPASSE:

    VOICE: MR. [GERRY] ADAMS [LEADER OF SINN FEIN] HAS, BY VIRTUE OF SIGNING THE GOOD FRIDAY AGREEMENT , [LAST YEAR] MADE SOME COMPROMISES ... BUT UNTIL HIS I-R-A CAN SHOW THE WORLD THEY ARE WILLING TO PUT DOWN THEIR GUNS FOR GOOD, NORTHERN IRELAND WILL NOT KNOW WHETHER THE SINN FEIN'S GOOD FRIDAY SIGNATURE WAS SIMPLY A GESTURE OF GOOD INTENTIONS. WHAT BETTER TIME THAN EASTER FOR ALL PARTIES TO SHOW THAT THEY ARE SERIOUS ABOUT NORTHERN IRELAND'S NEW BEGINNING.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: IN NEW YORK CITY, A GRAND JURY HAS INDICTED FOUR POLICE OFFICERS FOR SECOND DEGREE MURDER IN THE SHOOTING OF A WEST AFRICAN IMMIGRANT [AMADOU DIALLO FROM GUINEA] SEVERAL WEEKS AGO. THE CASE CONTINUES TO DRAW COMMENT, INCLUDING THIS FROM TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD."

    VOICE: ... THE POLITICAL DRAMA ROILING OVER THE SHOOTING ... HAS SHIFTED TO THE LEGAL ARENA. AT LEAST IN THE SOLEMNITY OF A COURTROOM THE CHANCE EXISTS FOR A CLOSER LOOK AT WHAT HAPPENED AND WHY. THAT EXPERIENCE, AND THE ANSWERS, CAN BE INSTRUCTIVE NOT ONLY FOR NEW YORK CITY BUT FOR COMMUNITIES AND POLICE DEPARTMENTS AROUND THE COUNTRY .... GOOD POLICING REQUIRES BOTH TOUGHNESS AND RESTRAINT. IT REQUIRES COPS WHO INSTILL FEAR IN CRIMINALS, YET GAIN THE RESPECT, AND PERHAPS THE AFFECTION, OF EVERYDAY RESIDENTS.

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, FROM "THE BOSTON GLOBE" THIS COMMENT ON THE FAILURE OF UNITED NATIONS FORCES TO STOP THE GENOCIDE EARLIER THIS DECADE IN RWANDA OF TUTSIS BY HUTUS, AND WHAT LESSONS IT HAS FOR THE BALKAN CONFLICT.

    VOICE: JUST AS HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF ALBANIAN KOSOVARS ARE BEING DRIVEN FROM THEIR TORCHED HOMES, AN UNSPARING REPORT HAS BEEN ISSUED ON THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE THAT WAS INITIATED FIVE YEARS AGO, ON APRIL 6, 1994. ... ITS CENTRAL LESSONS ARE THAT THE EXTERMINATION OF MORE THAN A HALF-MILLION PEOPLE WAS PLANNED IN COLD BLOOD BY AN EDUCATED HUTU ELITE AND THAT THE UNITED NATIONS, THE UNITED STATES, FRANCE, AND BELGIUM REFUSED TO ACT ON 'DOZENS OF WARNINGS' ABOUT THE COMING BLOODBATH. PREVENTING THE MASS MURDER ... WOULD HAVE BEEN RELATIVELY EASY, THE REPORT CONCLUDES ...[BY SENDING] AN INFLUX OF U-N REINFORCEMENTS ... INSTEAD, THE U-N FORCES IN RWANDA WERE WITHDRAWN. /// OPT /// 'THE AMERICANS WERE INTERESTED IN SAVING MONEY, THE BELGIANS WERE INTERESTED IN SAVING FACE, AND THE FRENCH WERE INTERESTED IN SAVING THEIR ALLY, THE GENOCIDAL GOVERNMENT' SAID ONE OF THE STUDY'S AUTHORS. /// END OPT

    ///

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL OPINION FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    02-Apr-99 12:10 PM EST (1710 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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