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Voice of America, 97-04-03

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBANIA/GREECE (L-ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVA (ATHENS)
  • [02] CAN TV AND THE INTERNET SPREAD PEACE? BY MARILYN SILVEY (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] CHIRAC / CZECH (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [04] CULTURE AND DEMOCRACY
  • [05] EURO / WORLD CUP (L ONLY) (CQ) BY NEIL ROSENBERG (LONDON)
  • [06] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [07] GERMANY / KOHL (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [08] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [09] PUSH, AMD, YEAR 2000, STORAGE, CYBER RIGHTS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] ALBANIA/GREECE (L-ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVA (ATHENS)

    DATE=4/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212403
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE PLANNED MULTINATIONAL FORCE BEING ASSEMBLED TO TRAVEL TO ALBANIA FACES A NEW DELAY. FRANZ VRANITSKY, THE TOP INTERNATIONAL ENVOY FOR ALBANIA, SAYS THE MISSION WILL NOT MOVE INTO THE CHAOS-RIDDEN COUNTRY NEXT WEEK, AS MANY HAD HOPED. MORE FROM REPORTER ANTHEE CARASSAVA IN ATHENS.

    TEXT: EUROPEAN ENVOY FRANZ VRANITSKY MADE THE ANNOUNCEMENT IN ATHENS (THURSDAY) AFTER A FLURRY OF MEETINGS WITH SENIOR EUROPEAN OFFICIALS AND THE PRIME MINISTER OF ALBANIA, BASHKIM FINO.

    MR. VRANITSKY ADMITTED HE MAY BE "TOO OPTIMISTIC," AS HE CALLED FOR A MULTINATIONAL FORCE TO BE DEPLOYED IN ALBANIA BY APRIL 12TH. STILL, HE CONCLUDED THAT ANY DELAY WOULD NOT BE MORE THAN FIVE DAYS AND THE REPERCUSSIONS ARE NOT, AS HE PUT IT, "A GREAT CATASTROPHE."

    THE EUROPEAN MILITARY MISSION HAS SLOWLY TAKEN SHAPE AFTER THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL GAVE ITS NOD OF APPROVAL AT AN URGENT SESSION LAST WEEK.

    THE ESTIMATED FIVE-THOUSAND-STRONG ITALIAN-LED FORCE WILL PROTECT MUCH-NEEDED AID SHIPMENTS AND HELP RESTORE ORDER IN CHAOS-WRACKED ALBANIA.

    IT IS THE CORNERSTONE OF EUROPEAN EFFORTS TO STOP THE ALBANIA CRISIS FROM SPREADING TO THE VOLATILE BALKANS. DIFFICULTIES, HOWEVER, HAVE KEPT THE MISSION BOGGED DOWN. MOST STEM FROM ITALY'S RELUCTANCE TO SEND IN SOME TWO-THOUSAND SOLDIERS TO ALBANIA AFTER AN ITALIAN COAST GUARD SHIP COLLIDED WITH A BOAT CARRYING ALBANIAN REFUGEES ACROSS THE ADRIATIC. ALBANIANS CLAIM OVER 80 PEOPLE DROWNED IN THE TRAGEDY.

    TRYING TO SOOTHE SECURITY CONCERNS, PRIME MINISTER FINO SAID IN ATHENS THAT LOCAL POLICE WOULD ASSIST THE OPERATION OF THE MULTINATIONAL FORCE. HE SAID POLICE WOULD ESCORT AID CONVOYS TO VILLAGES ACROSS THE IMPOVERISHED EX-COMMUNIST STATE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AC/PCF
    03-Apr-97 12:12 PM EST (1712 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CAN TV AND THE INTERNET SPREAD PEACE? BY MARILYN SILVEY (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/3/97
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-27061
    TELEPHONE=619-1173
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=(TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: HOW SUCH NEW ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGIES AS COMPUTERS, THE INTERNET AND SATELLITE TELEVISION ARE CHANGING INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS WAS DISCUSSED BY ABOUT ONE THOUSAND PEOPLE AT A TWO-DAY "VIRTUAL DIPLOMACY" CONFERENCE (4/1-2) IN WASHINGTON, D-C. MARILYN SILVEY REPORTS THAT A LOT OF QUESTIONS WERE RAISED.

    TEXT: WHEN U-S MILITARY FORCES WERE AIRLIFTING SUPPLIES TO KURDISH REFUGEES IN NORTHERN IRAQ SOME YEARS AGO, THE AMERICAN GENERALS ON SITE KNEW THAT GETTING FOOD TO THE REFUGEES WAS MOST IMPORTANT. BUT IN THE MIDST OF THE AIRLIFT, A TELEPHONE CALL CAME FROM A HIGH MILITARY OFFICIAL AT THE PENTAGON, IN WASHINGTON, D-C, WHO TOLD THEM TO DROP BLANKETS INSTEAD. WHY? BECAUSE HE WAS WATCHING THE AIRLIFT ON CNN AS IT TOOK PLACE, AND HE THOUGHT THE REFUGEES LOOKED COLD. MARINE LT. GENERAL ANTHONY ZINNI - WHO HAD TO FOLLOW THE ORDER - REMEMBERS THE CALL WELL:

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- ANTHONY ZINNI :08 "FOOD WAS THE KEY, NOT BLANKETS, BUT THE IMAGE DROVE HIM TO MAKE A DECISION BACK HERE, FROM THE PENTAGON, TO FORCE ON US."

    TEXT: GENERAL ZINNI SAID IT'S NOT UNUSUAL FOR THE MILITARY TO MAKE DECISIONS BASED ON COMMERCIAL TELEVISION COVERAGE - EVEN IN ACTUAL CONFLICTS:

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- ANTHONY ZINNI :04 "OFTENTIMES WE HAVE TO TUNE IN CNN TO SEE HOW WE'RE DOING!"

    TEXT: GENERAL ZINNI SPOKE AT A CONFERENCE ON HOW COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES ARE CHANGING INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. HIS COLLEAGUES ON THE PANEL ON THE MASS MEDIA'S IMPACT ON INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AGREED THAT LIVE TELEVISION COVERAGE IN THE U-S OF SUCH EVENTS AS THE TIANANMEN SQUARE DEMONSTRATIONS IN CHINA AND THE CONFLICT IN SOMALIA PUT POWERFUL CITIZEN PRESSURE ON AMERICAN POLICYMAKERS TO GET MORE INVOLVED.

    THE CONFERENCE SPONSOR, HOWEVER, HOPES THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES CAN BE USED TO PREVENT INTERNATIONAL CONFLICTS IN THE FUTURE. THE SPONSOR WAS THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE - AN INDEPENDENT ORGANIZATION FUNDED BY THE U-S CONGRESS. INSTITUTE SPOKESPERSON MARGARITA STUDEMEISTER SAID AMERICAN DIPLOMATS AND POLICYMAKERS LAG BEHIND OTHER SEGMENTS OF SOCIETY IN USING THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES, BUT THEY ARE STARTING TO CATCH UP:

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- MARGARITA STUDEMEISTER :26 "(BEGIN OPT) IF THERE HAS ALREADY BEEN A REVOLUTION IN BUSINESS AFFAIRS, IN THE WAY WE CONDUCT BUSINESS INTERNATIONALLY, AND THERE'S BEEN A REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS IN TERMS OF WHAT THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IS IN THE CONDUCT OF WAR, (END OPT) ARE WE AT A POINT WHERE WE CAN SAY WE MAY BE AT THE EDGE OF A REVOLUTION IN DIPLOMATIC AFFAIRS? HOW ARE THESE TECHNOLOGIES IMPACTING THE CONDUCT OF DIPLOMACY?"

    TEXT: FOR EXAMPLE, SHE SAID, COMPUTER MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES WERE USED TO DRAW THE BOUNDARIES IN THE BALKANS ESTABLISHED BY THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS; COMPUTER SOFTWARE WITH TECHNIQUES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT HELPED CONFLICTING PARTIES IN LIBERIA REACH AGREEMENT ON A PLAN FOR ELECTIONS; AND THE VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW IN THE UNITED STATES HAS AN ONGOING PROJECT USING THE INTERNET TO HELP RESTORE THE LEGAL SYSTEM IN BOSNIA.

    ON THE SPEAKERS' PLATFORMS AND IN THE CONFERENCE CORRIDORS, A WIDE VARIETY OF QUESTIONS WAS RAISED. FOR EXAMPLE, DOES INCREASED MEDIA PUBLICITY OF INTERNATIONAL CONFLICTS LEAD TO 'INSTANT DECISIONS' BY POLICYMAKERS BASED ON PICTURES SHOWN ON TELEVISION? (BEGIN OPT) WILL INCREASED ACCESS TO INFORMATION BY CITIZENS - PRIMARILY THROUGH THE INTERNET - PRODUCE GOOD VALUES OR BAD VALUES? (END OPT) WILL DEMOCRACY SPREAD AND TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENTS BE WEAKENED - BECAUSE CITIZENS CAN KNOW SO MUCH MORE THAN THEY USED TO ABOUT WHAT GOVERNMENTS ARE DOING? SHOULD THE INTERNET BE REGULATED - AND IF SO, BY WHOM?

    PANEL MEMBER LAWRENCE GROSSMAN, FORMER PRESIDENT OF NBC NEWS AND THE PUBLIC BROADCASTING SERVICE, SAID FEAR OF THE INTERNET IS THE SAME KIND OF ANXIETY THAT HAS ACCOMPANIED ALL TECHNOLOGY WHEN IT WAS INTRODUCED:

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- LAWRENCE GROSSMAN :06 "ALL OF THE LANGUAGE THAT WE USE ABOUT THE INTERNET TODAY WE USED TO USE ABOUT RADIO WHEN IT WAS FIRST INVENTED."

    TEXT: WHILE THE DEBATES WENT ON IN THE CONFERENCE ROOM, THE EXHIBIT HALL FEATURED DEMONSTRATIONS OF HOW NEW TECHNOLOGY IS ALREADY BEING USED. SEVERAL COMPANIES, FOR INSTANCE, SHOWED HOW TELEPHONE LINES CAN NOW CARRY BOTH SOUND AND PICTURES, ENABLING PEOPLE WHO MAY BE MILES - EVEN CONTINENTS - APART TO SEE EACH OTHER AND TALK TOGETHER. CHRIS MACDONALD OF GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS SOLUTIONS SAID THE TECHNIQUE IS IDEAL FOR INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS, AS IT'S MUCH QUICKER AND CHEAPER THAN FLYING PEOPLE TO ACTUAL CONFERENCES, AND IT ALLOWS FOR FULLER COMMUNICATION THAN DOES WRITING:

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- CHRIS MACDONALD :06 "THE EXPRESSION ON ONE'S FACE IS NOT INCLUDED IN AN EMAIL OR A LETTER; HENCE A LOT OF THINGS ARE MISCOMMUNICATED."

    TEXT: GUY OLSON OF THE U-S INFORMATION AGENCY EXPLAINED THAT STUDENTS IN OTHER COUNTRIES WHO WISH TO COME TO THE UNITED STATES NOW HAVE ACCESS TO INFORMATION VIA A COMPUTER DISC AVAILABLE IN U-S OVERSEAS LIBRARIES THAT GOES FAR BEYOND JUST READING A COLLEGE CATALOG:

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- GUY OLSON :21 "YOU COULD, FOR INSTANCE, SEE A LAYOUT OF A CAMPUS, SEE WHAT A CLASSROOM LOOKS LIKE, IT TAKES YOU INSIDE A DORMITORY ROOM, AND IT INCLUDES VIDEO INTERVIEWS WITH FOREIGN STUDENTS NOW IN THE UNITED STATES WHO TALK ABOUT WHAT THEY'RE STUDYING, HOW THEY'RE LIVING, HOW THEY'RE ADJUSTING. SO IT'S MORE COMPLETE, IN A WAY, IT'S MORE PERSONAL, EVEN THOUGH IT'S A TECHNOLOGY."

    TEXT: (BEGIN OPT. DAVID BARBER OF THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORY IN ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO, EXPLAINED THAT TECHNOLOGY CAN BE USED BY ONE COUNTRY TO MONITOR ANOTHER COUNTRY'S WEAPONS AND CHEMICALS.

    TAPE: CUT SEVEN -- DAVID BARBER :28 "RIGHT NOW, WE'RE MONITORING NUCLEAR MATERIAL THAT'S IN KURCHATOV, WHICH IS AN INSTITUTE JUST OUTSIDE MOSCOW. THEY CAN LOOK AT US, WE CAN LOOK AT THEM, AND ACTUALLY WE PROVIDED THAT EQUIPMENT TO THEM BECAUSE IT'S KIND OF A DEMONSTRATION OF THIS TECHNOLOGY. WHAT WE'D LIKE TO DO IS ENTER INTO SOME TECHNICAL COLLABORATIONS WITH OTHER COUNTRIES AND HELP THEM COME UP WITH HOW TO DO SOME MONITORING OF THEIR NEIGHBORS AND HELP THEM ALONG WITH THAT." END OPT.)

    TEXT: (BEGIN OPT. CHARLES VEGA OF THE EXPERNET FIRM DEMONSTRATED NEW COMPUTER SOFTWARE RECENTLY USED IN BELIZE, PERU AND HONDURAS TO HELP SET UP ELECTORAL REGISTRIES.

    TAPE: CUT EIGHT -- CHARLES VEGA :25 "IT'S A VERY DAUNTING PROCESS, BUT ONE THAT LEADS INTO CLEAN ELECTIONS, BECAUSE YOU CAN VERIFY IT IMMEDIATELY IF THE PERSON EXISTS. AND IF YOU HAVE CLEAN ELECTIONS, WHOEVER WINS, FEELS THAT IT'S BEEN A FAIR ELECTION, AND IF YOU LOSE, YOU ALSO FEEL IT'S BEEN A FAIR ELECTION, SO IT REALLY CONTRIBUTES TO RECONCILIATION, DEMOCRACY AND IN PLACES THAT HAVE BEEN AT WAR, TO PEACE." END OPT.)

    TEXT: PARTICIPANTS IN THE VIRTUAL DIPLOMACY CONFERENCE AGREED THAT IT IS NOT AS DIFFICULT TO CREATE AND USE THE NEW COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES AS IT IS TO FIND THE MONEY TO MAKE THEM AVAILABLE TO ALL COUNTRIES. BUT THEY AGREED THAT MUST BE DONE IF THE TECHNOLOGIES ARE TRULY TO BE USED TO FURTHER INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING AND PEACE. (SIGNED)
    03-Apr-97 3:18 PM EST (2018 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] CHIRAC / CZECH (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=4/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212397
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: CHIRAC SCHEDULED TO LEAVE PRAGUE AT 1540 U-T-C ///

    INTRO: FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC HAS COMPLETED A TWO DAY VISIT TO PRAGUE WHERE HE PLEDGED TO SUPPORT CZECH ENTRY INTO NATO IN 1999 AND THE EUROPEAN UNION BY THE YEAR 2000. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS FROM THE CZECH CAPITAL.

    TEXT: MR. CHIRAC CALLED FOR STRENGTHENED ECONOMIC LINKS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE NEW DEMOCRACIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE.

    THE FRENCH PRESIDENT PRAISED THE SUBSTANTIAL ACHIEVEMENTS THE CZECHS HAVE MADE IN BUILDING A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY AND A FLOURISHING MARKET ECONOMY. HE TOLD CZECH LAWMAKERS THAT THE CZECH REPUBLIC HAS THE UNRESERVED SUPPORT OF FRANCE FOR MEMBERSHIP INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION. MR. CHIRAC CALLED FOR INCREASED FRENCH INVESTMENT IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, AND HE CHASTISED FRENCH BUSINESS LEADERS FOR NOT BEING ACTIVE ENOUGH IN THE CZECH MARKET.

    IN A MEETING WITH JOURNALISTS, MR. CHIRAC REPEATED HIS SUPPORT FOR CZECH MEMBERSHIP IN NATO. HE SAID HE EXPECTS THAT THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND ALSO HUNGARY AND POLAND WILL BE ASKED TO JOIN THE DEFENSE ALLIANCE AT THE JULY NATO SUMMIT IN SPAIN.

    MR. CHIRAC SAID FRANCE CONTINUES TO SUPPORT ROMANIA'S INCLUSION IN THE FIRST ROUND OF NATO EXPANSION.

    HE SAID HE IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE MADRID SUMMIT AND HE HOPES THAT BEFORE THE MEETING, NATO WILL COMPLETE INTERNAL REFORMS THAT WILL PERMIT FRANCE TO REJOIN THE ALLIANCE'S MILITARY COMMAND STRUCTURE. HE SAID IF A EUROPEAN OFFICER BECOMES CHIEF OF NATO'S SOUTHERN COMMAND IN ITALY, THEN FRANCE IS INCLINED TO REJOIN NATO'S MILITARY WING. HE SAID IF THE AMERICANS OPPOSE THIS REFORM, FRANCE WILL REMAIN OUTSIDE THE COMMAND STRUCTURE.

    DURING HIS VISIT TO PRAGUE, MR. CHIRAC HELD DISCUSSIONS WITH BOTH CZECH PRESIDENT VACLAV HAVEL AND PRIME MINISTER VACLAV KLAUS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH
    03-Apr-97 9:41 AM EST (1441 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] CULTURE AND DEMOCRACY

    DATE=APRIL 5, 1997
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00519
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT=

    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE

    ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "CULTURE AND DEMOCRACY." HERE IS YOUR HOST, ROBERT REILLY.

    HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    THE UNITED STATES WAS FOUNDED ON THE PROPOSITION THAT HUMAN RIGHTS ARE GOD-GIVEN AND UNIVERSAL. THAT IS WHY MANY AMERICANS BELIEVE THAT THE U.S. HAS A MORAL OBLIGATION TO ENCOURAGE THE SPREAD OF DEMOCRATIC VALUES AND INSTITUTIONS. AS THE RECENT RELEASE OF THE U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT'S ANNUAL HUMAN RIGHTS REPORTS INDICATES, HUMAN RIGHTS HAVE BECOME A MAJOR FACTOR IN FORMULATING U.S. FOREIGN POLICY. BUT SOME WARN THAT SUCH A POLICY IS IMPRACTICAL IN PARTS OF ASIA, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST. THEY CLAIM THAT NON-WESTERN CULTURAL VALUES ARE SIMPLY INCOMPATIBLE WITH THOSE OF A DEMOCRACY.

    JOINING ME TODAY TO DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE AND DEMOCRACY ARE THREE EXPERTS. CARL GERSHMAN IS THE PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY, AN INDEPENDENT ORGANIZATION SUPPORTED BY THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. PAULA DOBRIANSKY IS A FORMER DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS. SHE NOW HOSTS A WEEKLY FOREIGN POLICY TELEVISION PROGRAM AT NATIONAL EMPOWERMENT TELEVISION. AND DINESH D'SOUZA IS A RESEARCH FELLOW AT THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE AND THE AUTHOR OF THE END OF RACISM.

    WELCOME TO THE PROGRAM.

    CARL GERSHMAN, WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE AND DEMOCRACY ?

    GERSHMAN: WELL, CERTAINLY WE ARE IN AN AREA WHERE CULTURE HAS COME TO A FORM WHERE PEOPLE ARE DEBATING THIS ISSUE VERY DEEPLY, AND THERE IS THIS NEW BOOK OUT BY SAMUEL HUNTINGTON WHICH SUGGESTS THAT THERE IS A CLASH OF CULTURES, AND SOME CULTURES ARE COMPATIBLE WITH DEMOCRACY AND THE SUGGESTION IS THAT SOME CULTURES ARE NOT. THERE IS SOME AMBIGUITY THERE BECAUSE I THINK THAT CULTURE CAN BE COMPATIBLE WITH DEMOCRACY BUT STILL NOT WESTERN. YOU CAN HAVE NON-WESTERN CULTURES THAT CAN BE DEMOCRATIC. COUNTRIES CAN MODERNIZE, THEY CAN DEVELOP ECONOMICALLY, THEY NEED NOT BE WESTERN. THEY NEED NOT HAVE A GOOD WESTERN CULTURAL FORM, BUT THEY STILL CAN BE DEMOCRATIC. AND YOU HAVE A COUNTRY LIKE INDIA, WHICH IS NOT A WESTERN COUNTRY AND WANTS TO PRESERVE ITS DISTINCT CULTURAL IDENTITY, BUT STILL IS DEMOCRATIC. AND THERE ARE ASIAN COUNTRIES INCREASINGLY, COUNTRIES LIKE JAPAN, TAIWAN THE PHILIPPINES, WHICH ARE DEMOCRATIC, BUT THEY ARE CERTAINLY NOT WESTERN COUNTRIES. SO THAT CULTURE CAN BE ADOPTED TO DEMOCRATIC FORMS. IT NEED NOT TO BE A WESTERN REPLICA, BUT IT CAN BE A DEMOCRATIC FORM WHICH IS SIMPLY OF A NON WESTERN CULTURAL TRADITION. BUT I THINK WE DO BELIEVE THAT ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT CULTURES AT SOME POINT OR ANOTHER DO HAVE THE CAPACITY TO DEVELOP DEMOCRATIC FORMS.

    HOST: PAULA DOBRIANSKY, DO YOU AGREE WITH THAT ?

    DOBRIANSKY: YES, I DO. I THINK THAT THE POINTS SPECIFICALLY THAT CARL MADE THAT NON WESTERN CULTURES CAN BE COMPATIBLE WITH DEMOCRACY AND WE HAVE SEEN MANY CASES IN POINT. BUT MOST SIGNIFICANTLY HERE, MANY AMERICANS LOOK AT THE SPREAD OF DEMOCRACY AS AN AMERICAN MISSION TO A CERTAIN EXTENT; AT LEAST MANY AMERICANS THINK THIS. IN FACT, EVEN IN YOUR INTRODUCTION YOU REFERRED TO THAT, AND WHAT YOU GET INTO IS THE THOUGHT THAT THE UNITED STATES IS ESSENTIALLY GOING TO TAKE ITS OWN MODEL OF DEMOCRACY AND TRANSPLANT IT ONTO FOREIGN SOILS, AND THAT THAT IS THE ONLY TYPE OF DEMOCRACY WHICH CAN EXIST. AND I THINK THAT THE POINT HAS TO BE MADE THAT DEMOCRACY TAKES DIFFERENT SHAPES AND FORMS. THERE ARE CERTAIN FUNDAMENTALS THAT COMPRISE WHAT A DEMOCRACY IS; HOWEVER, DIFFERENT CULTURES CAN FORM THEIR OWN SHAPE OF DEMOCRACY, ALBEIT WITH CERTAIN FUNDAMENTALS, LIKE THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS, LIKE THE PRACTICE OF RULE OF LAW, THE EXISTENCE OF INDEPENDENT AND FUNCTIONING JUDICIARY AND SO FORTH. FINALLY, I WOULD SAY THAT IT STRIKES ME AS VERY SIGNIFICANT WHERE YOU HAVE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE, DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS. SOME HAVE USED CULTURE TO EXPLAIN AWAY OR TO USE IT AS RATIONAL FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, EGREGIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES. THEY WILL SAY, WELL, IT'S IN OUR CULTURE AND THAT'S WHY WE ARE UNDERTAKING CERTAIN TYPES OF PRACTICES. FOR EXAMPLE, TORTURE. TORTURE CANNOT BE EXPLAINED AWAY BY CULTURE. TORTURE IS TORTURE IS TORTURE, IT'S A HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE.

    HOST: OKAY DINESH D'SOUZA.

    D'SOUZA: WELL, I GUESS IT SEEMS TO ME THAT WE ARE SEEING DEVELOPING PERHAPS IN ASIA A NEW MODEL THAT IS A SERIOUS CHALLENGE TO WESTERN LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES. I WOULD LOOSELY CALL IT THE SINGAPORE MODEL. BUT I THINK THE SINGAPORE MODEL IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT MIGHT FIND A RECEPTIVE EAR IN COUNTRIES LIKE CHINA. I THINK THERE IS AN INCREASING AWARENESS OF THE OLD GUYS WHO RUN CHINA THAT THAT SYSTEM WON'T WORK. ON THE OTHER HAND, I THINK THAT THERE IS A CRISIS IN THE WEST , A CULTURAL CRISIS, AND THAT MANY PEOPLE IN OTHER COUNTRIES ARE SAYING THAT THIS IS WHAT YOU GET WHEN YOU HAVE LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES. YOU HAVE GRAFFITI ON THE WALLS, YOU GET TEEN PREGNANCIES, YOU GET HIGH RATES OF CRIME, YOU GET SOCIAL DISORDER. AND SO THE QUESTION THEN BECOMES, THAT IS IT POSSIBLE TO COMBINE WESTERN PROSPERITY OR CAPITALISM WITH A MORE AUTHORITARIAN POLITICAL FRAMEWORK THAT BASICALLY SAYS YOU CAN BE FREE IN YOUR PERSONAL LIFE, YOU CAN PRACTICE ANY RELIGION YOU WANT, YOU CAN PRETTY MUCH SAY WHATEVER YOU WANT, BUT YOU CAN NOT PROTEST AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT AND YOU CAN'T WRITE GRAFFITI ON THE SUBWAYS. AND THIS, IT SEEMS TO ME, IS A REAL CHALLENGE, AND SHOULD BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY IN THE WEST.

    HOST: IN FACT, I DON'T RECALL WHETHER IT WAS THE PRIME MINISTER OF SINGAPORE, BUT IT WAS ONE SOUTHEAST ASIAN LEADER WHO RECENTLY SAID -- IN FACT, MR. HUNTINGTON QUOTED HIM -- THAT ASIAN VALUES ARE UNIVERSAL.

    GERSHMAN: I THINK [PRIME MINISTER MOHAMAD] MAHATIHR FROM MALAYSIA WAS THE ONE WHO SAID THAT. BUT I THINK THAT THIS DEBATE IS NOT A DEBATE BETWEEN THE WEST AND ASIA . I DO AGREE THAT THERE ARE SOME VOICES IN ASIA THAT ARE TRYING TO PROJECT A DIFFERENT MODEL, BUT THIS IS A DEBATE INCREASINGLY AMONG ASIANS. AND THAT IN NO WAY DO THESE VOICES REPRESENT THE ONLY ASIAN VERSION OF WHAT IS POSSIBLE. THEY ARE BEING COUNTED BY OTHER VOICES. IT IS INTERESTING THAT THE VOICES THAT SPEAK MOST VOCIFEROUSLY FOR ASIAN VALUES, AS A RATIONALIZATION ONE MIGHT SAY FOR A MORE AUTHORITARIAN SYSTEM, TEND TO BE PEOPLE IN POWER. THEY TEND TO BE AUTHORITARIAN RULERS, NOT THE PEOPLE WHO ARE BEING RULED. AND MY FEELING IS AS THESE COUNTRIES DEVELOP, AS THEY DEVELOP MORE SOPHISTICATED MIDDLE CLASSES, THERE WILL BE DEMANDS INCREASINGLY FOR POLITICAL PARTICIPATION. AND IT IS REMODIFIED I BELIEVE THAT THERE IS ALMOST A "CATCH 22" IN THIS SITUATION, AND THEY WILL FIND EVEN WITHIN THEIR OWN SOCIETY INCREASING DEMANDS FOR A VOICE, FOR PARTICIPATION. AND AS OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES DEMONSTRATE THAT DEMOCRACY IS COMPATIBLE WITH DEVELOPMENT, I THINK THAT THIS ARGUMENT WILL GO. I JUST WANT TO SAY, THE PHILIPPINES TODAY WAS USED AS THE COUNTER MODEL TO SINGAPORE AS A COUNTRY WHICH WAS DEMOCRATIC BUT A FAILED COUNTRY.THE, I THINK, PHILIPPINES IS STARTING TO TAKE OFF ECONOMICALLY BECAUSE THEY ARE ADOPTING THE CORRECT ECONOMIC POLICIES. THEY ARE BREAKING THE HOLD OF THE OLD GUARD IN THE ECONOMY AND SO FORTH. THAT CAN BE DONE WITHIN THE DEMOCRATIC CONTEXT AND THE PHILIPPINES IS STARTING TO TAKE OFF. AND I THINK THIS WILL STRENGTHEN THE ARGUMENT THAT DEMOCRACY IS COMPATIBLE WITH DEVELOPMENT.

    DOBRIANSKY: TWO POINTS TO ELABORATE FURTHER ON SOMETHING THAT CARL SAID: LOOK AT SINGAPORE. YOU MENTIONED THE SOCIAL TYPE OF DISORDER WHICH I THINK MAYBE IS THE INTENT OF THE LEADERSHIP TO MAYBE CONTAIN OR, I DON'T KNOW, MAYBE TO COPE WITH IN SUCH A WAY THAT WOULD PREVENT SUCH SOCIAL DISORDER FROM TAKING PLACE, FOR EXAMPLE IN OUR SOCIETY. HOWEVER, IT IS VERY STRIKING THAT THE FACT THAT YOU DO HAVE THE INCOMPETENCE, THE RULERS WHO ARE ACTUALLY ESPOUSING THIS ASIAN VERSION OR THIS ASIAN MODEL, AND THEY ARE PROHIBITING POLITICAL DISSENT. THE RULING PARTY, THE P-A-P REALLY, HAS NOT ENCOURAGED ANY KIND OF POLITICAL DISSECT. AND I THINK THAT DOES NOT CERTAINLY DEMONSTRATE ANY KIND OF DEMOCRATIC TRENDS OR A MODEL WHICH REPRESENTS A DEMOCRACY. AND LET ME ADD ONE OTHER THING. I WAS THINKING ABOUT TAIWAN WHEN CARL WAS SPEAKING. MANY HAD SAID, WELL THE CHINESE THAT THERE THE CULTURE IS JUST NOT VERY COMPATIBLE WITH DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT. I THINK TAIWAN CERTAINLY HAS JUST PROVED THAT. YES, MAYBE THERE IS FIVR THOUSAND OR WHAT, SOME FOUR THOUSAND YEARS OF NOT FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS. BUT THEY FINALLY DID, AND I THINK THAT THAT IS AN IMPORTANT TREND WHICH GOES AGAINST THE VIEWS ESPOUSED FROM SINGAPORE.

    D'SOUZA: I GUESS WHAT I'M TRYING TO SAY IS I THINK THE UNITED STATES IS FOUNDED ON TWO PRINCIPLES: LIBERTY AND EQUALITY. AND WITHIN THE UNITED STATES THE CRITIQUES OF THOSE TWO PRINCIPLES HAS COME FROM THE LEFT, WHICH IS TO SAY NOT ENOUGH LIBERTY, NOT ENOUGH EQUALITY. I THINK THERE IS A SORT OF ALTERNATIVE CRITIQUE, TOO MUCH LIBERTY, TOO MUCH EQUALITY. AND BY THAT I DON'T MEAN THAT IN A SIMPLE-MINDED WAY. BUT WHAT I MEAN IS, THAT WE HAVE, YOU KNOW THAT, WE HAVE NOW A FILM "THE PEOPLE VERSUS LARRY FLYNT," IN WHICH THE PREMISE OF THE FILM IS THAT WE SHOULD ALL FEEL A LITTLE MORE FREE. BECAUSE THE PUBLISHER OF "HUSTLER" IS FOUND NOT GUILTY OF A LIBEL SUIT. IN OTHER WORDS, THE IDEA IS THAT OUR FREEDOM CAN ONLY BE PROTECTED AT THE MOST EXTREME POINT. SIMILARLY, EQUALITY OF RIGHTS, WHICH IS WHAT THE AMERICAN FOUNDERS HAD IN MIND, HAS SORT OF METAMORPHOSED INTO A GROUP EQUALITY, EQUALITY OF RESULTS. AND SO THE QUESTION THEN BECOMES, ISN'T IT POSSIBLE THAT WITHIN AMERICA AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRECISE DEFINITION AND SHAPE OF LIBERTY HAS TO BE RECOVERED AND MAYBE THAT OUR UNDERSTANDING OF LIBERTY AND EQUALITY HAS BROKEN OR DEPARTED SIGNIFICANTLY FROM WHAT THE FOUNDERS HAD IN MIND. THEY THOUGHT OF LIBERTY AND EQUALITY IN THEIR PRECISE SENSE.

    HOST: BUT LET ... I CAN SEE HOW WHAT YOU ARE SAYING WOULD PROVIDE AN UNAPPETIZING EXAMPLE FOR A NATION THAT IS IN TRANSITION-- THAT SAYS, WE DON'T WANT THESE UNAPPETIZING PARTS OF AMERICAN CULTURE TO POLLUTE OUR COUNTRY AND SITCOMS OR SOAP OPERAS. BUT LET ME ASK A QUESTION AT A DIFFERENT LEVEL. LET'S SAY, THE LEVEL OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WHICH A NUMBER OF SCHOLARS HAVE POINTED OUT CONTAINS A NATURAL THEOLOGY WITHIN IT. NOW, AREN'T THERE CULTURES OR RELIGIONS THAT ARE OPPOSED TO THAT NATURAL THEOLOGY WHICH IS A NECESSARY FOUNDATION FOR POLITICAL LIBERTY? I WILL GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE, CARL GERSHMAN, BECAUSE I KNOW THAT YOU HAVE BEEN IN MOROCCO AND CONDUCTED A VERY EXCITING CONFERENCE ON DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE ARAB WORLD. I RECALL A STATEMENT BY A MUSLIM FUNDAMENTALIST IN MOROCCO, A YOUNG LEADER WHO SAID "YOU IN THE WEST BELIEVE, GIVE UNTO CAESAR THE THINGS THAT ARE CEASAR 'S AND UNTO GOD THE THINGS THAT ARE GOD'S. WHAT YOU DON'T UNDERSTAND IS, THAT WE DON'T BELIEVE THAT." IN OTHER WORDS, THERE IS A WAY OF THINKING BY AT LEAST SOME MUSLIMS, THAT THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL LIFE. AND WHEN YOU COLLAPSE THOSE TWO THINGS, OBVIOUSLY DEMOCRACY IS IMPOSSIBLE.

    GERSHMAN: WELL, CERTAINLY THE MOST INTERESTING ASPECT OF THIS MEETING WE JUST HAD IN MOROCCO, AND IT WAS A DIALOGUE BETWEEN AMERICANS AND ARABS, BECAUSE THAT WAS THE PURPOSE OF THE MEETING. BUT WHAT I FOUND TO BE PARTICULARLY FASCINATING WAS IN THE SECOND DAY OF THE MEETING. IT REALLY WAS A DEBATE AMONG THE ARABS THEMSELVES OVER PRECISELY THAT QUESTION. AND WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF ISLAM TO DEMOCRACY? WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF RELIGION AND POLITICS AND SO FORTH? AND I THINK THIS IS A DEBATE WITHIN THE CULTURE AND AGAIN, THERE ARE A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO FEEL THAT THERE IS NO INCOMPATIBILITY BETWEEN A MORE OPEN SYSTEM AND ISLAM. THEY ARE TRYING TO PROJECT THAT VIEW BECAUSE THERE ARE CLEARLY VOICES SOMETIMES REACTING VERY VIOLENTLY AND STRIDENTLY AGAINST THE WEST, WHO ARE TRYING TO SAY THAT THERE IS. I ALSO THINK, AND THIS IS ONE OF THE POINTS THAT I MADE AT THIS CONFERENCE, THAT THERE IS A REAL MISUNDERSTANDING OF THE WEST. THERE IS A FEELING THAT OUR SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE IS SOMEHOW ANTIRELIGIOUS, WHEN IN FACT THE SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE IS MEANT TO PROTECT RELIGION, TO PROTECT PEOPLES' FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE. THEY DON'T REALLY UNDERSTAND FULLY THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE IS ROOTED IN RELIGIOUS PRINCIPLES, THAT HUMAN RIGHTS IN OUR SENSE OF HUMAN RIGHTS ARE NOT RIGHTS THAT CAN BE OBLIGATED BY A MAJORITY OF A PARLIAMENT. THEY ARE NATURAL RIGHTS WHICH HAVE A HIGHER AUTHORITY. WE SAY "ONE NATION UNDER GOD," WHEN WE PLEDGE ALLEGIANCE. ON OUR COINS WE SAY "IN GOD WE TRUST, ONE NATION UNDER GOD." WE BELIEVE THIS VERY DEEPLY, BUT WE ALSO BELIEVE THAT IT IS IN HONOR TOT HESE PRINCIPLES, AND TO THE SOURCE OF THIS HIGHER AUTHORITY FROM WHICH RIGHTS DERIVE, TO SEPARATE RELIGION FROM POLITICS, WHICH COULD LEAD REALLY TO THE OBLIGATION OF THOSE VERY RIGHTS, WHICH DERIVE FROM A HIGHER AUTHORITY. IF PEOPLE USE RELIGION IN AN AUTHORITARIAN WAY, AND THAT'S WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE ARAB WORLD, AND I THINK, THAT THERE ARE A LOT OF VOICES AGAINST THIS, THAT RELIGION HAS BEEN TURNED INTO AN IDEOLOGY IN A WAY, AN IDEOLOGY OF AN AUTHORITARIAN RULE AND CRITIQUE OF THE WEST. A LOT OF IT GETS BACK TO PRECISELY TO WHAT DINESH? IS TALKING ABOUT. IN OTHER WORDS, HOW DO YOU PROTECT YOURSELF AGAINST THESE SECULARIZING TENDENCIES WHICH SEEM TO BE CORRUPTING FAMILY AND SO FORTH..

    D'SOUZA: THAT'S RIGHT. I MEAN, THERE IS NO QUESTION THAT, YOU KNOW, THAT AN EMBRACE OF DEMOCRATIC AND CAPITALIST IDEAS IS GOING TO TRANSFORM THE SOCIETY. WE'D BE FOOLISH TO TELL THEM OTHERWISE. THE WEST HAS BEEN DRAMATICALLY TRANSFORMED OVER THE LAST FEW HUNDRED YEARS. NOW, I'M NOT SAYING THE TRANSFORMATION IS BAD AND THERE SHOULD BE INTERN DEBATE ON THAT.

    GERSHMAN: WHEN I WAS IN INDIA, I WAS MEETING WITH ONE OF THE LEADERS OF THE P-J-P PARTY WHICH IS "HINDU NATIONALIST PARTY," AND HE SAID "WE WANT MODERNIZATION, BUT WE DO NOT WANT WESTERNIZATION." NOW, HE ALSO, IN SAYING THAT, WHICH IS FINE, I MEAN, BECAUSE IT'S NOT GOING BTO ECOME WESTERNIZED. IT'S A DIFFERENT CULTURE. HE ALSO WAS BASICALLY SAYING, WE ALSO WANT DEMOCRACY

    D'SOUZA: BUT HE IS WRONG. HE IS WRONG, YOU CAN'T DO IT. HERE IS WHY. I WILL GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE: INDIA HAS HAD A VERY STABLE SYSTEM OF, ROUGHLY, ARRANGED MARRIAGES. THAT AIS RRANGED MARRIAGES SOMEWHAT LIBERALIZED, AND THAT SOMETIMES YOU GET TO CHOOSE YOUR PARTNER, BUT WITHIN A RANGE OF CHOICES, OFTEN SUPPLIED BY YOUR PARENTS. THE DIVORCERATE IS PROBABLY LESS THAN ONE PERCENT. NOW, CAPITALISM IS GOING TO PRODUCE IN INDIA, IS ALREADY PRODUCING TREMENDOUSLY SOCIAL MOBILITY. PEOPLE ARE GOING TO LIVE AWAY FROM THEIR PARENTS. DIVORCERATES ARE GOING TO GO UP. IT MIGHT BE A PRICE WORTH PAYING, BUT IT IS A PRICE.

    GERSHMAN: IS IT WESTERNIZATION THOUGH? IT MAY BE.

    D'SOUZA: WELL, BY WESTERNIZATION WE CERTAINLY DON'T MEAN THAT PEOPLE WILL START NECESSARILY WEARING TOGAS OR SOMETHING. BUT WHAT I MEAN, IT IS AN IDEA OF WESTERN IN ORIGIN.

    GERSHMAN: SEE, WHAT I THINK YOU HAVE, WHICH IS POSSIBLE IN THE WORLD TODAY, IS THAT AS OTHER CULTURES MODERNIZE, AND AS THEY DEMOCRATIZE, YOU ARE GOING TO SEE DIFFERENT FORMS OF MODERNITY. IT IS MY VIEW, FOR EXAMPLE, THAT CONFUCIAN CULTURE, WHERE THE FAMILY PLAYS A STRONG CENTRAL ROLE, IS A CULTURE WHICH MIGHT BE ABLE TO MODERNIZE, AND TO HAVE CAPITALISM AND MODERNITY BUT STILL RETAIN A STRONG FAMILY-- STRONGER THAN WE IN THE WEST HAVE BEEN ABLE TO DO. IN THAT SENSE, WE HAVE THINGS TO LEARN FROM THEM. I WOULD NOT SAY THAT CONFUCIAN CULTURES ARE THEREFORE UNDEMOCRATIC. I MIGHT EVEN SAY THAT CONFUCIAN CULTURES HAS WITHIN IT CERTAIN POSSIBLE PROTECTIONS AGAINST THE CORRUPTING INFLUENCE OF MODERNITY. THE BREAKDOWN OF THE FAMILY WE ARE TALKING ABOUT, BECAUSE THERE ARE STRONGER ROOTS THERE THAN MAYBE..

    DOBRIANSKY: YOU KNOW CARL, I SEE THIS FROM A BIT OF A DIFFERENT VANTAGE POINT, AND LISTENING TO BOTH OF YOU GO BACK AND FORTH ON THIS ISSUE, FROM HAVING BEEN IN GOVERNMENT, IF I HEARD SOMEONE MAKE THIS COMMENT, WELL WE ARE FAVORING MODERNIZATION NOT WESTERNIZATION. I THINK THERE IS A BIT OF RESENTMENT, THAT THE UNITED STATES SEEKS TO, AS I SAID, AT THE OUTSET, PUSH A FORM OF DEMOCRACY ON OTHER COUNTRIES. THAT ISN'T THE CASE. I THINK IT IS AN UNFAIR IMPRESSION. I THINK THAT, ALTHOUGH WE'VE ATTACHED A GREAT DEAL OF IMPORTANCE TO THE SPREAD OF DEMOCRACY, I THINK THAT IT HAS BEEN SAID TIME AND AGAIN THAT DIFFERENT CULTURES, DIFFERENT SOCIETIES NEED TO DEVELOP THEMSELVES. WE WILL PROVIDE ASSISTANCE, WE WILL SHARE OUR SUGGESTIONS, WE WILL SHARE OUR OWN EXPERIENCE. BUT WHAT THEY DO IN THE END IS THEIR OWN. BUT I HEAR THIS TYPE OF UNDERTONE IN THERE

    HOST: I'M AFRAID THAT'S ALL THE TIME WE HAVE THIS WEEK. I'D LIKE TO THANK OUR GUESTS -- CARL GERSHMAN FROM THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY; PAULA DOBRIANSKY FROM N-E-T TELEVISION; AND DINESH D'SOUZA FROM THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE -- FOR JOINING ME TO DISCUSS CULTURE AND DEMOCRACY. THIS IS ROBERT REILLY FOR ON THE LINE.
    03-Apr-97 1:10 PM EST (1810 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EURO / WORLD CUP (L ONLY) (CQ) BY NEIL ROSENBERG (LONDON)

    DATE=4/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212390
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // REISSUES 2-212389 FIXES NUMBER IN 4TH GRAF OF TEXT (SCOTLAND HAS A SEVEN POINT LEAD) //

    INTRO: EUROPEAN SOCCER IS SORTING OUT THE RESULTS OF NUMEROUS WORLD CUP QUALIFYING MATCHES. V-O-A'S NEIL ROSENBERG REPORTS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: WEDNESDAY WAS A DAY OF UPSETS IN WORLD CUP QUALIFYING IN EUROPE. THE BIGGEST WAS MACEDONIA'S 3-2 DEFEAT OF IRELAND. THE VICTORY PUTS MACEDONIA IN SECOND PLACE BEHIND GROUP EIGHT LEADER ROMANIA, WHICH ALSO WON.

    ANOTHER UPSET SAW TURKEY HAND THE NETHERLANDS ITS FIRST LOSS IN QUALIFYING, 1-0. THE NETHERLANDS IS STILL AT THE TOP OF GROUP THREE.

    POLAND HELD ITALY TO A SCORELESS TIE. IT IS ITALY'S FIRST BLEMISH IN GROUP TWO, BUT IT STILL HAS A FOUR POINT LEAD OVER ENGLAND.

    SCOTLAND IS LOOKING GOOD AFTER ITS 2-0 WIN OVER AUSTRIA. SCOTLAND HAS AN SEVEN-POINT LEAD IN GROUP FOUR, BUT THE OTHER TEAMS HAVE EACH PLAYED TWO FEWER GAMES THAN THE SCOTS.

    IN A BIT OF A SURPRISE, UKRAINE, WITH A 2-1 WIN OVER NORTHERN IRELAND, LEADS BOTH GERMANY AND PORTUGAL IN GROUP NINE.

    BULGARIA MOVED TO WITHIN ONE POINT OF GROUP FIVE LEADER ISRAEL BY TROUNCING CYPRUS, 4-1. YUGOSLAVIA STANDS JUST ONE POINT BEHIND SPAIN IN GROUP SIX AFTER BEATING THE CZECH REPUBLIC, 3-1.

    BOSNIA AND ALBANIA PUT ON TWO SPECIAL PERFORMANCES WEDNESDAY. BOSNIA PLAYED ITS FIRST EVER HOME GAME IN SARAJEVO, BUT LOST 1-0 TO GROUP ONE LEADER GREECE. GERMANY NEEDED A HAT TRICK BY ULF KIRSTEN TO BEAT ALBANIA 3-2. THE GAME WAS MOVED TO SPAIN BECAUSE OF THE UNREST IN ALBANIA.

    THE GROUP WINNERS, HOST COUNTRY FRANCE, AND THE BEST SECOND PLACE FINISHER AUTOMATICALLY QUALIFY FOR THE THE 32-NATION FINAL IN FRANCE. THE EIGHT OTHER SECOND PLACE FINISHERS WILL HAVE A PLAYOFF WITH FOUR ADVANCING TO THE FINALS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NR/JWH
    03-Apr-97 6:05 AM EST (1105 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=4/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212404
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRICES CLOSED DOWN AGAIN ON MAJOR STOCK MARKETS OF WESTERN EUROPE ON THURSDAY. PAUL FRANCUCH IN LONDON HAS THE FINAL FIGURES.

    TEXT: TRADING WAS THIN IN MOST OF THE WEST EUROPEAN MARKETS. MANY INVESTORS ARE WAITING FOR THE LATEST U-S UNEMPLOYMENT FIGURES TO BE RELEASED ON FRIDAY. THAT COULD SIGNAL WHETHER INTEREST RATES WILL TAKE ANOTHER HIKE, WHICH ANALYSTS SAY IS BAD NEWS FOR THE STOCK MARKET.

    ALL THREE MAJOR MARKETS IN WEST EUROPE CLOSED DOWN THURSDAY. THE "DAX 30" INDEX IN FRANKFURT PLUMMETED ALMOST 87 POINTS. IN PARIS, THE "CAC 40" STOCK INDEX WAS DOWN ALMOST 16 POINTS AT THE CLOSE. HERE IN LONDON, THE KEY "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX LOST 22 POINTS FOR THE DAY.

    THE DOLLAR WAS DOWN A FRACTION OF A CENT AGAINST THE MARK AND UP A FRACTION OF A CENT AGAINST THE POUND. GOLD HERE IN LONDON LOST TWO-DOLLARS-70-CENTS IN THE CLOSING AFTERNOON FIX, SELLING AT 348-DOLLARS-45 CENTS AN OUNCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/KL
    03-Apr-97 12:27 PM EST (1727 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] GERMANY / KOHL (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=4/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212394
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMAN CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL, WHO IS ALREADY THE COUNTRY'S LONGEST SERVING POST WAR CHANCELLOR, SAYS HE WILL RUN FOR A RECORD FIFTH TERM. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM BONN.

    TEXT: CHANCELLOR KOHL ENDED MONTHS OF SPECULATION ABOUT HIS PLANS FOR THE FUTURE WHEN HE ANNOUNCED ON GERMAN TELEVISION THAT HE WANTS TO RUN FOR A FIFTH TERM IN 1998. MR. KOHL, WHO FIRST TOOK OFFICE IN 1982, SAID THE ONLY CONDITION WAS THAT HIS PARTY AND POLITICAL FRIENDS WANT HIM TO RUN AGAIN -- SOMETHING THEY HAVE ALREADY BEEN SAYING FOR MONTHS.

    SPEAKING FROM AUSTRIA WHERE HE IS ON VACATION, THE CHANCELLOR SAID HE BELIEVES THE CURRENT CONDITIONS REQUIRE HE BE A CANDIDATE. MR. KOHL, WHO RECENTLY SURPASSED KONRAD ADENAUR AS THE LONGEST SERVING POST WAR CHANCELLOR, HAS BEEN A KEY SUPPORTER OF NATO EXPANSION AND THE CREATION OF A SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY.

    BUT WITH UNEMPLOYMENT IN GERMANY AT A POST WAR HIGH AND GROWING SENTIMENT AGAINST EUROPEAN MONETARY UNION, THE CHANCELLOR IS LIKELY TO FACE A DIFFICULT ELECTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH
    03-Apr-97 7:58 AM EST (1258 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=4/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-212412
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (THURSDAY) AS INTEREST RATE WORRIES CONTINUED ON WALL STREET. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 64 HUNDRED 77, DOWN 39 POINTS. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 750, UP A FRACTION OF ONE POINT.

    ANALYSTS SAY THERE WAS CONCERN ON WALL STREET IN ADVANCE OF FRIDAY'S U-S EMPLOYMENT REPORT. FORECASTS SAY THE NUMBER OF NEW JOBS CREATED IN THE UNITED STATES WILL BE STRONG, GIVING MORE REASON FOR THE U-S CENTRAL BANK TO AGAIN RAISE INTEREST RATES TO HEAD-OFF INFLATION.

    THERE IS ALSO CONCERN ABOUT CORPORATE EARNINGS AND SOME TRADERS ARE STARTING TO WORRY THAT THE CURRENT DOWNWARD TREND IN STOCK PRICES MAY BE MORE THAN A ROUTINE CORRECTION. BOB SEIJAS (SAY-HAAS) OF THE MERRILL LYNCH INVESTMENT FIRM SAYS MANY MARKET PARTICIPANTS HAD BEEN EXPECTING A REBOUND TO AT LEAST THE 65 HUNDRED LEVEL IN THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE.

    /// SEIJAS ACT ///

    COMMON WISDOM IS THAT IT SHOULD BE BOUNCING (COMING UP) FROM HERE. IT MAY STILL. BUT THE LONGER IT DOES NOT HAPPEN, THE TOUGHER IT BECOMES.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE HAD LOST CLOSE TO 100 POINTS DURING THURSDAY'S SESSION BEFORE RECOVERING MUCH OF THE LOSSES LATER IN THE DAY.

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS CLAIMING JOBLESS BENEFITS ROSE SLIGHTLY LAST WEEK.

    THE STOCK OF I-B-M, THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER COMPANY, WAS DOWN SHARPLY AS REPORTS CIRCULATED THAT ANALYSTS WERE DOWNGRADING THEIR ESTIMATES OF THE COMPANY'S PROFITS. THE ANALYSTS SAY PART OF I-B-M'S PROBLEM IS THE STRONG U-S DOLLAR WHICH IS HURTING ITS INTERNATIONAL SALES.

    THE A-B-C TELEVISION NETWORK WILL LAUNCH A 24 HOUR ONLINE COMPUTER NEWS SERVICE LATER THIS MONTH. THE MOVE IS AIMED AT PROVIDING COMPETITION TO THE M-S-N-B-C ONLINE NEWS SERVICE, A JOINT VENTURE OF THE MICROSOFT COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPANY AND THE N-B-C TELEVISION NETWORK.

    THE HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPUTER COMPANY HAS ANNOUNCED A JOINT VENTURE WITH THE CHARTERED SEMICONDUCTOR COMPANY IN SINGAPORE TO BUILD A FACTORY TO MANUFACTURE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. THE FACTORY, TO BE LOCATED IN SINGAPORE, WILL INVOLVE A COMBINED INVESTMENT OF ABOUT ONE BILLION DOLLARS. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/LWM
    03-Apr-97 5:09 PM EST (2209 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] PUSH, AMD, YEAR 2000, STORAGE, CYBER RIGHTS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/3/97
    TYPE=COMPUTER DIGEST
    NUMBER=3-27057
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: ON THIS EDITION OF COMPUTER DIGEST:

    SOME FACTS ON "PUSH" TECHNOLOGY,

    A FAST CHIP TO CHALLENGE INTEL,

    LOOKING AHEAD TO THE YEAR 2000,

    A POSSIBLE REPLACEMENT FOR HARD DISKS,

    AND, A GROUP WHICH WATCHES OVER WHAT IT CALLS "CYBER RIGHTS." *****

    PUSH

    TEXT: USERS OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB PORTION OF THE INTERNET HAVE A NEW WAY TO GET INFORMATION. THE DEVELOPMENT IS CALLED "PUSH" TECHNOLOGY AND WHAT IT DOES IS AUTOMATICALLY CHANNEL REQUESTED VIDEO AND AUDIO TO PERSONAL COMPUTERS WITHOUT THE NEED TO SEARCH FOR IT. FOR EXAMPLE, PUSH TECHNOLOGY SOFTWARE CAN BE PROGRAMMED TO SEND NEWS STORIES OR SPORTS SCORES AT REGULAR INTERVALS. PETER SHANKMAN, A FREELANCE ON-LINE CONTENT DEVELOPER, TOLD THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER THAT HE IS -- IN HIS WORDS -- "A NEWS JUNKIE" WHO LIKES TO KNOW THAT HE CAN GET CONTINUOUS UPDATES. MELISSA BANE, A SENIOR ANALYST WITH THE YANKEE GROUP, AN INTERNET RESEARCH FIRM, SAYS THAT "THE WEB IS FILLED WITH A LOT OF MEANINGLESS JUNK. INSTEAD OF WASTING TIME TO FIND SOMETHING OF VALUE, YOU MIGHT AS WELL HAVE TECHNOLOGY WORKING FOR YOU." *****

    AMD

    TEXT: INTEL IS A WORLD LEADER WHEN IT COMES TO THE MANUFACTURE OF CHIPS THAT POWER PERSONAL COMPUTERS. BUT, NOTES THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, ANOTHER AMERICAN COMPANY IS CHALLENGING INTEL'S LEAD. THIS WEEK (FYI - APRIL 2), ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES INCORPORATED, HAS COME OUT WITH A NEW LINE OF MICROPROCESSORS THAT INDUSTRY EXPERTS SAY "IS NEARLY AS FAST AS INTEL'S NEW PENTIUM II CHIP AND WILL COST AT LEAST 25% LESS." THE DEVELOPMENT, SAYS THE NEWSPAPER, "COULD POSE THE FIRST REAL COMPETITION TO INTEL'S DOMINANCE SINCE THE 1980S." DEAN KLESKEN, AN INDUSTRY ANALYST, SAYS THAT "CONSUMERS ARE GOING TO WIN BECAUSE THEY WILL SEE LOWER PRICES FOR THEIR PCS SOONER." *****

    YEAR 2000

    TEXT: EFFORTS ARE UNDERWAY TO DEAL WITH A POTENTIAL PROBLEM. MANY OLDER COMPUTERS WILL BE UNABLE TO FUNCTION AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. INSTEAD OF READING THE YEAR 2000, THE HIGH-TECH DEVICES WILL READ 1900. THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA SAYS THAT TIGHTER COORDINATION BETWEEN FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ON THE YEAR TWO THOUSAND SITUATION MAY BE IN THE WORKS. THE ASSOCIATION SAYS THAT A DRAFT PLAN DUE FOR APPROVAL NEXT MONTH (FYI - MAY) WILL MAKE IT EASIER FOR GOVERNMENT BODIES -- AT THE FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL LEVELS -- TO COMMUNICATE. THE AGENDA IS INCLUDED IN VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE'S "ACCESS AMERICA: REENGINEERING THROUGH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY" PROGRAM. *****

    STORAGE

    TEXT: PC MAGAZINE REPORTS THAT DEVELOPERS OF A NEW DEVICE SAY THAT IT COULD MAKE TRADITIONAL HARD DISK STORAGE OBSOLETE WITHIN A YEAR. THE TERASTOR CORPORATION, OF SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, IS WORKING ON NEAR-FIELD RECORDING, "A NEW TECHNOLOGY THAT BORROWS FROM MAGNETIC DISK AND MAGNETO-OPTICAL TECHNOLOGIES." THE DEVELOPMENT "OFFERS TEN TIMES THE CAPACITY OF HARD DISKS, AT COMPARABLE SPEEDS." THE FIRST NEAR-FIELD RECORDING DRIVES ARE EXPECTED TO BE ON SALE IN THE SPRING OF 1998. THE MAGAZINE SAYS THAT THE DEVICES "COULD BE IDEAL CANDIDATES FOR WORKSTATIONS AND NETWORK SERVERS." *****

    CYBER RIGHTS

    TEXT: LAST MONTH (FYI - MARCH) LAWYERS ARGUED WHAT THE NEW YORK TIMES DESCRIBES AS "THE FIRST CASE BEFORE THE SUPREME COURT TESTING THE LIMITS OF FREE SPEECH ON THE INTERNET." AMONG THOSE INTERESTED IN THE OUTCOME IS THE VOTERS TELECOMMUNICATIONS WATCH, A NEW YORK-BASED PRIVATE GROUP THAT SEEKS "TO MINIMIZE REGULATION THAT ITS MEMBERS THINK WOULD STIFLE THE FREE EXCHANGE OF IDEAS ON THE INTERNET." THE PAPER SAYS THAT IN ITS THREE YEARS OF EXISTENCE, THE WATCH "HAS EMERGED AS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT COMMUNICATIONS AND GRASS-ROOTS ORGANIZING ARMS OF THE MOVEMENT TO PROTECT CYBER RIGHTS." SHABBIR J. SAFDAR, THE FOUNDER, SAYS THAT "WE WANT TO SET THE TONE FOR PEOPLE'S ANTICIPATION OF THE (SUPREME COURT) DECISION, SO THAT THEY UNDERSTAND THAT THERE IS A LOT AT STAKE HERE: FREEDOM OF SPEECH ON THE INTERNET IN THE 21ST CENTURY." BUT, PROPONENTS OF REGULATORY LEGISLATION SAY THAT LAWS ARE NECESSARY "TO PROTECT CHILDREN FROM PORNOGRAPHIC MATERIAL THAT IS EASILY AVAILABLE ON LINE." *****
    03-Apr-97 3:16 PM EST (2016 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/03/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10098
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON THURSDAY APRIL THIRD //

    INTRO: THE DOMINANT TOPICS IN THURSDAY'S U-S PRESS EDITORIAL IS NEW REPORTS ABOUT THE WHITE HOUSE ROLE IN HELPING FIND A JOB FOR OUT-GOING ASSISTANT ATTORNEY GENERAL WEBSTER HUBBELL. OTHER TOPICS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE THE INCREDIBLE JOURNEY OF THE PIONEER TEN SPACE CRAFT; RESTORING ALBANIA; THE JORDANIAN VIEW OF HEALING THE PALESTINIAN-ISRAELI RIFT; AND THE OPENING OF THE BASEBALL SEASON. NOW, HERE WITH SOME QUOTES AND A CLOSER LOOK IS ______________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: MANY OF THE NATION'S LARGEST DAILIES ARE LEADING THEIR EDITORIAL PAGES WITH COMMENTS ABOUT ATTEMPTS BY WHITE HOUSE AND OTHER HIGH-RANKING OFFICIALS TO FIND A JOB FOR WEBSTER HUBBELL, A LIFE-LONG FRIEND OF PRESIDENT CLINTON. MR. HUBBELL RESIGNED HIS JOB AS ASSISTANT ATTORNEY GENERAL DURING THE PRESIDENT'S FIRST TERM, AND WAS LATER INDICTED ON TAX EVASION CHARGES AND PLED GUILTY, GOING TO PRISON FOR MORE THAN A YEAR.

    THE NEW YORK TIMES IS LEADING ITS EDITORIALS WITH THIS COMMENTARY.

    VOICE: "THE LATEST PIECE OF THIS PUZZLE SHOWS THAT TOP CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS, WITH THE BLESSING OF HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON AND POSSIBLY THE KNOWLEDGE OF PRESIDENT CLINTON, MADE EXTRAORDINARY EFFORTS TO FIND PROFITABLE EMPLOYMENT FOR MR. HUBBELL AS HE FELL UNDER A LEGAL CLOUD IN 1994. THIS INFORMATION, GRUDGINGLY PROVIDED BY THE WHITE HOUSE, ELEVATES THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE HUBBELL MATTER IN SEVERAL WAYS, NONE OF THEM FLATTERING TO THE WHITE HOUSE. ..... THE LATEST DISCLOSURES REVEAL A REMARKABLE LEVEL OF WHITE HOUSE INTEREST IN MR. HUBBELL'S FINANCIAL HEALTH AT A TIME WHEN HE WAS CONSIDERED TO BE A POTENTIALLY VITAL WITNESS IN THE EXAMINATION OF MR. CLINTON'S PERSONAL AND POLITICAL FINANCES. ..... MR. HUBBELL WAS INTIMATELY FAMILIAR WITH MANY ASPECTS OF THE WHITEWATER CASE. ..... THE LATEST DISCLOSURES ABOUT MR. HUBBELL MAKE WHAT IS ALREADY OBVIOUS EVEN MORE COMPELLING - - THE NEED FOR AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL TO INVESTIGATE THE FUND-RAISING MESS......"

    TEXT: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL IS EVEN HARSHER IN ITS ASSESSMENT.

    VOICE: "IN ITS PRE-EMPTIVE DISCLOSURES, THE WHITE HOUSE SOUGHT TO PORTRAY THE PAYMENTS AS HELP TO AN OLD FRIEND. THE ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATION IS A CONSPIRACY TO OBSTRUCT JUSTICE, HATCHED IN THE MARCH 1994 MEETING WITH THE CLINTONS, HAROLD ICKES, BRUCE LINDSEY AND DAVID KENDALL, PERSONAL ATTORNEY TO THE CLINTONS. THE KEY QUESTION IS ONE OF MOTIVE: CHARITY, OR HUSH MONEY? [A SLANG TERM MEANING "MONEY PROVIDED TO A POTENTIAL WITNESS IN A COURT CASE, SO HE/SHE WILL AMEND THE MOST DAMAGING TESTIMONY"]

    TEXT: AND THE WASHINGTON POST WRITES:

    VOICE: "WE'VE WRITTEN A NUMBER OF TIMES IN THE PAST FEW MONTHS ABOUT THE WAY THE CLINTON WHITE HOUSE DOES - - AND DOESN'T DISPENSE THE TRUTH WHEN IT IS IN TROUBLE. TRUTH IN DRIBS AND DRABS [TINY BITS] HAS BEEN THE THEME. .... THEY SAY ONE THING, IT TURNS OUT TO BE NOT QUITE RIGHT, AND THEY SAY ANOTHER AND ANOTHER, AND WHO KNOWS WHAT'S TRUE AND WHEN TO STOP?"

    TEXT: IN MAINE, PORTLAND'S PRESS HERALD IS ALSO UNSETTLED BY THE RECENT ADMISSIONS, COMMENTING THAT THEY:

    VOICE: "....SHOW THE URGENT NEED TO FIND SOLID ANSWERS TO SOME HIGHLY SERIOUS QUESTIONS. ..... IT WASN'T ONLY THE STAFFERS, FORMER WHITE HOUSE CHIEF OF STAFF THOMAS 'MACK' MCLARTY AND THAT POSITION'S CURRENT OCCUPANT, ERSKINE BOWLES, WHO HELPED FIND SUPPORT FOR HUBBELL. HIS LARGEST PAYMENT, 100-THOUSAND DOLLARS, CAME FROM JAMES RIADY, WHOSE FAMILY CONTROLS THE LIPPO GROUP, AN INDONESIAN CONSTRUCTION FIRMS WITH CONNECTIONS TO CHINA. ..... QUESTIONS OF FOREIGN INVOLVEMENT IN A U-S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN AND EARLIER CHARGES OF ILLEGAL FUND-RAISING ON GOVERNMENT PROPERTY ARE VERY SERIOUS. THEY CRY OUT FOR ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO TO APPOINT A NEW SPECIAL COUNSEL NOW."

    TEXT: TURNING TO OUTER SPACE AND THE INCREDIBLE JOURNEY OF THE PIONEER TEN SPACECRAFT, THE OREGONIAN, IN PORTLAND LAUDS THE REMARKABLE LITTLE SATELLITE.

    VOICE: "FOR 25 YEARS, PIONEER TEN HAS BEEN BOLDLY GOING WHERE NO HUMAN-MADE DEVICE HAS EVER GONE BEFORE. JUST THINK. THAT'S ONLY A FEW YEARS LESS THAN STAR TREK'S [THE ULTRA POPULAR U-S TELEVISION SERIES ABOUT SPACE TRAVEL] BEEN ON. AND, AT ALMOST 10 BILLION KILOMETERS FROM EARTH - - MORE THAN TWICE THE DISTANCE FROM HERE TO NEPTUNE BUT ONLY ABOUT HALFWAY TO THE REGION WHERE COMETS SWARM - - THE SPACECRAFT IS STILL GOING, STILL, EVEN, SENDING ITS RADIO SIGNALS BACK TO ITS HOME PLANET. ..... BUT AS OF MONDAY, EARTH'S NOT LISTENING ANYMORE. NASA ... SCIENTISTS ... DECIDED THE INFORMATION FROM SPACE WASN'T WORTH THE COST OF RECEIVING IT. SO THEY DIVERTED THE 70-METER DEEP-SPACE TRACKING ANTENNA TO OTHER USES, ENDING CONTACT WITH THE LITTLE PIONEER. WHAT AN INCREDIBLE DEVICE THIS HAS BEEN. WHAT AN INCREDIBLE VOYAGE, TOO. ..... IT'S FAREWELL AND SAFE JOURNEY, PIONEER TEN. IT WAS NICE HEARING FROM YOU."

    TEXT: IN THE SOUTH, THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION ALSO PAYS TRIBUTE TO THE INDOMITABLE LITTLE CRAFT WHICH CARRIES A GOLD-PLATED PLAQUE SHOWING FIGURES OF A MAN AND A WOMAN, A MAP OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM AND OTHER SYMBOLS OF EARTH.

    VOICE: "THE TECHNICAL WIZARDRY OF HUMANKIND SOMETIMES SURPASSES ALL EXPECTATIONS. PIONEER TEN IS SUCH A PIECE OF WORK. AFTER 25 YEARS..... NASA IS RIGHT TO SET SENTIMENT ASIDE AND DEVOTE ITS RESOURCES TO MORE PRESSING BUSINESS. BUT IN ITS HEYDAY [AT ITS MOST IMPORTANT PERIOD] PIONEER TEN WAS A WONDER. ..... IT KEPT GOING AND GOING .... UNTIL, FINALLY IT BECAME THE FIRST MAN-MADE OBJECT TO BREAK FREE OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. ..... PERHAPS MILLENNIA FROM NOW, SOME EXTRATERRESTRIAL MAY .... NOTICE THE PLAQUE AND FIGURE OUT WHAT WE, THE INHABITANTS OF THE THIRD PLANET OF A MINOR STAR, ARE TRYING TO COMMUNICATE. THEN PIONEER TEN'S FANTASTIC JOURNEY WILL BE COMPLETE."

    TEXT: BACK ON EARTH, AND LOOKING AT THE TROUBLE IN ALBANIA, TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST WRITES:

    VOICE: "ALBANIA IS A DISINTEGRATING COUNTRY THAT DESPERATELY NEEDS TO BE PUT BACK TOGETHER. BAD LUCK AND BAD LEADERSHIP, ESPECIALLY PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA'S, HAVE BROUGHT THE FORMER MAVERICK STALINIST OUTPOST TO THE BRINK OF SELF-DESTRUCTION. ..... ALBANIA FACES NOT ONLY A NORTH-SOUTH SPLIT BUT THE DISPERSAL OF ARMS AND AUTHORITY TO LOCAL WARLORDS. ..... IT IS A BLESSING THAT FEW EXPECTED THAT OVERSEAS ALBANIANS LIVING IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE AND IN MACEDONIA HAVE BEEN AS RELATIVELY ORDERLY AS THEY HAVE BEEN. ...."

    TEXT: TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION SUGGESTS THAT JORDAN'S KING HUSSEIN MAY BE THE ONLY VOICE OF REASON IN THE DETERIORATING SITUATION BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIANS.

    VOICE: "ONLY ONE OF THE PRINCIPALS IN THE TROUBLED REGION CONDUCTS HIMSELF THESE DAYS AS IF HE TRULY WANTS TO SAVE THE DREAM. THAT MAN IS JORDAN'S KING HUSSEIN. HIS ADVICE SHOULD BE HEEDED. [KING] HUSSEIN WAS IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEK IMPLORING THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION TO EXERT FIRMER LEADERSHIP IMMEDIATELY TO PREVENT A BREAKDOWN IN ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN NEGOTIATIONS . . . THE THRUST OF (KING) HUSSEIN'S ADVICE TO (PRESIDENT) CLINTON IS THAT PRESSURE ON EITHER THE ISRAELIS OR PALESTINIANS AT THIS STAGE WON'T WORK, BUT STRAIGHT TALK AND EVENHANDED TREATMENT COULD. [MR.] CLINTON SHOULD TAKE THAT AS A REBUKE OF HIS ADMINISTRATION'S COWARDICE IN VETOING A U-N CONDEMNATION OF [MR.] NETANYAHU'S EAST JERUSALEM HOUSING PROJECT EVEN WHILE DISAPPROVING OF IT. ..... EACH SIDE HAS TO BE PREPARED TO YIELD HERE AND THERE TO WIN THE TRUST OF THE OTHER, AND AMERICA IS THE ONLY POWER ON EARTH TO SHOW THEM THE WAY."

    TEXT: FINALLY, THE PERENNIAL SIGN OF SPRING, AS THE NATION'S PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL LEAGUES BEGAN PLAY YESTERDAY. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR SAYS OF THE OCCASION ALL IS STILL NOT WELL ON THE "DIAMOND" [SLANG FOR THE BASEBALL PLAYING FIELD WHICH IS DIAMOND SHAPED.]

    VOICE: "MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL FACES MORE ADVERSITY THAN A SPRING-TIME BLIZZARD IN BOSTON AND OTHER NORTHERN CITIES AS THE 1997 SEASON OPENS THIS WEEK. THE NATIONAL GAME IS STRUGGLING TO HOLD ONTO ITS SHRINKING PLACE IN THE AMERICAN SPORTS FAN'S HEART. FORECASTS OF DECLINING CROWDS AND FLAGGING INTEREST HAVE PARTICULAR POIGNANCY THIS YEAR, WHICH MARKS A HALF CENTURY SINCE JACKIE ROBINSON CRACKED BASEBALL'S COLOR BARRIER. [MR.] ROBINSON OPENED THE WAY FOR BASEBALL TO BECOME MORE TRULY THE NATIONAL [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] PASTIME. ..... NOW MAJOR LEAGUE SCOUTS HAVE TROUBLE FINDING BLACK KIDS IN AMERICAN CITIES WHO EVEN WANT TO PLAY THE GAME. THE GLORY LIES ELSEWHERE - - IN BASKETBALL AND FOOTBALL, EVEN IN GOLF, WITH THE RISE OF SUPERSTAR TIGER WOODS. ..... BASEBALL, AFTER ALL, IS LIFE IN MINIATURE, WITH ITS LULLS, DRAMATIC BURSTS, AND INDETERMINATE CONTEST LENGTHS. IT'S ALSO LADEN WITH HISTORY, AS JACKIE ROBINSON'S REMARKABLE STORY UNFAILINGLY REMINDS US."

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF SOME OF TODAY'S EDITORIALS FROM THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NES
    03-Apr-97 11:31 AM EST (1631 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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