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Voice of America, 96-06-18

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TURKEY KURDS (L) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [02] TURKEY/SYRIA (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [03] RUSSIAN ELECTION RESULTS BY JENNIFER L. BRANT (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] RUSSIA/YELTSIN'S SHUFFLE BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [05] BOSNIA/PROTEST (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (BANJA LUKA)
  • [06] BOSNIA INTERNET PROJECT BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] AMNESTY/MIDEAST (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)
  • [08] AMNESTY AND EXPORTS (L-ONLY) BY DON HENRY (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] AMNESTY ANNUAL REPORT (L-ONLY) BY CHRISTINE FURNELL (LONDON)
  • [10] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] TURKEY KURDS (L) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=6/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198928
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT TUESDAY EXTENDED THE MANDATE OF A U-S LED MILITARY OPERATION BASED IN SOUTHERN TURKEY TO PROTECT KURDS IN NORTHERN IRAQ FROM POSSIBLE ATTACK BY IRAQ. BUT AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT MADE CLEAR THE EXTENSION WAS A TEMPORARY ONE TO ALLOW MORE TIME FOR TALKS.

    TEXT: THE OPERATION, DUBBED "PROVIDE COMFORT," IS MADE UP OF ALLIED FORCES COMPRISING AMERICAN, FRENCH, TURKISH AND BRITISH WARPLANES, WHICH CONDUCT DAILY RECONNAISSANCE FLIGHTS IN WHAT'S CALLED THE "NO FLY" ZONE OVER NORTHERN IRAQ.

    THE FORCE WAS ESTABLISHED IN THE WAKE OF THE IRAQI KURDS FAILED REBELLION AGAINST SADDAM HUSSEIN AT THE END OF THE 1990 GULF WAR. ITS PRESENCE IS DEEMED CRUCIAL TO THE SECURITY OF AN ESTIMATED THREE AND HALF MILLION KURDS IN NORTHERN IRAQ.

    MANY TURKS, HOWEVER, BELIEVE THE OPERATION'S REAL AIM IS TO OVERSEE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH STATE IN NORTHERN IRAQ.

    TURKISH POLITICIANS, INCLUDING LEADER OF THE PRO-ISLAMIC WELFARE PARTY, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN, AND LEADER OF THE DEMOCRATIC LEFT PARTY, BULENT ECEVIT, HAVE LONG CAMPAIGNED FOR THE DEPARTURE OF THE ALLIED FORCE.

    MR. ECEVIT, WHOSE PARTY CONTROLS 70 SEATS IN THE 550-MEMBER TURKISH PARLIAMENT, HAD BEEN THREATENING TO VOTE AGAINST THE EXTENSION. TOGETHER WITH THE ISLAMISTS, WHO HAVE 158 SEATS IN THE PARLIAMENT, MR. ECEVIT COULD HAVE BLOCKED THE EXTENSION.

    BUT HE WAS PERSUADED AT THE LAST MINUTE NOT TO DO SO BY TURKISH PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ. TURKISH OFFICIALS ARGUE THAT THE DEPARTURE OF THE FORCE COULD PROVOKE A MASS EXODUS OF SOME ESTIMATED THREE AND A HALF MILLION IRAQI KURDS TOWARDS THE TURKISH BORDER. MANY, INCLUDING PRIME MINISTER YILMAZ, BELIEVE THAT THE TERMS OF THE AGREEMENT NEED REVISION. PROPOSALS PUT FORWARD BY TURKISH DEFENSE MINISTER OLTAN SUNGURLU TO HIS U-S COUNTERPART, DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY, INCLUDE MOVING THE OPERATION'S COMMAND CENTER FROM ITS PRESENT LOCATION IN THE NORTHERN IRAQI BORDER TOWN OF ZAKHO TO THE TURKISH BORDER TOWN OF SILOPI.

    BUT U-S OFFICIALS THINK SUCH A MOVE WOULD ENCOURAGE IRAQI PRESIDENT SADDAM HUSSEIN TO INCORRECTLY BELIEVE THAT WESTERN RESOLVE TO PROTECT THE KURDS IS WEAKENING. OVER THE NEXT MONTH, TURKISH AND U-S OFFICIALS ARE EXPECTED TO CONTINUE NEGOTIATING THE TERMS OF OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT, BEFORE IT IS SCHEDULED TO EXPIRE AT THE END OF JULY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/KL
    18-Jun-96 2:25 PM EDT (1825 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] TURKEY/SYRIA (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=6/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198920
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: REPORTS OF BOMB BLASTS, GUNFIRE AND MASSING TROOPS ARE EMERGING FROM THE BORDER AREA BETWEEN TURKEY AND SYRIA. SYRIA'S VICE-PRESIDENT, ABDUL KHALIM KHADDAM, DENIED TUESDAY THAT HIS COUNTRY WAS MASSING TROOPS. IN TURN, HE ACCUSED ANKARA OF A MILITARY BUILD UP AT THE FRONTIER. REPORTER AMBERIN ZAMAN HAS THIS REPORT AFTER RETURNING FROM THE TROUBLED REGION, KNOWN AS THE HATAY PROVINCE, THE FOCUS OF A QUARREL ABOUT WATER AND SECURITY.

    TEXT: IN THIS PREDOMINANTLY ARAB PROVINCE BORDERING THE SYRIAN PLAINS, FEARS OF A MILITARY CONFRONTATION GROW BY THE DAY. IT IS HERE THE ANIMOSITY BETWEEN TURKEY AND SYRIA IS ROOTED.

    FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN THE EARLY 1920S, HATAY WAS MADE PART OF SYRIA BY FRENCH MANDATE. HATAY WOULD HAVE REMAINED PART OF SYRIA HAD THE FRENCH NOT ALLOWED THE PROVINCE TO JOIN TURKEY IN 1939 IN EXCHANGE FOR TURKISH SUPPORT IN WORLD WAR TWO AGAINST NAZI GERMANY.

    ON OFFICIAL SYRIAN MAPS, HATAY IS STILL SHOWN AS PART OF ITS TERRITORY. WHEN I TALKED WITH A LOCAL NEWS VENDOR LIVING IN THE REGION -- A MAN IDENTIFIED ONLY AS "HAFIZ," -- HE TOLD ME THE MAP IS THE BEST PROOF OF WHAT HE TERMS SYRIA'S "TERRITORIAL DESIGNS" OVER THE PROVINCE.

    LIKE MOST ETHNIC ARABS LIVING HERE, HAFIZ SAYS HE WOULD NEVER WANT HATAY TO FALL UNDER SYRIAN CONTROL.

    // HAFIZ ACT -- IN ARABIC, FADE //

    HAFIZ SAYS THAT UNDER TURKISH RULE, HE AND HIS PEOPLE ENJOY DEMOCRACY AND FREEDOM, WHICH HE SAYS DOES NOT EXIST IN SYRIA.

    SYRIAN OFFICIALS, WHO DECLINED TO BE INTERVIEWED ON TAPE FOR THIS REPORT, DENY ANY TERRITORIAL CLAIMS OVER THE PROVINCE. THEY SAY THEIR MAIN PROBLEM WITH TURKEY IS OVER THE SHARING WATER FROM THE EUPHRATES RIVER -- WATER FOR WHICH SYRIAN AGRICULTURE HEAVILY DEPENDS.

    SYRIAN OFFICIALS SAY A MULTI-BILLION DOLLAR IRRIGATION AND ELECTRIC POWER PROGRAM, WHICH INVOLVES THE BUILDING OF SEVERAL DAMS ALONG THE EUPHRATES, THREATENS SYRIA'S SHARE OF THE RIVER'S WATERS.

    DAMASCUS HAS LONG PRESSED ANKARA TO GRANT IT A FIXED SHARE OF THE WATER -- WELL BEFORE THE PROJECT IS COMPLETED. SYRIA IS EXPECTED TO RAISE THE ISSUE DURING THE ARAB SUMMIT IN CAIRO WHICH BEGINS LATER THIS WEEK.

    SYRIA IS ALSO EXPECTED TO RENEW IT DEMANDS THAT TURKEY CANCEL A COMPREHENSIVE MILITARY COOPERATION AGREEMENT IT RECENTLY SIGNED WITH ISRAEL. DAMASCUS SAYS IT IS DIRECTLY THREATENED BY THE ACCORD WHICH ALLOWS THE ISRAELI AIR FORCE TO TRAIN IN TURKISH AIR SPACE. BUT TURKEY'S FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN, NURETTIN NURKAN, SAYS ALL OF SYRIA'S CLAIMS ARE UNFOUNDED.

    // NURKAN ACT //

    WE ARE ALLOCATING ENOUGH WATER TO SYRIA -- MORE THAN THEIR REQUIREMENTS. THE ANNUAL AVERAGE IS MORE THAN 800 CUBIC METERS PER SECOND. THAT'S WHY THE SYRIAN CLAIMS ARE COMPLETELY UNFOUNDED AND UNJUSTIFIED.

    // END NURKAN ACT //

    THE REAL PROBLEM BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES, SAYS MR. NURKAN, IS WHAT HE TERMS SYRIA'S SUPPORT FOR THE SEPARATIST KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, OR "P-K-K."

    // SECOND NURKAN ACT //

    THE PROBLEM IS THAT SYRIA IS SUPPORTING TERRORISM AND IS A TERRORIST COUNTRY.

    // END NURKAN ACT //

    ANKARA HAS LONG ACCUSED DAMASCUS OF ARMING AND TRAINING THE KURDISH REBEL GROUP, WHICH HAS BEEN WAGING AN ARMED CAMPAIGN THE PAST 12 YEARS FOR AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH STATE IN SOUTHEAST TURKEY.

    A LOCAL OFFICIAL IN HATAY NAMED ISMET BOZOGLAN SAYS THAT IN RECENT MONTHS THE PROVINCE HAS BECOME THE MAIN TRANSIT ROUTE BY WHICH P-K-K REBELS CROSS FROM SYRIA INTO TURKEY.

    // BOZOGLAN ACT -- IN TURKISH, ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    AND TURKEY'S FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN, NURETTIN NURKAN, SAYS AS LONG AS SYRIA CONTINUES SUPPORTING WHAT HE DESCRIBES AS "TERRORISTS," RELATIONS BETWEEN HIS COUNTRY AND SYRIA CANNOT IMPROVE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/CF
    18-Jun-96 1:15 PM EDT (1715 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    // RE-ISSUING TO CORRECT FILE NUMBER //

    [03] RUSSIAN ELECTION RESULTS BY JENNIFER L. BRANT (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=06/18/96
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09636 **
    TELEPHONE=619-0928
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON

    INTRO: THE RESULTS OF THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION INCITED A FLOOD OF COMMENTARY IN THE AMERICAN PRESS THIS MORNING. MANY MAJOR DAILIES ARE EXPRESSING RELIEF AT BORIS YELTSIN'S (BAH-REES YELT-SIN) VICTORY OVER COMMUNIST PARTY OPPONENT GENNADY ZYUGANOV (GEH-NAD-DEE ZYU-GAHN-OV) IN THE FIRST ROUND OF VOTING. THE STRONG SHOWING OF OTHER COMPETITORS WAS ALSO ANALYZED.

    THE RUNOFF ELECTION IS PROJECTED FOR EARLY JULY, AND SPECULATION IS HIGH REGARDING WHO WILL SUPPORT WHOM IN THE SECOND ROUND.

    HERE TO TELL US MORE ABOUT AMERICAN REACTION TO THE RUSSIAN ELECTION IS __________, WITH TODAY'S EDITION OF U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: BY MID-WEEK, NEARLY ALL OF THE VOTES FROM SUNDAY'S (6/16) ELECTION HAD BEEN TALLIED. THE TOTALS STOOD AT 34 PERCENT FOR YELTSIN, AND 31 PERCENT FOR ZYUGANOV. THE COMMENTARIES OF SEVERAL MAJOR PAPERS CONTAINED AN UNDERCURRENT OF RELIEF THAT THE COMMUNIST PARTY DID NOT COME IN FIRST. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR REFLECTED THIS VIEW, ALSO NOTING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ELECTIONS THEMSELVES.

    VOICE: " THE OVERRIDING SENSE AMONG US OFFICIALS WAS THAT THE WORST CASE SCENARIO HAD BEEN AVOIDED... FURTHERMORE, THE RUSSIAN VOTE WASN'T MARRED BY CRIES OF FRAUD... IT WAS AN HISTORIC OCCASION FOR A COUNTRY WHOSE TRADITION OF DEMOCRACY IS SHALLOW. ... [WHITE HOUSE] SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY HAILED SUNDAY'S VOTE AS CLEARLY A MILESTONE FOR RUSSIAN DEMOCRACY."

    TEXT: THE APPARENT LACK OF FRAUD BY EITHER SIDE IS AN ELEMENT OF THE ELECTION THAT DID NOT GO UNNOTICED IN THE AMERICAN PRESS. RICHARD GRENIER (GRE-NEER), WRITING FOR THE WASHINGTON POST, HAD THIS TO ADD:

    VOICE: "THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE...ARE CHOOSING THEIR LEADER FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THEIR HISTORY. AS IN MANY COUNTRIES, RUSSIANS MAY BE UNHAPPY WITH THE CHOICES THEY HAVE FOR PRESIDENT, BUT THEIR HIGH TURNOUT ON SUNDAY PUTS TO SHAME A NUMBER OF WESTERN DEMOCRACIES. THE FACT THAT SUNDAY'S ELECTION WAS HELD, IN A RELATIVELY FREE AND FAIR FASHION, SPEAKS VOLUMES OF THE POLITICAL PROGRESS RUSSIA HAS MADE."

    TEXT: A CONNECTICUT DAILY, THE HARTFORD COURANT, AGREED ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ELECTIONS TAKING PLACE, BUT INSISTED THAT YELTSIN'S VICTORY DID NOT NECESSARILY INDICATE POPULAR APPROVAL OF HIS DEMOCRATIC REFORMS.

    VOICE: "WHAT'S MOST IMPRESSIVE IS THAT THE ELECTIONS ACTUALLY TOOK PLACE, THAT PEOPLE WERE ABLE TO VOTE FREELY AND THAT THE COUNT WAS HONEST... MR. YELTSIN AND OTHER CANDIDATES COMMITTED TO DEMOCRACY GARNERED A MAJORITY. IT WOULD BE A MISTAKE, HOWEVER, TO INTERPRET THE RESULTS AS AN UNEQUIVOCAL ENDORSEMENT OF HIS BRAND OF DEMOCRACY. SURELY MR. YELTSIN KNOWS OF THE EXIT POLLS SHOWING THAT PEOPLE ARE AMBIVALENT TOWARD DEMOCRACY IN ITS PRESENT FORM."

    TEXT: OTHER JOURNALISTS BELIEVE THE OUTCOME OF THE ELECTION IS THE RESULT OF A DIVIDED RUSSIAN ELECTORATE, WHO REMAIN UNDECIDED ABOUT THEIR FUTURE. IN THIS MORNING'S EDITORIAL, THE BALTIMORE SUN OBSERVES THE FOLLOWING:

    VOICE: "THE SURPRISINGLY STRONG NUMBER THREE FINISH OF RETIRED GENERAL ALEXANDER LEBED (LEH-BED) IN SUNDAY'S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION UNDERSCORES HOW UNHAPPY MANY RUSSIANS ARE ABOUT THEIR COUNTRY'S SITUATION. BY NOT VOTING IN LARGER NUMBERS FOR THE SECOND PLACE FINISHER, COMMUNIST GENNADY ZYUGANOV, THEY SIGNALED THEY DO NOT WANT THE RETURN OF MARXIST-LENINIST RULE. BUT MANY ARE NOT SATISFIED WITH THE FIRST ROUND WINNER EITHER, BLAMING PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN FOR ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS, CRIME, SOCIAL INSTABILITY AND WAR IN CHECHNYA."

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON TIMES EDITORIAL CONCURS, NOTING THAT:

    VOICE: "IT WAS CLEAR FROM SUNDAY'S VOTE THAT RUSSIA IS SUSPENDED UNEASILY BETWEEN COMMUNISM AND CAPITALISM, AND ITS PEOPLE DIVIDED ABOUT WHETHER TO STEP FORWARD OR BACK...MR. YELTSIN WOULD SEEM TO HAVE THE ADVANTAGE IN ASSEMBLING A WINNING COALITION. THE GRAVITATIONAL PULL OF COMMUNISM IS STRONG BUT DECLINING."

    TEXT: WITH YELTSIN AND ZYUGANOV SEPARATED BY A FEW PERCENTAGE POINTS, SEVERAL COMMENTATORS ARE FOCUSING ON THE IMPORTANT ROLE THAT COALITIONS WILL PLAY IN THE SECOND ROUND OF PRESIDENTIAL VOTING. NEWSDAY, A LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK DAILY, CONTINUES THE RECENT MEDIA PATTERN OF DECRYING THE ELECTION AS A VOTE FOR ONE OF TWO POOR CHOICES.

    VOICE: "THE DECISIVE FACTOR [IN THE RUNOFF IN TWO WEEKS] LIES IN HOW THE RIVALS WOO AWAY THE CRITICAL FOURTEEN PERCENT OF THE VOTE THAT WENT TO THE SURPRISING THIRD PLACE CANDIDATE FORMER GENERAL ALEXANDER LEBED. ...THIS REMAINS A FLAWED CONTEST, BALANCING COMPETING HOPES AND FEARS. YELTSIN OFFERS THE HOPE OF THE EVENTUAL FRUITS OF A FREE MARKET ECONOMY ...AND HE OFFERS THE HOPE OF POLITICAL FREEDOM...ZYUGANOV OFFERS THE RETURN TO A SYSTEM OF SOCIAL SUPPORTS SORELY MISSED BY RUSSIA'S LESS FORTUNATE CITIZENS. .. ON BALANCE, YELTSIN OFFERS THE LESSER EVIL."

    TEXT: USA TODAY COMMENTS ON THE IMPLICATIONS THAT THE DIVIDED RUSSIAN ELECTORATE COULD HAVE ON THE LARGER SCALE OF EAST-WEST RELATIONS.

    VOICE: "IN ADDITION TO ZYUGANOV'S THIRTY-TWO PERCENT OF THE VOTE, OTHERS CAMPAIGNING ON NOSTALGIC APPEALS TO NATIONALISM AND A MORE ORDERLY, IF AUTHORITARIAN PAST, CAPTURED ANOTHER TWENTY PERCENT. THOSE NUMBERS REPRESENT A MENACING REMINDER TO RUSSIAN REFORMERS AND THE WEST. EVEN IF YELTSIN WINS RE-ELECTION, IN THE CACOPHONY OF DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA THE PACE OF CHANGE WILL BE CONSTRAINED...YELTSIN WON'T IGNORE THAT. U.S. POLICYMAKERS, POLITICAL KIBITZERS (OBSERVERS) AND BUSINESS INTERESTS CAN'T IGNORE IT EITHER."

    TEXT: THE ORLANDO SENTINEL IS ONE OF A MINORITY OF PAPERS TRULY OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE INTERNAL AND INTERNATIONAL EFFECTS OF THE RUSSIAN ELECTIONS. IT WRITES:

    VOICE: "THE ELECTIONS SPOKE VOLUMES ABOUT WHAT'S HAPPENING IN RUSSIA AND GAVE A BETTER SENSE OF THAT COUNTRY'S FUTURE DIRECTION...THE OUTCOME GENERALLY FAVORED U-S INTERESTS. THOSE INCLUDE CONTINUED REFORMS OF RUSSIAN'S ECONOMY AND POLITICAL SYSTEM THAT WOULD ENCOURAGE A BETTER RELATIONSHIP...THE BIGGEST CHALLENGES LIE AHEAD. THIS WEEK'S RESULTS REFLECTED THE DEEP DIVISIONS IN RUSSIAN SOCIETY. THOSE WILL HAVE TO BE BRIDGED NO MATTER WHO WINS THE RUNOFF. WITH THE PRESIDENTIAL RACE HONED DOWN TO TWO CANDIDATES, RUSSIAN VOTERS WILL HAVE A CLEAR CHOICE. EACH OFFERS A DIFFERENT COURSE FOR U-S-RUSSIA RELATIONS, WITH MR. YELTSIN UNQUESTIONABLY THE BETTER ONE."

    TEXT: THE NEXT ROUND OF THE ELECTIONS COULD TAKE PLACE AS EARLY AS JULY 3. WITH THAT, WE CONCLUDE TODAY'S EDITION OF U-S OPINION ROUNDUP ON THE RUSSIAN ELECTIONS (SIGNED).
    18-Jun-96 2:48 PM EDT (1848 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] RUSSIA/YELTSIN'S SHUFFLE BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=6/18/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33592
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO:THE RISE OF ALEXANDER LEBED AND THE FALL OF PAVEL GRACHEV HAS CHANGED THE COMPLEXION OF RUSSIA'S PRESIDENTIAL CONTEST. PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN IS CLEARLY HOPING THE SWITCH WILL BOOST HIS CHANCES WITH THE MILLIONS OF VOTERS SWAYED BY MR. LEBED'S NO-NONSENSE IMAGE. PETER HEINLEIN AT VOA'S MOSCOW BUREAU REPORTS MR. LEBED'S STRENGTH COMES FROM HIS APPEAL TO RUSSIANS HUMILIATED BY THEIR LOSS OF SUPERPOWER STATUS.

    TEXT: WHO IS ALEXANDER LEBED? THE WAR HERO AND FORMER ARMY GENERAL WAS LITTLE-KNOWN OUTSIDE RUSSIA UNTIL HIS SURPRISINGLY STRONG FINISH IN LAST SUNDAY'S PRESIDENTIAL BALLOTING.

    BUT TWO DAYS AFTER HIS TOUGH LAW AND ORDER CAMPAIGN NETTED NEARLY 15-PERCENT OF THE VOTE, MR. LEBED ACCEPTED ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL POSTS IN RUSSIA'S GOVERNMENT.

    AS RECENTLY AS TWO WEEKS AGO, MR. LEBED'S DEFIANT CHALLENGE TO PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S PRESIDENCY WAS STRUGGLING. POLLS SHOWED HIM IN FOURTH OR FIFTH PLACE. BUT HE SURGED AHEAD IN THE FINAL DAYS, LARGELY ON THE STRENGTH OF A MEDIA CAMPAIGN IN WHICH HE MADE A GRAVELLY-VOICED APPEAL TO THE ANGER MANY RUSSIANS FEEL.

    ///LEBED ACT UP, THEN FADE TO...///

    IN THIS COMMERCIAL, MR. LEBED SAYS "RUSSIA IS TIRED. TIRED OF WARS, IDLE PROMISES. PEOPLE HAVE BEEN REDUCED TO POVERTY. THEY FEEL DESPERATE AND ANGRY.

    SCOTT BRUCKNER, DIRECTOR OF THE MOSCOW OFFICE OF THE CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT, SAYS PRESIDENT YELTSIN HAS SCORED A MAJOR COUP BY PERSUADING THE GENERAL TO JOIN HIM.

    ///BRUCKNER ACT//

    HERE'S A GUY WHO'S NOW PRESENTING HIMSELF AS THE GENTLE NATIONALIST, AND HE'S ALMOST BECOMING THE OPPOSITION DARLING OF THE ELECTORATE, AND SOMETHING BOTH CANDIDATES, THAT IS BOTH FINALISTS, ARE TRYING TO CAPITALIZE ON.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. BRUCKNER SAID THE NO-NONSENSE FORMER GENERAL'S APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN ABLE TO TAP INTO RUSSIA'S FEELING OF NATIONAL HUMILIATION IN THE POST-SOVIET ERA.

    ///2ND BRUCKNER ACT///

    I THINK WHAT PEOPLE ARE LOOKING FOR IS SOME IMAGE, SOME FIGURE WHO CAN RECAPTURE THE PRESTIGE THT WAS ONCE RUSSIA OR THE SOVIET UNION. SOMEBODY THAT CAN PULL RUSSIA OUT OF THIS TRASH HEAP IT SEEMS TO HAVE FALLEN INTO AND MAKE IT AGAIN A VERY IMPORTANT PLAYER IN GLOBAL POLITICS THAT THEN COMMANDS THE RESPECT OF THE REST OF THE WORLD.

    ///END ACT///

    IN ORDER TO WIN MR. LEBED'S BACKING, PRESIDENT YELTSIN HAD TO SACRIFICE ONE OF HIS MOST LOYAL ALLIES. DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV HAD STOOD BY THE PRESIDENT DURING A HARDLINE COUP ATTEMPT IN 1991, AND AGAIN IN OCTOBER 1993, WHEN HE ORDERED TANKS TO ATTACK MR. YELTSIN'S OPPONENTS HOLDING OUT IN PARLIAMENT.

    BUT GENERAL LEBED MADE MR. GRACHEV'S DISMISSAL A CONDITION OF HIS SUPPORT. HE BLAMES THE DEFENSE MINISTER FOR FORCING HIM OUT OF THE ARMY A YEAR AGO.

    BUT WHETHER GENERAL LEBED'S SUPPORT WILL BE ENOUGH FOR MR. YELTSIN TO WIN IS A QUESTION ON WHICH ANALYSTS DISAGREE. IT IS A TIGHT RACE, AND EVEN MR. LEBED SAID HE HAS HIS DOUBTS. ASKED THIS WEEK WHETHER HIS VOTERS WOULD FOLLOW HIM, THE GENERAL REPLIED, THEY HAVE THEIR OWN BRAINS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PH/KL
    18-Jun-96 11:35 AM EDT (1535 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BOSNIA/PROTEST (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (BANJA LUKA)

    DATE=6/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198930
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ABOUT 200 BOSNIAN-SERB WOMEN IN NORTHERN BOSNIA ARE CONTINUING TO BLOCK ACCESS TO THE OFFICE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION RESPONSIBLE FOR HOLDING ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. TWO INTERNATIONAL ELECTION OFFICIALS REMAIN TRAPPED INSIDE THE BUILDING IN THE CENTER OF BANJA LUKA, BUT SENIOR OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN MEETING WITH THE WOMEN TO DISCUSS THEIR DEMANDS, AND SAY THERE IS NO THREAT OF VIOLENCE. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM BANJA LUKA.

    /// ACT - WOMEN'S VOICES (FIVE SECS THEN FADE) ///

    TEXT: THESE WOMEN ARE DEMANDING INFORMATION ABOUT THE FATE OF THEIR MEN, AND MANY INSIST THEIR HUSBANDS, BROTHERS, AND SONS ARE STILL ALIVE AND HELD PRISONER BY THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT OR THE CROAT AUTHORITIES.

    THE WOMEN SAY THEY ARE BLOCKING ACCESS TO THE OFFICE OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE IN AN EFFORT TO DRAW ATTENTION TO THEIR DEMANDS FOR INFORMATION. TWO SENIOR O-S-C-E OFFICIALS ARE TRAPPED IN THE BUILDING FOR A SECOND DAY, BUT OTHER O-S-C-E OFFICIALS AND THE CROWD OF WOMEN INSIST THERE WILL BE NO VIOLENCE. THE WOMEN DENY EARLIER REPORTS THEY ARE ARMED WITH FIRE-BOMBS, AND THE ATMOSPHERE IS RELAXED.

    THE SPOKESWOMAN FOR THE O-S-C-E, JOANNA VAN VLIET, SAYS WHILE SUCH POLITICAL ACTIONS CANNOT BE CONDONED, SHE SAYS THERE IS SOME SYMPATHY FOR THE WOMEN'S POSITION AND NEGOTIATIONS WILL CONTINUE.

    /// ACT - VAN VLIET ///

    AT THIS STAGE, WE HAVE CHOSEN (TO CONTINUE) THE DIALOGUE WITH THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GROUP THAT IS DEMONSTRATING.

    /// END ACT ///

    PART OF THAT DIALOGUE INCLUDES A MEETING WITH AMBASSADOR MICHAEL STEINER, THE DEPUTY OF THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA, CARL BILDT. MR. STEINER FLEW TO BANJA LUKA TUESDAY AFTERNOON FOR TALKS WITH THE WOMEN.

    BUT THIS DEMONSTRATION MAY NOT BE WHAT IT SEEMS, AND IT MAY HAVE LITTLE TO DO WITH THE FRUSTRATION OF THESE WOMEN. THE WOMEN ARE WELL-ORGANIZED, THEY HAVE THE OBVIOUS SUPPORT OF THE BOSNIAN-SERB POLICE, THEY CARRY NEATLY LETTERED SIGNS IN ENGLISH FOR THE TELEVISION CAMERAS, AND THEY ARE TOLD NOT TO GIVE THEIR NAMES.

    MANY INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS SAY THIS PROTEST HAS BEEN ORGANIZED BY BOSNIAN-SERB PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC AND HIS RULING NATIONALIST PARTY, ONLY TO PUT PRESSURE ON THE O-S-C-E AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL GROUPS. THEY SAY MR. KARADZIC IS SHOWING HOW EASY IT WILL BE TO DISRUPT BOSNIA-WIDE ELECTIONS SCHEDULED FOR SEPTEMBER, AND THEY SAY THIS PROTEST IS MERELY THE FIRST SHOT IN WHAT MAY WELL BECOME A WAR OF OBSTRUCTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/PCF/RAE
    18-Jun-96 2:35 PM EDT (1835 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] BOSNIA INTERNET PROJECT BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=6/18/96
    TYPE=COMPUTER SERIES
    NUMBER=3-25301
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=KLEINFELDT
    CONTENT=
    (PHONE QUALITY INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: BOSNIA IS IN THE NEWS AND ON THE INTERNET. SINCE JUNE 10, COMPUTER USERS AROUND THE WORLD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO LINK UP TO THE WORLD WIDE WEB AND PARTICIPATE IN A SERIES OF INTERNATIONAL FORUMS THAT ADDRESS THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES RAISED BY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE BALKANS. THE HIGH-TECH PROJECT WILL RUN FOR ONE MONTH DAN NOBLE HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: "BOSNIA: UNCERTAIN PATHS TO PEACE," IS PRODUCED BY THE NEW YORK TIMES ON THE WEB." IT FEATURES AN ELECTRONIC GALLERY OF MORE THAN 150 IMAGES BY GILLES PERESS, A FRENCH PHOTOJOURNALIST. BERNARD GWERTZMAN, A FORMER FOREIGN EDITOR OF THE TIMES SERVES AS SENIOR EDITOR OF THE NEWSPAPER'S WEB PAGE. HE SAYS THERE'S A LOT MORE THAN JUST PHOTOGRAPHS.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- BERNARD GWERTZMAN (0:44) "WE DECIDED TO GO BEYOND JUST A PORTFOLIO OF PICTURES BUT TO HAVE AN ESSAY BY HIM ABOUT THE SITUATION IN SARAJEVO AND THE SUBURBS AFTER THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, TO HAVE A SECTION ON THE WHOLE CONTEXT OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. THAT IS THE BACKGROUND ARTICLES, AND TEXTUAL MATERIAL AND THEN TO HAVE A SERIES OF FORUMS, MODERATED BY DISTINGUISHED PEOPLE SUCH AS AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, WHO IS THE US AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS, AND TO INVITE COMMENTS FROM PEOPLE ALL AROUND THE WORLD TO DISCUSS BOSNIA. IN OTHER WORDS, WE ARE TRYING TO OPEN UP DISCUSSION ABOUT THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA AROUND THE WORLD."

    TEXT: AND YOU CAN BE A PART OF IT. THE INTERNET ADDRESS IS WWW.NYTIMES.COM/BOSNIA (W-W-W - DOT - N-Y - TIMES -- DOT -- SLASH -- BOSNIA). CONNECTING TO BOSNIA: UNCERTAIN PATHS TO PEACE IS FREE OF CHARGE.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- BERNARD GWERTZMAN (0:23) "WE WANTED TO GET A WORLD DISCUSSION. THE LEADERS OF THE WORLD WHO ARE INTERESTED IN BOSNIA DO IT ALL THE TIME. WE WANTED TO GET PEOPLE WHO ARE NOT WORLD LEADERS, NECESSARILY. BUT, WE WOULDN'T MIND A WORLD LEADER GETTING ON THE FORUM, AND TO SEE DIFFERENT VIEWPOINTS. THAT'S WHY WE'RE DOING IT."

    TEXT: MORE THAN 10 ELECTRONIC BULLETIN BOARD DISCUSSIONS ARE UNDERWAY. THEY COVER DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, INCLUDING WAR AND ITS DESTRUCTION, THE PRECEDING HISTORICAL EVENTS, THE RELIGIOUS DIMENSION, AND THE POLITICAL RAMIFICATIONS. BERNARD GWERTZMAN SAYS THE TOPICS ARE WIDE OPEN.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- BERNARD GWERTZMAN (0:58) "FOR INSTANCE, THE KIND OF HEATED DISCUSSION THAT GOES ON: IF YOU RECALL BACK IN FEBRUARY 1994 THERE WAS A SHELLING OF A MARKETPLACE IN SARAJEVO WHERE MORE THAN 60-PEOPLE WERE KILLED. THE UN NEVER WAS ABLE TO ASCERTAIN WHO ACTUALLY FIRED THE MORTAR SHELLS, ALTHOUGH I THINK MOST PEOPLE ASSUMED IT WAS THE BOSNIAN SERBS. THERE HAVE BEEN PERSISTENT RUMORS AND ALLEGATIONS THAT THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS FIRED THE SHELL THEMSELVES. I'VE NEVER BEEN SATISFIED ANYONE REALLY KNOWS. IT IS ONE OF THOSE THINGS THAT WILL PROBABLY NEVER BE DEFINITIVELY DECIDED. IN THIS VACUUM, OF COURSE, EVERYONE HAS PUT IN THEIR VIEWS ON THE WEB SITE ABOUT WHO FIRED THE SHELLS AND I THINK SOME OF OUR SERB CONTRIBUTORS ARE SAYING THAT IT'S A MUSLIM, OTHERS ARE SAYING IT'S THE SERBS. THAT SORT OF THING."

    TEXT: THE DISCUSSIONS, SAYS BERNARD GWERTZMAN, "ARE SUPPOSED TO BE PROVOCATIVE."

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- BERNARD GWERTZMAN (0:15) "WE ARE LETTING THE VIEWS GO ON. WE DON'T WANT OBSCENITIES OR THINGS IN ABSOLUTELY HORRID TASTE, IN WHICH CASE WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO DELETE SOMETHING. SO FAR WE HAVEN'T HAD TOO, AS FAR AS I KNOW."

    TEXT: "BOSNIA: UNCERTAIN PATHS TO PEACE," IS ONE WAY THAT THE NEW YORK TIMES IS USING HIGH-TECHNOLOGY TO REACH A WIDER AUDIENCE AND TO PERHAPS FIND SOME STRATEGIES TO END A TRAGIC CONFLICT. TO PARTICIPATE ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB, THE ADDRESS IS W-W-W - DOT - N-Y - TIMES -- DOT -- SLASH -- BOSNIA.
    18-Jun-96 4:15 PM EDT (2015 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] AMNESTY/MIDEAST (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)

    DATE=6/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198910
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE GROUP "AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL" HAS ISSUED ITS YEARLY REPORT ON HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES AROUND THE WORLD. AS MIDDLE EAST CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM CAIRO, THE LONDON-BASED GROUP CRITICIZES WHAT IT CALLS THE CONTINUING PRACTICE OF POLITICAL DETENTIONS WITHOUT TRIAL, UNLAWFUL EXECUTIONS, TORTURE AND DISAPPEARANCES IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA.

    TEXT: THE YEARLY REPORT LISTS SOME EFFORTS TO RELEASE POLITICAL PRISONERS IN SYRIA, ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIAN SELF-RULE AREAS, BUT AMNESTY COMPLAINS THAT IT IS LIMITED IN SCOPE.

    THE REPORT CRITICIZES SEVERAL GOVERNMENTS FOR CONTINUING TO ROUND UP POLITICAL DISSIDENTS AND DETAIN THEM WITHOUT CHARGE OR TRIAL. IT CITES TUNISIA AND SYRIA FOR USING DETENTIONS TO PUNISH AND SILENCE POLITICAL OPPONENTS. ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIAN SELF-RULE AREA DO NOT ESCAPE CRITICISM EITHER.

    CASES OF TORTURE DURING DETENTION WERE REPORTED IN AT LEAST 15 STATES OF THE REGION -- INCLUDING ALGERIA, EGYPT, IRAN, ISRAEL AND THE SELF-RULE AREAS, MOROCCO AND TUNISIA. MANY OF THE SAME COUNTRIES ARE ALSO CRITICIZED FOR USING SPECIAL MILITARY COURTS, WHICH DO NOT PERMIT THE RIGHT OF APPEAL.

    AMNESTY ALSO DEPLORES EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTIONS BY SECURITY FORCES OR PARA-MILITARY GROUPS THAT HAVE CLAIMED HUNDREDS OF VICTIMS IN ALGERIA, BAHRAIN, IRAQ, ISRAEL, THE PALESTINIAN SELF-RULE AREA, JORDAN AND YEMEN.

    THE HUMAN RIGHTS MONITOR DOES NOT CRITICIZE JUST GOVERNMENTS. THE REPORT ALSO DEPLORES HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES COMMITTED BY ARMED OPPOSITION GROUPS. ALGERIA TOPS THE LIST. MORE THAN 50-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE DIED IN FOUR YEARS OF EXTREMIST VIOLENCE THERE -- INCLUDING WOMEN AND CHILDREN, SECULAR THINKERS, JOURNALISTS AND FOREIGNERS. MOST RECENTLY, THE ARMED ISLAMIC GROUP CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY FOR MURDERING SEVEN FRENCH RELIGIOUS WORKERS.

    AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL ALSO NOTED A SHARP INCREASE IN EXECUTIONS IN SAUDI ARABIA AND IRAN AND A GROWING NUMBER OF FLOGGINGS AND AMPUTATIONS IN SAUDI ARABIA FOR A WIDE VARIETY OF OFFENSES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/PCF/MMK
    18-Jun-96 10:50 AM EDT (1450 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] AMNESTY AND EXPORTS (L-ONLY) BY DON HENRY (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=6/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198925
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    //EDS: SIDEBAR TO MAIN AMNESTY STORY FROM LONDON //

    INTRO: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL U-S-A IS URGING THE U-S GOVERNMENT TO BAN EXPORT OF SUCH SECURITY PRODUCTS AS THUMB CUFFS AND SHOCK BATONS TO COUNTRIES WITH A HISTORY OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE. V-O-A'S DON HENRY REPORTS THE AMERICAN AMNESTY GROUP (TODAY / TUESDAY) CALLED ON CONGRESS TO TIGHTEN TRADE AND EXPORT REGULATIONS TO HELP REDUCE THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AROUND THE GLOBE.

    TEXT: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL U-S-A DIRECTOR WILLIAM SCHULZ TOLD A WASHINGTON NEWS CONFERENCE THE UNITED STATES AND ALL OTHER GOVERNMENTS SHOULD TAKE HUMAN RIGHTS RECORDS INTO ACCOUNT BEFORE ALLOWING CERTAIN ARMS AND SECURITY PRODUCTS TO BE EXPORTED.

    HE PRODUCED A LIST OF 27 AMERICAN COMPANIES HE SAYS ARE SELLING SHOCK BATONS, STUN GUNS, ELECTRONIC RIOT SHIELDS AND THUMB CUFFS TO COUNTRIES WITH RECORDS OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS.

    // SCHULZ ACT //

    THIS IS THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT WHICH HAS FREQUENTLY BEEN USED TO INFLICT TORTURE IN SOME COUNTRIES, OR WHICH COULD EASILY BE USED FOR THAT PURPOSE.

    // END ACT //

    MR. SCHULZ SAYS THE AMERICAN COMPANIES INSIST THEY ARE SELLING TO REPUTABLE POLICE OR MILITARY OFFICIALS, BUT THEY DO NOT MONITOR HOW THE PRODUCTS ARE USED. HE ADDED THAT AMNESTY IS NOT ASSERTING -- AT LEAST, NOT YET -- THAT THE COMPANIES ARE SELLING THEIR EQUIPMENT FOR USE BY TORTURERS.

    // SCHULZ ACT //

    WE DO NOT YET KNOW WHETHER THIS IS THE CASE. BUT WE BELIEVE THERE IS SUFFICIENT REASON TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE U-S GOVERNMENT SHOULD BAN ALL USE OF THESE PRODUCTS HERE OR OVERSEAS UNTIL PROPER MEDICAL TESTING HAS BEEN CARRIED OUT, AND SHOULD BAN EXPORT OF THESE PRODUCTS UNTIL PROPER SAFEGUARDS ARE ESTABLISHED TO MONITOR THEIR END USES. NO EQUIPMENT LIKE THIS SHOULD EVER BE SOLD TO COUNTRIES WITH HISTORIES OF UTILIZING DEVICES LIKE THESE FOR TORTURE.

    // END ACT //

    AMNESTY U-S-A WANTS CONGRESS TO ADOPT A REQUIREMENT FOR EFFECTIVE END USE MONITORING OF ALL MILITARY AND POLICE EQUIPMENT SOLD UNDER EXPORT LICENSES GRANTED BY THE U-S GOVERNMENT.

    THE ORGANIZATION ALSO IS URGING CONGRESS TO PASS A BILL REQUIRING RECIPIENTS OF U-S MILITARY AID TO PROSECUTE ANYONE VIOLATING HUMAN RIGHTS. IT SAYS FOREIGN AID APPROPRIATION BILLS SHOULD BE AMENDED TO REQUIRE EXPLICIT NOTIFICATION TO CONGRESS OF ANY PROPOSED ARMS TRANSFERS TO COUNTRIES WITH CONSISTENT HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RECORDS.

    // OPT //

    EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR SCHULZ ALSO CRITICIZED THE UNITED STATES FOR WHAT HE CALLED THE TRAGIC IRONY OF STANDING UP TO CHINA TO PROTECT U-S COMPACT DISC AND OTHER PROPERTY RIGHTS -- WHILE REMAINING LARGELY SILENT ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES THERE.

    // END OPT //

    (SIGNED)
    NEB/DOH/MMK
    18-Jun-96 1:48 PM EDT (1748 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] AMNESTY ANNUAL REPORT (L-ONLY) BY CHRISTINE FURNELL (LONDON)

    DATE=6/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198900
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE LONDON-BASED HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANIZATION, AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, SAYS IN ITS JUST-RELEASED ANNUAL SURVEY THAT INCREASINGLY, GOVERNMENTS WORLDWIDE ARE IGNORING ATROCITIES COMMITTED BY OTHER GOVERNMENTS. THE ORGANIZATION SAYS THIS IS BECAUSE CRITICISM CAN JEOPARDIZE PROFITABLE TRADING LINKS BETWEEN NATIONS. VOA'S CHRISTINE FURNELL IN LONDON REPORTS AMNESTY REVIEWED RIGHTS ABUSES IN MORE THAN 140 COUNTRIES AND DRAWS PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO THE PROLIFERATION OF VIOLATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ARMED CONFLICTS.

    TEXT: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL SAYS THE BLOODSHED IN COUNTRIES SUCH AS AFGHANISTAN, BURUNDI AND BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ARE THE MOST VISIBLE ILLUSTRATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES COMMITTED DURING ARMED CONFLICTS IN 1995 -- THE YEAR COVERED IN ITS LATEST REPORT.

    AMNESTY SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY OFTEN DISMISSES ATROCITIES COMMITTED IN THE CONTEXT OF CIVIL STRIFE AS "LOCAL AFFAIRS" OVER WHICH THEY HAVE NO INFLUENCE. BUT AMNESTY'S SECRETARY-GENERAL PIERRE SANE ASKS THE QUESTION, WHO IS FUNDING THESE WARS?

    /// SANE ACT ///

    WHAT WE HAVE SEEN OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS IS AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF CONFLICTS. THOSE CONFLICTS ARE PRESENTED AS LOCAL CONFLICTS. WE SEE ATROCITIES BEING COMMITTED, MASSACRES, WOMEN BEING RAPED, CHILDREN BEING KILLED. HOWEVER, THE RESPONSIBILITY CANNOT BE ONLY THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THOSE WHO ARE PULLING THE TRIGGER. WE HAVE TO ASK THE QUESTION, WHO IS PROVIDING THE WEAPONS? WE HAVE TO ASK THE QUESTION, WHERE IS THE MONEY COMING FROM?

    /// END ACT ///

    LAST NOVEMBER AMNESTY LAUNCHED A SPECIAL APPEAL TO MAJOR EXPORTING NATIONS INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, RUSSIA AND GERMANY, URGING THEM TO PROHIBIT THE SALE OF MILITARY, SECURITY AND POLICE EQUIPMENT TO ANY STATE WHERE THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT IT COULD BE USED TO COMMIT HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS.

    AMNESTY SPOKESMAN, MARK OGLE SAYS MOST REGIONS OF THE WORLD ARE AFFECTED BY HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF ARMED CONFLICT. HE SAYS THE TARGETING OF CIVILIANS BY WARRING FACTIONS IS OFTEN A DELIBERATE TACTIC TO DESTABILIZE AREAS AND CREATE DISRUPTION.

    ///OGLE ACT///

    ARMED CONFLICTS IN EUROPE ARE A MAJOR SOURCE OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES BY BOTH GOVERNMENT FORCES AND ARMED OPPOSITION GROUPS, AS IN BOSNIA WHERE CIVILIANS ARE BEING TARGETED THE WHOLE TIME FOR HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES. THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS WE'VE SEEN IN AFRICA ARE THE ARMED CONFLICTS IN BURUNDI, RWANDA, LIBERIA AND SIERRA LEONE WHICH HAVE LED TO AN INCREASE IN POLITICALLY MOTIVATED KILLINGS AND DISAPPEARANCES BY BOTH GOVERNMENT FORCES AND ARMED OPPOSITION GROUPS. IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICAN REGION ARMED CONFLICTS AND THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL UNREST IN COUNTRIES LIKE ALGERIA, BAHRAIN AND ISRAEL AND THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES HAS LED AGAIN TO APPALLING HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE AMNESTY REPORT DOCUMENTS VIOLATIONS COMMITTED IN 146 COUNTRIES. OF THOSE, AMNESTY SAYS EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTIONS -- MEANING THOSE WHICH ARE LEGALLY QUESTIONABLE -- WERE COMMITTED IN 63 STATES AND UNEXPLAINED DISAPPEARANCES IN 49 OTHERS. IN MORE THAN 100 COUNTRIES, AMNESTY SAYS GOVERNMENT AGENTS TORTURED DETAINEES, WHILE IN 54 COUNTRIES PRISONERS DIED AS A RESULT OF ILL-TREATMENT.

    ///REST OPT///

    AMNESTY' MARK OGLE SAYS TORTURE IS USED WIDELY IN MANY COUNTRIES AS EITHER A FORM OF PUNISHMENT OR AS A MEANS OF EXTRACTING CONFESSIONS OR INFORMATION.

    /// OGLE ACT ///

    IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION OUR MAIN CONCERNS ARE TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT. TORTURE IS OFTEN SO SEVERE THAT IT LEADS TO DEATH IN CUSTODY AND TORTURE IS TAKING PLACE THROUGHOUT THE REGION, ALL THE WAY FROM AFGHANISTAN THROUGH TO CHINA. IN LATIN AMERICA WE FIND THAT THE LANGUAGE OF HUMAN RIGHTS WHICH IS BEING ADOPTED BY GOVERNMENTS IS JUST NOT THE REALITY IN EVERYDAY LIFE FOR THE PEOPLE THAT LIVE IN COUNTRIES LIKE BRAZIL, COLUMBIA AND MEXICO. IN REALITY PEOPLE ARE BEING TORTURED AND ILL-TREATED ALMOST EVERY DAY IN ALMOST EVERY COUNTRY IN THE REGION.

    /// END ACT ///

    AMNESTY SAYS A CLIMATE SHOULD BE CREATED IN WHICH THERE IS NO IMMUNITY FROM PUNISHMENT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS. THE ORGANIZATION USES ITS ANNUAL REPORT TO REITERATE THE MESSAGE THAT GOVERNMENTS HAVE THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT THEIR CITIZENS FROM HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND SAYS PERPETRATORS OF ABUSES SHOULD BE INVESTIGATED AND BROUGHT TO JUSTICE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CEF/PCF
    18-Jun-96 6:09 AM EDT (1009 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [10] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=06/18/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09635
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON TUESDAY, JUNE 18TH //

    INTRO: THE RESULTS OF SUNDAY'S ELECTION IN RUSSIA IS A POPULAR EDITORIAL SUBJECT IN THE TUESDAY EDITION OF AMERICA'S LEADING NEWSPAPERS. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE A COPYRIGHT ACCORD BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CHINA, AND COMMENTS ON EFFORTS TOWARD PEACE IN NORTHERN IRELAND. NOW, HERE IS _________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME QUOTES IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: OVER THE WEEKEND, RUSSIAN VOTERS WENT TO THE POLLS IN THEIR SECOND EXPERIENCE WITH A FREE PRESIDENTIAL BALLOT. "THEIR CHOICE," SAYS THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER EDITORIAL WRITER, "WASN'T EASY. BUT THEY VOTED THOUGHTFULLY, GIVING A FLAWED BORIS YELTSIN THE EDGE OVER COMMUNIST GENNADY ZYUGANOV IN A FIELD OF 10 CANDIDATES." HOWEVER, MR. YELTSIN'S MARGIN WAS SMALL ENOUGH TO REQUIRE A SECOND ROUND OF VOTING WITHIN A MONTH. THE INQUIRER CONTINUES:

    VOICE: "WHAT'S MOST IMPRESSIVE IN RUSSIA'S QUASI-DEMOCRACY IS THAT THE BALLOTING WAS SMOOTH AND ORDERLY, WITHOUT GRATUITOUS CHEATING -- AND THAT MOST PEOPLE CHOSE TO CASE A BALLOT. IN A RUSSIA WHERE EVERY ASPECT OF LIFE HAS BECOME UNCERTAIN -- MALE LIFE EXPECTANCY IS DOWN FROM 64 TO 57 SINCE 1990, AND THE INFANT MORTALITY RATE IS MORE THAN TRIPLE AMERICA'S -- VOTERS COULD HAVE BEEN EXCUSED FOR ABSTAINING IN A FUNK. INSTEAD, THE PUBLIC STRUGGLED TO WORK OUT THEIR CONFUSION AT THE POLLING PLACES. ABOUT A THIRD -- MANY YOUNG OR URBAN -- OPTED FOR MR. YELTSIN AND THE FUTURE, WHILE SLIGHTLY LESS -- INCLUDING MANY PENSIONERS -- VOTED TO RETURN TO THE COMMUNIST PAST."

    TEXT: BUT, NOTES THE NEW YORK POST, ON ITS EDITORIAL PAGE, "BORIS YELTSIN FAILED TO WIN A MAJORITY IN SUNDAY'S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION..."

    VOICE: "NOW COMES ROUND TWO -- A RUNOFF, SCHEDULED FOR JULY 7TH, BETWEEN YELTSIN AND HIS COMMUNIST CHALLENGER, GENNADY ZYUGANOV, WHO FINISHED A RELATIVELY CLOSE SECOND. WASHINGTON STILL HAS SOUND REASONS TO HOPE FOR A VICTORY BY YELTSIN. THE ALTERNATIVE, A ZYUGANOV WIN, SERVES NO ONE'S INTERESTS -- NOT EVEN THOSE OF THE MANY RUSSIANS WHO APPARENTLY YEARN FOR A RETURN TO THE 'GOOD OLD DAYS' OF NIKITA KHRUSCHEV AND LEONID BREZHNEV."

    TEXT: AND, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL TELLS READERS THAT NOW BORIS YELTSIN HAS THE NEXT FEW WEEKS TO WIDEN THE DISTANCE BETWEEN HIMSELF AND HIS COMMUNIST OPPONENT.

    VOICE: "MR. YELTSIN IS NEVER SO DETERMINED AS WHEN HIS BACK IS AGAINST THE WALL. THE PRESIDENT MOBILIZED THE ENTIRE GOVERNMENT APPARATUS FOR HIS CAMPAIGN, WARNING DARKLY OF CIVIL WAR IF HE WERE NOT RETURNED TO POWER. HE DANCED A JIG AT A RALLY FOR YOUTHS, SEQUESTERED MONEY FORM THE CENTRAL BANK AND WROTE CHECKS WILLY NILLY IN HOPE OF PLACATING DISSATISFIED VOTERS, MANY WITH OVERDUE PAYCHECKS. WE DOUBT ANY OF THIS SWAYED VOTERS MUCH; RUSSIANS HAVE LOTS OF EXPERIENCE WITH DOOMSDAY THREATS AND A LONG MEMORY FOR UNFULFILLED PROMISES OF WEALTH. THE 35 PERCENT SHOWING IS MORE LIKELY A REWARD FOR MR. YELTSIN'S PURSUIT OF A FEW KEY POLICIES THAT WOULD MAKE A REAL AND SUBSTANTIAL DIFFERENCE IN THE LIVES OF MANY RUSSIANS. (OPT) ONE SUCH POLICY WAS MR. YELTSIN'S DECREE THIS YEAR PERMITTING MILLIONS OF RUSSIANS TO BUY AND SELL LAND THEY HAVE OWNED IN NAME ONLY, THEREBY REVERSING THE BRUTAL COLLECTIVIZATION PROCESS ENFORCED BY (JOSEF) STALIN. MR. YELTSIN'S PLAN TO ABOLISH CONSCRIPTION BY THE END OF THE CENTURY ALSO HELPED SOOTHE THE CRITICISM HE HAS RECEIVED AS COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST DEMORALIZED, DISHEVELED AND WEAKENED ARMED FORCES. PROMISES OF TAX CUTS AND A CEASEFIRE IN CHECHNYA UNDOUBTEDLY HELPED AS WELL." (END OPT)

    TEXT: THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT HAS AGREED TO CRACK DOWN ON THE ILLEGAL COPYING OF SUCH AMERICAN PRODUCTS AS COMPACT DISCS AND COMPUTER SOFTWARE. AS A RESULT, THE UNITED STATES WILL NOT IMPOSE TRADE SANCTIONS ON THAT ASIAN NATION. THE WALL STREET JOURNAL SAYS THAT THE DEVELOPMENTS ARE NOT A SURPRISE.

    VOICE: "ONE OF THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S SPECIALITIES IS THREATENING A TRADE WAR AND THEN STRIKING A DEAL AT THE 11TH HOUR. THAT'S THE WAY IT WAS WITH THE AUTO PARTS AGREEMENT WITH JAPAN LAST YEAR AND THE SAME GOES FOR THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS COMPROMISE WITH CHINA YESTERDAY JUST BEFORE THE DEADLINE FOR HARSH RESTRICTIONS ON CHINESE IMPORTS. IT IS NEVER VERY CLEAR WHO 'WINS' THESE CONTESTS. BUT THE IMPORTANT THING FOR THE CLINTONITES IS THE DOMESTIC POLITICAL MILEAGE."

    TEXT: THE LOS ANGELES TIMES SAYS THAT "THE UNITED STATES SHOULD NOT HAVE TO STAND ALONE IN MONITORING BEIJING'S EFFORTS AGAINST COUNTERFEITERS."

    VOICE: "IT SHOULD HAVE HELP FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. OUR OTHER TRADE PARTNERS, ESPECIALLY IN EUROPE, SHOULD APPLY MORE PRESSURE AND EXERCISE GREATER VIGILANCE TO RESOLVE THE PROBLEM. UNTIL NOW, THEY HAVE LET THE UNITED STATES PUSH AHEAD ALONE, AND SOME HAVE BEEN QUICK TO CRITICIZE WASHINGTON FOR THREATENING UNILATERAL SANCTIONS THAT MIGHT SOUR TRADE WITH CHINA IN GENERAL. THIS DESPITE THE FACT THAT BEIJING CANNOT BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE IN OTHER WAYS SINCE IT IS NOT A MEMBER OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION."

    TEXT: ON MONDAY, A BOMB WENT OFF IN MANCHESTER, ENGLAND, JUST A FEW DAYS AFTER THE RESUMPTION OF THE START OF PEACE TALKS IN BELFAST, NORTHERN IRELAND. THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS TELLS READERS THAT "NO MATTER WHAT IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY MOUTHPIECE GERRY ADAMS SAYS ABOUT WANTING PEACE", THE BOMBING IS -- IN THE NEWSPAPER'S WORDS -- "A BLOODY REMINDER OF THE TRUTH:"

    VOICE: "CURRENT I-R-A ACTIONS ARE NOT THE NATURAL CONSEQUENCES OF WAR, THEY ARE UNADULTERATED TERRORISM... THE MODUS OPERANDI IN THE MANCHESTER ATROCITY REPLAYED A FAMILIAR SCENARIO. A CODED MESSAGE TO AUTHORITIES. A FRENZIED EVACUATION. A TREMENDOUS BLAST. AND THEN THE HORRIBLE PARAGE OF THE PHYSICALLY AND EMOTIONALLY DEVASTATED. SO SHOCKING WAS THE BLAST THAT THE I-R-A'S STRONGEST ALLY IN CONGRESS, REP. PETER KING (R-LONG ISLAND), CONDEMNED IT. 'THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO JUSTIFICATION FOR IT, MORALLY OR POLITICALLY', HE SAID. WOULD THAT (GERRY) ADAMS COULD BRING HIMSELF TO SAY THE SAME THING."

    TEXT: ON ITS EDITORIAL PAGE TUESDAY, THE BOSTON GLOBE DESCRIBES WHAT IT CALLS "INTRANSIGENCE IN IRELAND."

    TEXT: "THE PEACE TALKS IN BELFAST, DURING THEIR FIRST FEW DAYS, BORE MORE THAN A LITTLE RESEMBLANCE TO THE CONFERENCE IN PARIS THAT CONVENED IN 1968 IN A FORLORN ATTEMPT TO END THE VIETNAM WAR. DISAGREEMENTS OVER PROCEDURE DISGUISED DEEP ANIMOSITIES THAT PROMPTED THE OUTRAGEOUS BOMBING IN ENGLAND SATURDAY, AND THREATEN, AS IN VIETNAM, TO UNDERMINE THE SEARCH FOR A COMPROMISE PEACE... IN THE VIETNAM WAR, THE UNITED STATES WIELDED SO MUCH MILITARY POWER, AND THE NORTH VIETNAMESE WERE SO DETERMINED TO UNITE THE COUNTRY, THAT VICTORY BY ONE OR THE OTHER WAS INEVITABLE. NONE OF THE FACTIONS IN NORTHERN IRELAND HAS THE POWER TO IMPOSE ITS WILL. UNLESS THE ANTAGONISTS UNEQUIVOCALLY RENOUNCE VIOLENCE AND SEEK COMMON POLITICAL GROUND, THE BEST CHANCE IN A GENERATION TO END THE CONFLICT WILL HAVE BEEN LOST."

    TEXT: THE CHICAGO TRIBUNES TAKES A LOOK AT CONFLICT IN ANOTHER PART OF THE WORLD. IN ONE OF ITS EDITORIALS, THE NEWSPAPER SAYS THAT "PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SECURITY ADVISERS SPEAK CANDIDLY OF THE NEED TO PUT MORE EMPHASIS DURING A SECOND TERM ON EASING TENSIONS BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN."

    VOICE: "IF THERE'S GOING TO BE A NUCLEAR WAR ANYWHERE, THEY SAY, IT WILL BE BETWEEN THOSE TWO SOUTH ASIAN NATIONS. BUT THERE ARE PROMISING SIGNS THAT THE TWO NEIGHBORS, WHO HAVE SQUARED OFF REPEATEDLY OVER THE DISPUTED TERRITORY OF KASHMIR, MAY BE READY TO SEEK AN EASING OF TENSIONS. THE U-S SHOULDN'T WAIT FOR OUR PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION; IT SHOULD URGE INDIA AND PAKISTAN TO SEIZE THIS CHANCE TO RESOLVE THEIR DIFFERENCES. THE SIGNS OF THAW APPEARED AFTER H-D DEVE GOWDA WAS SWORN IN AS INDIAN PRIME MINISTER ON JUNE 1ST. HIS 13-PARTY UNITED FRONT COALITION FORMED A GOVERNMENT AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF THE BRIEF REGIME OF THE HINDU NATIONALIST BHARATIYA JANATA PARTY, WHICH WAS COMMITTED TO MAKING INDIA A NUCLEAR POWER."

    TEXT: SLAVERY IS THE SUBJECT OF THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S EDITOR OF THE BALTIMORE SUN. THE PIECE NOTES THAT LOUIS FARRAKHAN, LEADER OF THE NATION OF ISLAM, WAS ACCUSED OF HAVE "COZIED UP TO A GOVERNMENT THAT TOLERATED THE ENSLAVEMENT OF BLACK PEOPLE." MISTER FARRAKHAN REPORTEDLY RESPONDED BY TELLING THE PRESS THAT "IF SLAVERY EXISTS, WHY DON'T YOU GO ... AND YOU LOOK INSIDE SUDAN, AND IF YOU FIND IT, THEN YOU COME BACK AND TELL THE AMERICAN PEOPLE WHAT YOU FOUND?" TO WHICH THE NEWSPAPER COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "THE PROOF WAS EVIDENT TO TWO BALTIMORE SUN REPORTERS WHO TOOK UP MR. FARRAKHAN'S CHALLENGE, TREKKED INTO SOUTHERN SUDAN AND PURCHASED THE FREEDOM OF TWO DINKA BOYS. THEIR STORY IS COMPELLING TESTIMONY TO THE ABOMINABLE FATE OF THOUSANDS IN THAT PART OF THE WORLD. BUT WILL IT SHAME THE SUDANESE GOVERNMENT -- OR MR. FARRAKHAN AND OTHER SUPPORTERS -- AWAY FROM THE POLICIES AND ATTITUDES UNDER WHICH THIS SCOURGE FLOURISHES? NOT UNLESS THE OUTRAGE STIRS OTHER GOVERNMENTS INTO ACTION."

    TEXT: LAST WEEK, A THREE-JUDGE FEDERAL APPEALS COURT IN PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, RULED THAT THE RECENTLY PASSED COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT, WHICH RESTRICTED INDECENT MATERIAL ON THE INTERNET, WAS AT ODDS WITH THE FIRST AMENDMENT'S GUARANTEE OF FREE SPEECH. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR OFFERS THIS VIEW:

    VOICE: "AFTER THE JUDGES' RINGING SUPPORT FOR THE INTERNET AS A VITAL FORUM FOR EXPRESSION -- DESERVING, PERHAPS, EVEN GREATER PROTECTION THAN THAT AFFORDED OTHER MEDIA -- SUPPORTERS OF THE LAW, OR AT LEAST OF ITS GOALS, MIGHT BE EXPECTED TO BACK OFF. BUT THAT WON'T HAPPEN, AND FOR GOOD REASON. THE MOTIVES BEHIND THE DECENCY LAW ARE COMMENDABLE. CHILDREN DO NEED TO BE DEFENDED FROM THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF LEWD, DEBASING MATERIAL... THE PHILADELPHIA RULING COULD END UP BEFORE THE U.S. SUPREME COURT THIS FALL, AND THAT BODY, WITH ITS FINE IDEOLOGICAL BALANCE, MIGHT SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY. BUT NOT LIKELY. THE COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT CASTS ITS NET TOO FAR TO AVOID ENTANGLEMENT WITH FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES OF FREE SPEECH. ITS GOALS HAVE TO BE PURSUED THROUGH OTHER MEANS."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/DN/PCH
    18-Jun-96 10:13 AM EDT (1413 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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