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Voice of America, 96-06-13

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TURKEY POLITICS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ANKARA)
  • [02] ALBANIA/O-S-C-E (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [03] NATO DEFENSE (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (BRUSSELS)
  • [04] NATO BRUSSELS (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (BRUSSELS) BY DAVID GOLLUST (BRUSSELS)
  • [05] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [06] BOSNIA CONFERENCE (S UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [07] BOSNIA ELECTION PROGNOSIS BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [09] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] COURT RULES ON SPEECH IN CYBERSPACE BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] TURKEY POLITICS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=6/13/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33550
    CONTENT=
    VOICED 6/12:

    INTRO: AMONG THE SPEAKERS WEDNESDAY AT THE U-N CITY CONFERENCE IN ISTANBUL WAS ISRAELI PRESIDENT EZER WEIZMAN. THE WARMING OF RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND ISRAEL AND THE MILITARY TRAINING AGREEMENT SIGNED EARLIER THIS YEAR HAVE REVERBERATED IN THE ARAB WORLD SINCE THE ELECTION OF AN ISRAELI HARDLINE GOVERNMENT. V-O-A'S MIDDLE EAST CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN SUMS UP TURKISH REACTION.

    TEXT: IN HIS SPEECH TO THE U-N HABITAT CONFERENCE IN ISTANBUL PRESIDENT WEIZMAN TOLD THE GATHERING OF MOSTLY DEVELOPING WORLD REPRESENTATIVES THAT TURKEY SHARED ISRAEL'S DEMOCRATIC AND PROGRESSIVE VALUES.

    THOSE VALUES, HE SAID, HAVE NOT BEEN ACCEPTED THROUGHOUT THE REGION. TURKEY'S WARM RELATIONS WITH ISRAEL HAVE COME UNDER FIRE FROM ITS ARAB NEIGHBORS ESPECIALLY SYRIA, IRAN AND EGYPT.

    EARLIER THIS YEAR TURKEY AND ISRAEL SIGNED A MILITARY TRAINING AGREEMENT THAT PROVIDES ISRAELI PILOTS THE USE OF TURKISH AIR SPACE AND TRAINING FACILITIES. TURKISH OFFICIALS TRAVELED TO CAIRO TO ASSURE THEM THE AGREEMENT WAS NOT AIMED AT ANY STATE OF THE REGION.

    A HIGH RANKING FOREIGN MINISTRY OFFICIAL SAYS HIS TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS SIMILAR PACTS WITH NEARLY TWO DOZEN CONTRIES, INCLUDING EGYPT AND SEVERAL OTHER FELLOW MUSLIM STATES. BUT LAST WEEK WHEN THE LEADERS OF EGYPT, SYRIA AND SAUDI ARABIA GOT TOGETHER IN DAMASCUS TO DISCUSS THE IMPACT OF ISRAEL'S NEW HARD LINE GOVERNMENT ON THE PEACE PROCESS THEY ALSO CALLED ON TURKEY TO RECONSIDER ITS MILITARY DEAL WITH ISRAEL.

    IN THEIR JOINT STATEMENT THEY URGED TURKEY TO ADOPT A POLICY MORE INLINE WITH WHAT THEY CALL GOOD NEIGHBORLY TIES, JOINT INTEREST AND RESPECT FOR ARAB INTERESTS. TURKISH PARLIAMENTARIANS SAY THE ARABS ARE OVERREACTING. KAMRAN INAN OF THE PARLIAMENT'S FOREIGN AFFAIRS COMMITTEE CALLS IT HYPOCRISY ESPECIALLY FROM STATES OFFICIALLY AT PEACE WITH ISRAEL.

    // INAN ACT //

    ASTONISHED RATHER THAN SURPRISED, BECAUSE THEY STARTED THE FIRST EXTENDED RELATIONS AND VISITS TO WITH ISRAEL. EGYPT WHICH IS NOW SEEMINGLY UNHAPPY WITH OUR COOPERATION WITH ISRAEL IS THE FIRST COUNTRY THAT STARTED THE VISIT TO TEL AVIV AND EXTENDED RELATIONS AND THEY HAVE PERIODICAL MEETINGS AT ALL LEVELS. JORDAN HAS EVEN A STRONGER COOPERATION, INCLUDING STRATEGIC ASPECTS OF MILITARY COOPERATION AND EVERYBODY ELSE AND WHY TURKEY WILL BE DIFFERENT FROM THAT.

    // END ACT //

    MR. INAN ALSO ECHOES HIS COLLEAGUES COMPLAINTS THAT THE ARAB STATES HAVE A DOUBLE STANDARD WHEN IT COMES TO TURKEY.

    // INAN ACT //

    WHY THE SAME COUNTRIES ARE NOT ASKING SYRIA ABOUT THEIR AGREEMENT -- MILITARY AGREEMENT -- WITH GREECE WHICH IS EVIDENTLY AGAINST THIS COUNTRY AND WHY THE SAME COUNTRIES ARE NOT QUESTIONING SYRIA BECAUSE IF ITS INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM.

    // END ACT //

    RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND SYRIA HAVE BEEN STRAINED FOR SEVERAL YEARS. TURKEY CHARGES THAT SYRIA SUPPORTS TURKEY SEPARATIST KURD AND GIVES THE P-K-K (MARXIST KURDISH WORKERS PARTY) REBELS TRAINING AND REFUGE IN SYRIAN CONTROLLED AREAS OF LEBANON.

    SYRIA COMPLAINS THAT TURKEY IS BLOCKING THE FLOW OF THE EUPHRATES RIVER INTO SYRIA. SOME ANALYSTS AND DIPLOMATS IN THE REGION SUGGEST THE ISRAELI-TURKEY ARRANGEMENT WAS INTENDED IN PART AS A WARNING TO SYRIA TO RECONSIDER ITS UNOFFICIAL PROGRAM OF HARBORING AND SUPPORTING THE P-K-K REBELS THAT TURKEY'S MILITARY IS TRYING TO CRUSH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GKT-T/CF
    13-Jun-96 8:12 AM EDT (1212 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] ALBANIA/O-S-C-E (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=6/12/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198633
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE SAYS THERE WERE WIDESPREAD AND SIGNIFICANT IRREGULARITIES IN ALBANIA'S RECENT GENERAL ELECTION, WHICH THE RULING DEMOCRATIC PARTY WON. BUT, THE O-S-C-E DOES NOT BACK OPPOSITION PARTY DEMANDS FOR THE ELECTION TO BE ENTIRELY RE-RUN. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS FROM VIENNA.

    TEXT: IN A FINAL REPORT ON THE ALBANIAN ELECTION, THE O-S-C-E SAYS NEARLY HALF OF THE OFFICIAL ELECTION RULES AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR FREE AND FAIR VOTING WERE WIDELY IGNORED.

    THE O-S-C-E OUTLINES INCIDENTS OF VOTER INTIMIDATION, THE MANIPULATION OF BALLOTS AND VOTING RESULTS AND OTHER IRREGULARITIES REPORTED BY ITS MONITORS.

    IN ONE CASE, A POLLING STATION WORKER IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN OVERHEARD APOLOGIZING TO SOMEONE ON THE TELEPHONE FOR NOT DELIVERING THE DESIRED RESULTS. THE WORKER SAID HE COULD NOT MANIPULATE THE BALLOTS BECAUSE INTERNATIONAL WORKERS WERE PRESENT.

    THE FINAL O-S-C-E REPORT DOES NOT BACK THE DEMAND BY OPPOSITION PARTIES' FOR THE FLAWED ALBANIAN GENERAL ELECTION TO BE COMPLETELY REPEATED. BUT, IT IS THE FIRST TIME THE O-S-C-E HAS GENERALLY DEPLORED THE WAY A NATIONAL ELECTION HAS BEEN HELD IN POST-COMMUNIST EASTERN EUROPE.

    THE O-S-C-E CHAIRMAN HAS ALREADY CALLED FOR THE ELECTION TO BE REPEATED IN THOSE PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES WHERE THE WORST IRREGULARITIES WERE OBSERVED.

    PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA HAS ORDERED NEW VOTING IN 17 CONSTITUENCIES THIS SUNDAY EVEN THOUGH HE STILL DENIES THAT HIS DEMOCRATIC PARTY RIGGED THE ELECTION. BUT, NO MATTER WHAT THE RESULTS MIGHT BE IN THOSE CONSTITUENCIES, THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY WILL STILL RETAIN CONTROL OF PARLIAMENT.

    SINCE THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY CAME INTO POWER IN 1992, THE ECONOMY OF ALBANIA, ONE OF EUROPE'S POOREST COUNTRIES, HAS BEEN IMPROVING BECAUSE OF MARKET-ORIENTED REFORMS. ALBANIA MAY NOW HAVE THE FASTEST GROWING ECONOMY OF ANY EUROPEAN NATION. BUT, CRITICS OF THE STRONGLY PRO-WESTERN PRESIDENT SAY MR. BERISHA IS BECOMING INCREASINGLY AUTHORITARIAN.

    THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF FORMER COMMUNISTS ACCUSES HIM OF LAUNCHING A NEW DICTATORSHIP. HIS RESPONSE TO THAT CHARGE IS THAT THE SOCIALISTS ARE JUST UNHAPPY THAT THE ALBANIAN PEOPLE HAVE DECISIVELY REJECTED COMMUNISM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/GKT/PT
    12-Jun-96 7:09 PM EDT (2309 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] NATO DEFENSE (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=6/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198659
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS HAVE OPENED A TWO-DAY MEETING IN BRUSSELS AT THE HALF-WAY POINT IN THE ALLIANCE'S BOSNIAN PEACE MISSION. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST AT NATO HEADQUARTERS REPORTS THE DELEGATIONS ARE DOWNPLAYING TALK ABOUT A POSSIBLE NATO ROLE IN THE BALKANS AFTER THE CURRENT MANDATE EXPIRES IN DECEMBER.

    TEXT: THE MINISTERIAL MEETING COMES ONLY ONE DAY AFTER U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY SAID THE UNITED STATES WAS WILLING TO COMMIT GROUND TROOPS TO A FOLLOW-ON NATO FORCE IN BOSNIA -- IF ONE IS NEEDED.

    BUT NATO OFFICIALS SAY ANY DISCUSSION OF A POSSIBLE TROOP DEPLOYMENT NEXT YEAR IS PREMATURE, AND THAT THE ISSUE WILL BE ADDRESSED ONLY ON THE SIDELINES OF THIS MEETING.

    THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO NATO -- ROBERT HUNTER -- SAYS THE ALLIES ARE CONCENTRATING ON THE TASKS AT HAND IN BOSNIA -- INCLUDING THE CREATION OF A SECURE ENVIRONMENT FOR THE ELECTIONS TO BE CONDUCTED IN SEPTEMBER. AND HE SAYS THE BOSNIAN PARTIES SHOULD NOT COUNT ON HAVING A NATO SECURITY PRESENCE IN 1997:

    /// HUNTER ACTUALITY ///

    WE ARE FOCUSSING ON DOING THE JOB WE WERE ASKED TO DO. AND DOING IT RIGHT. AS WE ARE DOING IT RIGHT. IT'S A STUNNING SUCCESS, WHAT NATO HAS BEEN DOING. THAT IN PARTICULAR IS FOCUSING ON THE PERIOD THROUGH THE DATE FOR ELECTIONS. WE CALL IT D-PLUS-270. THE 270TH DATE SINCE LAST DECEMBER 20TH. AND WE'RE DOING IT FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES, REASONS. ONE TO FOCUS ON JOB ONE. AND SECONDLY TO REINFORCE THE MESSAGE TO THE PARTIES IN THE REGION. NATO HAS BOUGHT THEM ONE YEAR. AND THEY NEED TO GET ON WITH THEIR PART OF THE JOB.

    /// END ACT ///

    FRANCE IS TAKING PART IN THE MAIN SESSION OF THE DEFENSE MINISTERIAL FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 30 YEARS. THE ALLIES ARE DISCUSSING HOW TO IMPLEMENT FRENCH-BACKED REFORMS -- ENDORSED BY NATO FOREIGN MINISTERS IN BERLIN EARLIER THIS MONTH -- THAT WOULD ALLOW EUROPEAN MEMBERS TO CONDUCT MILITARY OPERATIONS UNDER THE NATO UMBRELLA BUT WITHOUT U-S INVOLVEMENT. IT IS HOPED THAT FRANCE WILL BE FULLY REINTEGRATED INTO NATO COMMAND STRUCTURES BY THE END OF THE YEAR. THE 16 NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS ARE TO MEET FRIDAY WITH RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV AND LATER WITH MINISTERS OF THE 27 FORMER WARSAW PACT AND OTHER COUNTRIES BELONGING TO NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE.

    SENIOR U-S OFFICIALS SAY RUSSIA HAS NOT ALTERED ITS OPPOSITION TO NATO EXPANSION, WHICH THEY INSISTED WILL GO FORWARD ON SCHEDULE. BUT THEY SAY RUSSIA HAS BEEN MORE COOPERATIVE IN ITS RELATIONS WITH NATO, AS EVIDENCED BY ITS INVOLVEMENT IN THE BOSNIAN PEACE FORCE AND IN SOME PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE ACTIVITIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/JWH/KL
    13-Jun-96 9:31 AM EDT (1331 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] NATO BRUSSELS (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (BRUSSELS) BY DAVID GOLLUST (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=6/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198680
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS MEETING IN BRUSSELS HAVE REAFFIRMED THEIR INTENTION TO MAINTAIN A FULLY-CAPABLE PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA -- UNTIL ITS MANDATE EXPIRES AT THE END OF THE YEAR. SERIOUS DISCUSSION OF A FOLLOW-ON NATO PRESENCE IN BOSNIA -- IF NECESSARY -- WILL NOT BEGIN UNTIL SEPTEMBER. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS.

    TEXT: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY HAD CREATED A STIR ON THE EVE OF THE MEETING BY SUGGESTING NATO AIR AND GROUND FORCES MIGHT BE NEEDED IN BOSNIA NEXT YEAR TO PREVENT A RETURN TO WAR.

    BUT THE EMPHASIS OF THE MINISTERS HERE WAS ON SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETING NATO'S CURRENT MISSION, WITHOUT THE NEED OF FOLLOW-ON FORCE. MR. PERRY SAID HE EXPECTS THE MAJOR WITHDRAWAL OF TROOPS TO BEGIN, AS PLANNED, DECEMBER 20TH, AND TALK OF WHAT HAPPENS LATER IS PREMATURE AND SPECULATIVE.

    HE SAID BOSNIANS ARE SICK OF FIGHTING AND A RETURN TO WAR IS UNLIKELY IN 1997. BUT HE ADDED NATO AIR POWER WILL BE AVAILABLE TO CHECK THE AMBITIONS OF THOSE WHO MAY CONTEMPLATE ATTACKS:

    /// PERRY ACTUALITY ///

    THE DETERRENCE TO THAT WAR RE-STARTING IMPLICIT IN NATO AIR IS VERY POWERFUL. ALL OF THE FORMER WARRING FACTIONS HAVE HAD VERY VIVID EXAMPLES OF THE CAPABILITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF NATO AIR STRIKES.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO OFFICIALS SAY THERE WILL BE NO SERIOUS DISCUSSION OF A FOLLOW-ON NATO PRESENCE IN BOSNIA UNTIL A LATE SEPTEMBER INFORMAL DEFENSE MINISTERS GATHERING IN NORWAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DG/PCF/RAE
    13-Jun-96 2:01 PM EDT (1801 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=6/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198681
    1TITLE=NATO/BOSNIA (L-UPDATE) CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS -- MEETING IN BRUSSELS -- HAVE REAFFIRMED THEIR INTENTION TO MAINTAIN A FULLY-CAPABLE PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA UNTIL ITS MANDATE EXPIRES AT THE END OF THE YEAR. SERIOUS DISCUSSION OF A FOLLOW-ON NATO PRESENCE IN BOSNIA -- IF NECESSARY -- WILL NOT BEGIN UNTIL SEPTEMBER. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY HAD CREATED A STIR ON THE EVE OF THE BRUSSELS MEETING BY SUGGESTING THAT NATO AIR AND GROUND FORCES MIGHT BE NEEDED IN BOSNIA NEXT YEAR -- AFTER THE PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE WITHDRAWS -- TO PREVENT A RETURN TO WAR.

    BUT THE EMPHASIS OF THE MINISTERS HERE WAS ON SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETING NATO'S CURRENT PEACEKEEPING MISSION, WITHOUT THE NEED OF A FOLLOW-ON FORCE.

    MR. PERRY TOLD A CLOSING NEWS CONFERENCE THAT HE EXPECTS THE MAJOR DRAWDOWN OF TROOPS TO BEGIN AS PLANNED DECEMBER 20TH, AND THAT TALK OF WHAT PRESENCE MIGHT BE NEEDED LATER -- IF ANY -- IS NOT ONLY PREMATURE, BUT SPECULATIVE.

    THE DEFENSE SECRETARY SAID BOSNIANS ARE SICK OF FIGHTING AND THAT THE RELATIVE BALANCE OF FORCES IN BOSNIA IS VERY DIFFERENT FROM WHAT IT WAS WHEN THE WAR BEGAN YEARS AGO. HE SAID HIS OWN VIEW IS THAT IT IS UNLIKELY THAT A WAR WOULD RESTART IN 1997. BUT HE POINTEDLY ADDED THAT NATO AIR POWER WILL BE AVAILABLE TO CHECK THE AMBITIONS OF THOSE WHO MAY CONTEMPLATE ATTACKS:

    ///PERRY ACTUALITY///

    IN ANY EVENT, THE DETERRENCE TO THAT WAR RESTARTING IMPLICIT IN NATO AIR IS VERY POWERFUL. ALL OF THE FORMER WARRING FACTIONS HAVE HAD VERY VIVID EXAMPLES OF THE CAPABILITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF NATO AIR STRIKES.

    ///END ACT///

    NATO OFFICIALS SAY THERE WILL BE NO SERIOUS TALK OF A FOLLOW-ON NATO PRESENCE IN BOSNIA UNTIL AFTER ELECTIONS ARE HELD THERE IN MID-SEPTEMBER. THE VENUE FOR THAT DISCUSSION WILL BE AN INFORMAL DEFENSE MINISTERS GATHERING IN NORWAY, SCHEDULED FOR SEPTEMBER 25TH.

    THIS DEFENSE MINISTERS MEETING WAS THE FIRST ATTENDED BY FRANCE IN THREE DECADES. AND THERE WAS CONTINUED DISCUSSION OF NATO REFORMS -- INCLUDING A FRENCH BACKED PLAN ENDORSED BY FOREIGN MINISTERS LAST WEEK THAT WOULD ALLOW EUROPEAN NATO MEMBERS TO CONDUCT MILITARY OPERATIONS WITHOUT U-S INVOLVEMENT.

    //REST OPT//

    THE MINISTERS FRIDAY HOLD A SPECIAL MEETING WITH RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTERS PAVEL GRACHEV, AND THEN MEET WITH REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 27 FORMER WARSAW PACT AND OTHER COUNTRIES OF NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE.

    U-S OFFICIALS HERE SAY RUSSIA'S OPPOSITION TO NATO'S EASTWARD EXPANSION REMAINS UNCHANGED -- BUT THAT RUSSIA'S RELATIONS WITH NATO ITSELF ARE IMPROVING, AS EVIDENCED BY RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE BOSNIAN PEACEKEEPING OPERATION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/PCF/KL
    13-Jun-96 2:31 PM EDT (1831 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] BOSNIA CONFERENCE (S UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=6/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198664
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS IN BOSNIA HAVE CRITICIZED THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS FOR FAILING TO MAKE EFFORTS TOWARD RECONCILIATION. NATO OFFICIALS HAVE ALSO SAID THERE ARE STILL FOREIGN FORCES IN BOSNIA, DISPUTING AMERICAN CLAIMS THE SO-CALLED MUJAHEDEEN HAVE LEFT BOSNIA. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: AT THE MID-WAY POINT IN THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT COLUM MURPHY, THE SPOKESMAN FOR CARL BILDT -- THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA -- HAS CRITICIZED THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FOR FAILING TO IMPLEMENT THE AGREEMENT.

    ///MURPHY ACT///

    FOR BOTH OF THEM, PEACE IS STILL THE CONTINUATION OF WAR BY OTHER MEANS, NOT THE RECONCILIATION THAT WOULD BE THE TRUE SPIRIT OF DAYTON AND PARIS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MURPHY SAYS THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IS QUESTIONING THE LEGALITY OF THE BOSNIAN SERB ENTITY AND THE POLITICAL STRUCTURES CREATED BY THE AGREEMENT. HE ACCUSES THE BOSNIAN SERBS OF TRYING TO PARTITION BOSNIA BY TURNING THE FORMER FRONT LINE INTO A TIGHTLY CONTROLLED BORDER.

    ///SECOND MURPHY ACT///

    THE FACT OF THE MATTER IS THAT TODAY, BOSNIA IS STILL A SOCIETY COMING APART, NOT A SOCIETY STARTING TO COME BACK TOGETHER.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MURPHY SAYS THE QUESTION OF ELECTIONS WILL DOMINATE THE ASSESSMENT CONFERENCE NOW UNDERWAY IN FLORENCE, ITALY, AND HE SAYS MR. BILDT BELIEVES EVEN FLAWED ELECTIONS WOULD BE BETTER THAN PERMITTING A DELAY IN THE VOTING. MR. BILDT'S SPOKESMAN IS ALSO CALLING FOR STRONGER EUROPEAN WILL (DETERMINATION) TO HELP RESOLVE PROBLEMS IN THE REGION, AND HE WARNS OF THE DANGERS OF INACTION.

    ////THIRD MURPHY ACT ///

    AT THE HALF-WAY POINT, DAYTON IS HALF SUCCESSFUL, BUT THE PERIOD AHEAD WILL NOT SURVIVE A HALF-HEARTED EFFORT OF POLITICAL WILL, FROM EITHER THE PARTIES OR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY.

    ///END ACT ///

    MEANWHILE, EFFORTS ARE UNDERWAY IN SARAJEVO TO REMOVE THE LAST OBSTACLES TO AN AMERICAN PROGRAM TO RE-EQUIP THE BOSNIAN ARMY. A MEETING OF THE JOINT MUSLIM / CROAT PARLIAMENT IS EXPECTED ON FRIDAY TO APPROVE A BILL THAT WILL JOIN THE TWO SIDES' ARMIES -- A KEY REQUIREMENT BEFORE AMERICAN ARMS CAN BEGIN TO FLOW INTO BOSNIA. THE DAYTON AGREEMENT ALSO CALLS FOR FOREIGN FORCES TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY BEFORE THE SO-CALLED "EQUIP AND TRAIN" PROGRAM CAN BEGIN. AMERICAN OFFICIALS HAVE INDICATED THEY ARE SATISFIED THE SO-CALLED MUJAHEDEEN FIGHTERS HAVE LEFT THE COUNTRY, BUT THE NATO SPOKESMAN, MAJOR SIMON HASELOCK, DISAGREES

    ///HASELOCK ACT///

    WE STILL BELIEVE THERE IS EVIDENCE OF FOREIGN FORCES IN THEATER. WE WILL NOT BE SPECIFIC ABOUT NUMBERS BECAUSE WE CAN'T BE.

    /// END ACT ///

    DESPITE NATO OBJECTIONS, IF THE JOINT PARLIAMENT SESSION DOES APPROVE THE COMMON DEFENSE LAW, SENIOR AMERICAN OFFICIALS ARE EXPECTED TO IMMEDIATELY ANNOUNCE THAT THE ARMS SHIPMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM WILL BEGIN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/PCF/KL
    13-Jun-96 11:12 AM EDT (1512 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] BOSNIA ELECTION PROGNOSIS BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=6/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198669
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: UPDATES, WITH OPENING SPEECHES ///

    INTRO: A TWO-DAY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BOSNIA HAS BEGUN IN THE ITALIAN CITY OF FLORENCE. V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS OPENING SPEAKERS HAVE GIVEN GLOOMY ASSESSMENTS OF THE SIX-MONTH-OLD BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS.

    TEXT: ITALIAN FOREIGN MINISTER LAMBERTO DINI TOLD REPRESENTATIVES OF ABOUT 40 COUNTRIES AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN FLORENCE THAT TRUST AND MUTUAL RESPECT DO NOT EXIST AMONG THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS, SERBS, AND CROATS.

    HE SAID A FIRM AND LASTING PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS IMPOSSIBLE UNLESS PEOPLE CHARGED WITH WAR CRIMES ARE REMOVED FROM POWER, AND UNLESS ORDINARY CIVILIANS CAN MOVE FREELY AROUND THE COUNTRY.

    THE TOP CIVILIAN INTERNATIONAL OFFICIAL IN BOSNIA, CARL BILDT, SAID THE FORCES OF ETHNIC SEPARATION THERE ARE STILL STRONGER THAN THE FORCES OF ETHNIC REINTEGRATION.

    HE OUTLINED A DISMAL PICTURE OF HARASSMENT OF ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE SARAJEVO AREA, A LACK OF MONEY FOR POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION, AND A PRIMITIVE NATIONAL ECONOMY IN BOSNIA.

    THE UNITED STATES, ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES, AND MR. BILDT SAY NATIONAL ELECTIONS MUST STILL BE HELD IN SEPTEMBER TO ESTABLISH A FRAMEWORK FOR DEMOCRACY IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/MMK
    13-Jun-96 12:11 PM EDT (1611 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=6/13/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09204
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: A TWO-DAY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE STATUS OF THE PEACE PROCESS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS OPENED IN FLORENCE, ITALY. THE PURPOSE OF THE CONFERENCE IS TO DECIDE WHETHER ELECTIONS SHOULD GO FORWARD IN SEPTEMBER DESPITE LESS THAN IDEAL CONDITIONS, INCLUDING THE CONTINUATION IN POWER OF LEADERS FACING WAR CRIMES

    CHARGES. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR REPORTS ON WHAT U-S

    OFFICIALS AND BALKAN ANALYSTS TOLD A CONGRESSIONAL PANEL THIS WEEK ABOUT THE CHANCES THAT BOSNIA'S POST-WAR ELECTIONS SCHEDULED THREE MONTHS FROM NOW WILL BE FREE AND FAIR.

    TEXT: THE U-S ADMINISTRATION HAS BEEN ACCUSED OF TRYING TO FORCE AN ARBITRARY ELECTION DATE OF SEPTEMBER 14TH TO PREVENT DELAYS IN THE DAYTON TIMETABLE FROM AFFECTING PRESIDENT CLINTON'S REELECTION CAMPAIGN. BOSNIAN OFFICIALS, AID WORKERS AND EVEN SOME INTERNATIONAL ELECTION MONITORS HAVE EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT NONE OF THE CONDITIONS FOR FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS HAVE BEEN MET. THEY POINT OUT THAT REFUGEES HAVE BEEN PREVENTED FROM RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES, THAT THE MEDIA IS FAR FROM FREE AND THAT BOSNIA'S NATIONALIST LEADERS, INCLUDING THOSE INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES, CONTINUE TO FOSTER ETHNIC DIVISION.

    JOHN FOX OF THE OPEN SOCIETY INSTITUTE (FUNDED BY FINANCIER GEORGE SOROS) TOLD THE HOUSE INTELLIGENCE PANEL THAT AMERICA'S INSISTENCE ON GOING FORWARD WITH ELECTIONS IS TANTAMOUNT TO A DIPLOMATIC FORCED MARCH TOWARD ANTI-DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS:

    TAPE: CUT # 1 FOX RUNS [:36] "EVERYONE WITH AN ELEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE OF BOSNIA UNDERSTANDS THAT LARGE SECTIONS OF THE COUNTRY ARE CONTROLLED BY INDICTED AND UNINDICTED WAR CRIMINALS, BY THE SAME ANTI-DEMOCRATIC POWER STRUCTURES THAT FOMENTED AND EXECUTED THE ABOMINABLE WAR AGAINST BOSNIAN CIVILIANS THAT THE U-S FINALLY LED THE WAY IN STOPPING. NOW THE ADMINISTRATION IS TWISTING EVERYONE'S ARM, INCLUDING THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND OSCE OFFICIALS, IT IS USING INCREASINGLY TORTURED RATIONALES FOR PRESSING ON WITH THE SEPT. 14 ELECTION DATE."

    TEXT: THE RESULT OF GOING FORWARD WITH ELECTIONS IN SEPTEMBER, MR. FOX PREDICTED, WILL ONLY LEGITIMIZE ETHNIC PARTITION AND LEAD TO FURTHER CONFLICT. BUT THE THREE OTHER WITNESSES, CHOSEN FOR THEIR INDEPENDENT AND DISPARATE VIEWS, FOUND THEMSELVES DISAGREEING WITH MR. FOX AND SUPPORTING THE OFFICIAL U-S VIEW AS PRESENTED BY WILLIAM MONTGOMERY, THE STATE DEPARTMENT'S ADVISOR FOR IMPLEMENTING THE DAYTON ACCORDS:

    TAPE: CUT # 2 MONTGOMERY RUNS [:35] "THE FACT THERE WILL BE SOMETHING LIKE 32 HUNDRED INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS AND MONITORS TRAVELLING ALL OVER THAT COUNTRY IS GOING TO HELP FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, IS GOING TO PUSH PEOPLE IN THESE LOCAL AREAS TO BE MORE OPEN. THE FACT WE HAVE A SIGNED AGREEMENT WITH THE SECRETARY OF STATE TO ALLOW THIS OPEN MEDIA TV NETWORK TO GET UP AND RUNNING MEANS WE'RE GOING TO PUSH LIKE HELL TO GET THIS TV STATION UP AND RUNNING AND THERE WILL BE A CHANCE FOR ALL POLITICAL PARTIES TO BE HEARD ON IT ALL OVER BOSNIA."

    TEXT: THIS OPTIMISTIC VIEW WAS GREETED WITH SKEPTICISM BY SEVERAL CONGRESSMEN, UNTIL THEY HEARD THE VIEWS OF THE TWO OTHER WITNESSES. ONE OF THEM, JOHN FAWCETT, HAS BEEN IN BOSNIA SINCE THE WAR BROKE OUT IN 1992. NOW WITH THE INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP, MR. FAWCETT SAID THAT GOING FORWARD WITH ELECTIONS WILL HELP FOCUS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S ATTENTION ON GETTING CONDITIONS IN PLACE WHICH WILL INSURE THEY ARE FREE AND FAIR.

    TAPE: CUT # 3 FAWCETT RUNS [:29] "SETTING A DATE FOR ELECTIONS GIVES US A TIME FRAME THAT WE CAN SAY 'GET THOSE CONDITIONS RIGHT BY THE TIME ELECTIONS COME AROUND'. IF WE DELAY WE'RE LETTING THINGS DRIFT ON AND ON AND ON. DAYTON ONLY CAME ABOUT BECAUSE THE WESTERN GOVERNMENTS PUSHED. THE ELECTIONS ARE ONLY COMING ABOUT BECAUSE THE WESTERN GOVERNMENTS ARE PUSHING. WE THINK THE CONDITIONS CAN HAPPEN IF THE WESTERN GOVERNMENTS PUSH."

    TEXT: MR. FAWCETT SAID THE ARREST OF INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS IS THE FIRST CONDITION WHICH MUST BE MET IF ELECTIONS ARE TO BE FREE AND FAIR AND POINTED TO WHAT HE CHARACTERIZED AS A SHIFT IN APPROACH BY IFOR, THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE. IFOR RECENTLY ANNOUNCED IT WAS MOVING TO SUPPORT SOME CIVILIAN ASPECTS OF THE DAYTON ACCORD FOLLOWING THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF ITS MILITARY PROVISIONS. FEW, HOWEVER, HAVE INTERPRETED THAT AS MEANING IFOR HAS CHANGED ITS POSITION OF REFUSING TO ACTIVELY PURSUE INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS. [OPT] PANELIST SUSAN WOODWARD OF THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION ALSO STRONGLY SUPPORTED GOING AHEAD WITH ELECTIONS IN MID-SEPTEMBER, SAYING THE FOCUS NOW SHOULD BE ON HOW TO SHAPE THE CONTEXT OF THIS FIRST ELECTION TO BEST ACHIEVE GENUINE FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS IN THE FUTURE:

    TAPE: [OPT] CUT # 4 WOODWARD RUNS [:28] "IF THE PEACE IMPLEMENTATION COUNCIL AND THE U-S GOVERNMENT TOLD THE PEOPLE OF BOSNIA, BEFORE ELECTIONS ARE HELD, THAT A SMALLER BUT STILL ROBUST NATO FORCE, INCLUDING AMERICAN SOLDIERS WILL BE PRESENT IN BOSNIA FOR ANOTHER YEAR, WHILE THE GOVERNMENT THEY ELECT IN SEPTEMBER LEARNS TO WORK TOGETHER, THIS COULD GO A LONG WAY TOWARD REDUCING THE RISKS OF VIOLENCE AND BOYCOTT DURING THE ELECTION ITSELF."

    TEXT: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY RECENTLY PAVED THE WAY FOR THAT EVENTUALITY. HE ANNOUNCED THAT HE WILL RECOMMEND THE UNITED STATES CONTINUE TO PARTICIPATE IN ANY FORCE WHICH REMAINS IN BOSNIA BEYOND THE ORIGINAL DECEMBER PULL-OUT DATE. [END OPT] (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/PCH
    13-Jun-96 4:13 PM EDT (2013 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=6/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-198679
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A MUSLIM WOMAN FROM A VILLAGE IN NORTHWEST BOSNIA HAS TOLD THE U-N'S WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL MEETING IN THE HAGUE THAT SHE SAW A MAN NAMED "DUSAN TADIC" SEPARATE MEN FROM WOMEN BEFORE THEY WERE TRANSPORTED TO PRISON CAMPS. MR. TADIC -- A BOSNIAN SERB -- IS ACCUSED OF CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, INCLUDING COMPLICITY IN ETHNIC CLEANSING, MURDER AND TORTURE AT THREE PRISON CAMPS. GILLIAN SHARPE WAS IN THE NETHERLANDS COURT THURSDAY, AND FILED THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: NASIA KLIPIC WAS MARRIED TO A POLICEMAN IN THE TOWN OF KOZARAC. DUSAN TADIC OWNED THE LOCAL BAR (TAVERN) AND SHE HAD KNOWN HIM ALMOST ALL HER LIFE. SHE DID NOT LOOK ONCE IN HIS DIRECTION DURING HER TESTIMONY, AND BROKE DOWN IN TEARS AS SHE TOLD THE COURT THAT SHE HAD NOT SEEN HER HUSBAND AND TWO BROTHERS SINCE MAY OF 1992. ONE OF HER BROTHERS, SHE SAID, HAD BEEN TAKEN TO (THE CAMP OF) OMARSKA.

    MRS. KLIPIC HAD JOINED A CONVOY OF WOMEN MOVING OUT OF KOZARAC. SHE SAW MEN BEING SEPARATED INTO THREE GROUPS FOR THREE PRISON CAMPS -- ONE FOR OMARSKA, ONE FOR KERATERM AND ONE FOR TRUNOPOLJE. "DID SHE RECOGNIZE ANY OF THE MEN GIVING THE ORDERS?" SHE WAS ASKED. SHE REPLIED, THROUGH A TRANSLATOR.

    // TRANSLATOR -- IN ENGLISH -- RESPONSING TO QUESTION //

    LET ME TRY TO REMEMBER. (GIVES NAMES ... WHICH INCLUDE DUSAN TADIC)

    // END ACT //

    DUSAN TADIC'S EYEBROWS SHOT UP AT THIS POINT, AS IF TO INDICATE THAT THE WITNESS SHOULD NOT BE BELIEVED. SHE TOLD THE COURT THAT HE WAS WEARING A CAMOUFLAGE UNIFORM AND CARRYING AN AUTOMATIC WEAPON AND A PISTOL. AS THE MEN WERE TAKEN AWAY, SHE SAID, ONLY THE WOMEN WERE LEFT ON THE ROAD.

    // SECOND ACT VOICE OF TRANSLATOR //

    I COULD FEEL FROM THE WAY THEY CRIED, I COULD FEEL HOW MANY THERE WERE BECAUSE IT WAS ... SADNESS, IT WAS TERRIBLY SAD TO LOOK AT, BECAUSE MEN WERE TAKEN AWAY AND YOU DID NOT KNOW WHERE.

    // END ACT //

    THE PROSECUTION IS TRYING TO PROVE THAT THERE WAS NO DOUBT ABOUT HER IDENTIFICATION OF MR. TADIC. AND THERE WAS A BIZARRE SCENE AS SHE TOLD THE STORY OF ONE NIGHT IN A BAR IN KOZARAC. SHE HAD GONE TO SIT DOWN IN A CHAIR AND HE (TADIC) HAD PULLED IT AWAY FROM UNDER HER. EVEN DUSAN TADIC -- SITTING GRIM-FACED IN THE DARK (COURTROOM) -- HAD TO SMILE. IT WAS A STARK REMINDER THAT THESE ARE NOT STRANGERS WHO ARE SITTING IN COURT, BUT PEOPLE WHO USED TO BE NEIGHBORS -- AND EVEN FRIENDS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/PCF/CF
    13-Jun-96 2:01 PM EDT (1801 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [10] COURT RULES ON SPEECH IN CYBERSPACE BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=06/13/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09627
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY, JUNE 13TH //

    INTRO: A QUICK SCAN OF EDITORIALS IN THE MAJOR U-S NEWSPAPERS THIS THURSDAY REVEALS COMMENT ON A WIDE RANGE OF SUBJECTS. THEY INCLUDE: THE ELECTION OF A NEW SENATE MAJORITY LEADER; A MAJOR FREE SPEECH DECISION AFFECTING INTERNET USERS; THE CONTINUING FALLOUT FROM THE ISRAELI ELECTION; THE IRAQI OIL-FOR-RELIEF-SUPPLIES DEAL; A NUCLEAR TEST BAN; THE F-B-I FILES IMBROGLIO' AND A DRINKING BAN FOR THE OLYMPICS. NOW, HERE IS __________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: MISSISSIPPI SENATOR TRENT LOTT, A CONSERVATIVE REPUBLICAN, EASILY WON ELECTION AMONG HIS PEERS AS THE NEW SENATE MAJORITY LEADER TO REPLACE BOB DOLE, WHO RESIGNED TO CAMPAIGN FOR PRESIDENT. TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST WELCOMES SENATOR LOTT AND ASKS WHAT CHANGE, IF ANY, WILL HE BRING TO THE JOB:

    VOICE: "THE NEWS ACCOUNTS SURROUNDING TRENT LOTT'S ELECTION TO SUCCEEDED BOB DOLE AS SENATE MAJORITY LEADER ARE ALL BUILT AROUND THE SAME ONLY HALF-SPOKEN QUESTION: WILL HIS ELEVATION SOMEHOW CHANGE THE INSTITUTION, TURN IT INTO A MORE IDEOLOGICAL, HARDER-EDGED AND CONFRONTATIONAL PLACE? OR IN TERMS OF THE FUNDAMENTALS, WILL THERE NOT BE THAT MUCH CHANGE? OUR INCLINATION IS TO GUESS THE LATTER. ... WE WISH MR. LOTT A CONSTRUCTIVE TENURE."

    TEXT: THE BOSTON GLOBE SAYS, IN HIS NEW POST, MR. LOTT "IMMEDIATELY ASSUMES A KEY ROLE IN THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN AND AS A POWERFUL POLICYMAKER, POSSIBLY FOR YEARS TO COME," ADDING:

    VOICE: "[SENATOR] LOTT MIGHT MAKE LEGISLATIVE PROGRESS THIS SESSION IF HE SURPRISES MANY IN WASHINGTON BY ACTING AS THE LEADER OF THE SENATE, AND NOT JUST OF THE REPUBLICAN MAJORITY. BUT THIS IS UNLIKELY. [BOB] DOLE FAILED THIS YEAR TO MAKE THE COMPROMISES NECESSARY TO BREAK GRIDLOCK, AND [SENATOR] LOTT IS A POOR PROSPECT TO IMPROVE THAT PERFORMANCE."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS TURNS ITS ATTENTION TO MR. LOTT'S FAMED PREDECESSOR, AND HIS FIRST DAY ON THE CAMPAIGN TRAIL:

    VOICE: "YESTERDAY (WEDNESDAY) WAS BOB DOLE'S FIRST DAY AS A PRIVATE CITIZEN. A DAY THAT SAW THE RIGHT WING OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY RECOILING IN HORROR AT [MR.] DOLE'S BIG-TENT [MODERATING] VIEWS ON ABORTION. NOT A BAD BEGINNING FOR CITIZEN DOLE... CLEARLY, [BOB] DOLE'S LIBERATION FROM THE SENATE HAS NOT DULLED TIME HONED INSTINCTS FOR MODERATION. AND FOR RESPECT ON MATTERS OF CONSCIENCE."

    TEXT: THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER HAS WELCOMED A MAJOR FEDERAL APPEALS COURT DECISION WEDNESDAY KNOCKING DOWN A LAW THAT WOULD BAN PORNOGRAPHY OR EROTIC MATERIAL FROM THE INTERNET: IT SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "ON-LINE IMAGES OF JOYOUS FIREWORKS AND THE WORDS 'FREE SPEECH!' SAID IT ALL YESTERDAY, AS DENIZENS OF CYBERSPACE CELEBRATED VIA COMPUTER-AND-MODEM. WITH GOOD CAUSE: THREE FEDERAL JUDGES IN PHILADELPHIA DEALT A MAJOR BLOW TO THE WRONG-HEADED INTERNET INDECENCY ACT... THIS LAW TRIES TO FIX SOMETHING THAT WASN'T BROKEN."

    TEXT: IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES ALSO AGREES WITH THE COURT DECISION:

    VOICE: "THE PARENTAL CONCERNS [ABOUT CHILDREN'S ACCESS TO PORNOGRAPHY] ARE LEGITIMATE, AND THERE ARE WAYS TO ADDRESS THEM. BUT THE FEDERAL RULING WAS CORRECT, NOT ONLY BECAUSE THE DECENCY LEGISLATION WAS HURRIED THROUGH CONGRESS WITHOUT A PUBLIC HEARING ... BUT BECAUSE ITS LANGUAGE IS UNREALISTICALLY BROAD."

    TEXT: TURNING OVERSEAS, TODAY'S NEW YORK TIMES IS URGING ARAB LEADERS TO TAKE A MODERATE STAND TOWARD ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER-ELECT BENJAMIN NETANYAHU AS HE PREPARES TO TAKE OFFICE.

    VOICE: "NINETEEN ARAB LEADERS PLAN TO MEET IN CAIRO NEXT WEEK FOR A SHOW OF UNITY IN THE WAKE OF BENJAMIN NETHANYAHU'S ELECTION... IN RESPONDING TO THE NEW ISRAELI GOVERNMENT, ARAB LEADERS SHOULD AVOID INFLAMMATORY WORDS AND ACTIONS AS MR. NETANYAHU REFINES HIS COURSE. NO ARAB INTEREST WOULD BE SERVED BY PROVOKING ISRAEL TO ABANDON THE PEACE EFFORT... A CARELESS THREAT OR PROVOCATIVE STATEMENT FROM EITHER SIDE COULD DEEPEN THE MUTUAL DISTRUST THAT ALREADY EXISTS. MR. NETANYAHU HAS SPOKEN WITH CARE AND DIPLOMACY SINCE HIS ELECTION. THE ARAB LEADERS SHOULD DO NO LESS."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK SUBURBAN DAILY, NEWSDAY, ON LONG ISLAND, SAYS THE PEOPLE OF IRAQ CAN ONLY BLAME SADDAM HUSSEIN IF HIS BARRING U-N INSPECTORS RESULTS IN TOUGHER U-N SANCTIONS AND NEW HARDSHIPS:

    VOICE: "ONCE AGAIN, [SADDAM] HUSSEIN HAS BROKEN AN AGREEMENT THAT WOULD HAVE LESSENED THE SEVERITY OF SANCTIONS AGAINST IRAQ. AND, ONCE AGAIN, HE MUST BE SLAPPED DOWN, HARD AND UNEQUIVOCALLY... YESTERDAY, EVEN BEFORE A SINGLE BARREL OF OIL BEGAN TO FLOW, IRAQ BARRED UNITED NATIONS WEAPONS INSPECTORS FROM THREE MILITARY SITES AROUND BAGHDAD, IN DIRECT VIOLATION OF THE DEAL (THAT ALLOWED LIMITED IRAQI OIL SALES TO BUY EMERGENCY FOOD AND SUPPLIES) AND THE TERMS OF THE CEASE-FIRE."

    TEXT: TODAY'S MINNEAPOLIS STAR TRIBUNE IS CHEERING ON THE DIPLOMATS IN GENEVA WHO ARE TRYING TO REACH AGREEMENT ON A NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY:

    VOICE: "A COMPREHENSIVE TEST BAN ... WOULD HELP ELIMINATE THE DANGERS AND FINANCIAL DRAIN ASSOCIATED WITH A PROLIFERATION OF NEW NUCLEAR POWERS OR AN ARMS RACE AMONG THOSE THAT ALREADY EXIST... THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS AN ADMIRABLE RECORD ON THE TEST BAN ISSUE. CONCLUDING A DRAFT TREATY THIS MONTH, WITH SIGNING CEREMONIES IN SEPTEMBER, WOULD HELP MAKE THE WORLD A SAFER PLACE AND PROVIDE A POWERFUL, TIMELY SELLING POINT FOR THE CLINTON REELECTION CAMPAIGN."

    TEXT: TODAY'S CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR ASKS WHEHTER IT WAS A "MISTAKE OR A DIRTY TRICKS MANEUVER" WHEN THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OBTAINED HUNDREDS OF CONFIDENTIAL F-B-I PERSONNEL FILES ON FORMER REPUBLICAN WHITE HOUSE STAFFERS. REPUBLICAN LEADERS IN THE CONGRESS HAVE SEIZED ON THE ISSUE.

    VOICE: "IT WAS CERTAINLY IMPROPER THAT SUCH FILES WERE GIVEN TO THE WHITE HOUSE AT ALL... RECENT U-S HISTORY HAS HAD TOO MANY EXAMPLES OF PRESIDENTS MISUSING THE INVESTIGATIVE POWERS AT THEIR COMMAND. IN A DEMOCRACY, THOSE POWERS MUST NEVER TAKE ON A POLITICAL TAINT. WHEN A HINT OF THAT TAINT APPEARS, THE CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE TO BE LAID BARE. THE PUBLIC DESERVES NO LESS."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, ALL THOSE VISITORS, FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC, ABOUT TO DESCEND ON ATLANTA FOR THE '96 OLYMPIC GAMES, AND CELEBRATE WITH ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, WILL BE SADDENED BY TODAY'S EDITORIAL IN THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION. THE PAPER CHEERS ATLANTA MAYOR BILL CAMPBELL'S DECISION TO BAN AROUND-THE-CLOCK LIQUOR SALES DURING THE GAMES. SAYS THE CONSTITUTION:

    VOICE: "[MAYOR] CAMPBELL DID THE RIGHT THING... ATLANTA IS BEING NEITHER PRUDISH NOR UNSOPHISTICATED IN KEEPING A SMALL RESTRAINT ON REVELERS. SURELY THOSE WHO WANT TO DRINK CAN GET THEIR FILL BY 4 A.M. [THE CURRENT BAR CLOSING TIME ALLOWED BY CITY LAWS]."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT CELEBRATORY NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF REVIEW OF SOME OF THE EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S NEWSPAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    13-Jun-96 11:06 AM EDT (1506 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America DATE=6/13/96
    TYPE=COMPUTER SERIES
    NUMBER=3-25269
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: ON THURSDAY (JUNE 12), A THREE-JUDGE FEDERAL PANEL UNANIMOUSLY RULED THAT IMPORTANT PARTS OF FEDERAL LAW KNOWN AS THE COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT ARE UNCONSTITUTIONAL AND BLOCKED THE GOVERNMENT FROM ENFORCING THE LAW. THE RULING, AS DAN NOBLE EXPLAINS, HAS A DIRECT IMPACT ON THE VAST WORLDWIDE COMPUTER NETWORK KNOWN AS THE INTERNET

    TEXT: EARLIER THIS YEAR, THE COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT -- PART OF THE MUCH BROADER TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1996 -- WON APPROVAL BY A WIDE MARGIN IN THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS. PRESIDENT CLINTON SIGNED IT INTO LAW, AND VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE HAILED THE MEASURE AS "A TREMENDOUS BI-PARTISAN VICTORY, AND A BREAKTHROUGH FOR THE COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTING INDUSTRIES." BUT, THERE WERE MANY WHO CLAIMED THAT PROVISIONS OF THE LAW, WHICH MADE IT A CRIMINAL OFFENSE TO PUT "INDECENT" OR "PATENTLY OFFENSIVE" WORDS OR IMAGES ONLINE, WERE VIOLATIONS OF FREEDOM OF SPEECH GUARANTEES OF THE FIRST AMENDMENT TO THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION. A NUMBER OF ORGANIZATIONS, INCLUDING PUBLIC-INTEREST GROUPS, TRADE ASSOCIATIONS AND CORPORATIONS, WENT TO COURT TO FIGHT THE LAW.

    JERRY BERMAN, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE CENTER FOR DEMOCRACY AND TECHNOLOGY, CALLED THE LAW A "BAD FIRST STEP," AND OPPOSES EFFORTS TO CONTROL CONTENTS ON THE INTERNET.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- JERRY BERMAN (0:44) "IT IS THE BEGINNING OF THE REGULATION OF THE INTERNET, BRINGING IT UNDER THE GREAT MAW (GAPING HOLE) OF GOVERNMENT RESTRICTIONS AND REGULATIONS. I THINK IT IS ONLY A FIRST STEP. IT IS A BAD FIRST STEP BUT I THINK THAT AS MORE PEOPLE BEGIN TO USE THE INTERNET, AS MORE PEOPLE UNDERSTAND THE VALUE OF THE TECHNOLOGY, THERE WILL BE GREATER EFFORTS TO DEFEND FREEDOM ON THE INTERNET AND I THINK THAT THIS BAD STEP FORWARD WILL BE STOPPED, THAT IT WILL NOT BE A TREND, THAT IT IS POSSIBLE TO, FOR EXAMPLE, BEGIN TO TALK ABOUT REPEALING THIS STATUTE AND BEGIN TO BUILD THE SUPPORT AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE INTERNET SO THAT WE CAN REVERSE THIS MISTAKE BY OUR GOVERNMENT."

    TEXT: THE THREE-JUDGE PANEL APPARENTLY AGREED. THEY SAID THAT "JUST AS THE STRENGTH OF THE INTERNET IS CHAOS, SO THE STRENGTH OF OUR LIBERTY DEPENDS UPON THE CHAOS AND CACOPHO.NY OF THE UNFETTERED SPEECH THAT THE FIRST AMENDMENT PROTECTS."

    JONATHAN WALLACE, AN ATTORNEY AND CO-AUTHOR OF "SEX,

    LAWS AND CYBERSPACE," SAID IN A VOA INTERVIEW THAT HE

    COMPARES THE INTERNET TO "A GIANT LIBRARY."

    TAPE: CUT TW0 -- JONATHAN WALLACE (0:27) "IT HAS EVERY FORM OF INFORMATION IN IT. GOOD INFORMATION AND BAD INFORMATION. SO, EACH OF US, INDIVIDUALLY, HAS A CHOICE AS TO WHAT WE WANT TO LOOK AT IN THAT LIBRARY AND WHAT WE WANT OUR CHILDREN TO LOOK AT. THE BEST SOLUTION TO PORNOGRAPHY, OR OTHER BAD INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET, IS SIMPLY TO MAKE A DECISION AS A RESPONSIBLE PARENT WHETHER YOU WANT YOUR CHILD TO USE THE INTERNET AND IF YOU DO, WHAT DO YOU WANT THEM TO SEE?"

    TEXT: AND, NOTES JONATHAN WALLACE, THE CURRENT DEBATE OVER PORNOGRAPHY IN CYBERSPACE IS NOT NEW. IT HAS HAPPENED BEFORE.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- JONATHAN WALLACE (0:33) "EVERY COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION, FROM THE PRINTING PRESS ON, HAS FRIGHTENED PEOPLE BECAUSE THE PRINTING PRESS, TELEGRAPH, RADIO, TELEVISION, WERE ALL CONSIDERED AS A WAY OF GETTING MORE BAD INFORMATION OUT TO MORE PEOPLE MORE QUICKLY. SO, EVERY TIME AROUND THERE WERE PEOPLE IN GOVERNMENT WHO'D STAND UP AND SAY: LET'S RESTRICT THIS. IN FACT, KING FRANCOIS THE FIRST, OF FRANCE, ISSUED AN EDICT SAYING THERE WILL BE NO MORE PRINTED BOOKS, AT ALL. TO SOME EXTENT WE ARE SEEING HISTORY REPEATING ITSELF NOW."

    TEXT: [BEGIN OPT] DALE HERBECK, A COMMUNICATIONS PROFESSOR AT BOSTON COLLEGE SAYS THAT, IN HIS OPINION, THERE IS A MAJOR PROBLEM WHEN IT COMES TO REGULATION OF SPEECH. THE PROBLEM, HE EXPLAINS, IS THAT "YOU CAN PROBABLY FIND SOMEONE WHO IS OFFENDED BY ALMOST ANYTHING THAT SOMEONE ELSE MIGHT SAY."

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- DALE HERBECK (PHONE QUALITY) (0:31) "FOR EXAMPLE, WE COULD HAVE A JEWISH GROUP SAY 'WE DON'T WANT THESE MESSAGES OF RACIAL HATRED'. WHAT ABOUT ANOTHER GROUP THAT WOULD SAY: 'WE ARE OPPOSED TO ABORTION. WE DON'T WANT TO READ ANYTHING ABOUT ABORTION ON THE NETWORK'. SOMEONE COULD SAY: 'WE ARE OPPOSED TO FAMILY PLANNING'. SOMEONE COULD SAY: 'WE'RE OPPOSED TO GOD. WE BELIEVE IN THE DEVIL'. SO, THE PROBLEM IS: HOW DO YOU DEVELOP A SYSTEM TO REGULATE OBJECTIONABLE MATERIAL WHICH DOESN'T, I GUESS, REALLY REGULATE ALL MATERIAL?" [END OPT]

    TEXT: NOT EVERYONE AGREES WITH THE COURT'S DECISION. SOME VIEW THE RULING AS A THREAT TO CHILDREN. CATHLEEN CLEAVER, OF THE FAMILY RESEARCH COUNCIL, SAYS THAT THE JUDGES "WENT FAR BEYOND WHERE THEY NEEDED TO GO." SHE ADDED, "NOT ONLY DID THE COURT STRIKE DOWN THE LAW AGAINST THE DISPLAY OF PORNOGRAPHY, BUT ALSO THE PARTS THAT MADE IT ILLEGAL TO TRANSMIT PORNOGRAPHY DIRECTLY TO SPECIFIC CHILDREN." SO, AT LEAST FOR NOW, THE PROVISIONS OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1996, PROHIBITING OBSCENITY IN CYBERSPACE, HAVE BEEN OVERTURNED. BUT, THE CASE IS NOT YET CLOSED. THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT IS EXPECTED TO APPEAL THE RULING TO THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT.
    DN/GE
    13-Jun-96 3:41 PM EDT (1941 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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