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Voice of America, 31 January 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [03] ALBANIA / COMMUNISTS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [04] BOSNIA / NATO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [05] BOSNIA / POLITICS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [06] HOLBROOKE-GREECE/TURKEY (L ONLY) BY JANE BERGER (WASHINGTON)

  • [07] HOLBROOKE - BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY JANE BERGER (WASHINGTON)

  • [08] TURKEY/GREECE (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

  • [09] YUGO / O-S-C-E (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=01/31/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09405
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 31ST //

    INTRO: TWO SUBJECTS RECEIVE CONSIDERABLE ATTENTION IN U-S NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS TODAY: THE LATEST TREATY TO LIMIT NUCLEAR MISSILES AND THE CHANCES IT WILL BE RATIFIED BY THE RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT, AND CRITICISM OF INDIA AND FRANCE FOR THEIR ACTIONS LEADING UP TO A WORLD BAN ON NUCLEAR TESTING. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: DETERIORATING CONDITIONS IN NORTH KOREA; THE NORTHERN IRELAND PEACE TALKS; THE DRUG MONEY POLITICAL SCANDAL IN COLOMBIA, AND THE SPECTER OF GENOCIDE IN BURUNDI. NOW, HERE IS ______________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" IS PLEASED ABOUT THE U-S SENATE'S RATIFICATION OF THE START TWO ARMS LIMITATION TREATY, AND WONDERS WHETHER RUSSIA'S PARLIAMENT WILL DO LIKEWISE.

    VOICE: "THE REASON FOR THE DUMA TO RATIFY START TWO IS THE SAME AS FOR CONGRESS: IT IS IN THE BEST INTERESTS OF EACH COUNTRY TO CURB THE PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS. EVEN WHEN FULLY IMPLEMENTED, START TWO WILL LEAVE EACH COUNTRY WITH THREE-THOUSAND-500 NUCLEAR WARHEADS -- MORE THAN ENOUGH TO DESTROY THE WORLD. SO 'BALANCE OF TERROR' IS MAINTAINED... IT IS THE HOPE FOR ACHIEVING, AT LAST, WORLD PEACE IN A NEW MILLENNIUM."

    TEXT: ON A CLOSELY-RELATED SUBJECT, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" POINTS AN ACCUSING FINGER AT FRANCE, WHICH HAS JUST CONCLUDED A SERIES OF NUCLEAR TESTS IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC:

    VOICE: "SCRAMBLING FOR FOOTING ON THE MORAL HIGH GROUND, FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC PROMISES TO 'SPARE NO EFFORT' TO SECURE AN INTERNATIONAL TREATY TO 'DEFINITIVELY' END ALL NUCLEAR TESTING. WELL, WHY NOT? FRANCE HAS JUST FINISHED SETTING OFF SIX NUCLEAR DEVICES IN POLYNESIA... WHAT BETTER MOMENT TO FORTHRIGHTLY RECOGNIZE THE NEED TO SPARE THE ENVIRONMENT THE DANGERS THAT NUCLEAR TESTS EXPOSE IT TO."

    TEXT: TODAY'S LEAD EDITORIAL IN "THE NEW YORK TIMES", MEANWHILE, DEALS WITH OVERALL FRENCH POLICY SINCE PRIME MINISTER JACQUES CHIRAC TOOK OFFICE, AND CONSIDERS IT HAS CREATED WHAT THE PAPER CALLS "A FRANCE LESS ALOOF," CITING THE RE-ENTRY OF FRANCE TO THE NATO MILITARY ORGANIZATION. HOWEVER, "THE TIMES" ADDS:

    VOICE: "NOT ALL OF MR. CHIRAC'S INITIATIVES HAVE BEEN HELPFUL. HE BLUNDERED SHORTLY AFTER TAKING OFFICE BY ORDERING A SERIES OF NUCLEAR TESTS IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC, ENDING A THREE-YEAR MORATORIUM BEGUN BY HIS PREDECESSOR, FRANCOIS MITTERRAND... THE SIX NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS FRANCE SET OFF ... PROVOKED ANGER IN EUROPE AS WELL AS THE SOUTH PACIFIC AND FORCED MR. CHIRAC TO END HIS TESTING PROGRAM ... FOUR MONTHS AND TWO EXPLOSIONS EARLIER THAN PLANNED."

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" TODAY CHASTISES INDIA FOR - IN ITS WORDS - "SUBVERTING THE TEST BAN," WHICH "THE POST" SAYS NEW DELHI HAD HELPED TO INITIATE IN THE 1950'S:

    VOICE: "INDIA, WHICH LAUNCHED THE GLOBAL EFFORT TO BAN ALL NUCLEAR TESTS 40 YEARS AGO, NOW THREATENS TO CAPSIZE THIS HISTORIC UNDERTAKING JUST AS IT NEARS SUCCESS. IT IS ATTACHING TWO SEEMINGLY PLAUSIBLE BUT ACTUALLY UNREASONABLE CONDITIONS TO THE TREATY BEING NEGOTIATED AT GENEVA. ONE WOULD LINK A TEST BAN TO A RIGID AND UNNECESSARY TIMETABLE FOR ELIMINATION OF THEIR ARSENALS BY THE FIVE DECLARED NUCLEAR POWERS. THE OTHER WOULD OUTLAW LABORATORY WORK ON NEW WEAPONS DESIGNS -- THE VERY MEANS THE UNITED STATES REQUIRES TO FORSWEAR TEST EXPLOSIONS."

    TEXT: FOR ITS PART, TODAY'S "DENVER POST" CANNOT UNDERSTAND CHINA'S RECENT BELLICOSE STATEMENTS ABOUT TAIWAN, AND, IN ITS SECOND EDITORIAL, TALKS ABOUT THE CONFUSED SITUATION IN NORTH KOREA.

    VOICE: "RECENT DESERTERS FROM THAT ISOLATED COUNTRY (NORTH KOREA) RECOUNT TALES OF TERRIBLE HUNGER. SUCH WIDESPREAD HUMAN SUFFERING BY ITSELF SHOULD BE ENOUGH TO ALARM THE WORLD AND SPUR WEALTHY PACIFIC NATIONS INTO ACTION. YET THERE IS ANOTHER REASON FOR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO HELP ALLEVIATE THE FAMINE.... THE NIGHTMARE SCENARIO: NORTH KOREA'S GOVERNMENT TAKES THE COUNTRY INTO WAR TO DIVERT PUBLIC ATTENTION FROM THE AWFUL LIVING CONDITIONS AT HOME... THUS, WHILE BEIJING'S RECENT SABER-RATTLING AGAINST TAIWAN HAS CAPTURED MORE WORLD ATTENTION RECENTLY, THE GREATER DANGER MAY LIE IN NORTH KOREA. BEIJING ISN'T APT TO BEHAVE WHOLLY IRRATIONALLY. NORTH KOREA JUST MIGHT."

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, MEANWHILE, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" SAYS ITS "TIME TO TALK" BETWEEN BOTH SIDES IN THE BLOODY DISPUTE OVER NORTHERN IRELAND.

    VOICE: "THE INTERNATIONAL BODY CHAIRED BY FORMER SENATOR GEORGE MITCHELL OF [SOUTH DAKOTA] ... SUGGESTED A COMPROMISE: ALL PARTY TALKS SHOULD GET UNDERWAY AND DISARMAMENT OR 'DECOMMISSIONING' COULD BEGIN DURING THE NEGOTIATIONS... THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT SHOULD ADOPT THE MITCHELL FORMULA, WHICH WOULD FORCE THE I-R-A TO COMMIT ITSELF TO A DEMOCRATIC AND PEACEFUL APPROACH AND ALLOW ALL-PARTY TALKS TO BEGIN."

    TEXT: ABOUT THE POLITICAL CRISIS IN COLOMBIA, WHERE PRESIDENT SAMPER IS BEING ASKED TO RESIGN AFTER ALLEGATIONS HE KNOWINGLY ACCEPTED LARGE CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE CALI DRUG CARTER, TODAY'S "BALTIMORE SUN" SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "THE TRULY HEARTENING THING THAT HAS HAPPENED IN COLOMBIA IS A CHANGE IN PUBLIC OPINION, A GROWING INTOLERANCE OF NARCO-TRAFFICKERS' INFLUENCE ON THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF POLITICS... MR. SAMPER IS FIGHTING HARD FOR SURVIVAL, BUT COLOMBIANS INCREASINGLY WANT A CLEAN, DRUGFREE GOVERNMENT. MEXICANS ARE TAKING NOTE."

    TEXT: TURNING TO AFRICA, THIS BLEAK WARNING IN "USA TODAY'S" WEDNESDAY EDITORIAL COLUMN:

    VOICE: "BE PREPARED FOR MASSACRES IN BURUNDI. AMEND THAT: BE PREPARED FOR GENOCIDE. AND BE PREPARED, TOO, FOR THE REST OF THE WORLD TO BE CAUGHT FLAT-FOOTED. SO FAR, KILLINGS HAVE NOT APPROACHED THE SLAUGHTERS TWO YEARS AGO IN NEIGHBORING RWANDA, WHERE AT LEAST 500-THOUSAND DIED... BUT IT SEEMS JUST A MATTER OF TIME... THE WORLD COMMUNITY COULD DO MORE ... TAKE MORE PREVENTIVE STEPS, NOT REACTIVE ONES AS IN THE PAST."

    TEXT: AND ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, "NEWSDAY" SUGGESTS, IN COMMENTING ON THE FRAGILE SITUATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THAT "TRIALS FOR WAR CRIMES IN BOSNIA MUST WAIT UNTIL THE TRUCE [THERE] IS FIRMLY ESTABLISHED."

    VOICE: "IN THE AFTERMATH OF A WAR, THE DEMANDS OF PEACE AND JUSTICE ARE NOT ALWAYS IMMEDIATELY COMPATIBLE. SUCH IS THE CASE IN BOSNIA. THE WORK OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL INVESTIGATING ATROCITIES COMMITTED IN THE BALKAN CONFLICT INCREASINGLY IS AT ODDS WITH THE OVERALL GOALS OF THE NATO MISSION TO KEEP THE PEACE IN BOSNIA AND RESTORE STABILITY TO THE REGION... YET THE TRIBUNAL STILL HAS AN IMPORTANT FUNCTION: TO DISCOVER THE TRUTH ABOUT SOME OF THE MOST VICIOUS ACTS AGAINST HUMANITY ... IN EUROPE SINCE WORLD WAR TWO."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT HISTORIC NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN WEDNESDAY'S U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    31-Jan-96 11:04 AM EST (1604 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=01/31/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST (CORRECTED)
    NUMBER=6-09405
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, THIS CORRECTS EARLIER VERSION, FIXING HOME STATE OF SENATOR MITCHELL (PAGE 4, GRAF 2). PLEASE ALSO NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 31ST //

    INTRO: TWO SUBJECTS RECEIVE CONSIDERABLE ATTENTION IN U-S NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS TODAY: THE LATEST TREATY TO LIMIT NUCLEAR MISSILES AND THE CHANCES IT WILL BE RATIFIED BY THE RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT, AND CRITICISM OF INDIA AND FRANCE FOR THEIR ACTIONS LEADING UP TO A WORLD BAN ON NUCLEAR TESTING. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: DETERIORATING CONDITIONS IN NORTH KOREA; THE NORTHERN IRELAND PEACE TALKS; THE DRUG MONEY POLITICAL SCANDAL IN COLOMBIA, AND THE SPECTER OF GENOCIDE IN BURUNDI. NOW, HERE IS ______________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" IS PLEASED ABOUT THE U-S SENATE'S RATIFICATION OF THE START TWO ARMS LIMITATION TREATY, AND WONDERS WHETHER RUSSIA'S PARLIAMENT WILL DO LIKEWISE.

    VOICE: "THE REASON FOR THE DUMA TO RATIFY START TWO IS THE SAME AS FOR CONGRESS: IT IS IN THE BEST INTERESTS OF EACH COUNTRY TO CURB THE PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS. EVEN WHEN FULLY IMPLEMENTED, START TWO WILL LEAVE EACH COUNTRY WITH THREE-THOUSAND-500 NUCLEAR WARHEADS -- MORE THAN ENOUGH TO DESTROY THE WORLD. SO 'BALANCE OF TERROR' IS MAINTAINED... IT IS THE HOPE FOR ACHIEVING, AT LAST, WORLD PEACE IN A NEW MILLENNIUM."

    TEXT: ON A CLOSELY-RELATED SUBJECT, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" POINTS AN ACCUSING FINGER AT FRANCE, WHICH HAS JUST CONCLUDED A SERIES OF NUCLEAR TESTS IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC:

    VOICE: "SCRAMBLING FOR FOOTING ON THE MORAL HIGH GROUND, FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC PROMISES TO 'SPARE NO EFFORT' TO SECURE AN INTERNATIONAL TREATY TO 'DEFINITIVELY' END ALL NUCLEAR TESTING. WELL, WHY NOT? FRANCE HAS JUST FINISHED SETTING OFF SIX NUCLEAR DEVICES IN POLYNESIA... WHAT BETTER MOMENT TO FORTHRIGHTLY RECOGNIZE THE NEED TO SPARE THE ENVIRONMENT THE DANGERS THAT NUCLEAR TESTS EXPOSE IT TO."

    TEXT: TODAY'S LEAD EDITORIAL IN "THE NEW YORK TIMES", MEANWHILE, DEALS WITH OVERALL FRENCH POLICY SINCE PRIME MINISTER JACQUES CHIRAC TOOK OFFICE, AND CONSIDERS IT HAS CREATED WHAT THE PAPER CALLS "A FRANCE LESS ALOOF," CITING THE RE-ENTRY OF FRANCE TO THE NATO MILITARY ORGANIZATION. HOWEVER, "THE TIMES" ADDS:

    VOICE: "NOT ALL OF MR. CHIRAC'S INITIATIVES HAVE BEEN HELPFUL. HE BLUNDERED SHORTLY AFTER TAKING OFFICE BY ORDERING A SERIES OF NUCLEAR TESTS IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC, ENDING A THREE-YEAR MORATORIUM BEGUN BY HIS PREDECESSOR, FRANCOIS MITTERRAND... THE SIX NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS FRANCE SET OFF ... PROVOKED ANGER IN EUROPE AS WELL AS THE SOUTH PACIFIC AND FORCED MR. CHIRAC TO END HIS TESTING PROGRAM ... FOUR MONTHS AND TWO EXPLOSIONS EARLIER THAN PLANNED."

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" TODAY CHASTISES INDIA FOR - IN ITS WORDS - "SUBVERTING THE TEST BAN," WHICH "THE POST" SAYS NEW DELHI HAD HELPED TO INITIATE IN THE 1950'S:

    VOICE: "INDIA, WHICH LAUNCHED THE GLOBAL EFFORT TO BAN ALL NUCLEAR TESTS 40 YEARS AGO, NOW THREATENS TO CAPSIZE THIS HISTORIC UNDERTAKING JUST AS IT NEARS SUCCESS. IT IS ATTACHING TWO SEEMINGLY PLAUSIBLE BUT ACTUALLY UNREASONABLE CONDITIONS TO THE TREATY BEING NEGOTIATED AT GENEVA. ONE WOULD LINK A TEST BAN TO A RIGID AND UNNECESSARY TIMETABLE FOR ELIMINATION OF THEIR ARSENALS BY THE FIVE DECLARED NUCLEAR POWERS. THE OTHER WOULD OUTLAW LABORATORY WORK ON NEW WEAPONS DESIGNS -- THE VERY MEANS THE UNITED STATES REQUIRES TO FORSWEAR TEST EXPLOSIONS."

    TEXT: FOR ITS PART, TODAY'S "DENVER POST" CANNOT UNDERSTAND CHINA'S RECENT BELLICOSE STATEMENTS ABOUT TAIWAN, AND, IN ITS SECOND EDITORIAL, TALKS ABOUT THE CONFUSED SITUATION IN NORTH KOREA.

    VOICE: "RECENT DESERTERS FROM THAT ISOLATED COUNTRY (NORTH KOREA) RECOUNT TALES OF TERRIBLE HUNGER. SUCH WIDESPREAD HUMAN SUFFERING BY ITSELF SHOULD BE ENOUGH TO ALARM THE WORLD AND SPUR WEALTHY PACIFIC NATIONS INTO ACTION. YET THERE IS ANOTHER REASON FOR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO HELP ALLEVIATE THE FAMINE.... THE NIGHTMARE SCENARIO: NORTH KOREA'S GOVERNMENT TAKES THE COUNTRY INTO WAR TO DIVERT PUBLIC ATTENTION FROM THE AWFUL LIVING CONDITIONS AT HOME... THUS, WHILE BEIJING'S RECENT SABER-RATTLING AGAINST TAIWAN HAS CAPTURED MORE WORLD ATTENTION RECENTLY, THE GREATER DANGER MAY LIE IN NORTH KOREA. BEIJING ISN'T APT TO BEHAVE WHOLLY IRRATIONALLY. NORTH KOREA JUST MIGHT."

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, MEANWHILE, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" SAYS ITS "TIME TO TALK" BETWEEN BOTH SIDES IN THE BLOODY DISPUTE OVER NORTHERN IRELAND.

    VOICE: "THE INTERNATIONAL BODY CHAIRED BY FORMER SENATOR GEORGE MITCHELL OF M A I N E ... SUGGESTED A COMPROMISE: ALL PARTY TALKS SHOULD GET UNDERWAY AND DISARMAMENT OR 'DECOMMISSIONING' COULD BEGIN DURING THE NEGOTIATIONS... THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT SHOULD ADOPT THE MITCHELL FORMULA, WHICH WOULD FORCE THE I-R-A TO COMMIT ITSELF TO A DEMOCRATIC AND PEACEFUL APPROACH AND ALLOW ALL-PARTY TALKS TO BEGIN."

    TEXT: ABOUT THE POLITICAL CRISIS IN COLOMBIA, WHERE PRESIDENT SAMPER IS BEING ASKED TO RESIGN AFTER ALLEGATIONS HE KNOWINGLY ACCEPTED LARGE CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE CALI DRUG CARTER, TODAY'S "BALTIMORE SUN" SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "THE TRULY HEARTENING THING THAT HAS HAPPENED IN COLOMBIA IS A CHANGE IN PUBLIC OPINION, A GROWING INTOLERANCE OF NARCO-TRAFFICKERS' INFLUENCE ON THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF POLITICS... MR. SAMPER IS FIGHTING HARD FOR SURVIVAL, BUT COLOMBIANS INCREASINGLY WANT A CLEAN, DRUGFREE GOVERNMENT. MEXICANS ARE TAKING NOTE."

    TEXT: TURNING TO AFRICA, THIS BLEAK WARNING IN "USA TODAY'S" WEDNESDAY EDITORIAL COLUMN:

    VOICE: "BE PREPARED FOR MASSACRES IN BURUNDI. AMEND THAT: BE PREPARED FOR GENOCIDE. AND BE PREPARED, TOO, FOR THE REST OF THE WORLD TO BE CAUGHT FLAT-FOOTED. SO FAR, KILLINGS HAVE NOT APPROACHED THE SLAUGHTERS TWO YEARS AGO IN NEIGHBORING RWANDA, WHERE AT LEAST 500-THOUSAND DIED... BUT IT SEEMS JUST A MATTER OF TIME... THE WORLD COMMUNITY COULD DO MORE ... TAKE MORE PREVENTIVE STEPS, NOT REACTIVE ONES AS IN THE PAST."

    TEXT: AND ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, "NEWSDAY" SUGGESTS, IN COMMENTING ON THE FRAGILE SITUATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THAT "TRIALS FOR WAR CRIMES IN BOSNIA MUST WAIT UNTIL THE TRUCE [THERE] IS FIRMLY ESTABLISHED."

    VOICE: "IN THE AFTERMATH OF A WAR, THE DEMANDS OF PEACE AND JUSTICE ARE NOT ALWAYS IMMEDIATELY COMPATIBLE. SUCH IS THE CASE IN BOSNIA. THE WORK OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL INVESTIGATING ATROCITIES COMMITTED IN THE BALKAN CONFLICT INCREASINGLY IS AT ODDS WITH THE OVERALL GOALS OF THE NATO MISSION TO KEEP THE PEACE IN BOSNIA AND RESTORE STABILITY TO THE REGION... YET THE TRIBUNAL STILL HAS AN IMPORTANT FUNCTION: TO DISCOVER THE TRUTH ABOUT SOME OF THE MOST VICIOUS ACTS AGAINST HUMANITY ... IN EUROPE SINCE WORLD WAR TWO."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT HISTORIC NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN WEDNESDAY'S U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    31-Jan-96 11:25 AM EST (1625 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] ALBANIA / COMMUNISTS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=1/31/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192044
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ALBANIA'S HIGHEST APPEALS COURT HAS UPHELD A CONTROVERSIAL LAW THAT PREVENTS FORMER COMMUNISTS FROM HOLDING OFFICE FOR ANOTHER SIX YEARS. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS FROM VIENNA.

    TEXT: THE CHAIRMAN OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT IN TIRANA SAYS OPPOSITION PARTY OBJECTIONS TO THE LAW BANNING COMMUNISTS FROM POWER ARE GROUNDLESS.

    THE COURT CHAIRMAN SAYS THE LAW IS INTENDED TO DENOUNCE THE AUTHORS, CREATORS, AND ENFORCERS OF WHAT HE CALLS THE SAVAGE AND INHUMAN DICTATORSHIP THAT RULED ALBANIA FOR 40 YEARS.

    THE COMMUNIST REGIME IN TIRANA FELL AMID A POPULAR UPRISING IN 1990.

    SOCIALIST AND SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTIES HAD APPEALED TO THE COURT TO DECLARE THE ANTI-COMMUNIST LAW UNCONSTITUTIONAL. THE PARTIES ARGUED THAT THE LAW THREATENS TO TURN ALBANIA'S FLEDGLING DEMOCRACY INTO A DICTATORSHIP.

    THE DEMOCRATICALLY-ELECTED ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT INTRODUCED WHAT IS CALLED THE "LAW AGAINST GENOCIDE" LAST YEAR. IT IS DESIGNED TO BAN OFFICIALS OF THE FORMER COMMUNIST REGIME FROM BEING ELECTED TO PARLIAMENT. THE LAW ALSO PREVENTS FORMER COMMUNISTS FROM HOLDING IMPORTANT JUDICIAL POSITIONS OR SENIOR POSITIONS IN ALBANIA'S STATE-RUN NEWS MEDIA.

    THE OVERALL BAN IS IN EFFECT UNTIL THE YEAR 2002. THIS MEANS FORMER COMMUNISTS WILL BE EXCLUDED FROM COMPETING IN THE GENERAL ELECTION TO BE HELD IN ALBANIA IN A FEW MONTHS.

    THE LEGACY OF DECADES OF UNYIELDING STALINIST RULE IS STILL EVIDENT IN TIRANA. ALBANIA IS THE POOREST COUNTRY IN EUROPE, ASIDE FROM WAR-RAVAGED BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA HAS BEEN PROMOTING REFORMS AND A MARKET ECONOMY. ALTHOUGH IT WAS UNTHINKABLE A FEW YEARS AGO, ALBANIA HAS ALSO DEVELOPED MILITARY COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/GPT
    31-Jan-96 12:10 PM EST (1710 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BOSNIA / NATO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=1/31/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192042
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE HAVE BEEN NEW ATTACKS AGAINST NATO TROOPS IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, AND NATO OFFICIALS SAY STRONG PROTESTS ARE BEING MADE TO LOCAL SERB POLITICAL LEADERS. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: NATO VEHICLES CAME UNDER FIRE LATE TUESDAY ON TWO OCCASIONS IN THE CENTER OF ILIDZA, THE SERB-HELD SUBURB OF SARAJEVO WHERE NATO HAS ESTABLISHED ITS GROUND HEADQUARTERS IN BOSNIA / HERZEGOVINA.

    IN ONE INCIDENT, A NATO VEHICLE WAS HIT BY SMALL ARMS FIRE, BUT THERE WERE NO CASUALTIES. ONE-HALF-HOUR LATER AT THE SAME LOCATION, TWO NATO VEHICLES WERE SPRAYED WITH MACHINE GUN FIRE, INJURING ONE BRITISH SOLDIER.

    NATO SPOKESMAN LIEUTENANT COLONEL MARK RAYNOR DESCRIBED THE SCENE.

    /// ACT - RAYNOR ///

    THE LAND ROVER WAS HIT BY AN UNSPECIFIED NUMBER OF ROUNDS. THE DRIVER WAS HIT ON THE WRIST. THE DRIVER MANAGED TO CONTROL THE VEHICLE AND STOPPED IT IN FRONT OF THE FOUR-TON VEHICLE WHERE THE CREW ADMINISTERED FIRST AID.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SOLDIER WAS NOT SERIOUSLY WOUNDED. NATO OFFICIALS ALSO SAY THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF SHOTS FIRED AT THE HEADQUARTERS IN ILIDZA IN RECENT DAYS. SUNDAY AN AMERICAN OFFICER WAS SLIGHTLY WOUNDED IN THE NECK IN SUCH AN ATTACK.

    BUT THE NATO SPOKESMAN SAID HE IS NOT SURE WHY THE NUMBER OF ATTACKS IS INCREASING.

    /// ACT - RAYNOR ///

    WE DO NOT KNOW THE CAUSE OF THIS AT THE MOMENT, WHY THEY ARE DOING THIS. AS YOU KNOW THERE ARE STILL A LOT OF WEAPONS LEFT IN THIS COUNTRY, AND PEOPLE WITH THEIR OWN REASONS. WE ARE SATISFIED THAT THESE WERE ISOLATED INCIDENTS.

    /// END ACT ///

    COLONEL RAYNOR SAYS NATO COMMANDERS ARE SATISFIED WITH THE OVERALL SPIRIT OF COMPLIANCE WITH THE DAYTON AGREEMENT BY ALL SIDES. BUT THE NATO CHIEF OF STAFF HELD MEETINGS WEDNESDAY WITH THE SERB MAYOR OF ILIDZA IN AN EFFORT TO CURB THE ATTACKS.

    UNDER THE DAYTON ACCORD, ILIDZA AND OTHER SERB-HELD SUBURBS OF SARAJEVO MUST BE TURNED OVER TO BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT CONTROL, AND ALL BOSNIAN-SERB SOLDIERS MUST LEAVE THE AREA BY THIS SATURDAY. BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT SOLDIERS WILL NOT BE ALLOWED TO TAKE CONTROL OF THE AREA UNTIL MID-MARCH. BUT TENSIONS REMAIN HIGH AS THE SATURDAY DEADLINE NEARS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/JWH/RAE
    31-Jan-96 12:02 PM EST (1702 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] BOSNIA / POLITICS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=1/31/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192034
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MEMBERS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAVE BEEN ANNOUNCED IN SARAJEVO. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS THE HEAD OF THE FEDERATION REMAINS AN ETHNIC CROAT. THE NEW PRIME MINISTER IS A MUSLIM.

    TEXT: THE SELECTION OF MINISTERS OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION COMPLETES ANOTHER PART OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    THE FEDERATION PRESIDENT REMAINS A CROAT, KRESIMIR ZUBAK. THE PRIME MINISTER IS A MUSLIM, IZUDIN KAPETANOVIC.

    THERE IS A NEARLY EQUAL DIVISION OF MUSLIM AND CROAT MINISTERS AND DEPUTY MINISTERS. ONLY ONE SERB IS A MEMBER OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION GOVERNMENT. HE IS A MINISTER WITHOUT PORTFOLIO.

    UNDER TERMS OF THE PEACE TREATY, THE FEDERATION IS ONE OF TWO ENTITIES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE OTHER ENTITY IS THE SERB REPUBLIC.

    THE FEDERATION PRIME MINISTER SAYS HIS GOVERNMENT'S PRIORITIES ARE ECONOMIC REVIVAL INCLUDING THE INTRODUCTION OF A MARKET ECONOMY, THE RETURN OF REFUGEES, THE RESOLUTION OF THE DISPUTE BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND CROATS OVER THE DIVIDED TOWN OF MOSTAR, AND BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA'S POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION.

    THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND THE BOSNIAN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT WILL HAVE TO COOPERATE, NOT JUST CO-EXIST, WITH EACH OTHER. THE FEDERATION WILL ALSO HAVE TO COOPERATE WITH THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SERB REPUBLIC.

    NEW ELECTIONS ARE TO BE HELD THROUGHOUT BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA LATER THIS YEAR. THEY WILL REQUIRE CHANGES IN THE SERB LEADERSHIP.

    THE BOSNIAN PEACE TREATY DOES NOT ALLOW INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS LIKE SERB-LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC TO HOLD A POLITICAL POSITION. THE SERBS HAVE NOT SAID WHETHER MR. KARADZIC WILL COMPLY WITH THE TREATY AND GIVE UP POWER.

    WHILE SERB INTENTIONS ARE NOT CLEAR, DIPLOMATS SAY IT REMAINS TO BE SEEN IF BOSNIAN MUSLIMS AND CROATS CAN WORK TOGETHER WITHIN THE FEDERATION.

    THE FEDERATION WAS ESTABLISHED BY AN AGREEMENT MEDIATED BY THE UNITED STATES IN 1994. THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS STOPPED FIGHTING EACH OTHER AND LAUNCHED COORDINATED ATTACKS ON SERB FORCES. BUT, THERE HAS BEEN LIMITED COOPERATION BETWEEN THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS ON THE POLITICAL LEVEL. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    31-Jan-96 10:26 AM EST (1526 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] HOLBROOKE-GREECE/TURKEY (L ONLY) BY JANE BERGER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/31/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192060
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS U-S DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS HAVE HELPED HEAD OFF A MILITARY CONFLICT BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY IN A NEW TERRITORIAL DISPUTE. CORRESPONDENT JANE BERGER REPORTS MR. HOLBROOKE DISCUSSED THE INCIDENT (WEDNESDAY) AT THE NATIONAL PRESS CLUB IN WASHINGTON.

    TEXT: ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS TURKISH TROOPS WERE ON THE VERGE OF SEIZING AN UNINHABITED, DISPUTED ISLAND IN THE EASTERN AEGEAN UNTIL U-S OFFICIALS INTERVENED TO PREVENT A MILITARY CONFLICT BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID PRESIDENT CLINTON, SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER, AND OTHER SENIOR OFFICIALS TALKED ON THE TELEPHONE WITH GREEK AND TURKISH LEADERS AND PERSUADED THEM TO DEFUSE THE CRISIS. THE INCIDENT BEGAN WHEN A TURKISH SHIP RAN AGROUND NEAR THE TINY ISLAND, AND JOURNALISTS RAISED A TURKISH FLAG.

    U-S PLANES ARE MONITORING THE REGION TO OBSERVE A WITHDRAWAL FROM THE REGION BY FORCES FROM BOTH SIDES AND TO ASSURE EACH COUNTRY THE OTHER SIDE IS BACKING OFF.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID HE WILL TRAVEL TO THE AREA NEXT MONTH AT THE REQUEST OF THE GREEK AND TURKISH GOVERNMENTS.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    I WILL GO TO ANKARA, ATHENS AND NICOSIA AND WILL TAKE WITH ME DEPUTY UNDERSECRETARY JAN LODELL TO HAVE A JOINT STATE-DEFENSE TRIP IN WHICH WE WILL FOCUS, NOT ON CYPRUS, BECAUSE IT'S NOT TIME YET TO LAUNCH OUR CYPRUS INITIATIVE -- WE CAN'T DO THAT YET BECAUSE OF THE POLITICAL SITUATION -- BUT TO FOCUS ON TRYING TO REDUCE TENSIONS IN THE AEGEAN.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE UNITED STATES (FOCUS ON) THE CYPRUS INITIATIVE WILL TAKE PLACE AT A LATER DATE, ONCE TENSIONS OVER THE CURRENT DISPUTE HAVE EASED.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    UNTIL GREECE AND TURKEY NORMALIZE THEIR RELATIONS, UNTIL THAT HAPPENS, THERE IS ALWAYS GOING TO BE INSTABILITY IN THAT AREA, AND THESE ARE TWO IMPORTANT AMERICAN TREATY ALLIES. AND BEYOND THAT, TURKEY IS AND REMAINS THE FRONT-LINE STATE OF THE NEW EUROPE. ANY COUNTRY THAT HAS COMMON BORDERS WITH SYRIA, IRAQ, IRAN, A LOT OF FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS, BULGARIA, PLUS ITS OWN PROBLEMS WITH GREECE, PLUS ITS OWN PROBLEMS WITH THE KURDS, IS A COUNTRY OF CRITICAL IMPORTANCE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE CYPRUS INITIATIVE IS AIMED AT RESOLVING THE TERRITORIAL CONFLICT ONCE AND FOR ALL. HE SAID IF THE DISPUTE IS ALLOWED TO FESTER, IT COULD THREATEN THE STABILITY OF THE NATO ALLIANCE AND THE STABILITY OF EUROPE ITSELF. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JB/LWM
    31-Jan-96 3:39 PM EST (2039 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] HOLBROOKE - BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY JANE BERGER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/31/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192065
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS THE TRUE TEST OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT IN BOSNIA WILL COME NEXT MONTH, WHEN DEADLINES OCCUR FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF CIVILIAN AND POLITICAL PROVISIONS OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT JANE BERGER REPORTS MR. HOLBROOKE SPOKE WITH REPORTERS (WEDNESDAY) AT THE NATIONAL PRESS CLUB IN WASHINGTON.

    TEXT: U-S BALKAN NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS COMPLIANCE WITH MILITARY ASPECTS OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS ARE GOING EXTREMELY WELL. THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE SAID ALL SIDES ARE PULLING BACK, THEY ARE HELPING NATO FORCES IDENTIFY MINE FIELDS, AND HE SAID HE ANTICIPATES NO SIGNIFICANT TROUBLE IN THE MILITARY ARENA.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE PEACE AGREEMENT COULD BECOME MORE COMPLICATED NEXT MONTH, WHEN DEADLINES FALL DUE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACCORD'S CIVILIAN AND POLITICAL PROVISIONS.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    WILL WE HOLD ELECTIONS SUCCESSFULLY THIS SUMMER AS CALLED FOR IN THE DAYTON AGREEMENTS ? THESE HAVE TO BE INTERNATIONALLY SUPERVISED. WILL THE REFUGEES BE ABLE TO RETURN ? WILL THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL BE FULLY COMPLIED WITH ?

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE SUCCESS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT WILL HAVE A VERY IMPORTANT IMPACT ON THE FUTURE OF THE NATO ALLIANCE AND U-S/RUSSIAN RELATIONS. HE SAID IT COULD ALSO DETERMINE AMERICA'S ROLE IN THE WORLD, AS WELL AS U-S PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS. AND THE FUTURE OF THE U-S MILITARY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JB/PT
    31-Jan-96 4:51 PM EST (2151 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] TURKEY/GREECE (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=1/31/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192025
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY HAS CLAIMED VICTORY OVER GREECE IN A DISPUTE OVER A CLUSTER OF ROCKS IN THE AGEAN SEA. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, WHILE THE DISPUTE -- WHICH LED TO A TENSE STANDOFF BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES -- HAS FIZZLED OUT, SERIOUS DIFFERENCES REMAIN OVER SOVEREIGNTY IN THE AEGEAN.

    TEXT: A TRIUMPHANT TURKISH PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER EXPRESSED SATISFACTION OVER THE OUTCOME OF THE DISPUTE, SAYING TURKEY HAD HAD ITS WAY. IN HER WORDS, THE GREEKS HAD DONE WHAT SHE SAID THEY MUST DO. THEY HAD LEFT THE TINY ROCKY ISLANDS AND THE GREEK FLAG HAD BEEN REMOVED.

    IN ATHENS THE MOOD WAS DIFFERENT. THE LEADER OF THE MAIN OPPOSITION CONSERVATIVE "NEW DEMOCRACY" PARTY ACCUSED THE GOVERNMENT OF TREASON AND CALLED ON THE COUNTRY'S NEW PRIME MINISTER, COSTAS SIMITIS, TO RESIGN.

    THE DISPUTE OVER THE ROCKS -- WHICH TURKEY CALLS KARDAK AND GREECE CALLS IMIA -- ERUPTED LAST WEEK AFTER TURKISH JOURNALISTS REPLACED A GREEK FLAG ON THE SMALL ISLANDS WITH A TURKISH ONE.

    GREECE SAYS THE ROCKS, LYING BETWEEN THE TURKISH COAST AND THE GREEK ISLAND OF KALYMNOS, WERE CEDED TO IT BY ITALY IN 1947. TURKEY SAYS THE TINY ISLANDS ARE WITHIN ITS TERRITORIAL WATERS AND THEREFORE FALL UNDER ITS JURISDICTION.

    TURKEY AND GREECE SENT WARSHIPS AND JET FIGHTERS INTO THE AEGEAN SEA ON TUESDAY AS A WAR OF WORDS, FUELED BY THE NATIONALIST PRESS ON BOTH SIDES, ESCALATED.

    DIPLOMATIC SOURCES SAY THE CRISIS WAS RESOLVED MAINLY DUE TO INTERVENTION FROM THE UNITED STATES. PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON CONTACTED THE LEADERS OF THE TWO NATO MEMBER COUNTRIES TUESDAY URGING A PEACEFUL SOLUTION OT THE DISPUTE.

    ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE WARNED THE SIDES AGAINST FURTHER PROVOCATION, SAYING WHOEVER FIRED THE FIRST SHOT WOULD BEAR A VERY HEAVY RESPONSIBILITY FOR WHAT WOULD ENSUE.

    MR. HOLBROOKE IS EXPECTED TO TRAVEL TO BOTH COUTRIES SOON TO TRY AND REVIVE UN-SPONSORED PEACE TALKS TO END THE CYPRUS DISPUTE. THAT CONTROVERSY IS DESCRIBED BY WESTERN DIPLOMATS AS THE NUMBER ONE PROBLEM BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY.

    THE ISLAND HAS REMAINED DIVIDED SINCE 1974 WHEN TURKISH TROOPS INTERVENED TO PREVENT THE UNIFICATION OF CYPRUS WITH GREECE. GREECE IS DEMANDING THE WITHDRAWAL OF SOME 30-THOUSAND TURKISH TROOPS STATIONED IN THE TURKISH THIRD OF THE ISLAND AS A PRE-CONDITION FOR PEACE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AZ/MH/GPT
    31-Jan-96 9:21 AM EST (1421 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] YUGO / O-S-C-E (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=1/31/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192020
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE HAS OUTLINED SOME OF ITS CONDITIONS FOR RESTORING YUGOSLAVIA'S MEMBERSHIP. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: YUGOSLAVIA WANTS TO RESUME ITS O-S-C-E MEMBERSHIP THAT WAS SUSPENDED IN 1992 BECAUSE OF THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT, THE O-S-C-E LEADERSHIP, WHICH MET IN SARAJEVO, IS ATTACHING STRONG CONDITIONS TO THE RESTORATION OF ACTIVE YUGOSLAV MEMBERSHIP.

    HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER LASZLO KOVACS SAYS YUGOSLAVIA MUST APPROVE THE REOPENING OF O-S-C-E MISSIONS IN THE MAINLY ETHNIC ALBANIAN REGION OF KOSOVO AND IN THE REGION OF VOJVODINA, WHERE THEY ARE MANY ETHNIC HUNGARIANS.

    MR. KOVACS SAYS THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT WOULD HAVE TO PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF THE ETHNIC HUNGARIANS AND REINSTATE KOSOVO'S AUTONOMY.

    ANY DECISION ON WHETHER TO ALLOW YUGOSLAVIA TO RESUME AN ACTIVE ROLE IN THE O-S-C-E WOULD BE MADE BY CONSENSUS AMONG THE ORGANIZATION'S MEMBERS.

    OFFICIALS AT THE O-S-C-E HEADQUARTERS IN VIENNA SAY THERE IS NO CONSENSUS NOW AND THAT NO CONSENSUS IS LIKELY ANY TIME SOON. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH
    31-Jan-96 7:35 AM EST (1235 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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