Read about The Loizidou vs Turkey Case of the European Court of Human Rights (18 December, 1996) A)? GHT="50">
Compact version
Today's Suggestion
Read The "Macedonian Question" (by Maria Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou)
HomeAbout HR-NetNewsWeb SitesDocumentsOnline HelpUsage InformationContact us
Tuesday, 17 September 2019
 
News
  Latest News (All)
     From Greece
     From Cyprus
     From Europe
     From Balkans
     From Turkey
     From USA
  Announcements
  World Press
  News Archives
Web Sites
  Hosted
  Mirrored
  Interesting Nodes
Documents
  Special Topics
  Treaties, Conventions
  Constitutions
  U.S. Agencies
  Cyprus Problem
  Other
Services
  Personal NewsPaper
  Greek Fonts
  Tools
  F.A.Q.
 

Voice of America (1 of 2), 19 January 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] AMERICAN SUPPORT FOR TURKEY

  • [03] BACK TO THE FUTURE IN BOSNIA (PART 2) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

  • [04] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [05] BOSNIA: REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/19/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09387
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON FRIDAY, JANUARY 19 //

    INTRO: ACCORDING TO NEWS REPORTS, BORIS YELTSIN, THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENT, "HAS DECLARED VICTORY" IN THE MILITARY OPERATION AGAINST CHECHEN REBELS THAT WERE HOLDING DOZENS OF HOSTAGES IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE COUNTRY. SOME AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS COMMENT TODAY ON THE CHECHEN CRISIS AND RELATED EVENTS IN THE REGION. OTHER SUBJECTS INCLUDE DEBATE OVER THE FEDERAL BUDGET IN THE UNITED STATES, AND PORNOGRAPHY ON THE INTERNET. NOW, _______________ HAS A CLOSER LOOK AT THESE AND OTHER EDITORIAL OPINIONS IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS THAT AS THE SMOKE LIFTS FROM THE RUBBLE OF THE SOUTHERN RUSSIAN VILLAGE OF PERVOMAYSKOYE, "THIS VIOLENT CONFRONTATION CAN BE A SOURCE OF NO HONOR TO MR. YELTSIN OR ANYONE ELSE INVOLVED IN THE CRISIS."

    VOICE: "THE CHECHAN REBELS, WHATEVER THEIR GRIEVANCES AGAINST MOSCOW, HAVE NO JUSTIFICATION TO TERRORIZE RUSSIAN COMMUNITIES AND SEIZE RUSSIAN CIVILIANS AS HOSTAGES. EVERY TIME THEY TRY, THEY SUCCEED ONLY IN TURNING RUSSIANS AGAINST CHECHNYA AND MAKING AN UNPOPULAR WAR MORE ACCEPTABLE TO RUSSIANS. BUT MOST DAMAGING TO THE LONG-TERM INTERESTS OF BOTH CHECHNYA AND RUSSIA, EACH EPISODE OF CHECHEN HOSTAGE-TAKING GIVES MR. YELTSIN AND HIS SECURITY ADVISERS AN EXCUSE TO RELY, HOWEVER, BRIEFLY, ON THE LEVERS OF AUTHORITARIAN RULE. IN A COUNTRY SO RECENTLY DELIVERED FROM DICTATORSHIP, AND STILL GOVERNED BY MEN LIKE MR. YELTSIN WHO ONCE HELPED EXERCISE THAT ABSOLUTE POWER, EVEN A TEMPORARY REGRESSION CAN BE A DANGEROUS THING."

    TEXT: AND, THE WASHINGTON TIMES EDITORIALIZES THAT -- IN ITS WORDS -- "THE NEW RUSSIA IS LOOKING MORE AND MORE LIKE THE OLD SOVIET UNION."

    VOICE: "THE BRUTALITY OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY ASSAULT ON CHECHEN REBELS, WHICH CAME TO A BLOODY CONCLUSION YESTERDAY, WAS NO LESS THAN INHUMAN. IN FACT, IT MAKES A MOCKERY OF THE NOTION OF RUSSIANS 'PEACEKEEPERS' SERVING WITH U.S. TROOPS IN BOSNIA. FOR MORE THAN THREE DAYS, RUSSIAN FORCES FROM THE FEDERAL SECURITY SERVICE AND THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS MINISTRY BLASTED AWAY AT CHECHEN FIGHTERS IN THE VILLAGE OF PERVOMAISKOYE IN DAGESTAN, NEAR THE CHECHEN BORDER. IN A PUBLIC STATEMENT, PRESIDENT YELTSIN ANNOUNCED THAT 82 HOSTAGES WERE RESCUED AND 18 MISSING OR DEAD, PUTTING THE NUMBER OF EXACTLY 100. WHETHER THOSE NUMBERS ARE ACCURATE IS AN OPEN QUESTION. STATEMENTS BY RUSSIAN OFFICIALS THROUGHOUT THE CRISIS INDICATED THAT NEARLY 200 HOSTAGES MAY HAVE BEEN KILLED. WITH RESCUERS LIKE THESE, WHO NEEDS KIDNAPPERS?"

    TEXT: THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN FRIDAY'S EDITION OF NEWSDAY CONCERNS THE APPARENT IMPASSE OVER THE FEDERAL BUDGET. THE SUBURBAN NEW YORK NEWSPAPER SAYS THAT, "WHAT'S BLOCKING A BUDGET DEAL IS THE G-O-P CLIQUE THAT WANTS TO DISMANTLE GOVERNMENT."

    VOICE: "WASHINGTON BUDGET TALKS HAVE FROZEN AND THAWED MORE TIMES THAN THE WINTER SNOWS. THE IMPASSE LONG AGO STOPPED BEING ABOUT NUMBERS. NOW IT'S PHILOSOPHY THAT DIVIDES THE FACTIONS. BUT THAT DOESN'T MEAN A BUDGET PACT CAN'T BE REACHED. IT CAN AND MUST. THOUGH HE HAS BEEN GUILTY OF FOOT-DRAGGING, SIGNAL-SWITCHING AND DISINGENUOUS POSTURING ON MEDICARE, PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON DESERVES CREDIT FOR DOING WHAT RONALD REAGAN NEVER DID: HE PUT FORTH A PLAN TO BALANCE THE BUDGET USING HONEST ECONOMIC NUMBERS."

    TEXT: BUT, THE EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES SAYS THAT BOTH SIDES IN THE BUDGET DEBATE "HINT AT LONG DELAYS IN MAKING TOUGH DECISIONS." THE CALIFORNIA PAPER SAYS THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS APPEAR TO BE "MAKING THE NOVEMBER ELECTIONS A REFERENDUM ON THEIR DIFFERING PHILOSOPHIES OF GOVERNMENT."

    VOICE: "THE COUNTRY WOULD OPERATE ON A MAKE-DO BASIS WHILE OUR ELECTED OFFICIALS USE THE BUDGET STALEMATE AS POLITICAL FODDER. THIS CYNICAL APPROACH TO GOVERNANCE IS NOT LIKELY TO ENDEAR VOTERS COME NOVEMBER. THEY SENT THEIR REPRESENTATIVES TO WASHINGTON WITH THE EXPECTATION THAT THEY COULD AND WOULD MAKE DIFFICULT DECISIONS. FAILURE TO CRAFT A COMPROMISE BUDGET IS NO DISTINCTION TO BE WORN PROUDLY ON THE CAMPAIGN TRAIL.... IF WASHINGTON MUST RESORT TO THE PRACTICE OF CONTINUING RESOLUTIONS INSTEAD OF A REGULAR BUDGET TO KEEP THE GOVERNMENT RUNNING, DEEP CUTS CAN BE EXPECTED IN MANY PROGRAMS. OTHERS WOULD SIMPLY FALL INTO LIMBO. IS THIS ANY WAY TO RUN A COUNTRY? NO. AND IT IS HURTING ALL OF US EVERY DAY."

    VOICE: TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE TALKS ABOUT AMERICAN POLITICS IN AN EDITORIAL ON A DIFFERENT SUBJECT.

    VOICE: "AS AMERICANS DESCEND INTO THE SEASON IN HELL OF THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN -- DURING WHICH CANDIDATES ADVISED BY POLITICAL CONSULTANTS DERIDE ONE ANOTHER'S GOOD FAITH -- IT MAY BE SALUTARY TO HEED THE GENEROUS SPIRIT OF THE EULOGY DELIVERED LAST WEEK BY PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC OF FRANCE UPON THE DEATH OF HIS PREDECESSOR, FRANCOIS MITTERRAND. CHIRAC'S LUCID AND SYMPATHETIC TRIBUTE TO HIS POLITICAL RIVAL WAS ALL THE MORE EXEMPLARY BECAUSE IT MARKED THE ENDING OF A VENDETTA BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND THE LEFT THAT HAS HAUNTED FRANCE FOR TWO CENTURIES. THE ENMITY, BETWEEN THE TWO CAMPS, EXPRESSED MORE OFTEN THAN NOT IN THE HYPERBOLE OF REVOLUTION AND REACTION, COMMONLY RESULTED IN A DENIAL OF THE GOOD WILL OF THE OTHER SIDE. IN COMPARISON WITH THE FRENCH POLITICAL VENDETTA, AMERICAN POLITICAL QUARRELS USUALLY SEEMED ANODYNE AND BENIGN, LITTLE MORE THAN THE QUIBBLING OF ACCOUNTANTS WHO COULD ALWAYS RESOLVE THEIR DISPUTES BY SPLITTING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEIR BOTTOM LINES."

    TEXT: THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION POINTS OUT THAT, "FOR YEARS, WASHINGTON, HAS WORRIED THAT A TROUBLEMAKER SUCH AS NORTH KOREA, IRAQ, IRAN OR LIBYA MIGHT ACQUIRE OR DEVELOP NUCLEAR WEAPONS." BUT, THE GEORGIA DAILY REMINDS READERS THAT THE ONLY COUNTRY OUTSIDE THE SO-CALLED NUCLEAR CLUB -- THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, FRANCE, CHINA AND RUSSIA -- TO HAVE EVER DETONATED A NUCLEAR DEVICE IS INDIA.

    VOICE: "IN 1974, THAT SELF-STYLED PEACE-LOVING NATION CONDUCTED WHAT IT DESCRIBED AS A BENIGN NUCLEAR EXPERIMENT TO DEVELOP A WAY TO MOVE EARTH TO BUILD CANALS AND CAUSEWAYS, THAT SORT OF THING -- OR SO IT SAID. TWENTY YEARS LATER, OUT OF THE BLUE, U-S INTELLIGENCE SATELLITES HAVE DETECTED SIGNS THAT INDIA MAY BE PREPARING A SECOND NUCLEAR TEST -- CONJECTURE THAT NEW DELHI OFFICIALS CATEGORICALLY DENY. JUST THE SAME, IF INDIA DOES INDEED INTEND TO GO AHEAD ON SUCH A COURSE, IT WOULD BE PLAYING WITH MORE THAN ITS OWN NUCLEAR FIRE. ITS UNFRIENDLY NEIGHBOR, PAKISTAN, IS THOUGHT TO BE WELL ALONG IN BUILDING ITS OWN NUCLEAR BOMBS, THOUGH IT HAS NEVER TESTED ANY. WITHOUT DOUBT, A TEST EXPLOSION IN INDIA WOULD TOUCH OFF A NUCLEAR ARMS RACE IN SOUTH ASIA -- AN OUTCOME TO BE AVOIDED AT ALL COSTS. THIS WEEK THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION REVEALED ITS SUSPICION, ALONG WITH A RESTRAINED PEACE OF ADVICE TO THE INDIANS. IN CASE THEY HADN'T NOTICED, IN 1994 CONGRESS PASSED AN OBSCURE MEASURE SPONSORED BY SEN. JOHN GLENN (A DEMOCRAT FROM OHIO) THAT AUTOMATICALLY WILL SHUT OFF U-S AID TO ANY COUNTRY THAT TESTS A NUCLEAR WEAPON, NO PRESIDENTIAL DISCRETION ALLOWED."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: BACK IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE, THE MIAMI HERALD COMMENTS ON WHAT IT CALLS THE "HYSTERICAL REACTION" ON THE PART OF THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT TO LEAFLETS AN EXILE GROUP DROPPED OVER HAVANA LAST WEEKEND.

    VOICE: "THE LEAFLETS CALLED ON CUBANS TO EXERCISE THEIR POLITICAL RIGHTS -- WHICH CASTRO DENIES THEM -- AND TO ENGAGE IN PEACEABLE CIVIL RESISTANCE. IN RESPONSE, THE CUBAN REGIME SHRIEKED, CHARACTERIZING THE ACTION AS ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF MIAMI EXILES' RELIANCE ON 'BLACKMAIL AND VIOLENCE'. EVEN MORE DISTURBING THAN THIS BURST OF NONSENSE WAS THE REGIME'S ARREST AND INTERROGATION OF FOUR INDEPENDENT CUBAN JOURNALISTS FOR HAVING THE AUDACITY TO CONFIRM TO MIAMI COLLEAGUES THAT THEY HAD SEEN THE LEAFLETS IN HAVANA. THE INTER-AMERICAN PRESS ASSOCIATION AND REPORTERS WITHOUT FRONTIERS SWIFTLY DENOUNCED THE ARRESTS. THOUGH THE REGIME FREED THE JOURNALISTS, IT COULD CHARGE THEM SOON WITH UNSPEAKABLE 'OFFENSES' AGAINST STATE SECURITY. IS THAT THE BEHAVIOR OF A GOVERNMENT THAT IS SURE OF ITS STABILITY?"

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: OPINION OF A DIFFERENT SORT IS THE SUBJECT OF A LEAD EDITORIAL IN THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. COMMENTING ON THE VAST ELECTRONIC SUPERHIGHWAY KNOWN AS THE INTERNET, THE MONITOR SAYS THAT "YOU CAN FIND THE BEST OF HUMANITY THERE, AND SOMETHING APPROACHING THE WORST. "HOW," THE EDITORIAL ASKS, "DO YOU MAKE AMPLE ROOM FOR THE FORMER, WHILE CONSTRAINING THE LATER?"

    VOICE: "PORNOGRAPHY AND HATE HAVE TO BE OPPOSED, AND MEANS OF CONTROLLING ACCESS TO SUCH MATERIAL, ESPECIALLY FOR CHILDREN, SHOULD BE CONSCIENTIOUSLY APPLIED. FOR EXAMPLE, SCHOOLS AND OTHER INTERNET USERS CAN OBTAIN SOFTWARE TO SCREEN OUT SUBJECT MATTER DEEMED INAPPROPRIATE. ALSO, SOME COMMERCIAL ON-LINE SERVICES, SUCH AS PRODIGY, HAVE CODING PROCEDURES THAT ALLOW PARENTS TO PLACE CERTAIN AREAS OFF-LIMITS TO OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS... EXPERTS ESTIMATE THAT LESS THAN ONE PERCENT OF THE NET'S DIGITAL LANDSCAPE IS DEVOTED TO DIRTY OR OBSCENE MATERIAL. THIS LEAVES VAST TERRITORY OPEN TO USEFUL, WHOLESOME, CONSTRUCTIVE DISCOURSE. THE OBSCENE OR HATEFUL STUFF CAN BE, AND IN FACT IS BEING, COUNTERED. SO BRING ON THE FILTERING, DISCIPLINING CAPABILITIES. BUT MOST OF ALL LET THOSE WHO WANT TO ARGUE AGAINST PORNOGRAPHY OR RACIST THEORIES, AND FOR COMMUNITY AND MORALITY, JOIN THE ELECTRONIC CONVERSATION."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT OFFERING BY THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF THE DAY'S EDITORIALS FROM ACROSS THE UNITED STATES.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    19-Jan-96 11:43 AM EST (1643 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] AMERICAN SUPPORT FOR TURKEY

    DATE= JANUARY 20, 1996
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-06644
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    JANUARY 20, 1996. ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    AS AMERICAN OFFICIALS STRESSED AGAIN THIS MONTH, TURKEY IS A VALUED FRIEND AND ALLY OF THE UNITED STATES. TURKEY HELPS ALL NATO MEMBERS DEFEND THEIR INTERESTS IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE. BECAUSE OF TURKEY'S GREAT STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE, U.S. MILITARY AID TO TURKEY MAKES SENSE BOTH FOR THE U.S. AND FOR TURKEY.

    LAST MONTH, TURKISH VOTERS CONTINUED THEIR DEMOCRATIC TRADITION BY GOING TO THE POLLS TO ELECT MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. THE ELECTIONS WERE CONDUCTED IN A PEACEFUL MANNER DESPITE THE FACT THAT THE PEOPLE OF TURKEY HAVE HAD TO DEAL WITH TERRORISM FOR MANY YEARS, ESPECIALLY FROM THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, OR P-K-K. THE P-K-K IS A MARXIST-LENINIST GROUP WITH THE AVOWED GOAL OF ESTABLISHING A KURDISH STATE INCLUDING SOUTHEAST TURKEY AND AREAS OF SURROUNDING COUNTRIES. MEMBERS OF THIS TERRORIST GROUP RECEIVE SAFE HAVEN AND SOME AID FROM SYRIA, IRAQ AND IRAN.

    THE U.S. FULLY SUPPORTS THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT IN ITS FIGHT AGAINST THE P-K-K. P-K-K TERRORISTS HAVE MURDERED TURKISH MILITARY PERSONNEL, GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, SCHOOL TEACHERS AND MANY ORDINARY CITIZENS. P-K-K TERRORISTS HAVE BOMBED HOTELS, RESTAURANTS, MARKETPLACES AND PUBLIC BEACHES. THEY HAVE KIDNAPPED TOURISTS IN TURKEY AND ATTACKED TURKISH DIPLOMATIC AND COMMERCIAL FACILITIES IN SEVERAL OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS A RESPONSIBILITY TO FIGHT THAT KIND OF TERRORISM.

    AT THE SAME TIME, THE U.S. HAS CONCERNS ABOUT THE MANNER IN WHICH THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS ACTED IN SOME INSTANCES. THE U.S. IS TROUBLED BY CONTINUING REPORTS OF TORTURE, EXTRAJUDICIAL KILLINGS AND OTHER HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS. THE U.S. IS ALSO TROUBLED BY FORCED EVACUATION AND BURNING OF VILLAGES.

    THE U.S. IS PLEASED THAT THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS TAKEN SIGNIFICANT STEPS IN RECENT MONTHS TO IMPROVE HUMAN RIGHTS GUARANTEES FOR ALL CITIZENS. THE STEPS INCLUDE CHANGES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND REFORM OF ARTICLE EIGHT OF THE ANTI-TERROR LAW. SINCE THE REFORM, MANY PEOPLE HAVE BEEN RELEASED FROM PRISON. THE U.S. HOPES THAT THESE KINDS OF CHANGES WILL CONTINUE. ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.

    19-Jan-96 1:57 PM EST (1857 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BACK TO THE FUTURE IN BOSNIA (PART 2) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/19/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08841
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: BOSNIAN TROOPS HAVE PULLED BACK ON SCHEDULE FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE CONFRONTATION LINES BUT THE (MIDNIGHT) DEADLINE FOR RELEASING PRISONERS REMAINS UNMET. IN THE MEANTIME, REFUGEES FROM BOSNIA LIVING ABROAD ARE CLOSELY WATCHING A RECENT SWITCH IN SERB TACTICS WHICH WOULD ALLOW THE SERB-HELD SUBURBS OF SARAJEVO TO COME UNDER

    GOVERNMENT CONTROL IF SERB RIGHTS ARE GUARANTEED. VOA'S

    PAMELA TAYLOR TALKED WITH SOME BOSNIANS WHO HAVE SETTLED IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES ABOUT THE CHANCES BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA COULD ONCE AGAIN BE HOME TO SERBS, CROATS AND MUSLIMS IF SUCH CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION COULD BE GUARANTEED:

    TEXT: ARNELA KONAKEVIC [ARE-NELLA KOHN-AH-KEH-VITCH] WAS A WELL-KNOWN POPULAR SINGER IN SARAJEVO BEFORE SHE CAME TO THE UNITED STATES TWO YEARS AGO. SHE NOW PERFORMS AT VARIOUS CLUBS AND COFFEE HOUSES IN THE BALTIMORE-WASHINGTON AREA.

    TAPE: CUT # 1 KONAKEVIC SINGING (UP AND HOLD UNDER) RUNS [:42]

    TEXT: ARNELA IS A TRUE BOSNIAN, SO ETHNICALLY MIXED SHE REFUSES TO LABEL HERSELF AS TODAY'S NATIONALISTS ARE DEMANDING. SHE SAYS SHE LEFT A PROMISING CAREER IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL AFTER LEARNING HER NAME WAS ON A DEATH LIST OF ARTISTS AND INTELLECTUALS DRAWN UP BY BOSNIAN SERB NATIONALISTS. AND YET SHE SAYS, SHE COULD HAPPILY LIVE WITH SERBS AGAIN:

    TAPE: CUT # 2 KONAKEVIC RUNS [:35] "I HAVE A LOT OF FRIENDS WHO ARE SERBS, YOU KNOW, AND WHO ARE NOT ON (BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN) KARADZIC'S SIDE. YOU KNOW, IN SARAJEVO THERE AREN'T ONLY THREE RELIGIONS, YOU HAVE JEWS AND OTHER RELIGIONS. SO IT MUST BE (MULTI ETHNIC). I CANNOT IMAGINE SARAJEVO ETHNICALLY CLEANSED, JUST CROATIANS OR JUST MUSLIMS. THIS IS IMPOSSIBLE."

    TEXT: HER VIEWS ARE NOT UNIQUE. DANE KUSIC [DAH-NEH KOOS-ITCH] IS AN ANTI-KARADZIC BOSNIAN SERB, NOW LIVING IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. HE SAYS HIS VIEWS ARE SIMILAR TO THOSE OF MANY SERBS IN BOSNIA WHO BELONG TO THE 'SERB CIVIC COUNCIL OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA' ESTABLISHED IN MARCH 1994 TO PRESERVE A SINGLE MULTI-ETHNIC STATE. THE COUNCIL, WHICH CLAIMS TO REPRESENT 150 THOUSAND BOSNIAN SERBS, IS OPENLY ANTI-KARADZIC AND LOYAL TO THE (MULSIM-LED) BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. DANE KUSIC SAYS THE REAL QUESTION IS HOW MANY BOSNIAN SERBS TODAY REMAIN SUPPORTERS OF RADOVAN KARADZIC:

    TAPE: CUT # 3 KUSIC RUNS [:46] "[OPT] IF SERBS WERE A THIRD OF THE POPULATION AT THE START OF THE WAR, WHICH AMOUNTS TO A 1.4 MILLION, MAYBE A BIT LESS, AND IF IT IS TRUE THAT HALF OF THE SERB POPULATION OF BOSNIA IS NO LONGER THERE, THAT MEANS THAT SOME 700-750 THOUSAND SERBS ARE STILL THERE. [END OPT] IF 150 THOUSAND ARE AGAINST KARADZIC, THEN WE HAVE LESS THAN 600 THOUSAND SERBS WHO ARE (NOW) LIVING UNDER KARADZIC'S CONTROL AND I JUST ASK MYSELF, HOW MUCH DO WE KNOW (ABOUT) HOW MANY OF THEM ARE FOR AND WITH KARADZIC?"

    TEXT: MR. KUSIC BELIEVES THAT MOST OF THOSE 600 THOUSAND SERBS SUPPORT KARADZIC ONLY OUT OF FEAR AND IGNORANCE. ON THE OTHER HAND, HE SAYS, THE MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT IS NOT DOING ENOUGH TO ALLAY SERB FEARS ABOUT RETALIATION IN A UNITED, MUSLIM-DOMINATED STATE:

    TAPE: CUT # 4 KUSIC RUNS [1:09] "[OPT] THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FROM THE START WAS SAYING PUBLICLY THAT IT FAVORS A MULTI-RELIGIOUS, UNITARY STATE. HOWEVER SOME OTHER NEWS I'M GETTING FROM FRIENDS, SAYS THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ISN'T ALWAYS THAT CLEAR IN ITS PRACTICAL ACTIONS. MANY SERBS HAVE BEEN DISMISSED FROM THEIR POSITIONS, DIRECTORS IN SARAJEVO HAVE BEEN REPLACED BY MUSLIM PEOPLE. AND SERBS OF COURSE WORRY ABOUT THAT. [END OPT] THE REASONS FOR SERB WORRIES ARE GROUNDED IN SEVERAL FACTS. ONE IS THE CONSTITUTION OF THE FEDERATION OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ITSELF. UNDER THAT CONSTITUTION, ONLY TWO SO-CALLED CONSTITUENT PEOPLES WERE OFFICIALLY RECOGNIZED: CROATS AND MUSLIMS. SERBS WERE PUT UNDER THE LABEL OF 'OTHERS'."

    TEXT: THIS IS BECAUSE THE PRESENT CONSTITUTION IS THE ONE DRAWN UP WHEN THE CROAT-MUSLIM FEDERATION WAS CREATED IN 1994 AND WHICH, UNDER THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, NOW CONSTITUTES ONE HALF OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE SERB REPUBLIC MAKES UP THE OTHER HALF. IF SERBS ARE TO REMAIN IN A UNITED SARAJEVO, OR IN A MULTI-ETHNIC BOSNIA FOR THAT MATTER, THEY SAY THEIR CONSTITUTIONAL GUARANTEES MUST BE BETTER SPELLED OUT.

    MIRJANA LAUSEVIC IS ANOTHER BOSNIAN SERB WHO IN THE U-S, NOW STUDYING FOR HER MASTERS DEGREE AT WESLEYEN COLLEGE IN MIDDLETOWN, CONNECTICUT. HER PARENTS ARE CURRENTLY LIVING IN BELGRADE WHERE HER FATHER IS UNDER MEDICAL CARE. MIRJANA SAYS BOTH SHE AND HER PARENTS WOULD LOVE TO RETURN TO SARAJEVO:

    TAPE: CUT # 5 LAUSEVIC RUNS [:] "I WOULD LOVE TO SEE SOME OF MY FORMER NEIGHBORS FROM WHATEVER ETHNIC GROUP THEY ARE AND SO WOULD MY FAMILY AND SO WOULD MANY PEOPLE. THE PROBLEM IS NOT NEIGHBORS, IT'S SOLDIERS, AND PARTICULARLY THE MILITARY LEADERSHIP THAT DOES NOT PROMISE TO BE VERY FRIENDLY. [OPT] FOR EXAMPLE, MY FATHER NEEDS MEDICAL CARE. HIS PRIMARY CONCERN IS, UNDER THE NEW LEADERSHIP IS HE GOING TO BE ABLE TO GO TO THE HOSPITAL TO 48GET THE CARE HE NEEDS? IS HE GOING TO BE ABLE TO GET OUT OF SARAJEVO IN CASE HE DOES NEED HELP AND CAN'T GET IT IN SARAJEVO? [END OPT]"

    TEXT: ONE THING MOST BOSNIAN SERBS ABROAD AGREE ON IS THAT THEY WANT NO PART OF THE ONLY THING WON BY NATIONALIST SERB LEADERS IN FOUR YEARS OF FIGHTING: THE SEPARATE SEMI-AUTONOMOUS SERB ENTITY WITHIN BOSNIA KNOWN AS REPUBLIKA SRPSKA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PAM/NES
    19-Jan-96 4:20 PM EST (2120 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/19/96
    TYPE=U-S COLUMNISTS ROUNDUP: BOSNIA #15
    NUMBER=6-09389
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    (ED. NOTE: THIS IS ONE OF A CONTINUING SERIES ON DEVELOPMENTS IN BOSNIA AND REACTION APPEARING IN SELECTED AMERICAN NEWSPAPER COLUMNS)

    INTRO: TODAY (FYI - FRIDAY, JANUARY 19) IS THE DEADLINE FOR OPPOSING FORCES IN BOSNIA TO WITHDRAW FROM CONFRONTATION LINES, AS AGREED TO BY THE PARTIES WHO SIGNED THE DAYTON (OHIO) PEACE ACCORD. NEWSPAPER COLUMNS IN AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS CONTINUE TO DISCUSS THE SITUATION IN THE REGION. HERE IS A SAMPLING OF SOME OF THEIR RECENT COMMENTS. OUR READER IS _______________.

    TEXT: FRIDAY'S EDITION OF THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR FEATURES THE VIEWS OF SHASHI THAROOR, SPECIAL ASSISTANT TO THE UNITED STATES UNDERSECRETARY-GENERAL FOR PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS. MR. THAROOR, AUTHOR OF "THE GREAT INDIAN NOVEL" AND OTHER WORKS, HANDLED UNITED NATIONS EFFORTS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA SINCE OCTOBER 1991.

    HE WRITES THAT: "AS A NATO-LED FORCE TAKES OVER PEACEKEEPING DUTIES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THE UNITED NATIONS PROTECTION FORCE, A MUCH-MISUNDERSTOOD, WIDELY EXCORIATED OPERATION, HAS NOW COME TO AN END. BUT CRITICISMS OF THE U-N EFFORT HAVE LEFT DEEP WOUNDS ON THE ORGANIZATION -- ESPECIALLY AMONG THOSE OF US WHO SHARE THE WORLD'S OUTRAGE AT THE SUFFERING OF INNOCENT CIVILIANS IN THE TRAGIC BOSNIAN WAR BUT REJECT THE BLAME SO UNTHINKINGLY HEAPED ON THE U-N." AND, CONTINUES MISTER THAROOR, "THE UNITED NATIONS FORCES...WERE NOT AN ARMY SENT TO HELP ONE SIDE WIN THE CONFLICT. YET THE PEACEKEEPERS...WERE REVILED FOR FAILING TO DO WHAT THEY WERE NEVER MANDATED, FINANCED, EQUIPPED, OR DEPLOYED TO DO." HE SAYS, "THE SECRETARY-GENERAL AND THE SOLDIERS OF THE U-N CARRY OUT THE MANDATES GIVEN TO THEM BY THE SECURITY COUNCIL, WITH THE RESOURCES ALLOCATED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. THESE MANDATES DID NOT AUTHORIZE THE SECRETARY-GENERAL TO DECLARE WAR.... INSTEAD, THESE MANDATES REQUIRED HIM TO ALLEVIATE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR FOR THE CIVILIANS OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND TO HELP PROMOTE PEACE. PEACE," SAYS MR. THAROOR, "SADLY PROVED ELUSIVE UNTIL THE DECISIVE AMERICAN EFFORTS AT DAYTON. NONETHELESS, THERE ARE PEOPLE ALIVE AND FED AND SHELTERED...TODAY WHO WOULD NOT BE ALIVE IF (THE UNITED NATIONS) HAD NOT BEEN DEPLOYED THERE."

    IN CONCLUSION, SHASHI THAROOR OF THE UNITED NATIONS SAYS THAT AS U-N FORCES LEAVE THE REGION, IT IS -- IN HIS WORDS -- "TIME TO PAY TRIBUTE TO THE THOUSANDS OF MEN AND WOMEN AT THE FRONT LINES, THE PEACEKEEPERS WHO CAN DO ONLY WHAT THE WORLD ASKS AND EQUIPS THEM TO DO."

    JAMES STEINBERG, DIRECTOR OF POLICY PLANNING AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT, DEFENDS CURRENT AMERICAN POLICY ON BOSNIA IN WITH A COLUMN APPEARING IN FRIDAY'S EDITION OF THE WASHINGTON TIMES. HE RESPONDS TO CRITICISM FROM SENATOR PHIL GRAMM, A REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL CONTENDER, AND MICHAEL MANDELBAUM, A JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR. SENATOR GRAMM AND PROFESSOR MANDELBAUM, NOTES MISTER STEINBERG, ACCUSE THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OF CONDUCTING FOREIGN POLICY AS "SOCIAL WORK." ACCORDING TO MISTER STEINBERG, "THEIR HARDEST INDICTMENT IS THAT ALL WE ARE DOING IS 'SAVING LIVES' IN PLACES THAT DON'T MATTER." BUT, SAYS THE STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL: "WITHOUT U-S LEADERSHIP IN BOSNIA, WE WOULD FACE THE IMMINENT DANGER OF A WIDENING WAR THAT COULD EMBROIL NATO ALLIES, UNDERMINE NATO'S CREDIBILITY, DESTABLIZE NEARBY NEW DEMOCRACIES, AND DRIVE A WEDGE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA, NOT TO MENTION CAUSING THOUSANDS MORE CASUALTIES AND IMMEASURABLE HUMAN SUFFERING. AROUND THE WORLD," NOTES JAMES STEINBERG, "NATIONS AND LEADERS WELCOME THE PRESIDENT'S ACTIONS IN BOSNIA AS REASSURING EVIDENCE THAT THE UNITED STATES WILL CONTINUE TO LEAD IN THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD."

    AND, ANTHONY LEWIS, WRITING IN HIS "ABROAD AT HOME" COLUMN IN THE NEW YORK TIMES, SAYS THAT "THE MILITARY ASPECTS OF CARRYING OUT THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA HAVE GONE IMPRESSIVELY WELL SO FAR. BUT," ADDS MR. LEWIS, "THE HARDER, CIVILIAN PART OF THE JOB IS JUST BEGINNING." HE CITES THREE PROBLEM AREAS. ONE IS THAT "THE UNITED STATES IS HAVING TROUBLE COMING UP WITH THE MONEY IT IS COMMITTED TO PROVIDE RECONSTRUCTION." THE TIMES COLUMNISTS NOTES THAT THE AMERICAN CONGRESS HAS YET TO APPROVE ANY FUNDS.

    A SECOND ISSUE, ACCORDING TO ANTHONY LEWIS, CONCERNS WAR CRIMES AND BRINGING THE CRIMINALS TO JUSTICE. HE SAYS THAT "ONLY BY FACING THE EVIDENCE OF THEIR RESPONSIBILITY, AS GERMANS WERE MADE TO DO AFTER WORLD WAR TWO, CAN THE BOSNIAN SERBS COME TO TERMS WITH REALITY -- AND WITH PEACE.

    A THIRD MATTER OF CONCERN, ACCORDING TO ANTHONY LEWIS OF THE NEW YORK TIMES, "IS ISLAMIC SOLDIERS, MOSTLY IRANIAN, IN BOSNIA. THEY CAME DURING THE THREE YEARS WHEN THE WEST IGNORED BOSNIA'S PLIGHT AND ENFORCED AN ARMS EMBARGO. THE DAYTON AGREEMENTS CALL FOR ALL FOREIGN FIGHTERS TO BE OUT OF THE COUNTRY BY THIS WEEKEND, BUT AN UNCERTAIN NUMBER ARE THOUGHT TO REMAIN." IN CONCLUSION, SAYS THE COLUMNIST: "REPAIRING THE CRUEL DAMAGE TO BOSNIA WILL BE A LONG AND DIFFICULT PROCESS. BUT THERE IS ONE OVERWHELMING REASON FOR SATISFACTION WITH WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO DATE. FOR MONTHS NOW, WITH ONLY A FEW ISOLATED EXCEPTIONS, THE GUNS HAVE BEEN SILENT IN BOSNIA."

    THOSE THOUGHTS BY NEW YORK TIMES COLUMNIST ANTHONY LEWIS CONCLUDE ANOTHER ROUND-UP OF U-S PRESS OPINION ON AMERICA'S ROLE IN BOSNIA.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    19-Jan-96 1:05 PM EST (1805 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] BOSNIA: REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=1/19/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32230
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ONLY ABOUT HALF OF THE 20-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS GOING TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAVE BEEN DEPLOYED THERE SO FAR. BUT, THEY ARE MAKING THEIR PRESENCE FELT, AND THERE IS INCREASINGLY EFFECTIVE SECURITY IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA WHERE THEY ARE ASSIGNED. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: A LITTLE OVER A WEEK AGO, THE ATMOSPHERE WAS TENSE ALONG THE ROAD I DROVE FROM THE CROATIAN BORDER TO THE TOWN OF TUZLA IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA.

    THERE WAS A BOSNIAN CROAT CHECKPOINT AT ORASJE, THE LITTLE TOWN JUST ACROSS THE FRONTIER FROM THE CROATIAN TOWN OF ZUPANJA.

    HEADING SOUTH FROM ORASJE TOWARD TUZLA, THE BLEAK LANDSCAPE AND GUTTED BUILDINGS MAKE IT CLEAR THIS IS BOSNIA, NOT CROATIA.

    THERE WERE NOT MANY AMERICAN MILITARY CONVOYS ACTUALLY MOVING INTO BOSNIA. BUT, THERE WERE SMALL CONVOYS PARKED ALONG THE SIDE OF THE ROAD.

    THE AMERICANS APPEARED TO BE WAITING TO BE JOINED BY OTHER MILITARY VEHICLES WHICH WERE CROSSING THE PONTOON BRIDGE OVER THE SAVA RIVER BETWEEN CROATIA AND BOSNIA.

    THERE WAS NOT MUCH OF A U-S MILITARY PRESENCE THEN ALONG A SECTION OF THE ROAD, WHICH THE AMERICANS CALL ROUTE ARIZONA.

    THE ABSENCE OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS WAS ESPECIALLY APPARENT WHEN I ENTERED A STRIP OF SERB-HELD TERRITORY. THE SIGNS WERE PRINTED IN THE CYRILLIC ALPHABET, AND I WONDERED WHAT KIND OF RECEPTION I WOULD GET IF I ENCOUNTERED A SERB MILITARY CHECKPOINT. BUT, I ENCOUNTERED NO SERB CHECKPOINT. I WAS NOT STOPPED UNTIL I REACHED A BOSNIAN ARMY CHECKPOINT ABOUT HALFWAY FROM THE BORDER TO TUZLA.

    MY JOINT UNITED NATIONS/NATO MILITARY PRESS CARD GOT ME THROUGH THAT CHECKPOINT WITH NO TROUBLE AND THE TRIP FROM THERE INTO TUZLA WAS UNEVENTFUL.

    A WEEK LATER, ON MY RETURN FROM TUZLA TO CROATIA, THE AMERICAN MILITARY PRESENCE ALONG ROUTE ARIZONA WAS MUCH MORE SUBSTANTIAL.

    THERE WERE NO BOSNIAN ARMY OR SERB CHECKPOINTS -- ONLY AN AMERICAN CHECKPOINT. AN AMERICAN SOLDIER THOUGHT HE AND HIS COLLEAGUES SHOULD SEARCH MY CAR.

    I EXPLAINED THAT I AM A AMERICAN JOURNALIST AND SHOWED THEM MY PRESS CREDENTIALS. THEY WAVED ME THROUGH AND SAID THEY THOUGHT THE ROAD NORTH TO CROATIA WAS CLEAR. THAT TURNED OUT TO BE ACCURATE.

    AFTER CROSSING THE SAVA RIVER ON A BARGE WITH OTHER CIVILIAN CARS AND TRUCKS, I WAS REMINDED AGAIN OF THE CONTRAST BETWEEN THE DEVASTATION IN BOSNIA AND THE NORMAL LIFE IN CROATIA.

    FROM ZUPANJA, THERE IS A GOOD TWO-LANE ROAD GOING WEST TO SLAVONSKI BROD. FROM SLAVONSKI BROD, AN EXCELLENT DIVIDED HIGHWAY RUNS ALL THE WAY TO ZAGREB WITH FREQUENT GAS STATIONS AND LITTLE RESTAURANTS OR SNACK BARS WHERE YOU CAN, AT LEAST, GET A CUP OF COFFEE.

    RETURNING TO ZAGREB AFTER AN ABSENCE OF SEVERAL MONTHS, I FOUND THE CROATIAN CAPITAL BUSY AND CONFIDENT AND SHOWING ALL THE SIGNS OF GROWING PROSPERITY.

    THERE IS A NEW WORLD-CLASS HOTEL THERE, THERE ARE EVEN MORE NEW CARS ON THE ROADS, AND ROADS IN AND AROUND THE CITY WERE BEING IMPROVED.

    WITH BELGRADE'S ECONOMY BATTERED BY INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS THAT WERE RECENTLY LIFTED, SERBIA WILL NEED A LOT OF TIME TO RECOVER FROM ITS INVOLVEMENT IN THE WAR IN BOSNIA.

    I HESITATE TO DECLARE ANY WINNER IN THE WAR IN EX-YUGOSLAVIA. BUT, IF THERE IS A WINNER, IT IS CROATIA.

    CROATIA HAS DEVELOPED A WELL-TRAINED AND WELL-EQUIPPED MILITARY FORCE, AND THE COUNTRY CAN LOOK FORWARD TO RENEWED TOURISM ALONG ITS SCENIC DALMATIAN COAST. OF COURSE, THERE IS STILL THE PROBLEM OF SERB-HELD EASTERN SLAVONIA, WHICH IS TO REVERT TO GOVERNMENT CONTROL WITHIN A YEAR OR TWO.

    A VISIT TO THE FRONT-LINE GOVERNMENT TOWN OF OSIJEK QUICKLY REVEALS THE FEROCITY OF PAST FIGHTING BETWEEN THE CROATIAN ARMY AND REBEL SERBS.

    IN THE CENTER OF OSIJEK, MANY BUILDINGS HAVE BEEN DAMAGED BY SHRAPNEL FROM SERB SHELLING ATTACKS. PILES OF HEAVY BRICKS, SANDBAGS AND WOODEN PLANKS PROTECT A NUMBER OF KEY BUILDINGS IN CASE OSIJEK IS SHELLED AGAIN. BUT, OSIJEK HAS PROBABLY SEEN ITS WORST DAYS. NO ONE REALLY SEEMS TO THINK THE SERBS WILL SHELL THE CITY. PEOPLE WALK FREELY IN THE STREETS, AND A WELL-STOCKED GROCERY STORE IS DOING A THRIVING BUSINESS. YES, CROATIA HAS EMERGED AS THE WINNER IN THE VIOLENT BREAKUP OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. AND, WHEN YOU SEE THAT COUNTRY'S ECONOMIC POTENTIAL, YOU HAVE TO PITY THE POOR PEOPLE OF BOSNIA EVEN MORE. THEY WILL HAVE TO DEPEND ON INTERNATIONAL AID FOR THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE JUST FOR THEIR SURVIVAL. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/JM
    19-Jan-96 11:56 AM EST (1656 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    Back to Top
    Copyright 1995-2016 HR-Net (Hellenic Resources Network). An HRI Project.
    All Rights Reserved.

    HTML by the HR-Net Group / Hellenic Resources Institute, Inc.
    voa2html v1.01 run on Friday, 19 January 1996 - 21:43:15