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Voice of America, 15 January 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S HEADLINES BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] CROATIA FORCE VOTE (L) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [03] SLOVAKIA / SURVEY (L ONLY) BY ALENA KENCLOVA (PRAGUE)


  • [01] MONDAY'S HEADLINES BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=01/15/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09378
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ART CHIMES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 PM EST ON MONDAY JANUARY 15TH //

    INTRO: THIS IS A NATIONAL HOLIDAY IN THE UNITED STATES TO HONOR THE BIRTH OF SLAIN CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JUNIOR (AND SOME PAPERS ARE NOT AVAILABLE BECAUSE OF THAT). THERE IS A WIDE RANGE OF EDITORIAL TOPICS IN MANY OF THE NATION'S DAILIES THIS MONDAY. AMONG THEM -- A REMEMBRANCE OF DR. KING; THE POSSIBILITY OF PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND SYRIA; NEW RACIAL UNREST IN BURUNDI; THE SEEMINGLY ENDLESS BUDGET BATTLE AND HOW FASHION SUFFERED DURING THE GREAT EAST COAST BLIZZARD OF '96. NOW HERE IS __________ WITH TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: TODAY'S "WASHINGTON POST" TITLED ITS LEAD EDITORIAL "THE YEAR DR. KING DIED" AND SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "WHEN VIOLENCE TOOK DOWN DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JUNIOR, THE SYMBOL OF NONVIOLENCE ... ON APRIL 4TH, 1968, MORE THAN SORROW SPREAD ACROSS THE NATION. WITHIN DAYS, WAVES OF RACIAL UNREST ENGULFED 125 CITIES, AND 29 STATES INCLUDING THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. IT WAS ALL IN KEEPING WITH 1968, FROM BEGINNING TO END A YEAR INFLAMED. ... THIS IS A MUCH DIFFERENT AMERICA TODAY. DEGREE BY DEGREE, WE ARE CHANGING MOSTLY FOR THE BETTER, THOUGH RESISTANCE LINGERS, AND FOR SOME THE CIVIL WAR HAS NEVER ENDED. WE HAVE YET TO LIVE OUT THE TRUE MEANING OF OUR CREED, AS DR. KING DREAMED WE WOULD. BUT EVEN SO, THE MOST PESSIMISTIC AMONG US WOULD HAVE TO CONCEDE THAT THE NATION HAS A BETTER CHANCE OF DOING SO AND IS STEADILY MAKING PROGRESS IN LARGE PART BECAUSE OF HIM."

    TEXT: MEANWHILE, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS CONCERNED WITH THE GROWING POSSIBILITY OF PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND SYRIA, NOTING:

    VOICE: "THE MANY STRANDS OF MIDDLE EAST DIPLOMACY CROSSED PATHS LAST WEEK. JORDAN'S KING HUSSEIN DREW AN ENTHUSIASTIC GREETING FROM ORDINARY ISRAELIS IN TEL AVIV. PALESTINIANS PREPARED FOR THEIR FIRST SELF-RULE ELECTION. SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER NUDGED FORWARD THE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN ISRAEL AND SYRIA. ... AN ISRAEL-SYRIA AGREEMENT WOULD BE THE MOST STRAIGHTFORWARD ROUTE TO REGIONAL HARMONY AND IS THE COURSE PREFERRED BY PRIME MINISTER SHIMON PERES. ... ISRAEL MIGHT BE ABLE TO WORK AROUND A RECALCITRANT DAMASCUS AND BUILD MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL ECONOMIC TIES WITH THE REST OF THE ARAB WORLD. ... BUT UNLESS THE TALKS PROGRESS QUICKLY, THE ISRAELI AND AMERICAN ELECTIONS COULD IMPOSE FURTHER DELAYS. MR. ASSAD, WHO HAS SURVIVED BY DEFERRING DIFFICULT CHOICES, MUST CHOOSE WHETHER TO LEAD THE WAY TO REGIONAL PEACE."

    VOICE: THE SPECTER OF NEW GENOCIDE BETWEEN HUTUS AND TUTSIS IN BURUNDI THIS TIME, INSTEAD OF RWANDA, BUT EQUALLY AWFUL, TROUBLES TODAY'S "WASHINGTON POST.'"

    TEXT: "BURUNDI CANNOT BE THE WAY THE NATIONS OF THE WORLD 'DO' ETHNIC WARS. IN THAT SMALL CENTRAL AFRICAN PLACE AND IN PLAIN VIEW, A TRAGEDY IS BUILDING ON THE LINES OF THE ONE THAT RAVAGED NEIGHBORING RWANDA IN 1994 -- WITH A DIFFERENCE. IN RWANDA THE UNITED NATIONS MOBILIZED SOME SORT OF RESPONSE, HOWEVER INADEQUATE. IN BURUNDI, IT'S MOBILIZING NOTHING. THE SECRETARY GENERAL HAS URGED THE SECURITY COUNCIL, AGAIN, AT LEAST TO PROTECT FOREIGN RELIEF WORKERS AND HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORS, WHO ARE SUFFERING VIOLENT ATTACKS, IF NOT ALSO TO SEND IN A MILITARY FORCE TO PROTECT CITIZENS OF BURUNDI, WHO FACE WITH A U-N INVESTIGATOR CALLED 'AN INCREASINGLY MARKED GENOCIDAL TREND OF A SOCIO-ETHNIC NATURE.' THE SECURITY COUNCIL BACKED OFF [RETREATED]. THINK ABOUT IT: THE CRIME BEING CONDUCTED IS GENOCIDE ... BUT PRECIOUS LITTLE, IT SEEMS, IS BEING DONE."

    TEXT: NOT A DAY PASSES IN THIS COUNTRY ANY MORE WITHOUT SOME MAJOR PAPER COMMENTING ON THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BUDGET IMPASSE WHICH IS SHOWING FEW SIGNS OF SETTLEMENT AT THIS POINT. TODAY IS NO EXCEPTION, AS "THE BALTIMORE SUN" LAMENTS: "BASIC REFORM OF DEFICIT-BREEDING ENTITLEMENTS FADING."

    VOICE: "AFTER A DOSE OF NEWT GINGRICH NEGATIVISM AND BILL CLINTON MINIMALISM, AMERICAN VOTERS CAN WRITE OFF ANY CHANCE OF MEANINGFUL REFORM THIS YEAR OF THE NATION'S BIG ENTITLEMENT PROGRAMS -- MEDICARE, MEDICAID, FARM SUBSIDIES, VETERANS BENEFITS AND THE BIGGEST ENCHILADA [MOST EXPENSIVE AND POLITICALLY-?SENSITIVE ITEM IN THE BUDGET], SOCIAL SECURITY. BUDGET EXPERTS HAVE LONG CONTENDED THAT THERE CAN BE NO PERMANENT CURE OF WASHINGTON'S ADDICTION TO DEFICIT FINANCING SO LONG AS THESE PROGRAMS RUN ON AUTOMATIC PILOT, GOING UP EACH YEAR REGARDLESS OF THE BUDGET SITUATION. ... CLEARLY, THE NATION HAS EVERY RIGHT TO WANT SOMETHING BETTER THAN GINGRICH NEGATIVISM AND CLINTON MINIMALISM. BUT THE CHANCES OF GETTING IT ARE DWINDLING BY THE DAY."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, IN A RETROSPECTIVE ON LAST WEEK'S HISTORIC EAST COAST BLIZZARD, TODAY'S "PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" SUGGESTS THAT IT WAS NOT ONLY THE POPULACE THAT TOOK A BEATING UNDER THE MASSIVE SNOWFALL, BUT FASHION AS WELL.

    VOICE: "NOW THAT THE BLIZZARD OF '96 IS BEGINNING TO MELT, IT MAY BE TIME TO BLOW THE WHISTLE [COMPLAIN ABOUT] ON WHAT PEOPLE PUT ON THEIR HEADS AND BODIES WHILE THE SNOW PILED UP UNDER THE FEET. GUYS DOING SNOW REMOVAL IN YELLOW, ORANGE AND PLAID OUTFITS WITH CORDUROY CAPS WERE WEARING YOUR BASIC WORK DUDS [CLOTHES]. ... BUT VIEWERS HAVE TO WONDER ABOUT SOME OF THE OUTFITS WORN BY LOCAL TELEVISION COMMENTATORS. THEIR COVER-EVERYTHING-BUT-THE-EYES CAPS AND BODY-MONSTER SUITS LOOK MORE SUITABLE FOR A MOON LANDING, OR PERHAPS AN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBE.... IS IT REALLY NECESSARY TO SCARE VIEWERS TO CONVINCE THEM THAT IT'S COLD AND SNOWY OUTSIDE? ON SECOND THOUGHT, MAYBE THE SNOW DORKS [UNFASHIONABLY-DRESSED] ARE RIGHT. VANITY HAS NO PLACE IN A STORM."

    TEXT: AND WITH THOSE THOUGHTS WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE EDITORIALS RUNNING IN U-S NEWSPAPERS THIS MONDAY, THE NATIONAL MARTIN LUTHER KING JUNIOR HOLIDAY.

    NEB/ANG/AC/ART
    15-Jan-96 11:37 AM EST (1637 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CROATIA FORCE VOTE (L) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=1/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-191268
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL HAS APPROVED A NEW U-N OPERATION IN THE BALKANS. IT VOTED UNANIMOUSLY MONDAY TO SEND UP TO FIVE-THOUSAND TROOPS TO EASTERN SLAVONIA -- THE LAST SERB-HELD AREA IN CROATIA. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: U-N OFFICIALS WANTED NATO TO RUN THE OPERATION IN CROATIA -- AS IT DOES IN BOSNIA. HOWEVER, THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAD TO DO THE NEXT BEST THING AFTER WESTERN GOVERNMENTS REFUSED. IT GAVE COMMAND TO THE UNITED NATIONS, BUT SAID NATO COULD PROVIDE CLOSE AIR SUPPORT IF U-N TROOPS RUN INTO TROUBLE.

    THE NEW FORCE WILL PROBABLY STAY FOR TWO YEARS -- AT WHICH TIME EASTERN SLAVONIA IS EXPECTED TO REVERT TO CROATIAN RULE. THE FORCE -- KNOWN BY ITS ACRONYM UNTAES -- HAS BEEN APPROVED FOR ONE YEAR, WITH AN OPTION FOR RENEWAL FOR AN ADDITIONAL 12 MONTHS. THE AREA WILL BE ADMINISTERED TEMPORARILY BY THE UNITED NATIONS UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF A RETIRED AMERICAN AIR FORCE GENERAL -- JACQUES KLEIN.

    THE TROOPS ARE TO SUPERVISE THE VOLUNTARY DISARMING OF SERB MILITIAS DURING THE FIRST 30 DAYS OF DEPLOYMENT. THE STARTING DATE IS NOT CLEAR BECAUSE THE U-N STILL HAS TO RAISE THE REQUIRED MANPOWER. 16-HUNDRED BELGIAN AND RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPERS ARE IN THE AREA NOW UNDER AN EARLIER MANDATE AND ARE EXPECTED TO REMAIN.

    CROATIA'S U-N REPRESENTATIVE STRESSED THE IMPORTANCE OF DEMILITARIZING EASTERN SLAVONIA AND WARNED OF POSSIBLE RESISTANCE AMONG LOCAL SERBS. BUT HE EXPRESSED CONFIDENCE THE TASK CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED IF BELGRADE COOPERATES. THE DEAL IS THE RESULT OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN CROATIA AND SERBIA LAST NOVEMBER.

    WITH HOPES FINALLY RISING FOR PEACE IN THE BALKANS FOLLOWING THE PEACE AGREEMENTS IN DAYTON, OHIO LAST YEAR -- U-S AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT CAUTIONED THE SERBS AND CROATS THAT SUCCESS ULTIMATELY RESTS ON THEIR SHOULDERS:

    //ALBRIGHT ACT//

    THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS PREPARED TO DO ITS PART TO HELP IMPLEMENT THE AGREEMENT. BUT IN THE FINAL ANALYSIS IT WILL BE UP TO THE PARTIES TO PUT ASIDE THE HATREDS OF THE PAST FOUR YEARS AND TOGETHER BEGIN TO BUILD A NEW FUTURE.

    //END ACT//

    A CIVILIAN COMPONENT OF THE NEW FORCE WILL HELP ORGANIZE ELECTIONS, ASSIST RETURNING REFUGEES AND TRAIN AN INTERIM POLICE FORCE. MEANWHILE, THE SECURITY COUNCIL ALSO EXTENDED FOR THREE MONTHS THE PRESENCE OF 28 MILITARY OBSERVERS IN PREVLAKA PENINSULA -- A STRATEGIC PIECE OF CROATIAN TERRITORY THAT STRADDLES A KEY YUGOSLAV NAVAL BASE. THE U-N IS TRYING TO KEEP THE AREA DEMILITARIZED WHILE A PERMANENT SETTLEMENT IS BEING WORKED OUT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PT
    15-Jan-96 6:29 PM EST (2329 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] SLOVAKIA / SURVEY (L ONLY) BY ALENA KENCLOVA (PRAGUE)

    DATE=1/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-191258
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: _NOT_ VOICED

    INTRO: A PANEL OF SLOVAK EXPERTS SAYS THAT POST-COMMUNIST TRANSFORMATION IN SLOVAKIA IS CONTINUING, BUT THERE ARE WHAT THE GROUP CALLS DISQUIETING FACTORS. ALENA KENCLOVA REPORTS FROM PRAGUE ON THEIR NEW STUDY OF THE CHANGES THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN SLOVAKIA.

    TEXT: ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF THE NEW STUDY SAYS THE TRANSFORMATION HAS NEITHER ENDED NOR BEEN REVERSED IN SLOVAKIA. BUT SOCIOLOGIST MARTIN BUTORA SAYS SOME DEVELOPMENTS ESPECIALLY IN THE LAST YEAR ARE CAUSE FOR CONCERN. HE SAYS STATE INTERVENTION HAS INCREASED IN MOST SECTORS AND THE GOVERNMENT SHOWS RELUCTANCE TO DECENTRALIZE POWER. THE NEW STATE IDEA BEING EMPHASIZED BY THE GOVERNMENT PRESENTS SOME CITIZENS AS ENEMIES.

    SLOVAKIA GAINED INDEPENDENCE IN 1993, WHEN CZECHOSLOVAKIA WAS DIVIDED. THE SLOVAK ECONOMY HAS BEEN DEVELOPING WELL BUT THERE HAS BEEN SOME CONCERN ABOUT THE RULING COALITION'S COMMITMENT TO A FREE ECONOMY AND A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY. THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE UNITED STATES VOICED THIS CONCERN IN RECENT NOTES TO THE SLOVAK GOVERNMENT OF PRIME MINISTER VLADIMIR MECIAR.

    SOCIOLOGIST MARTIN BUTORA AND SOME OF HIS CO-AUTHORS INTRODUCED THEIR BOOK MONDAY IN PRAGUE. THE PANEL INCLUDES ABOUT 20 ECONOMISTS, SOCIOLOGISTS, LAWYERS, AND OTHER SPECIALISTS. THEIR STUDY AIMS AT SHOWING WHERE SLOVAKIA IS AFTER SIX YEARS OF TRANSFORMATION. // OPT // THEY ANALYZE 17 SECTORS, FROM POLITICS, ECONOMICS, PRIVATIZATION, LEGISLATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT TO EDUCATION, CULTURE, MINORITY ISSUES, AND REGIONAL POLICY. THE EXPERTS SAY THEIR BOOK IS FILLING A GAP AND OFFERING AN ALTERNATIVE TO OFFICIAL REPORTS. // END OPT //

    IVAN MIKLOS, MINISTER OF PRIVATIZATION IN 1991 AND 92, SAYS THE INCREASING INFLUENCE OF THE STATE IS ALSO APPARENT IN PRIVATIZATION IN SLOVAKIA. THE SLOVAK GOVERNMENT CANCELLED THE SECOND ROUND OF THE SHARES-FOR-VOUCHERS PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM IN WHICH SHARES WERE TO BE DISTRIBUTED AMONG THE POPULATION. MR.MIKLOS SAYS THAT INSTEAD THE GOVERNMENT IS SELLING PROPERTY TO ITS POLITICAL ALLIES. THE STATE IS ALSO INCREASING ITS INFLUENCE IN THE ECONOMY AND THUS LIMITING COMPETITION.

    PETER ZAJAC FROM THE INSTITUTE OF SLOVAK LITERATURE IN BRATISLAVA SAYS THAT POLITICAL ALLIES ARE ALSO FAVORED BY THE RULING COALITION IN ITS MEDIA POLICY. TELEVISION IS UNDER GOVERNMENT CONTROL AND NEW LICENSES ARE TO BE GRANTED TO POLITICAL FRIENDS. THOUGH THERE IS STILL SOME PLURALITY IN RADIO, BROADCASTERS ARE UNDER PRESSURE. LAST WEEK THE GOVERNMENT REPEATED ITS WARNING THAT IT WILL WITHDRAW THE LICENSE FROM THE U-S FUNDED RADIO FREE EUROPE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AK/ART
    15-Jan-96 2:14 PM EST (1914 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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