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Macedonian Press Agency: News in Greek, 98-05-28

Macedonian Press Agency: News in ASCII Greek Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Macedonian Press Agency at http://www.mpa.gr and http://www.hri.org/MPA.


ENHMERWTIKO DELTIO EIDHSEWN TOY MAKEDONIKOY PRAKTOREIOY
Qessalonikh 28 Maioy 1998

PERIEXOMENA

  • [A] ESWTERIKES EIDHSEIS
  • [B] EJWTERIKES EIDHSEIS
  • [G] EIDIKO PARARTHMA I (Afierwma sto Dieqnes Synedrio "Megas Alejandros: Apo th Makedonia sthn Oikoymenh)
  • [D] EIDIKO PARARTHMA II (Oi ejelijeis sto Kossyfopedio)

  • TITLOI EIDHSEWN

    [A] ESWTERIKES EIDHSEIS

  • [01] REPPAS: DE QA SYNANTHQOYN TON IOYNIO OI PRWQYPOYRGOI ELLADAS KAI TOYRKIAS
  • [02] XWRISTES SYNANTHSEIS OLMPRAIT ME PAGKALO KAI TZEM
  • [03] SXOLIA REPPA GIA TH DIAFHMISTIKH KAMPANIA TOY PASOK
  • [04] EPISHMANSEIS REPPA GIA THN IONIKH
  • [05] SYNEXISH THS APERGIAS APOFASISAN OI YPALLHLOI THS IONIKHS
  • [06] TO BASILIKO ZEYGOS THS ISPANIAS KATEQESE STEFANI STO MNHMEIO TOY OLOKAYTWMATOS TWN EBRAIWN
  • [07] TO BYZANTINO MOYSEIO EPISKEFQHKE TO BASILIKO ZEYGOS THS ISPANIAS
  • [08] THN KATARGHSH TOY FOROY MEGALHS AKINHTHS PERIOYSIAS ZHTHSE O KARAMANLHS
  • [09] ARXISE STH QESSALONIKH H 16H SYNODOS THS CIRCOM
  • [10] STO PRWTODIKEIO QESSALONIKHS TO LEJIKO TOY MPAMPINIWTH
  • [11] ANAFORA REPPA STO LEJIKO MPAMPINIWTH
  • [B] EJWTERIKES EIDHSEIS

  • [12] TO IRAK KATADIKAZEI NEA EISBOLH THS TOYRKIAS STO EDAFOS TOY
  • [13] DANIA:ABEBAIO TO APOTELESMA TOY DHMOCHFISMATOS GIA THN ONE
  • [14] O GELTSIN YPOSXETAI NA PROSTATEYSEI TO ROYBLI
  • [15] KRISIMES OI EKLOGES GIA TO MAYROBOYNIO
  • [16] GKELMPARNT: OI HPA PARAKOLOYQOYN STENA TIS EJELIJEIS STO MAYROBOYNIO
  • [17] ANTIDRASEIS STH SOFIA GIA DHLWSEIS XOLMPROYK
  • [18] ISRAHLINOI KAI GERMANOI PLHRWSAN STON TSAOYSESKOY GIA TH METANASTEYSH OMOGENWN TOYS
  • [19] DEN EPANALAMBANETAI H DIKH GIA TH DOLOFONIA PALME
  • [G] EIDIKO PARARTHMA I (Afierwma sto Dieqnes Synedrio "Megas Alejandros: Apo th Makedonia sthn Oikoymenh)

  • [20] AJIA MEGALYTERH TOY TOYTAGXAMWN O TAFOS TOY M.ALEJANDROY
  • [21] PERILHCH THS EISHGHSHS TOY DR. MAHMOUD SAKR STO DIEQNES SYNEDRIO THS BEROIAS ME QEMA "MEGAS ALEJANDROS: APO TH MAKEDONIA STHN OIKOYMENH"
  • [22] PERILHCH THS EISHGHSHS TOY M.B. XATZOPOYLOY STO DIEQNES SYNEDRIO STH BEROIA ME QEMA "ALEJANDROS O MEGAS: APO TH MAKEDONIA STHN OIKOYMENH"
  • [23] PERILHCH THS EISHGHSHS THS MARIA LILIMPAKH - AKAMATH STO DIEQNES SYNEDRIO STH BEROIA ME QEMA "ALEJANDROS O MEGAS: APO TH MAKEDONIA STHN OIKOYMENH
  • [24] PERILHCH THS EISHGHSHS THS S.DROYGOY STO DIEQNES SYNEDRIO STH BEROIA ME QEMA "ALEJANDROS O MEGAS: APO TH MAKEDONIA STHN OIKOYMENH
  • [D] EIDIKO PARARTHMA II (Oi ejelijeis sto Kossyfopedio)

  • [25] NATO:DIPLWMATIKH LYSH ME STRATIWTIKH EPAGRYPNHSH STO KOSSYFOPEDIO
  • [26] H ALBANIA XAIRETIZEI TIS APOFASEIS TOY NATO GIA TO KOSOBO
  • [27] PIQANH H SYMMETOXH ELLHNIKHS DYNAMHS SE POLYEQNIKH GIA TO KOSSYFOPEDIO, KATA TO BBC
  • [28] H ITALIA DEN APOKLEIEI STRATIWTIKO ELEGXO SYNORWN STO KOSSYFOPEDIO
  • [29] KOSSYFOPEDIO: EKKLHSH PROS TH DIEQNH KOINOTHTA APHYQYNAN TA ALBANOFWNA KOMMATA
  • [30] STH XAGH ANTIPROSWPEIA TOY DIKHGORIKOY EPIMELHTHRIOY TOY KOSSYFOPEDIOY

  • OI EIDHSEIS ANALYTIKA

    [A] ESWTERIKES EIDHSEIS

    [01] REPPAS: DE QA SYNANTHQOYN TON IOYNIO OI PRWQYPOYRGOI ELLADAS KAI TOYRKIAS

    O kybernhtikos ekproswpos, Dhmhtrhs Reppas, eipe shmera oti den yparxei kamia programmatismenh synanthsh metajy toy prwqypoyrgoy K. Shmith kai toy Toyrkoy omologoy toy Mesoyt Gilmaz kata th Diaskech ths Pareyjeineias Synergasias stis arxes Ioynioy.

    Den mporei na ennohqei ws synanthsh mia aplh xeiracia poy endexomenws qa antallajoyn oi dyo antres sto periqwrio ths Diaskechs, dhlwse o k. Reppas. K.B.-K.E.

    [02] XWRISTES SYNANTHSEIS OLMPRAIT ME PAGKALO KAI TZEM

    Jexwristes synanthseis me toy omologoys ths Elladas kai ths Toyrkias, Qeodwro Pagkalo kai Ismahl Tzem, anamenetai na exei sto periqwrio twn ergasiwn ths synodoy toy NATO poy pragmatopoieitai sto Loyjemboyrgo, h ypoyrgos Ejwterikwn twn HPA, Mantlin Olmprait.

    Tis synanthseis epibebaiwse emmesws o ekproswpos toy Steht Ntipartment, Tzeims Roympin, o opoios apantwntas se sxetikh erwthsh dhlwse xarakthristika: "h ypoyrgos Ejwterikwn twn HPA, opote brisketai se tetoies synanthseis me ton enan h ton allo tropo synanta oloys toys ekproswpoys toy Boreioatlantikoy Symfwnoy" kai prosqese oti "yparxei sobarh piqanothta merikwn xwristwn synanthsewn sto periqwrio twn ergasiwn toy symboylioy".

    [03] SXOLIA REPPA GIA TH DIAFHMISTIKH KAMPANIA TOY PASOK

    O kybernhtikos ekproswpos, Dhmhtrhs Reppas me aformh thn erwthsh poy kateqesan boyleytes toy PASOK kai o diagrammenos Xr. Jgpouq|r, sxetika me thn diafhmistikh kampania toy kommatos, synesthse emmesa stoys boyleytes toy PASOK na einai ligotero ametroepeis kai tonise oti apotelei pagia taktikh toy kommatos h epikoinwnia me toys polites me diafhmistikh kampania. Einai ypoxrewsh twn kommatwn na epikoinwnoyn me toys polites, eipe enw apantwntas se erwthsh apo poy proerxontai ta xrhmata poy xrhsimopoioyntai, eipe oti to PASOK exei sygkekrimenoys emfaneis kai gnwstoys oikonomikoys poroys kai opoios exei diaforetikh apoch na thn kataqesei dhmosia.

    Kalese malista toys boyleytes na mhn prokaloyn to dhmosio aisqhma me qeseis opws aytes sthn erwthsh poy kateqesan.

    Sxetika me tis dhlwseis toy k. Mpalta gia ''pempth falagga sto PASOK'' o k. Reppas tonise oti kaqe stelexos toy PASOK mporei na ekfrazei eleyqera thn apoch toy. Etsi me ton idio tropo sxoliase kai tis dhlwseis poy ekane o k. Xaralampopoylos meta thn synanthsh toy me ton Prwqypoyrgo.

    Telos se erwthsh poies anagkes ypagoreysan th diafhmistikh kampania kai an ayto shmainei prowres ekloges o k. Reppas eipe kathgorhmatika oti den yparxei tetoio qema. K.B.-K.E.

    [04] EPISHMANSEIS REPPA GIA THN IONIKH

    O kybernhtikos ekproswpos, D. Reppas, dhlwse oti h kybernhsh qa kanei ta panta kai qa metaxeiristei kaqe nomimo metro wste na leitoyrghsei h Ionikh Trapeza. Tonise oti h kybernhsh qewrei oti yparxei kataxrhsh toy dikaiwmatos ths apergias kai oti oi ergazomenoi ofeiloyn na sebastoyn tis apofaseis toy Dikasthrioy.

    Qymise epishs diatajh poy isxye epi Neas Dhmokratias, h opoia se paromoies periptwseis proeblepe thn apolysh twn apergwn. Prosqese oti h diatajh ayth katarghqhke epi PASOK poy einai ejairetika eyaisqhto se tetoia qemata kai oi ergazomenoi ofeiloyn na antilhfqoyn oti h Trapeza prepei na leitoyrghsei.

    Ypogrammise gia mia akoma fora oti h Trapeza qa poylhqei se kaqe periptwsh. K.B.-K.E.

    [05] SYNEXISH THS APERGIAS APOFASISAN OI YPALLHLOI THS IONIKHS

    Th synexish twn apergiakwn toys kinhtopoihsewn apofasisan shmera se Genikh Syneleysh oi ypallhloi ths Ionikhs. Sth Genikh Syneleysh milhsan o ekproswpos twn ergazomenwn Giannhs Markakhs, o proedros ths OTOE, Dhmhtrhs Koyselas, o ekproswpos toy KKE Baggelhs Jenos, o proedros toy Synaspismoy, Nikos Kwnstantopoylos, o proedros toy Ergatikoy Kentroy Peiraia kai ekproswpoi swmateiwn. Oi omilhtes ypogrammisan thn anagkh h kybernhsh na jekinhsei oysiastiko dialogo me toys ergazomenoys prokeimenoy na ejeyreqoyn koina apodektes lyseis.

    Sto xairetismo toy o proedros toy Synaspismoy, Nikos Kwnstantopoylos, kalese thn kybernhsh na egkataleicei thn politikh ths pygmhs kai na jekinhsei oysiastiko dialogo me toys ergazomenoys. Syzhthsh kai dialogo me toys ergazomenoys sthn Ionikh se mia prospaqeia ejeyreshs apodektwn lysewn kai sulbibaslo} proteine o ypoyrgos Eqnikhs Amynas, Akhs Tsoxatzopoylos.

    Sto metajy, o genikos grammateas toy ypoyrgeioy Eqnikhs Oikonomias, Giwrgos Papaiwannoy stelnei epistolh stis DEKO poy exoyn perilhfqei sto programma idiwtikopoihsewn gia na kinhsoyn tis sxetikes diadikasies.

    [06] TO BASILIKO ZEYGOS THS ISPANIAS KATEQESE STEFANI STO MNHMEIO TOY OLOKAYTWMATOS TWN EBRAIWN

    Foro timhs stoys Ebraioys poy epesan qymata ths nazistikhs qhriwdias apotisan o basilias ths Ispanias, Xoyan Karlos kai h basilissa, Sofia, poy kateqesan stefani sto mnhmeio toy olokaytwmatos twn Ebraiwn sth symbolh twn odwn Papanastasioy kai Nea Egnatia sth Qessalonikh.

    Sthn teleth poy egine sto mnhmeio, to basiliko zeygos prosfwnhse o proedros ths Israhlitikhs koinothtas Qessalonikhs, Andreas Sefixa, o opoios ypogrammise "polloi apo emas eixan akoysei apo ta paidika toys xronia oti oi ejoristoi Ebraioi ths Ibhrikhs eixan diathrhsei epi aiwnes ws polytima keimhlia ta kleidia twn spitiwn toys sthn Korntoba h sto Toledo. Kai parolo poy eixan pia rizwsei gia ta kala stoys topoys ths neas toys egkatastashs, pisteyan isws oti kapote qa epestrefan ekei kai pernwntas jana to katwfli toy spitioy twn progonwn toys qa janabriskan th qermh mias estias poy egkateleican kapoia wra kakh". Me ayta ta logia o k.Sefixa anaferqhke sto jerizwmo twn Ebraiwn apo thn Ispania.

    Sth synexeia paroysiase stoixeia poy deixnoyn thn ejelijh twn Ebraiwn poy egkatastaqhkan sth Qessalonikh legontas pws krathsan isxyrh kai th mnhmh ths allote koitidas toys, ths makrinhs alla oxi lhsmonhmenhs Ibhrikhs.

    Parallhla ejefrase thn pepoiqhsh pws to keno poy anoije ton moiraio Martio toy 1492, me thn paralogh apopomph twn progonwn mas, exei epanorqwqei plhrws shmera kai th bebaiothta oti me thn episkech toy basilikoy zeygoys qa enisxyqoyn akomh perissotero oi qesmoi twn dyo xwrwn.

    O basilias ths Ispanias Xoyan Karlos sthn omilia toy anakoinwse oti prin apo liges meres h ispanikh kybernhsh phre thn apofash na diaqesei to poso twn 250 ekatommyriwn pesetwn sthn Pagkosmia Organwsh Sefarditwn (Sefarad einai h biblikh onomasia ths Ispanias kai oi prosfyges poy anagkasthkan na egkataleicoyn thn Ispania onomasthkan Sefardites). Kai me ayto ton tropo h Ispania ekfrazei thn symparastash ths pros toys Sefardites poy yphrjan qymata diwjewn kata th diarkeia toy olokaytwmatos kai ta metepeita xronia.

    Gia toys Ebraioys ths Qessalonikhs eipe oti einai afosiwmenoi patriwtes ths ellhnikhs dhmokratias ths opoias thn glwssa ensternisthkan enw ta ebraioispanika periepesan stadiaka se lhqh. Ola ayta eipe einai katanohta kai ajiepaina kai den antibainoyn thn epiqymia ths Ispanias na enswmatwsei jana ston kormo ths ispanikhs koyltoyras oloys ekeinoys poy kapoia mera eniwqan Ispanoi.

    O proedros ths israhlitikhs koinothtas xarise anamnhstikh pkaj]ta sto basilia ths Ispanias.

    Gyrw apo to xwro toy mnhmeioy eixan sygkentrwqei peripoy 200 filobasilikoi, oi opoioi fwnazan to onoma ths basilissas ths Ispanias Sofias kai thn epeyfhmoysan.

    [07] TO BYZANTINO MOYSEIO EPISKEFQHKE TO BASILIKO ZEYGOS THS ISPANIAS

    To Byzantino Moyseio, me mish wra kaqysterhsh, episkefqhke to basiliko zeygos ths Ispanias, Xoyan Karlos kai Sofia, gia na jenaghqei sto tmhma twn keimhliwn toy Agioy Oroys, poy akomh den exoyn metaferqei sthn Aqwnikh Politeia.

    Ton Xoyan Karlos kai th Sofia ypodexqhkan sto Byzantino Moyseio o ypoyrgos Makedonias - Qrakhs, Filippos Petsalnikos me th syzygo toy, h syzygos toy ypoyrgoy Politismoy, Eyaggeloy Benizeloy, o proedros toy Kratikoy Qeatroy Boreioy Ellados, Dhmhtrhs Salpisths kai o Agioreiths Agiopayliths Pateras Nikodhmos.

    To basiliko zeygos epefhmhsan, ejw apo to Byzantino Moyseio, ekato peripoy filobasilikoi, enw o Xoyan Karlos kai h Sofia sth synexeia parakaptontas to programma poy orize thn episkech to Iero Nao toy Agioy Dhmhtrioy, metebhsan apeyqeias ston Iero Nao Ths Toy Qeoy Sofias. E.S

    [08] THN KATARGHSH TOY FOROY MEGALHS AKINHTHS PERIOYSIAS ZHTHSE O KARAMANLHS

    Thn katarghsh toy foroy megalhs akinhths perioysias zhthse shmera o Kwstas Karamanlhs. O proedros ths Neas Dhmokratias, episkefthke to prwi thn eforia toy Byrwna gia na dei apo konta thn katastash poy epikratei me tis dhlwseis foroy megalhs akinhths perioysias.

    O arxhgos ths ajiwmatikhs antipoliteyshs dhlwse oti h katastash stis efories einai tragikh kai prosqese oti o foros megalhs akinhths perioysias plhttei toys polloys Ellhnes sta mesaia eisodhmata.

    O k.Karamanlhs eipe akomh oti ta ekkaqaristika shmeiwmata apo tis dhlwseis toy 1997 den exoyn stalei akomh se polloys forologoymenoys kai epishmane oti "o koinos noys epiballei na katarghqei aytos o foros kai h Nea Dhmokratia ws ayrianh kybernhsh exei thn proqesh na ton katarghsei".

    [09] ARXISE STH QESSALONIKH H 16H SYNODOS THS CIRCOM

    Shmantika bhmata gia thn enisxysh ths synergasias twn thleoptikwn perifereiakwn diktywn ana ton kosmo, ektimatai oti qa pragmatopoihqoyn sth diarkeia ths 16hs synodoy ths CIRCOM Regional, poy arxise to prwi sth Qessalonikh.

    Triakosioi deka ekproswpoi ths Paneyrwpaikhs Enwshs Perifereiakwn Thleoptikwn Staqmwn (CIRCOM) apo 38 eyrwpaikes xwres apanthsan sto kalesma ths diorganwtrias ERT-3 kai briskontai sth Qessalonikh, opoy qa parameinoyn mexri to Sabbato.

    Symparagwges, antallages programmatwn, zwntanes ekpompes kai prosfores yphresiwn qa breqoyn sto epikentro ths synodoy. Toys synedroys qa apasxolhsei kai to mellon ths "mikrhs oqonhs", enocei ths pagkosmiopoihshs kai en anamonh twn ejelijewn poy qa shmatodothsei h eyryterh diadosh ths chfiakhs thleorashs.

    Sto shmantikotato rolo poy kaloyntai na diadramatisoyn ta perifereiaka diktya, gia th diathrhsh toy topikoy politismoy, kai th diafylajh eqimwn kai paradosewn, anaferqhke o genikos grammateas toy Ypoyrgeioy Typoy kai MME, Nikolaos Aqanasakhs.

    Perigrafontas ena topio isxyrhs monopwliakhs sygkentrwshs kai kefalaioyxikwn syspeirwsewn se eqnika kai dieqnh MME, o k.Aqanasakhs epeshmane oti h epibolh enos monodiastatoy monteloy einai h xeiroterh dynath prooptikh gia thn thleorash. "Se ayto to pedio, alla kai sth meqodeysh ths antidrashs poy prepei na yparxei apenanti sthn omoiomorfia kai thn isopedwsh kaleitai na symbalei h synanthsh sas", eipe xarakthristika.

    Idiaiterh mneia ekane o k.Aqanasakhs stis prwtoboylies poy exei anaptyjei h CIRCOM ston tomea ths diasynoriakhs synergasias kai twn thleoptikwn symparagwgwn. Ejefrase thn pepoiqhsh oti ta ekpaideytika seminaria poy diorganwnontai sto plaisio ths synodoy qa symbaloyn sth dhmioyrgia stelexwn ikanwn na antapejelqoyn stis apaithseis ths neas epoxhs ths chfiakhs thleorashs.

    Parallhla, ypogrammise oti programmata opws to "Balkan TV Magazine", to "Baltic Report", to "Alice" kai to "Euromusica" qa prepei na endynamwqoyn kai na apotelesoyn to ypobaqro mias staqerhs kai gonimhs diakratikhs synergasias, poy qa jekina apo to sebasmo twn eqnikwn idiaiterothtwn, alla taytoxrona qa apeikonizei thn eyrwpaikh glwssikh kai politismikh polymorfia.

    Afoy anaferqhke sth shmasia twn newn texnologiwn, o k.Aqanasakhs shmeiwse oti "exei prosqeth shmasia gia thn Ellada to gegonos oti to synedrio ginetai sth Qessalonikh, kaqws edw edreyei to dynamiko perifereiako kanali ERT-3".

    Me idiaitera kolakeytika logia ekfrasthke gia th Qessalonikh kai o anaplhrwths genikos grammateas ths CIRCOM, Boris Bergant, xarakthrizontas thn ws likno toy politismoy. Epishs, o k.Bergant gnwstopoihse oti h Enwsh apekthse xtes tria nea melh kai ypenqymise oti h 17h synodos ths qa pragmatopoihqei to Noembrio sthn Kroatia. Parallhla, paroysiase th bash dedomenwn ths Enwshs sto Internet, h opoia perilambanei analytika stoixeia gia ta 626 programmata poy symmeteixan stoys diagwnismoys ths CIRCOM thn teleytaia oktaetia.

    Xairetismo aphyqynan sth diorganwsh oi Ypoyrgoi Politismoy kai Makedonias Qrakhs, poy, omws, den mporesan na parakoloyqhsoyn tis ergasies ths synodoy. Sto mhnyma toy o Eyaggelos Benizelos xarakthrizei to synedrio ws "oloklhrwmeno politistiko gegonos" kai epishmainei oti h anelijh twn topikwn diktywn apotelei aparaithth proypoqesh gia thn perifereiakh anaptyjh sto plaisio ths Eyrwpaikhs Enwshs. "Pisteyw oti to synedrio sas qa symbalei wste na anadyqoyn oi nees prooptikes gia thn anaptyjh twn perifereiakwn thleoptikwn diktywn, poy einai sthn oysia kai oi kainoyrgies prooptikes dhmokratias", tonizetai sto mhnyma.

    Apo thn pleyra toy, o Filippos Petsalnikos ypenqymizei sto mhnyma toy oti stoxos twn MME den prepei na einai mono h paroxh emgl]qysgr, alla kai h ikanopoihsh twn pneymatikwn anazhthsewn toy koinoy, "toy filomaqoys kai filoperiergoy twn thleqeatwn", opws xarakthristika anaferei.

    To "parwn" sth synodo edwse o nomarxhs Qessalonikhs, Kwstas Papadopoylos. O k.Papadopoylos ypenqymise oti h Qessalonikh diaqetei ploysia istoria oson afora ta mesa mazikhs enhmerwshs, afoy apo ayth ejepemce to prwto radiofwno kai se aythn pragmatopoihqhke -prin 37 xronia-h prwth thleoptikh ekpomph.

    Ypenqymizetai oti oi ekdhlwseis ths CIRCOM Regional synodeyontai apo to festibal folklorikoy tragoydioy "Euromusica" kai seminario to opoio qa parakoloyqhsoyn 30 neoi dhmosiografoi apo xwres kyriws ths Anatolikhs Eyrwphs. To brady to Sabbatoy ola ta sygkrothmata poy metexoyn sto festibal "Euromusica" qa dwsoyn synaylia sto Qeatro Dasoys.

    [10] STO PRWTODIKEIO QESSALONIKHS TO LEJIKO TOY MPAMPINIWTH

    Arxise shmera kai synexizetai ayrio to prwi sto monomeles prwtodikeio Qessalonikhs h syzhthsh ths aithshs asfalistikwn metrwn poy kateqese o dhmotikos symboylos Qeodwros Aspasidhs, kata toy kaqhghth, G. Mpampiniwth kai twn ekproswpwn toy "Kentroy Lejikologias" diamartyromenos gia symplhrwmatikh ermhneia poy dinetai sto lhmma "Boylgaros" apo to neo lejiko.

    Prin jekinhsei h syzhthsh - xwris thn paroysia toy k. Mpampiniwth kai twn synergatwn toy - dwdeka atoma poy ekproswpoysan syllogoys, aqlhtika swmateia, alla kai memonwmena atoma, kateqesan ston proedro toy dikasthrioy, isariqmes prosqetes parembaseis yper toy k. Aspasidh, syntassomenoi kata toy kaqhghth kai toy ekdotikoy oikoy.

    Anamesa toys, o Syllogos Mikrasiatwn Qessalonikhs, to swmateio "Makednos", poy ekproswpei toys apantaxoy Makedones, o syllogos iatrwn IKA Boreias Elladas, h Eyjeinos Lesxh Qessalonikhs, oi podosfairikoi syllogoi PAOK kai HRAKLHS kai alloi.

    Ligo argotera, oi enagontes yposthrijan stis kataqeseis toys oti sto "Lejiko ths Neas Ellhnikhs Glwssas", ektos apo tis symplhrwmatikes epejhghseis gia ta lhmmata "Boylgaros" kai "Pontios" anaferontai kai alloi symplhrwmatikoi xarakthrismoi poy - opws isxyristhkan - einai akrws prosblhtikoi.

    Kai anaferqhkan sth lejh "Toyrkofwnos" - "...aytos poy xrhsimopoiei thn toyrkikh glwssa: oi toyrkofwnoi plhqysmoi ths Qrakhs", sto lhmma "Filipinneza", - "... h askoymenh dikhgoros einai h Filipinneza toy grafeioy, kanei oles tis doyleies ektos apo to na dikhgorei" kai sth lejh "Blaxos" - "... meiot. o eparxiwths, aytos poy exei emfanish, symperifora kai omilia xwriath, o ajestos".

    O k. Aspasidhs apo thn pleyra toy, eipe sto dikasthrio oti diakatexetai apo orgh kai aganakthsh kai xarakthrise th symplhrwmatikh ermhneia poy dinetai sth lejh "Boylgaros" ws episthmoniko olisqhma toy kaqhghth kai twn synergatwn toy.

    Ejalloy, o politikos enagwn, Xr. Albanos eipe oti o pelaths toy den zhta oyte na katastrafei, oyte na paradoqei sthn pyra to lejiko, arkei na diorqwqei kai na apaleifqei o prosblhtikos kai amist|qgtor xarakthrismos sth lejh "Boylgaros".

    Sto metajy, o ek twn yperaspistwn toy k. Mpampiniwth, dikhgoros,, G. Karakatselhs, afoy dieykrinise oti katagetai apo th Qessalonikh kai einai filaqlos toy PAOK paredwse sto dikasth, N. Tsako, polyselido ypomnhma toy kaqhghth me to opoio diatypwnei tis apoceis toy gyrw apo to qema poy dhmioyrghqhke kai anaferqhke sto arqro 16, par.1 toy Syntagmatos, peri eleyqerias ths episthmonikhs ereynas kai ths eleyqerhs ekfrashs, epishmainontas oti to dikasthrio prepei na meinei sthn oysia ths ypoqeshs.

    Me thn oloklhrwsh ths syzhthshs o dikasths qa apofasisei an qa synexistei h oxi h proswrinh apagoreysh kykloforias toy lejikoy, enw h apofash toy dikasthrioy anamenetai na ekdoqei se deka peripoy hmeres.

    [11] ANAFORA REPPA STO LEJIKO MPAMPINIWTH

    O kybernhtikos ekproswpos, Dhmhtrhs Reppas, anaferomenos stis antidraseis gia to lejiko Mpampiniwth, dhlwse oti h kybernhsh den mporei na labei qesh gia osa symbainoyn, alla einai ypoxrewmenh na dhlwsei oti den einai dynaton na gyrisoyme pisw sto mesaiwna thn epoxh poy ta biblia rixnontan sthn pyra. K.B.-K.E.

    [B] EJWTERIKES EIDHSEIS

    [12] TO IRAK KATADIKAZEI NEA EISBOLH THS TOYRKIAS STO EDAFOS TOY

    To Irak katadikase shmera thn "nea eisbolh" ths Toyrkias sto boreio tmhma toy, enw o OHE ekane gnwsto oti to programma dianomhs trofimwn empodisthke apo tis sygkekrimenes stratiwtikhes epixeirhseis.

    Opws dhlwse o ekproswpos toy irakinoy ypoyrgeioy Ejwterikwn, "h irakinh kybernhsh katadikazei th nea toyrkikh eisbolh kai thn parabiash ths irakinhs edafikhs akeraiothtas, enw aporriptei ola ta epixeirhmata me ta opoia h Agkyra prospaqei na dikaiologhsei thn parabiash twn irakinwn synorwn."

    Stis 20 Maioy, 15.000 stratiwtes kai 2.000 melh ths politofylakhs perasan entos irakinoy edafoys ejapolyontas epiqesh enantion twn antartwn toy RKK.

    Apo thn pleyra toy o ekproswpos toy toyrkikoy yoyrgeioy Ejwterikwn tonise pws h Agkyra exei kanei gnwsto oti oi dynameis ths pragmatopoioyn periorismenes epixeirhseis opote ayto krinetai anagkaio.

    Thn idia wra o ekproswpos toy OHE anakoinwse oti h dianomh trofimwn exei diakopei stis apomakrysmenes perioxes toy Irak, poy briskontai konta sta synora me thn Toyrkia, ejaitias twn toyrkikwn epixeirhsewn, oi katoikoi twn opoiwn anagkazontai na egkataleicoyn tis esties toys, gegonos poy dyskoleyei akoma perissotero thn apostolh toy Organismoy. S.A.

    [13] DANIA:ABEBAIO TO APOTELESMA TOY DHMOCHFISMATOS GIA THN ONE

    Stis kalpes proserxontai shmera tessera ekatommyria Danoi chfoforoi gia na egkrinoyn h na aporricoyn th synqhkh toy Amsterntam ths Eyrwpaikhs Enwshs.

    Symfwna me th teleytaia dhmoskophsh h opoia pragmatopoihqhke thn paramonh ths chfoforias kai sthn opoia erwthqhkan 1,448 polites, to 49,6% dhlwse oti qa chfisei yper ths synqhkhs, to 40,7% kata, enw to 9,7% dhlwsan anapofasistoi, alla ektimatai oti h pleiochfia toys qa chfisei "oxi".

    O sosialdhmokraths prwqypoyrgos Poyl Noyroyp Rasmoysen erije olo to baros ths ekstrateias toy sthn apodoxh ths symfwnias, enw ejefrase "epifylaktikh aisiodojia" gia ta apotelesmata toy dhmochfismatos, proeidopoiwntas th xwra toy oti qa apomonwqei se periptwsh aporrichs ths synqhkhs kai ypogrammise oti o rolos ths Danias sthn Eyrwpaikh Enwsh qa diakindyneytei ean chfisoyn oi Danoi polites "oxi".

    Sto metajy aytoi poy antitiqentai sth symfwnia yposthrizoyn oti h symfwnia toy Amsterntam shmainei "perissoterh enwsh kai ligoterh edafikh akeraiothta". L.M

    [14] O GELTSIN YPOSXETAI NA PROSTATEYSEI TO ROYBLI

    Thn yposxesh oti qa prostateysei to roybli, kaqws h Kentrikh Tq\pefa ths Rwsias exei arketa apoqemata gia na antimetwpisei thn krish, diatypwse o Rwsos proedros Mporis Geltsin meta thn ektakth synanthsh poy eixe shmera to prwi me ton prwqypoyrgo ths xwras Sergkei Kirienko, me ton ypoyrgo oikonomikwn Mixahl Zarntonof, ton proedro ths Kentrikhs Trapezas Sergkei Ntoympinin, kai me diakekrimenoys oikonomologoys.

    "Proteraiothta ths kybernhshs einai h prostasia toy eqnikoy mas nomismatos, gegonos to opoio katesthse safes o proedros Geltsin", ypogrammise o k. Ntoympinin.

    Parallhla, o proedros Geltsin proeidopoihse thn kybernhsh, oti prepei na efarmosei aysthra to diatagma poy ypegrace sxetika me tis baqies perikopes stis dhmosies dapanes kai na ayjhsei ta esoda apo thn epibolh forwn.

    O Rwsos proedros, epishs, tonise oti qa ypogracei diatagma to opoio qa dinei to dikaiwma sth forologikh astynomia na katasxei thn perioysia twn forodiafygadwn. L.M

    [15] KRISIMES OI EKLOGES GIA TO MAYROBOYNIO

    Dekaepta politika kommata kai synaspismoi diekdikoyn tis 78 edres poy ariqmei h Boylh, stis prowres koinoboyleytikes ekloges poy diejagontai thn Kyriakh 31 Maioy sto Mayroboynio.

    To eklogiko swma toy Mayroboynioy anerxetai stoys 460 xiliades chfoforoys. Dyo einai oi kyrioteroi syndyasmoi poy qa dwsoyn th maxh gia thn prwtia stis ekloges ths Kyriakhs: a) o synaspismos "Na zhsoyme kalytera- Milo Tzoykanobits", o opoios apartizetai apo to Dhmokratiko Komma Sosialistwn, proedros toy opoioy einai h Militsa Pegianobits-Tzoyrisits kai sto opoio kaqoristiko rolo diadramatizei o proedros toy Mayroboynioy, Milo Tzoykanobits, to Laiko Komma toy Nobak Kilimparnta kai to Sosialdhmokratiko Komma toy Zarko Raktsebits kai b) to Sosialistiko Laiko Komma toy Momir Mpoylatobits prwhn proedroy toy Mayroboynioy kai apo thn prohgoymenh ebdomada, neoy omospondiakoy prwqypoyrgoy ths Gioygkoslabias.

    Kaqoristiko rolo stis ekloges anamenetai na diadramatisei kai h Fileleyqerh Symmaxia toy Slatko Perobits, o opoios einai opados ths ideas gia thn anejarthsia toy Mayroboynioy, apo th systash ths Omospondiakhs Dhmokratias Gioygkoslabias.

    To eklogiko metro gia na eiselqei kapoio komma sth Boylh einai 3% twn chfwn. Apo to metro ejartwntai ta dyo albanika kommata toy Mayroboynioy, kaqws to Syntagma ejasfalizei sthn albanikh meionothta 5 ekproswpoys sth Boylh anejarthtws toy posostoy poy qa laboyn stis ekloges.

    Teleytaia dhmoskophsh poy dienhrghse to Kentro Politikwn Ereynwn poy ypagetai sto panepisthmio toy Beligradioy, katedeije oti o synaspismos toy Milo Tzoykanobits prohgeitai stis protimhseis twn chfoforwn me pososto 43%. To komma toy Mpoylatobits sygkentrwnei to 33% twn protimhsewn, enw to komma toy Perobits sygkentrwnei peripoy to 10%.

    Wstoso, para to gegonos oti o synaspismos toy Tzoykanobits prohgeitai me arketh diafora sth sygkekrimenh dhmoskophsh, einai amfibolo an qa katorqwsei na sxhmatisei aytodynamh kybernhsh. Heyqe_tai sxedon bebaio oti ta dyo albanika kommata qa synergastoyn meteklogika me to synaspismo "Na zhsoyme kalytera". To epiteleio toy Dhmokratikoy Kommatos Sosialistwn eyelpistei, oti me thn yposthrijh twn pente Albanwn boyleytwn qa katorqwsei na sxhmatisei kybernhsh.

    Sthn proeklogikh ekstrateia, h opoia oloklhrwnetai shmera, epikrathse klima polwshs kai fanatismoy. To gegonos, poy asfalws anebase to politiko qermometro sto Mayroboynio htan h topoqethsh - thn prohgoymenh ebdomada- toy Momir Mpoylatobits sth qesh toy omospondiakoy prwqypoyrgoy ths Gioygkoslabias.

    O Mpoylatobits protaqhke sto ajiwma ayto apo ton proedro ths O.D.Gioygkoslabias, Slompontan Milosebits. Omws, h epishmh hgesia toy Mayroboynioy arneitai na anagnwrisei ton Mpoylatobits, kaqws qewrhse thn eklogh toy antisyntagmatikh.

    Gia to logo ayto oi ekloges ths Kyriakhs apoktoyn idiaitero endiaferon. An kerdisei o synaspismos toy filodytikoy proedroy toy Mayroboynioy, Milo Tzoykanobits kai katorqwsei na sxhmatisei kybernhsh, tote h antiparaqesh sth grammh Beligradioy-Pontgkoritsa anamenetai oti qa ojynqei akomh perissotero, dedomenoy oti o Tzoykanobits einai deinos epikriths ths politikhs Milosebits kai polles fores, sto prosfato parelqon, exei elqei se anoixth rhjh mazi toy.

    Politikoi analytes sth gioygkoslabikh prwteyoysa ektimoyn, oti an stis ekloges ths Kyriakhs kerdisei o synaspismos toy Tzoykanobits, tote h diastash ayth mporei makroproqesma na apeilhsei akomh kai th domh toy omospondiakoy kratoys ths Gioygkoslabias.

    To epishmo Beligradi apo thn pleyra toy qa hqele na dei nikhth twn eklogwn to komma toy Mpoylatobits, kai ayto dioti, o teleytaios einai stenos synergaths toy Milosebits kai ekfrasths ths politikhs toy proedroy ths Gioygkoslabias sto Mayroboynio.

    An to Sosialistiko Komma toy Mpoylatobits kerdisei tis ekloges, tote aytomata qa enisxyqei kai h qesh toy Slompontan Milosebits kai h dienejh metajy Beligradioy kai Pontgkoritsa den qa yfistatai, afoy o Gioygkoslabos proedros, mesw toy synergath toy Mpoylatobits, qa elegxei plhrws tis ejelijeis sto Mayroboynio.

    Tis ekloges qa epiblecoyn parathrhtes toy OASE kai ta prwta anepishma apotelesmata anamenetai na ginoyn gnwsta tis prwtes prwines wres ths Deyteras.

    [16] GKELMPARNT: OI HPA PARAKOLOYQOYN STENA TIS EJELIJEIS STO MAYROBOYNIO

    Thn anhsyxia toy gia ta politika problhmata poy antimetwpizei h O.D.Gioygkoslabias kai gia to antiktypo toys sto Mayroboynio ejefrase xqes o apestalmenos twn HPA sta Balkania, Rompert Gkelmparnt se thlefwnikh synomilia poy eixe me ton proedro toy Mayroboynioy, Milo Tzoykanobits.

    Opws metedwse to serbiko praktoreio eidhsewn BETA, epikaloymeno anakoinwsh toy grafeioy toy proedroy toy Mayroboynioy, o k. Gkelmparnt tonise oti h oi HPA qa parakoloyqhsoyn stena ths koinoboyleytikes ekloges, kaqws stoxos toys einai h eklogh ikanhs kybernhshs h opoia qa prowqhsei tis dglojqatij]r diadikasies kai tis metarryqmiseis sto Mayroboynio. E.P.

    [17] ANTIDRASEIS STH SOFIA GIA DHLWSEIS XOLMPROYK

    Thn antidrash ths Sofias prokalesan oi dhlwseis toy Amerikanoy diplwmath, Ritsart Xolmproyk, o opoios me synenteyjh toy sto Roiter, kanontas probleceis gia tis endexomenes synepeies ths krishs sto Kossyfopedio, feretai na eipe oti "h Sofia mporei na apofasisei na arpajei kommati ths PGDM, dioti oi Boylgaroi isxyrizontai oti metajy aytwn kai twn Skopianwn twn anatolikwn akrwn ths geitonikhs xwras den yparxoyn diafores".

    Th diabebaiwsh oti h Boylgaria den exei dwsei pote aformh me thn politikh ths wste na kathgorhqei gia edafikes h alles bleceis pros thn PGDM, ekane xqes brady o ekproswpos toy ypoyrgeioy Ejwterikwn ths Boylgarias, Rantko Blaikof kai tonise oti me th symperifora ths h xwra toy apodeiknyei oti apotelei meros ths epilyshs kai oxi ths dhmioyrgias problhmatwn sth Notioanatolikh Eyrwph.

    Shmera to prwi, to BBC metedwse anakoinwsh ths Oyasigkton, sthn opoia ypogrammisthke oti o Leykos Oikos apostasiopoieitai apo tis sygkekrimenes dhlwseis Xolmproyk, "o opoios einai apestalmenos twn HPA gia thn Kypro kai oxi gia ta Balkania kai oi antilhceis toy gia kapoia balkanika zhthmata den antapokrinontai sthn epishmh qesh ths amerikanikhs kybernhshs", opws shmeiwqhke.

    O prwqypoyrgos ths Boylgarias, Iban Kostof, xarakthrise tis dhlwseis Xolmproyk "proswpikh toy apoch" poy den desmeyei thn kybernhsh twn HPA.

    "O R. Xolmproyk ekane logo gia endexomenh boylgarikh parembash sthn PGDM. Egw omws qymamai oti aytos einai poly stenos filos toy Milosebits kai arxizw na skeftomai se ayth thn kateyqynsh", dhlwse o k. Kostof.

    H efhmerida "24 Wres" ths Sofias dhmosieyse antidraseis toy politikoy kosmoy ths Boylgarias. O hgeths toy antipoliteyomenoy Sosialistikoy Kommatos, Gkeorgki Parbanof shmeiwse oti h problech toy Xolmproyk einai "h pio palaia kai apaisiodojh gia tis ejelijeis sthn perioxh", enw h boyleyths ths "Eyrwaristeras", Elena Poptontoroba synesthse ston Amerikano apestalmeno na milaei mono ek meroys twn HPA kai oxi ek meroys ths Boylgarias.

    H proedros ths koinoboyleytikhs omadas toy kybernwntos kommatwn ths "Enwshs Dhmokratikwn Dynamewn", Ekaterina Mixailoba diabebaiwse oti paromoies proqeseis den exei ekdhlwsei pote kanenas sth Boylgaria kai o ypoyrgos Dikaiosynhs, Basil Gkotsef, eipe oti "tetoia problech ths symperiforas ths Boylgarias stereitai kaqe pragmatikothtas kai gnwshs toso ths katastashs sth Boylgaria, oso kai ths politikhs twn Enwmenwn Dhmokratikwn Dynamewn".

    K.K.

    [18] ISRAHLINOI KAI GERMANOI PLHRWSAN STON TSAOYSESKOY GIA TH METANASTEYSH OMOGENWN TOYS

    To Israhl prosfere ekatommyria dolaria ston prwhn diktatora ths Roymanias, Nikolae Tsaoyseskoy, mexri kai thn ptwsh toy to 1989, gia na epitrecei stoys Ebraioys ths Roymanias na metanastecoyn sto Israhl, symfwna me shmerino dhmosieyma ths roymanikhs efhmeridas Evenimentul Zilei.

    H efhmerida apokalyce lista epitagwn poy ekdoqhkan apo israhlines trapezes to 1989 kai oi opoies plhrwqhkan sthn kentrikh trapeza ths Roymanias se logariasmoys poy anhkan sth mystikh astynomia ths xwras.

    Sth lista perilambanetai epitagh ycoys 1,2 ekatommyriwn dolariwn apo thn trapeza Leumi me hmeromhnia ekdoshs thn 20h Ianoyarioy toy 1989, enw akoloyqei mia akomh, ycoys enos ekatommyrioy stis 25 Aygoystoy toy idioy etoys.

    Parallhla, h trapeza Hapoalim plhrwse ena ekatommyrio dolaria stis 30 Maioy toy 1989, kai stis 16 Noembrioy allo ena ekatommyrio, dhladh ena mhna prin thn ejegersh sth Roymania poy prokalese thn ptwsh Tsaoyseskoy.

    Symfwna me thn efhmerida, to synoliko poso ftanei "tis ekatontades ekatommyria dolaria" poy plhrwqhkan kata th diarkeia etwn apo to Israhl, eite pros th mystikh astynomia eite pros ton idio ton Tsaoyseskoy me ton opoio o Roymanos rabinos, Moses Rosen, feretai na diapragmateythke th metanasteysh 40.000 Ebraiwn ths Roymanias.

    Symfwna me thn efhmerida, oi israhlines arxes edeijan "apolyth diakritikothta" gia th xrhmatodothsh, me antallagma th metafora twn Ebraiwn sto Israhl apo tis roymanikes arxes, enw desmeythkan na parasxoyn "apokalyptikes plhrofories" gia tis sxeseis poy eixe o Tsaoyseskoy me ton Palaistinio hgeth, Giaser Arafat, kai ton Libyo hgeth, Moamer Kantafi.

    Oi plhrofories anaferoyn oti h prwth epafh anamesa stis dyo xwres pragmatopoihqhke mesw toy Israhlinoy epixeirhmatia, Pesats Teitelman, sto Tel Abib, to Noembrio toy 1990, symfwna enw thn idia xronia, Elbetoi dikhgoroi, oi opoioi proslhfqhkan apo th roymanikh kybernhsh gia na entopisoyn toys mystikoys logariasmoys toy Tsaoyseskoy, eixan epafes me ychlobaqmoys ajiwmatoyxoys sto Israhl.

    Dyo ap' aytoys, o Israhlinos boyleyths, Amnon Roympistein, kai o dieyqynths toy Ebraikoy Praktoreioy, Zbi Mparak, dhlwsan oti oi mystikoi logariasmoi piqanon na "apokalyfqoyn merikws", symfwna me ekqesh poy synetajan oi dikhgoroi stis 5 Ioynioy toy 1990.

    Sto metajy, h Evenimentul Zilei apokalyce se ereyna gia th metanasteysh ths germanikhs meionothtas ths Roymanias, oti h kybernhsh toy Kagkelarioy Xelmoyt Kol kateqese perissotera apo 5,5 ekatommyria dolaria sthn idia roymanikh trapeza, stis 24 Aygoystoy toy 1989.

    Eggrafa apodeiknyoyn oti oi symfwnies poy kalyptoyn th metanasteysh twn Germanwn apo th Roymania xronologoyntai apo to 1970. H prwth diapragmateythke apo ton Kagkelario Xelmoyt Smint, kai h deyterh apo ton Xelmoyt Kol. E.R.

    [19] DEN EPANALAMBANETAI H DIKH GIA TH DOLOFONIA PALME

    To Anwtato Dikasthrio ths Soyhdias aperrice shmera to prwi thn aithsh toy Genikoy Eisaggelea gia epanalhch ths dikhs kata toy Krister Peterson, ws dolofonoy toy Soyhdoy prwqypoyrgoy, Oylof Palme.

    O Peterson eixe katadikasqei to 1989 prwtodikws ws dolofonos toy Palme, alla aqwwqhke to idio etos apo to efeteio. H aithsh toy eisaggelea gia epanalhch ths dikhs sthrizotan se nees martyries tessarwn atomwn, alla ta stoixeia den qewrhqhkan apo to Anwtato Dikasthrio isxyra gia epanalhch ths dikhs.

    Den einai akomh gnwsth h Omada Ereynas gia thn aneyresh toy dolofonoy toy Oylof Palme 12 xronia meta th dolofonia, an dhladh qa synexisei tis ereynes h qa odhghqei h ypoqesh sto arxeio. E.S.

    [G] EIDIKO PARARTHMA I (Afierwma sto Dieqnes Synedrio "Megas Alejandros: Apo th Makedonia sthn Oikoymenh)

    [20] AJIA MEGALYTERH TOY TOYTAGXAMWN O TAFOS TOY M.ALEJANDROY

    O Megas Alejandros "zei" se kaqe topo poy perase, enw h paroysia toy einai emfanhs akomh kai sto iero biblio twn moysoylmanwn, sto Korani, opoy anaferetai ws "Zoyl Karnein" (o agios toy kaloy me ta dyo kerata). Ayta tonizei o kaqhghths ths ellhnorwmaikhs arxaiologias toy panepisthmioy ths Alejandreias, Faoyzi El Fakxarani, ypogrammizontas oti o tafos toy Alejandroy, an breqei , akomh kai katestrammenos qa exei megalyterh ajia apo thn pyramida toy Toytagxamwn. O entopismos ths basilikhs ptolemaikhs nekropolhs sthn Alejandreia ths Aigyptoy, opoy apo tis arxes akomh toy aiwna breqhke proqalamos makedonikoy typoy tafoy, poy h polyteleia toy jeperna ekeinh twn tafwn twn Faraw, piqanon na ferei sto fws ton tafo toy Makedona strathlath. Alla akomh kai an den breqei o tafos toy Makedona strathlath isws yparjoyn eyrhmata poy qa apokalycoyn to megaleio ths ptolemaikhs Alejandreias kai qa katasthsoyn thn polh ena allo Loyjor.

    Oi apoceis twn Aigyptiwn arxaiologwn, poy basizontai stis martyries arxaiwn syggrafewn, sygklinoyn sto oti o tafos toy Megaloy Alejandroy brisketai sthn Alejandreia. Wstoso oi gnwmes diistantai ws pros ton akribh topo kai ayto fainetai apo tis anakoinwseis toys sto synedrio "Alejandros o Megas:Apo th Makedonia sthn Oikoymenh" poy pragmatopoieitai sth Beroia.

    O kaqhghths Fakxarani, poy etoimazetai na anaskacei ton Ioylio to xwro opoy entopisthke o proqalamos toy makedonikoy typoy tafoy, epikaloymenos th martyria toy Paysania, anaferei oti o Alejandros tafhke arxika sth Memfida kai sth synexeia metaferqhke sthn Alejandreia opoy entafiasthke jana symfwna me ta makedonika eqima. To eyrhma twn arxwn toy aiwna, poy anasthlwqhke to 1936, einai kataskeyasmeno apo fysiko alabastro kai anamesa stoys dyo xwroys yparxei dwrikh qyra apo leyko marmaro h diaforetiko kommati alabastroy. O typos toy qyrwmatos einai idios me ekeinon twn makedonikwn tafwn. O k Fakxarani qewrei oti h qyra mporei na anhkei se allo makedoniko tafo. "Pisteyoyme oti exoyme na kanoyme me dyo makedonikoy typoy tafoys. An apodeixtei oti oi tafoi einai dyo tote einai fysiko oti qa prokeitai gia to basiliko mejqotave_o. Gi ayto perimenw na breqoyn perissotera tmhmata, poy isws allajoyn th morfh ths anasthlwshs" tonizei o k Fakxarani. O Aigyptios kaqhghths ypogrammizei oti den einai dynato na breqei apo th mia mera sthn allh o tafos toy Alejandroy kai perimenei na brei byzantina kai rwmaika ktismata panw apo thn ellhnistikh fash poy qa anazhthsei skabontas se baqos oktw metrwn.

    O k Fakxarini skiagrafwntas thn proswpikothta toy Megaloy Alejandroy tonizei oti htan "oikoymenisths" kai oxi "imperialisths" opws orismenoi qeloyn na ton paroysiazoyn. "O Alejandros sebasthke toy laoys poy katekthse kai frontise na zhsoyn mazi polles eqnikothtes. Den htan ena aplos strathlaths kai den kakometaxeiristhke kanenan. O Platwn kai o Aristotelhs qewroysan toys mh Ellhnes barbaroys, o Alejandros oxi" ypogrammizei o kaqhghths Fakxarani

    O arxaiologos, kaqhghths toy panepisthmioy toy Xeloyen, Maxmoynt El Saantani, paroysiazei mia diaforetikh apoch gia to akribh xwro toy tafoy toy Alejandroy, epikaloymenos istorikes martyries, xwris omws na exei na deijei kapoio eyrhma antistoixo me ton makedonikoy typoy tafo poy epikaleitai o k Fakxarani.

    Symfwna me ton k Saantani o tafos toy Alejandroy prepei na brisketai sto kentro ths Alejandreias, to opoio orizetai apo tis odoys Nampintaniel kai Nomompa, ekei opoy brisketai to rwmaiko qeatro. O topos aytos apexei dyo xiliometra apo ton xwro poy prokeitai na anaskacei o kaqhghths Fakxarani. Wstoso oi anaskafes poy exoyn ginei mexri shmera se ayton ton topo den exoyn apokalycei kapoio sygkekrimeno eyrhma poy qa mporoyse na apotelesei endeijh gia thn paroysia toy tafoy toy Alejandroy. O k Saantani yposthrizei oti o tafos toy Makedona strathlath prepei na brisketai sth toympa sto kentro ths Alejandreias pisw apo to rwmaiko qeatro. "Basizomai panw sth qesh toy rwmaikoy qeatroy. Oi Rwmaioi otan hrqan sthn Alejandreia, to 30 pX, ektisan ena dhmosio ktirio sto kentro poy prepei na einai sth diastayrwsh twn dyo odwn tis opoies anaferei o Strabwn. Apo thn allh pleyra, an milhsoyme gia arxaiologika tekmhria, exoyme enan rwmaiko kiona kai to rwmaiko qeatro me mia seira kionwn mprosta akribws apo thn eisodo toy" leei o k Saantani.

    Oi ergasie synedrioy synexisthkan shmera me eishghseis gia thn organwsh toy makedonikoy basileioy, thn diplwmatia toy Megaloy Alejandroy alla kai gia ta tafika eqima twn Makedonwn kai thn khdeia toy Alejandroy.

    [21] PERILHCH THS EISHGHSHS TOY DR. MAHMOUD SAKR STO DIEQNES SYNEDRIO THS BEROIAS ME QEMA "MEGAS ALEJANDROS: APO TH MAKEDONIA STHN OIKOYMENH"

    "O Megas Alejandros kai h diplwmatia"

    Prof. Dr. Mahmoud Sakr prof. Of Classical Studies Department of Archaelogy Faculty of Arts Tanta Univeristy Tanta - Egypt.

    O Megas Alejandros kai h diplwmatia. An o polemos einai anepiqymhto h anapofeykto kako, h istoria exei deijei oti arketes fores h nikh den einai h telikh lysh twn diaforwn anamesa stis paratajeis. O diakratikos dialogos yparxei panta kai prin kai meta tir exqroprajies kai oi epafes metajy twn diplwmatwn h twn hgetwn den stamatoyn. Yparxei mia poikilia lejewn poy xrhsimopoihqhke apo toys arxaioys Ellhnes gia ta atoma twn diplwmatikwn apostolwn. Yphrxan oi khrykes, oi presbeis, oi aggeloi k.a.

    O oros aggelos exei mia platyterh ennoia kai mporei na xrhsimopoihqei gi' aytoys poy pragmatopoioyn thn leitoyrgia twn presbewn. Oi presbeis htan lejh me thn opoia onomazan toys megaloys se hlikia poy eixan kai perissoterh peira kai sofia. Oi khrykes qewrhqhkan oi diadoxoi toy Ermh toy Aggelioforoy twn Qewn. Enw h lejh projenoi dhlwne monimh diplwmatikh antiproswpeia.

    Sthn Ellada oi diplwmatikes epafes ginontoysan ap' eyqeias metajy twn andrwn h antiproswpeiwn twn diaforwn paratajewn. Oi qeoi polles fores mplekontai stis anqrwpines sxeseis kai sxeseis metajy andrwn kai polewn sfragizontai me qrhskeytikes teletes. Gi' ayto symfwnies perigrafontai san orkoi h Spondes. Sta Omhrika poihmata kaqara fainetai h idea gia dikaio polemo, gia ekdikhsh, kai ypoxrewsh twn symmaxwn gia yposthrijh. Yparxei s' ayta kwdikas basei toy opoioy oi apostoles kai twn dyo paratajewn ginontai dektes se polemo kai se eirhnh. O skopos ths diplwmatias sthn klassikh Ellada htan h eirhnh metajy twn geitonwn polewn, kai htan periorismenh sthn ryqmish twn sxesewn metajy toys. H diamaxh metajy toys htan kyriws edafikh. Me thn eisbolh twn Perswn omws sthn Ellada ta pragmata allazoyn. H persikh diplwmatia paizei katastrofiko rolo stis sxeseis kai stis symmaxies metajy twn Ellhnikwn polewn. Oi Ellhnes ypeferan polla apo toys Perses. Molis anebainei omws sto qrono ths Makedonias o Megas Alejandros h poreia ths katastashs pairnei diaforetikh strofh. O Megas Alejandros enwnei toys Ellhnes xrhsimopoiwntas thn diplwmatia toy kai san hgemonas twn Ellhnwn jekina ton agwna enantion toy koinoy exqroy. Oi Perses parathroyn me fobo tis epityxies toy Megaloy Alejandroy sto politiko kai diplwmatiko pedio, poy diadexontai h mia thn allh me tromaktikh taxythta. O Alejandros arxizei thn panellhnia stayroforia toy me ena poly entypwsiako tropo. Timwntas sth Troia prwta toys Omhrikoys hrwes Axillea kai Patroklo jekinhse gia th prwth Maxh sto Graniko potamo to 334 p.X. -Maio-Ioynio- opoy kai nikhse oloklhrwtika toys Perses kai toys Ellhnes misqoforoys poy yphretoysan sto Persiko strato. Meta gia na dwsei emfash sth diplwmatikh toy propaganda kanei dyo kinhseis. Prwta stelnei pisw sth Makedonia toys Ellhnes misqoforoys gia na timwrhqoyn gia prodosia enantion ths Elladas kai epeita afierwnei triakosies Persikes panoplies dwro apo ton idio kai toys Ellhnes, ston Nao ths Aqhnas, sthn Aqhna.

    H ekstrateia toy megaloy Alejandroy dhmioyrgei dyo megala metwpa metajy dyo megalwn kratikwn mhxanismwn, ths arxaias istorias, ths Persias kai ths Elladas, katw apo th Makedonikh hgesia. Etsi arxizei o dialogos kai oi diplwmatikes epafes metajy Dareioy kai Alejandroy poy ginontai me epistoles. H maxh sthn Isso to 331 p.X., opoy ginetai h prwth sygkroysh basilia me basilia, h nikh toy Alejandroy eixe kosmoistorikes synepeies. O istorikos Koyrtios toys onomazei toys ploysioteroys Basileis ths Eyrwphs kai ths Asias. O Gareios arxizei prwtos thn allhlografia meta thn htta toy kai thn aixmalwsia twn dikwn toy. O dialogos arxizei dixws na stamathsei h proelash toy Alejandroy, enw oi polemikes pqoetoilas_ar toy Dareioy gia ton neo agwna synexizontai. Den einai tyxaio oti h diplwmatikh ayth drasthriothta anaptyxqhke mono metajy twn dyo kosmoistorikwn maxwn sthn maxh sthn Isso kai thn maxh sta Gaygamhla, dhladh ton Noembrio toy 333 p.X. Ews kai thn 1h Oktwbrioy toy 331pX, sxedon dyo xronia meta. Den qa eixe kanena nohma h allhlografia ayth prin h meta apo ayto to xroniko diasthma. H maxh sta Gaygamhla ekrine oristika ton agwna. OI epistoles aytes exoyn doqei se emas kyriws apo toys istorikoys Arriano, Diodwro, Koyrtio, Ioystino kai Ploytarxo. Sthn epistolh poy stelnei o Dareios ston Alejandro ton onomazei adiko, kai proteinei oroys poy kata th gnwmh toy qa baloyn terma sthn adikia. Prosferei xrhmata gia thn apeleyqerwsh ths mhteras toy, ths syzygoy toy kai twn triwn paidiwn toy. Einai piqanon oti apethse epishs thn epanodo twn sxesewn metajy twn dyo kratwn opws aytes yphrjan epi twn basilewn Artajerjh (359-58 - 338p.X) kai Filippoy (359-336p.X.) san deigma kalhs qelhshs apo meroys toy Alejandroy.

    H antidrash toy Alejandroy yphrje amesh kai apofasistikh. Sthn prwth epistolh pros ton Dareio o Alejandros anaferei mia-mia tis parabiaseis diakratikwn symfwniwn apo meroys twn Perswn basilewn. Sto shmeio ayto me megalh diplwmatia anaferetai sth Makedonia kai thn "allhn Ellada" san ena synolo poy apo palia dexqhke tis Persikes epiqeseis. Epishs xronika syndeei ayton ton agwna me ta "Mhdika" dhladh toys agwnes twn Ellhnwn gia thn apokroysh twn Perswn stis arxes toy 5oy aiwna p.X., dhladh prin ekaton penhnta xronia. Me liga logia toy leei oti oi Perses adikoyn toys Ellhnes edw kai para polla xronia. Edw o Megas Alejandros kanei diplwmatiko eligmo. Ayta ta logia den qa mporoyse na ta pei an milage mono san basilias ths Makedonias, dikaiwma gi' ayta toy dinei o titlos toy hgemona twn Ellhnwn, epeidh gia to megalo xroniko diasthma sto opoio anaferetai, to drama paixqhke kyriws metajy Perswn kai Notias Elladas, enw exqroprajies metajy twn Basilikwn oikwn Makedonias kai Persias shmeiwqhkan ta teleytaia pente h estw deka xronia. O Alejandros gnwrizei kala ti dikaiwmata exei san hgemonas twn Ellhnwn kai polles fores epimenei na proballei ton polytimo ayton titlo.

    Ta epixeirhmata toy gia ton polemo enantion twn Perswn einai poly dynata. Milaei gia thn synergasia twn Perswn sth dolofonia toy Filippoy (epistolh Koyrtioy). Kathgorei ton Dareio oti paranoma anebhke sto Persiko qrono dhladh gia adikies mesa sto idio toy to kratos. Epishs tonizei ws emfash poso dolioi einai kai ti xamhla mesa metaxeirizontai gia na diafqeiroyn, kai oti kata th gnwmh toy aytoi einai poy kanoyn epiqesh enantion ths "Makedonias kai ths Allhs Ellados".

    O Alejandros qewrei san aparaithth proypoqesh gia th synach symfwnias thn anagnwrish toy san basilia ths Persias kai epomenws san basilia toy idioy toy Dareioy. An ayta ginoyn dekta apo ton Dareio tote qa mporoyse na zhthsei oti hqele. O Alejandros kanei fanero oti den anexetai kamia amfisbhthsh toy titloy poy toy edwse h shmantikh nikh sthn Isso. O Dareios den dexetai tis protaseis aytes. H maxh sta Gaygamhla dinei thn oristikh lysh. O Alejandros ginetai kyrios olhs ths Asias. Apethse ton titlo toy basilia ths Persias alla kai toy idioy toy Dareioy.

    O agwnas metajy Alejandroy kai Dareioy apoblepei, oson afora tom Dareio sth diathrhsh ths patrikhs ghs kai toy titloy, enw gia ton Alejandro einai h apokthsh aytwn kai h anagnwrish toy.

    Akoma kai o gamos poy proteinei o Dareios ston Alejandro me thn korh toy exei politiko skopo. Apoblepei sth synyparjh twn dyo kratwn, dinontas kai edafikes paraxwrhseis. O nikhths Alejandros me poly qarros tonizei oti den dexetai thn isotimh synyparjh, einai o nikhths kai basilias ths Asias.

    Shmasia den exei an den mporoyme na poyme me bebaiothta ton ariqmo twn diplwmatikwn epistolwn. Shmasia exei oti yphrje dialogos diakratikos. H diplwmatikh ayth drasthriothta apetyxe. O Alejandros anelabe kai ebgale se peras thn ekstrateia twn Ellhnwn enantion twn Perswn. Idryei kai aytos twra to Oikoymeniko toy kratos.

    [22] PERILHCH THS EISHGHSHS TOY M.B. XATZOPOYLOY STO DIEQNES SYNEDRIO STH BEROIA ME QEMA "ALEJANDROS O MEGAS: APO TH MAKEDONIA STHN OIKOYMENH"

    H organwsh ths Makedonias kata thn epoxh toy Megaloy Alejandroy

    To kyros ths dynasteias twn Thmenidwn basilewn ths Makedonias, apogonwn toy Hrakleoys kai mesw aytoy toy idioy toy Dios, epeskiaze anekaqen, toso sthn arxaia oso kai sthn newterh istoriografia, thn shmasia toy eqnoys twn Makedonwn ston politeiako kai ton politiko tomea. O basileys ypo thn triplh toy idiothta ws arxierews toy eqnoys, arxistrathgoy kai anwtatoy dikastoy katelambane olo to orato pedio ths politikhs skhnhs. O ploytos toy, hdh apo thn epoxh toy Filippoy B', meta thn prosarthsh ths eyforhs Xalkidikhs kai twn xrysoforwn perioxwn toy Paggaioy, toy epetrepe na sygkrothsei aylh apo ekatontades "etairoys" h "filoys", afosiwmenoys synergates, Makedones kai alloys Ellhnes, ikanoys na analambanoyn kaqe eidoys stratiwtikh h diplwmatikh apostolh, kaqws epishs kai na synthrei epi monimoy basews epaggelmatikh stratiwtikh dynamh xiliadwn andrwn. "O basileys", "oi filoi" kai "ai dynameis" qa apotelesoyn thn triadikh synistamenh twn kratwn twn diadoxwn toy megaloy Alejandroy. H entypwsh en toytois oti h politeiakh ypostash ths Makedonias poy klhronomhse aytos apo ton patera toy Filippo B' ejantleitai sta tria ayta stoixeia qa htan lanqasmenh.

    Ton ayqentikotero apologismo toy ergoy toy Filippoy kai synama thn ayqentikoterh apografh ths klhronomias poy parelabe apo ekeinon paradidei o idios o Alejandros sthn arxh toy logoy toy pros toys Makedones sthn Wpi ths Mesopotamias to 324 p.X.: "Filippos gar paralabwn ymas planhtas kai aporoys, en difqerais toys polloys nemontas ana ta orh probata oliga... xlamydas men ymin anti twn difqerwn forein edwke, kathgage de ek twn orwn eis ta pedia... polewn te oikhtoras apefhne kai nomois kai eqesi xrhstois ekosmhsen".

    Pragmati, h prwth diapistwsh toy epiballetai shmera amesa ston arxaiologo kai emeswtera ston istoriko einai oti h Makedonia toy teleytaioy tritoy toy D' aiwnos p.X. htan mia xwra polewn. Ta anaskafika eyrhmata twn Aigewn, ths Pellas, ths Miezas, sto Palaio Basileio, alla kai ths Aianhs, sthn Anw Makedonia, diaceydoyn panhgyrika ton edraiwmeno myqo oti oi poleis hsan "kati to mh makedoniko" h oti h Makedonia htan "feoydaliko kratos" qemeliwdws "exqriko pros tis poleis". O Alejandros omws ston logo toy den anaferetai monon sthn poleodomia kai thn arxitektonikh, alla kai stoys "xrhstoys nomoys" dhladh sthn en genei politeiakh organwsh. Pragmati, qa mporoyse kaneis, xwris na amfisbhthsei ta shmantika ylika kataloipa, na yposthrijei, opws enas sygxronos Germanos istorikos, oti "yphrxan bebaia ekei kapoioi megaloi oikismoi, alla toys eleipe ayto poy synistoyse mia polh gia toys Ellhnes. Den katoikoysan ekei ayqentikoi polites, alla gaiokthmones kai xwrikoi...". Alla kai ayth h prokatalhch katarriptetai shmera apo adiaceysta tekmhria kai kata prwto logo epigrafika.

    Molis pro deka etwn dhmosieyqhke o katalogos, syntetagmenos to 323 p.X., to etos toy qanatoy toy Megaloy Alejandroy, twn qewrodokwn, ths Nemeas, dhladh ekeinwn poy eixan analabei se kaqe polh thn ypodoxh kai filojenia twn qewrwn, twn apestalmenwn toy ieroy ths Nemeas poy periodeyan thn ellhnikh oikoymenh gia na anaggeiloyn thn prosexh telesh twn pentethrikwn panellhniwn agwnwn. Ws gnwston, oi qewroi episkeptontan monon astika kentra poy hsan synama edres aytonomwn politikwn organismwn, polewn, eqnwn h basileiwn, dioti h sygkataqesh twn armodiwn arxwn htan aparaithth gia thn apodoxh ths ieras ekexeirias, syxna de oi idies aytes arxes epelegan toys qewrodokoys. Etsi, ston katalogo ths Nemeas swzontai onomata qewrodokwn basileiwn ths Kyproy, poy einai kata kanona oi idioi oi basileis, kai polewn ths dytikhs Ellados, nhswn toy Aigaioy, ths boreio-dytikhs Mikras Asias kai ths Makedonias (Amfipolis, Lhth, Allanth isws Pella). H shmasia ths martyrias ginetai antilhpth, otan o katalogos ths Nemeas sygkriqei me ton sygxrono sxedon (330 p.X.) katalogo twn qewrodokwn toy Argoys af' enos kai ton kata 37 eth progenestero katalogo twn qewrodokwn ths Epidayroy af' eteroy. Ston prwto h Kleopatra, adelfh toy Alejandroy kai xhra toy omwnymoy basilews twn Molosswn, emfanizetai ws monh qewrodokos ths Hpeiroy. Ston deytero o qeios toy Alejandroy Perdikkas G' ws monos qewrodokos ths Makedonias. To symperasma einai profanes. Sthn Makedonia ths epoxhs toy Alejandroy, antiqeta me oti synebaine sthn sygxronh Hpeiro h sthn idia thn Makedonia mia genea enwritera, o basileys den htan to mono politeiako organo me dieqnh anagnwrish yphrxan aytonomes poleis, dhladh organismoi me anegnwrismenh nomikh proswpikothta, ikanoi na synistoyn ypokeimena "dieqnoys" dikaioy kai na dexontai apestalmenoys jenwn kratwn kai na diapragmateyontai -qewrhtika toylaxiston- mazi toys. Den yparxei de amfibolia oti h metarryqmish ayth yphrje ergo toy Filippoy, epi ths basileias toy opoioy h kaqayto Makedonia diaireqhke systhmatika se aytonomes politikes monades me thn anagnwrish toy politeiakoy kaqestwtos polews stoys astikoys oikismoys toy Palaioy Basileioy kai stis prosarthmenes palaies notio-ellhnikes apoikies, me ton synoikismo kwmwn gyrw apo mia "mhtropolh", dhladh kwmopolh, sthn endoxwra twn Newn Xwrwn kai me thn paraxwrhsh kaqestwtos polews sta eqnh ths Anw Makedonias, twn opoiwn oi polites ejakoloyqoysan ws epi to pleiston na zoyn "kata kwmas". Exei ypologisqei oti synolika h Makedonia toy Alejandroy perielambane anw twn penhnta polewn, aytonomwn dhladh politikwn monadwn.

    Metagenesteres martyries apo thn idia thn Makedonia dikaiologoysan thn ypoqesh oti hdh apo thn epoxh toy Filippoy kaqe polh, peran ths koinhs se olhn thn Makedonia nomoqesias -toso eqimikwn nomwn oso kai basilikwn "diagrammatwn"- dhladh diatagmatwn, eixe thn dikh ths nomoqesia. H eylogh ayth ypoqesh epibebaiwqhke prosfata apo thn anakalych sto Dion epigrafhs twn meswn toy D' ai. p.X. me forologiko nomo ths polews.

    Q akoloyqhsoyn alla shmantikotera keimena, opws o gymnasiarxikos nomos ths Beroias h o efhbarxikos kai o ieros nomos ths Amfipolews. Ws aytonomoi organismoi oi poleis, peran twn nomwn, poy yioqetoysan kai dhmosieyan elambanan apofaseis sxetika me trexoyses ypoqeseis. Dekades tetoia "chfismata" exoyn amajakuvhe_ sthn Makedonia xaragmena se liqo, ta arxaiotera twn opoiwn anagontai hdh ston D' ai. p.X. Xarakthristiko einai chfisma toy Dioy toy teloys mallon toy D' aiwnos sxetiko me thn aponomh timwn se eyergeth ths polews: proedria stoys gymnikoys agwnes kai ta Dionysia, anagrafh toy chfismatos se sthlh kai anaqesh ths pro toy naoy toy Olympioy Dios, kataskeyh adriantos kai idrysh toy sto temenos toy idioy qeoy, telos De, apostolh pros ton timwmeno dekameloys presbeias, symperilambanomenwn kai twn arxontwn ths polews.

    Politikh aytonomia den einai nohth xwris politikes arxes. Plhqos de epigrafikwn keimenwn, chfismatwn, wnwn, anaqhmatwn, klp, ta arxaiotera twn opoiwn anagontai sthn basileia toy Filippoy kai toy Alejandroy, mas epitrepoyn na gnwrisome thn politeiakh organwsh twn makedonikwn polewn. O epwnymos arxwn, me to onoma to opoioy xronologoynto ola ta epishma eggrafa ths polews htan sthn kaqayto Makedonia o iereys toy Asklhpioy. Apo ton D' aiwna p.X. peran twn poikilwn eggrafwn, opoy mnhmoneyontai aytoi ws meros ths xronologias, swzetai kai katalogos me ta onomata trianta ierewn toy Asklhpioy twn Kalindoiwn apo to 335/4, opote "basileys Alejandros edwke Makedosi Kalindoia kai ta xwria ta peri Kalindoia Qamiskian, Kamakaian, Tripoatin", mexri thn epishmh allagh ths dynasteias to 306/5 p.X. Oi kyriws politikoi arxontes, treis me pente ston ariqmo, stis poleis toy Palaioy Basileioy toylaxiston onomazontan "tagoi", opws kai sth Qessalia. Epikefalhs toys htan o "epistaths", to onoma toy opoioy xrhsimopoieito syxna gia th xronologhsh twn epishmwn eggrafwn mazi me ekeino toy ierews toy Asklhpioy, eniote De kai anti ekeinoy. Yphrxan epishs kai katwteroi arxontes me eidika kaqhkonta, opws tamies, agoranomoi, gymnasiarxoi klp.

    Oi arxontes prohdreyan ths boylhs kai ths ekklhsias, tis opoies sygkaloysan kai stis opoies eishgoynto tis apofaseis, dhladh ta chfismata. Epigrafh toy Dioy diaswzei to ayqentiko makedoniko onoma twn boyleytwn, poy mexri prosfata htan gnwsto monon ena xwrio toy Strabwnos kai mia "glwssa" toy lejikografoy Hsyxioy: "peliganes oi endojoi, para de Syrois oi boyleytai". H qhteia twn arxontwn htan eniaysia, o de tropos epiloghs toys htan h eklogh apo thn ekklhsia, asxetws an h basilikh ejoysia eixe thn dynatothta prowqhsews ypochfiwn arestwn s' aythn h an to "politeyma", dhladh to swma twn energwn politwn me plhrh dikaiwmata den perielambane oloys toys katoikoys. Akomh kai kata thn ellhnistikh epoxh aytoi eprepe na exoyn perioysia ajias toylaxiston 2.000 draxmwn se akinhta h se poimnia. Ayto shmaine oti apokleiontan apo ton energo politiko bio oxi monon oi doyloi kai oi apeleyqeroi kai oi prwths geneas apogonoi toys, alla kai oi emporoi kai oi biotexnes kai genikotera "oi agoraia texnh kexrhmenoi". Dhladh plhrh politika dikaiwmata eixan monon ekeinoi twn opoiwn h oikonomikh katastash kai oi epaggelmatikes ypoxrewseis den toys empodizan na askoyntai swmatika sta gymnasia kai na einai ana pasan stigmhn etoimoi na klhqoyn ypo ta opla.

    H stenotath sxesh metajy politikwn kai stratiwtikwn qesmwn, poy xarakthrizei thn arxaia Ellada genikotera einai idiaitera emfanhs sthn perifereiakh organwsh. H Makedonia hdh apo thn epoxh toy Filippoy htan dihrhmenh se megales dioikhtikes kai stqatiytij]r perifereies twn opoiwn proistanto strathgoi: thn Anw Makedonia, dytika toy Bermioy, thn Bottia, dhladh to Palaio Basileio metajy Bermioy kai Ajioy, thn Amfajitida metajy Ajioy kai koilados toy Strymonos kai ths Parastrymonia, argotera gnwsth ws Prwth Merida, sta plaisia twn opoiwn ginotan h epistrateysh. Prwteyoyses twn triwn teleytaiwn hsan antistoixa h Pella, h Qessalonikh, meta thn idrysh ths epi Kassandroy, kai h Amfipolis. Stis prwteyoyses aytes edreyan oi strathgoi epi kefalhs kaqe diamerismatos, sygkaloynto oi perifereiakes ekklhsies, sygkentrwnontan oi foroi kai argotera leitoyrgoysan nomismatokopeia. O tropos anadeijews kai h diarkeia ths qhteias twn strathgwn den einai gnwstes, fainetai pantws oti ektos apo ta topikhs fysews politika kai stratiwtika toys kaqhkonta apoteloysan kai politeiakoys paragontes. Pragmati, se synqhkh metajy Makedonwn kai Messhniwn toy teleytaioy tetartoy toy D' ai. p.X., poy anakalyfqhke prosfata dhlwnetai oti ton nenomismeno orko qa dwsoyn, ektos apo toys basileis, oi strathgoi, kaqws kai o ipparxhs twn Makedonwn.

    Politeyomenoi stis kata topoys poleis h stratologoymenoi stis epi meroys perifereies oi Makedones, -Makedones ej Aigewn h Makedones ej Amfipolews- paremenan prwtista Makedones. H eykairia na ekfrasoyn to gegonos ayto edideto dyo fores to xrono kata ta Jandika, dhladh ton ethsio kaqarmo toy strateymatos ton Martio, kai kata thn ethsia panhgyri twn Olympiwn ton Oktwbrio. Tote lambane apth ypostash to Koinon twn Makedonwn, synerxotan se ekklhsia kai chfize politikoy, timhtikoy h alloy periexomenoy "dogmata", dhladh apofaseis.

    Prin apo saranta akribws xronia o Ch. Edson dhmosieye ena gonima prwtotypo arqro ypo ton titlo "Imperium macedonieum: The Seleucid Empire and the Literary Evidence", dhladh "Makedonikon kratos: to kratos twn Seleykidwn kai oi filologikes martyries", sto opoio ejhre thn synexeia stis politeiakes domes toy makedonikoy basileioy kai twn Seleykidwn. Oi epikaires diapistwseis toy syggrafews aforoysan sxedon apokleistika toys qesmoys ths kentrikhs ejoysias. Pio prosfata o Frezouls kai idiws o P.Bernard epesyran thn prosoxh sthn prwtofanh ektash ths anaparagwghs ths makedonikhs topwnymias sthn seleykidikh Syria, me to paralio diamerisma ths Pierias, ton potamo Ajio kai tis poleis Pella, Beroia, Kyrro, Eyrwpo, Ixnes, Edessa, Dolixh, Kallipolh, Amfipolh, Areqoysa kai Dion. Analogh meleth qa ajize na afierwqei kai stoys topikoys politikoys qesmoys, twn opoiwn h makedonikh proeleysh spaniws ejairetai. Oi mhtropoleis, dhladh oi kwmopoleis- dioikhtika kentra ths notio-anatolikhs Mikras Asias (opws kai ths Aigyptoy) den einai parafyades twn taytoshmwn mhtropolewn ths Makedonias, estw kai an aytes martyroyntai ocima; Oi strathgies twn Seleykidwn den apoteloyn prosarmogh twn omwnymwn diamerismatwn ths Makedonias se mia xwra opoy, elleicei eqnikhs omoiogeneias, apoysiazei to parison toy Koinoy twn Makedonwn; Ligotero omws apo opoydhpote alloy h synexeia mporei na amfisbhthqei stoys qesmoys ths polews. Sta makedonika "ktismata" toy kratoys twn Seleykidwn, opws akribws kai sthn Makedonia, oi poleis dioikoyntai apo thn ekklhsia toy dhmoy, apo boylh ths opoias ta melh ejakoloyqoyn na feroyn to onoma peliganes kai apo synarxia arxontwn me epi kefalhs tom epistath. Ena chfisma ths Laodikeias p.x. eisagetai ws "Asklhpiadoy epistatoy kai arxontwn gnwmh" kai proteinetai pros chfish "tois peligasin". Aytoi einai oi qesmoi oi opoioi prosferoyn to oikeio politeiako periballon, kaqistwntas etsi dynath thn metoikesia xiliadwn Makedonwn apoikwn, toys opoioys h prosfora aperantwn -me ellhnika metra- gaiwn proselkyei kai parhgorei isws gia ton apokleismo toys apo thn symmetoxh toys ws politwn sthn dioikhsh toy synoloy kratoys. Aythn thn klhronomia parelabe apo ton patera toy o Alejandros kai aythn metefyteyse epetyxws o idios kai oi diadoxoi toy se edafos ejwtiko. To dioloy ashmanto ayto epiteygma apotelei omws synama kai foro timhs ston Filippo. Oi "xrhstoi nomoi" me toys opoioys eixe "kosmisei" tis poleis ths Makedonias eixan se ligotero apo dyo genees apokthsei toso baqies rizes, wste eixan ginei anapospasto tmhma ths makedonikhs politikhs paradosews.

    [23] PERILHCH THS EISHGHSHS THS MARIA LILIMPAKH - AKAMATH STO DIEQNES SYNEDRIO STH BEROIA ME QEMA "ALEJANDROS O MEGAS: APO TH MAKEDONIA STHN OIKOYMENH

    H makedonikh polh

    Oi poleis ths Makedonias poy einai gnwstes ws shmera, einai xarakthristikes ths ejelijhs ths poleodomias sto tmhma ayto toy elladikoy xwroy. Poly nwris, ston 6o ai. p.X., diamorfwnetai sthn Makedonia, stis ychles qeseis, mia poleodomikh morfh me xarakthristika ta andhra kai ta analhmmata, mia morfh poy epibiwnei ws ta ystera ellhnistika xronia. Xarakthristika paradeigmata einai h Aianh, oi Petres, h Flwrina. Mesa ston 5o ai p.X. apo thn allh pleyra, arxizei h efarmogh toy orqogwnioy systhmatos, kyriws stis pedines qeseis, me xarakthristika paradeigmata thn Olynqo kai thn Pella.

    Oi makedonikes poleis idrymenes se strathgika shmeia, eixan sxetika periorismenh ektash kai prostateyontan me teixh. H xarajh twn oikodomikwn tetragwnwn kai twn dromwn htan leitoyrgikh, kaqws lambane ypoch ths tis apaithseis ths oikistikhs diabiwshs, alla kai ths dhmosias zwhs kai ths diakinhshs agaqwn. Ta systhmata ydreyshs kai apoxeteyshs, alla kai oi xwroi ygieinhs ypodeiknyoyn synqhkes diabiwshs ychloy epipedoy. H kentrikh zwnh twn polwn me to orqogwnio systhma htan afierwmenh sth dhmosia zwh, enw ta iera, ta opoia den eixan mnhmeiako xarakthra, entassontan sta oikodomika tetragwna. Ta qeatra geitniazan me ta dhmosia ktiria kai thn Agora, enw ta nekrotafeia katalambanan megales ektaseis ejw apo tis poleis.

    H rwmaikh katakthsh toy 168 p.X. den diekoce tis drasthriothtes twn makedonikwn polewn, idiaitera ston paragwgiko tomea. H zwh orismenwn ap' aytes stamathse mesa ston 1o ai. p.X. apo fysika aitia h exqrikes dhwseis, enw alles synexisan na yparxoyn kai na akmazoyn kai sta rwmaika kai byzantina xronia.

    [24] PERILHCH THS EISHGHSHS THS S.DROYGOY STO DIEQNES SYNEDRIO STH BEROIA ME QEMA "ALEJANDROS O MEGAS: APO TH MAKEDONIA STHN OIKOYMENH

    To qeatro sthn arxaia Makedonia

    To qeatro yphrje ena shmantiko gegonos sth zwh ths Arxaias Makedonias. Poly nwris anaferontai paiktes kai hqopoioi poy tajideyoyn sth makedonikh prwteyoysa kai askoyn thn texnh toys me spoydaiotero paradeigma ton tragiko Eyripidh poy zei ta teleytaia xronia ths zwhs toy sthn aylh toy Arxelaoy. Ta arxaia qeatra poy erxontai sto fws sthn Makedonia prodidoyn akribws th shmasia twn qeatrikwn gegonotwn. Ena apo ta paliotera qeatra sthn arxaio ellhniko kosmo apodeiknyetai to qeatro ths Berginas - twn arxaiwn Aigwn. Mazi me to anaktoro synista ena shmantiko gia thn polh sygkrothma, ena sxhma poy qa epanalhfqei stis prwteyoyses twn kratwn twn diadoxwn, kaqe fora me analogh prosarmogh sth Basileia Alejandreias. Sto telos twn ellhnistikwn xronwn alla mnhmeia opws anaglyfa aggeia krasioy me parastaseis (skhnes) apo arxaia dramata, fanerwnoyn thn epibiwsh toy qeatroy kai thn isxy toy sthn arxaia Makedonia.

    [D] EIDIKO PARARTHMA II (Oi ejelijeis sto Kossyfopedio)

    [25] NATO:DIPLWMATIKH LYSH ME STRATIWTIKH EPAGRYPNHSH STO KOSSYFOPEDIO

    Proteraiothta sthn eirhnikh kai diplwmatikh dieyqethsh gia thn krish sto Kossyfopedio edwsan oi ypoyrgoi Ejwterikwn twn xwrwn - melwn ths Boreiantlantikhs Symmaxias (NATO), oi opoioi synedriasan shmera sto Loyjemboyrgo.

    Oi ypoyrgoi Ejwterikwn twn xwrwn toy NATO tonisan oti symfwnoyn me th diafylajh ths edafikhs akeraiothtas ths Gioygkoslabias kai to sebasmo twn anqrwpinwn kai politikwn dikaiwmatwn olwn twn katoikwn toy Kossyfopedioy, enw epanelaban thn antiqesh toys gia aposxish toy Kossyfopedioy apo th Serbia kai th Gioygkoslabia.

    Sthn anakoinwsh poy syntaxqhke kata thn prwth hmera ths dihmerhs synodoy sto Loyjemboyrgo ekfrazetai h elpida oti oi diplwmatikes prospaqeies qa enqarrynoyn tis serbikes arxes kai toys hgetes twn Albanwn sto Kossyfopedio stis metajy toys synomilies.

    "H diplwmatikh lysh einai prwtarxikos stoxos", tonise o ypoyrgos Ejwterikwn ths Gallias, Imper Bentrin.

    Oi ypoyrgoi Ejwterikwn twn xwrwn - melwn toy NATO symfwnhsan sthn anagkaiothta enisxyshs ths synergasias gia tis peripolies sta synora Albanias kai PGDM kai thn proetoimasia stratiwtikwn askhsewn stis xwres aytes.

    Sthn anakoinwsh anaferetai oti to symboylio toy NATO apofasise sto plaisio bohqeias thn apostolh oligariqmwn omadwn stratiwtikwn symboylwn sthn Albania kai thn PGDM, oi opoioi qa prosferoyn bohqeia gia th diasfalish twn synorwn twn dyo xwrwn.

    Akomh apofasisthke h diejagwgh askhsewn ton Aygoysto sthn Albania kaqws kai apostolh naytikhs dynamhs sto limani toy Dyrraxioy sta telh toy epomenoy mhna, enw ekfrasthkan anhsyxies gia th staqerothta sth Bosnia kai enekriqh sxedio diathrhshs toy ariqmoy twn stratiwtwn stoys 34.000, dhladh sta shmerina epipeda ]yr kai th diejagwgh twn eklogwn to Septembrio. K.G.

    [26] H ALBANIA XAIRETIZEI TIS APOFASEIS TOY NATO GIA TO KOSOBO

    Thn ikanopoihsh ths gia thn apofash toy NATO na topoqethsei strato sta synora ths Albanias kai ths PGDM me th Serbia, prokeimenoy na empodisei th dieyrynsh ths krishs sto Kossyfopedio, ejefrase shmera h albanikh kybernhsh.

    Se dhlwseis toy o Albanos ypoyrgos Ejwterikwn, Paskal Milo, tonise pws h apofash ayth deixnei thn proshlwsh ths Boreioatlantikhs Symmaxias sthn prospaqeia na apotrapei h epideinwsh ths katastashs.

    Kata th synanthsh toys oi ypoyrgoi Ejwterikwn toy NATO proeidopoihsan oti an to Beligradi epixeirhsei th dynamikh epilysh ths krishs, de qa distasoyn sthn apostolh stratoy akoma kai mesa sto Kossyfopedio. Apofasisan akomh th diejagwgh stratiwtikwn askhsewn sthn Albania, kata to mhna Aygoysto kai thn paratash ths hdh programmatismenhs askhshs sthn PGDM ton Septembrio.

    O Paskal Milo ypogrammise pws ta sxedia toy NATO dinoyn apanthsh stis anhsyxies twn Tiranwn gia dieyrynsh ths krishs sta Balkania, enw thn idia wra o ypoyrgos gia thn Eyrwpaikh Enswmatwsh, Ilir Meta, epeshmane pws h synexizomenh bia ths Serbias enantion twn Albanwn toy Kosobo, einai deigma perifronhshs toy Slompontan Milosebits apenanti sthn dieqnh koinothta. S.A.

    [27] PIQANH H SYMMETOXH ELLHNIKHS DYNAMHS SE POLYEQNIKH GIA TO KOSSYFOPEDIO, KATA TO BBC

    Oi ejelijeis sto Kossyfopedio kai h lhch metrwn gia thn apotroph endexomenhs epektashs twn polemikwn sygkroysewn stis geitonikes xwres, Albania kai PGDM, einai sto epikentro twn qematwn ths dihmerhs synodoy twn ypoyrgwn Ejwterikwn twn xwrwn melwn toy NATO, poy pragmatopoieitai sto Loyjemboyrgo.

    Qa ejetasoyn tis protaseis ths stratiwtikhs epitrophs toy NATO gia thn edraiwsh ths eirhnhs sto Kossyfopedio kai gia thn anaptyjh h mh stratiwtikhs dynamhs ths symmaxias sthn eyaisqhth ayth perioxh, se periptwsh poy h katastash epideinwqei.

    Sth desmh metrwn poy qa proteinei to NATO gia thn antimetwpish ths krishs sto Kossyfopedio, qa syzhthqoyn protaseis, opws h diejagwgh stratiwtikwn askhsewn sthn Albania kai thn PGDM, kaqws kai h ekpaideysh kai o ejoplismos twn enoplwn dynamewn twn dyo aytwn xwrwn.

    Symfwna me th radiofwnikh yphresia toy BBC, qa zhthqei apo toys stratiwtikoys sxediastes ths symmaxias na katastrwsoyn sxedia gia mia seira apo stratiwtikes epiloges, wste na antimetwpistei tyxon epideinwsh ths katastashs sto Kossyfopedio. Oi epiloges aytes einai apo thn enisxysh twn parathrhtwn poy exoyn hdh stalei sta synora Albanias-Kossyfopedioy ews kai thn anaptyjh dynamewn sthn Albania. Mia tetoia apostolh qa apaithsei thn apostolh panw apo 20 xiliadwn andrwn kai pera apo ta praktika problhmata mporei kai na synepagetai politikhs fysews dyskolies.

    Xqes stis Bryjelles, sto symboylio ths symmaxias poy synhlqe se epipedo moninwn antiproswpwn twn xwrwn- melwn, epanhlqe to qema parembashs toy NATO sta Balkania. Symfwna me th radiofwnikh yphresia toy BBC, HPA kai Gallia proteinan th diejagwgh mias meleths sxetikhs me mia piqanh stratiwtikh parembash twn dynamewn toy NATO sto idio to Kosobo, ean oi taraxes ekei ejelixqoyn se enoplh syrrajh. Sth syntajh ths meleths antitaxqhkan h Ellada kai h Bretania. Ena apo ta basika epixeirhmata toy Ellhna kai toy Bretanoy monimoy antiproswpoy, htan oti mia tetoia meleth gia th dynatothta stratiwtikhs parembashs sto Kossyfopedio, dhmioyrgei ametrhta problhmata polla apo ta opoia fainontai shmera alyta, opws p.x h parembash sto edafos enos kyriarxoy kratoys, ths Gioygkoslabias, tmhma toy opoioy einai to Kossyfopedio. Mia tetoia epembash qa parabiaze th dieqnh nomimothta.

    Se o,ti afora th qesh ths Elladas sxetika me toys tropoys antimetwpishs ths krishs sto Kossyfopedio, symfwna me to BBC, to opoio epikaleitai anepibebaiwtes plhrofories, o stratiwtikos sxediasmos ths Aqhnas prosanatolizetai pros dyo kateyqynseis: Sth symmetoxh ellhnikwn stratiwtikwn dynamewn se polyeqnikh dynamh, poy piqanon qa apostalei sthn perioxh kai sthn ypobolh protashs pros to NATO kai alloys dieqneis organismoys gia dhmioyrgia zwnhs asfaleias sta synora ths eparxias toy Kossyfopedioy me thn Albania kai thn PGDM.

    H ellhnikh politikh kai stratiwtikh hgesia einai gnwsto, oti anhsyxei gia to endexomeno ekrhjhs sto Kossyfopedio kai ejaplwshs ths entashs stis gyrw xwres, idiaitera problhmatizetai apo to endexomeno na yparjei maziko kyma albanofwnwn prosfygwn.

    Symfwna me tis plhrofories toy BBC, gia thn antimetwpish paromoiwn problhmatwn sto mellon, oi epiteleis stratiwtikoy sxediasmoy sthn Aqhna proteinoyn afenos na dhmioyrghqoyn zwnes asfaleias gyrw apo to Kossyfopedio, zwnes stis opoies qa mporesoyn na broyn katafygio kai periqalch tyxon prosfyges, enw proteinoyn afeteroy thn apostolh polyeqnikhs dynamhs sthn Albania kai thn PGDM gia thn epithrhsh twn synorwn. Oi epiteleis sthn Aqhna, symfwna panta me to BBC, epikrotoyn th symmetoxh twn ellhnikwn strateymatwn se mia tetoia dynamh. Yparxei malista h skech stoys kykloys aytoys, th bash toy ellhnikoy tmhmatos na apotelesoyn oi monades poy briskontai sthn Albania, shmeiwse.

    Parallhla, tonise to BBC, h Ellada fainetai diateqeimenh na symbalei sta plaisia toy NATO sthn ekpaideysh twn albanikwn enoplwn dynamewn. Oi idioi epitelikoi kykloi twn Aqhnwn, tonizoyn symfwna me to BBC, oti den qa prepei na yparjei monomerhs ellhnikh stratiwtikh drasthriothta, poy qa mporoyse na eklhfqei, ws energeia me epektatikes bleceis kai qa mporoyse na epibarynei to hdh yparxon klima kaxypocias sthn perioxh..

    [28] H ITALIA DEN APOKLEIEI STRATIWTIKO ELEGXO SYNORWN STO KOSSYFOPEDIO

    Thn anagkh epopteias twn synorwn ths Albanias me to Kossyfopedio tonise shmera h Italia, me dhlwsh toy prwqypoyrgoy ths Romano Pronti, o opoios ejhre thn prospaqeia ths albanikhs kybernhshs na thrhsei tis isorropies sthn perioxh.

    "Ta synora ths Albanias einai eyqraysta, dhlwse xarakthristika o Italos prwqypoyrgos Romano Pronti, meta th synanthsh toy me ton Albano omologo toy, Fatos Nano, kai tonise pws prepei na systaqoyn omades epopteias kai an xreiastei stratiwtikes dynameis, gia na epiblepoyn thn asfaleia twn synorwn.

    "'Pisteyoyme kai elpizoyme oti h astynomeysh twn synorwn einai eparkhs, shmeiwse o k. Pronti, oxi giati distazoyme na analaboyme tis eyqynes, oso giati de qeloyme na antimetwpizoyme ta Balkania, ws perioxh poy mporei na diathrhqei mono ypo steno stratiwtiko elegxo."

    Prosqese, wstoso, pws an h katastash epideinwqei ta melh ths Omadas Epafhs qa analaboyn amesws tis eyqynes toys gia thn diathrhsh ths asfaleias sthn perioxh.

    Apo thn pleyra toy o Albanos prwqypoyrgos ejefrase thn yposthrijh ths xwras toy sth metriopaqh stash toy hgeth twn Albanwn, Imprahm Roygkoba kai thn eirhnikh antistash twn Albanwn apenanti sth bia poy epideiknyoyn oi serbikes arxes enantion twn politwn. S.A.

    [29] KOSSYFOPEDIO: EKKLHSH PROS TH DIEQNH KOINOTHTA APHYQYNAN TA ALBANOFWNA KOMMATA

    Ekklhsh pros ton geniko grammatea toy OHE, Kofi Anan, thn Eyrwpaikh Enwsh, thn Omada Epafhs, to NATO kai to Eyrwpaiko Koinoboylio aphyqynan ta politika kommata twn Albanwn toy Kossyfopedioy, zhtwntas toys na askhsoyn piesh sthn hgesia toy Beligradioy, gia na diatajei na stamathsoyn oi epiqeseis enantion twn aprostateytwn, opws anaferetai, albanofwnwn.

    Opws metedwse o anejarthtos radiofwnikos staqmos toy Beligradioy "B92", ta albanofwna kommata zhthsan epishs thn egkatastash natoikwn dynamewn sto Kossyfopedio, thn amesh apostolh anqrwpistikhs bohqeias kai thn eleyqerh prosbash twn jenwn dhmosiografwn stis perioxes, opoy mainontai oi sygkroyseis. E.P.

    [30] STH XAGH ANTIPROSWPEIA TOY DIKHGORIKOY EPIMELHTHRIOY TOY KOSSYFOPEDIOY

    Fakelo poy periexei plhrofories gia ta egklhmata poy dieprajan oi serbikes dynameis sto Kossyfopedio sto diasthma Febroyarioy-Martioy qa paradwsei stoys ekproswpoys toy dikasthrioy ths Xaghs gia ta egklhmata polemoy sthn prwhn Gioygkoslabia h antiproswpeia toy dikhgorikoy epimelhthrioy toy Kossyfopedioy, apoteloymenh apo albanofwnoys dikhgoroys, h opoia brisketai apo xqes sth Xagh.

    Opws metedwse o anejarthtos radiofwnikos staqmos toy Beligradioy "B92", stoxos ths episkechs ths antiproswpeias, einai na enhmerwsei to dikasthrio ths Xaghs gia tis sygkroyseis poy shmeiwqhkan sthn perioxh ths Ntrenitsa, opoy mesa se liges meres skotwqhkan panw apo 80 albanofwnoi, anamesa toys polles gynaikes kai paidia. E.P.


    Ta plhrh arxeia twn eidhsewn toy Makedonikoy Praktoreioy einai diaqesima sthn selida toy MPE sthn dieyqynsh http://www.mpa.gr/ kai ston katoptrismo ths stis HPA sthn dieyqynsh http://www.hri.org/MPA/


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