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Department of State Publication 10136

Office of the Secretary
Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism



Appendix A: Chronology of Significant Terrorist Incidents, 1993

22 January
Peru: Terrorists detonated a van bomb at a Coca-Cola plant in central Lima. The bomb caused serious damage to the plant. At least two persons were killed and two injured. Later that day, a car bomb detonated at another Coca-Cola facility in Lima, causing only slight material damage.
24 January
Turkey: Well-known Turkish journalist Ugar Muncu, noted for his criticism of Islamic extremism and separatism, was killed when a bomb exploded under his car outside his apartment in Ankara.
28 January
Turkey: Police bodyguards foiled an attempt to ambush the motorcade of a prominent Jewish businessman and community leader in Istanbul. Police recovered an RPG- 18 rocket at the scene, and on 30 January arrested two of the terrorists as they fled toward the Iranian border.
28 January
Peru: Terrorists exploded a car bomb in front of the IBM headquarters building in Lima. Major damage was caused and eleven passersby and employees were injured.
31 January
Panama: A large group of FARC terrorists from Colombia kidnapped three U.S. missionaries from the New Tribes Mission at a location near the Colombian border. The missionaries are Mark Rich, David Mankins, and Rick Tenenoff. A five million dollar ransom has been demanded; FARC produced proof that the three missionaries were still alive in December through taped messages from the hostages to their wives. FARC is still holding the hostages.
4 February
Egypt: A molotov cocktail bomb was lobbed at a tour bus as South Korean passengers waited to embark at a hotel outside Cairo. The Islamic extremist terrorist group Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya claimed responsibility for the attack.
23 February
Colombia: Eight ELN terrorists kidnapped U.S. citizen Lewis Manning, an employee of the Colombian gold-mining company Oresom, in the Choco area. In December, the International Committee of the Red Cross received a photograph of the hostage as proof that he was still alive.
26 February
Egypt: A Swedish, Turkish and an Egyptian citizen were killed when a bomb exploded inside a cafe in downtown Cairo. Eighteen others, including U.S. citizens Jill Papineau and Raymond Chico, a Canadian and a Frenchman, were wounded.
26 February
United States: Terrorists exploded a massive van bomb in an underground parking garage below the World Trade Center in New York City. Six persons were killed and some one thousand injured. A group of Islamic extremists was later arrested.
3 March
Former Yugoslavia: Terrorists exploded a small bomb, probably a handgrenade, in front of the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade, causing minor damage but no casualties.
7 March
Germany: Terrorists firebombed the Turkish consulate in Hamburg, causing little damage and no casualties. Police arrested four persons.
8 March
Costa Rica: Four terrorists took 25 persons hostage in the Nicaraguan Embassy in San Jose, including the Nicaraguan ambassador. The hostage situation continued for several days while negotiations were conducted. On 21 March the occupation of the embassy concluded peacefully. After the hostages were released, the terrorists were permitted to leave the country.
16 March
Italy: Two terrorists on a motor-scooter shot and killed a leading Iranian dissident while he was traveling in his car in Rome.
22 March
Iraq: A Belgian official from a non-government organization involved in relief efforts in northern Iraq was shot and killed while traveling on the road between Irbil and Sulaimaniyah.
15 April
Kuwait: Kuwaiti authorities arrested seventeen persons as they attempted to infiltrate Kuwait from Iraq. An additional person was arrested later, and a large car bomb and weapons were recovered. The group stands charged with being part of an Iraqi government plot to assassinate former President Bush while he was visiting Kuwait.
20 April
Egypt: Terrorists attempted to assassinate Egyptian Information Minister Safwat Sharif in Cairo by firing shots at his motorcade. The Minister was slightly injured and his bodyguard seriously wounded. Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya claimed responsibility for the attack.
13 May
Chile: Three terrorists entered a Mormon church in Santiago, overpowered the Bishop, sprayed the church with fuel and set it afire. The church was completely destroyed. The terrorists left pamphlets at the scene in which the Mapu Lautaro group -- United Popular Action Movement -- claimed responsibility.
19 May
Peru: Terrorists detonated a car bomb in front of the Chilean Embassy in Lima at the end of a strike called by the Sendero Luminoso terrorist group. The explosion damaged the embassy and nearby houses but did not result in any casualties.
8 June
Egypt: Terrorists exploded a bomb underneath an overpass as a tour bus was on its way to the Giza pyramids. Two Egyptians were killed and six British tourists, nine Egyptians, three Syrians and at least three others were injured.
22 June
Lebanon: Two terrorists were killed and another injured while attempting to plant a bomb on a bridge near the Al-Balamand monastery. The target of the failed bomb attempt may have been a bus carrying 22 church members from around the world who were attending a meeting of the commission for dialogue between the Catholic and Orthodox churches.
24 June
Western Europe: Terrorists from the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) staged a wave of coordinated attacks in more than 30 cities in six Western European countries. The attacks consisted primarily of vandalism against Turkish diplomatic and commercial targets, and included the take- over of one Turkish consulate.
27 June
Turkey: Terrorists threw handgrenades at a number of hotels and restaurants frequented by tourists in the Mediterranean resort area of Antalya. Twelve foreigners were among the 28 persons injured. Earlier, on 9 June, PKK leader Abdulla Ocalan threatened that his group would start to use violence against tourist facilities in Western Turkey.
1 July
Japan: A few days before President Clinton's arrival at the base prior to the Group of Seven summit in Tokyo, terrorists fired two home-made rockets at the U.S. Air Force Base at Yokota, causing minimal damage but no casualties.
7 July
Japan: Terrorists exploded a home-made bomb at the United Nations Technology Center in Osaka, causing minor damage and no casualties. On 9 July the Chukaku-Ha terrorist group claimed responsibility.
7 July
Peru: Police discovered the bodies of two European tourists in a remote area of Ayacucho. The two had been traveling together in a region contested by Sendero Luminoso terrorists.
7 July
Japan: Terrorists fired four home-made projectiles at the headquarters of the U.S. Air Force in Japan at Camp Zama. None of the projectiles exploded and little damage was caused.
5 July to 14 October
Turkey: In eight separate incidents within this period, the PKK kidnapped a total of 19 Western tourists traveling in southeastern Turkey. The hostages, including U.S. citizen Colin Patrick Starger, were released unharmed after spending several weeks in captivity.
25 July
Turkey: A terrorist bomb planted in a trash can next to an automatic teller machine in the Hagia Sophia district of Istanbul exploded and wounded two Italian tourists.
27 July
Peru: After first spraying the building with automatic weapons, terrorists exploded a van bomb outside the U.S. Embassy in Lima. One embassy guard was injured. The explosion caused extensive damage to the embassy's facade and perimeter fence. Subsequent small fires caused only minor damage. The nearby Spanish Embassy, together with stores and a U.S.-owned hotel, were also damaged. Two hotel employees and a hotel guest were injured. The explosion coincided with an "armed strike" called by Sendero Luminoso.
18 August
Turkey: Terrorists threw a handgrenade underneath a Hungarian tourist bus in front of a hotel. Three foreign tourists and five Turkish bystanders were injured.
18 August
Egypt: A motorcycle bomb killed five persons and wounded some fifteen others on a road in Cairo. The bomb was directed at Egyptian Interior Minister Alfi, who was slightly injured. The Islamic extremist group New Jihad claimed responsibility.
25 August
Turkey: Four terrorists, masquerading as Turkish security officials, kidnapped Iranian dissident Mohammad Khaderi from his residence. ON 4 September his body was discovered by the side of the Kiursehir-Boztepe highway.
28 August
Turkey: Iranian dissident Behram Azadfer was assassinated by terrorists in Ankara.
2 September
Italy: Three terrorists threw a handgrenade over the fence and also fired shots at the U.S. Air Force Base at Aviano. The Red Brigades terrorist group later claimed responsibility.
9 September
Chile: Terrorists placed small bombs at two McDonalds outlets and a Kentucky Fried Chicken outlet in the Santiago area. The two bombs in the McDonalds outlets exploded, causing some damage but no casualties. The bomb in the Kentucky Fried Chicken outlet was found and deactivated. In all three instances, a male claiming to be a member of the Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR) telephoned to claim responsibility.
20 September
Algeria: One Moroccan and two French surveyors were kidnapped by terrorists s they drove between Oran and Sidi Bel Abbes. The Morrocan citizen was released unharmed, but the two Frenchmen were later found murdered.
26 September
Iraq: A United Nations truck carrying twelve tons of medical supplies was destroyed by a bomb while traveling near Irbil. The bomb had been attached to the truck's fuel tank. The driver and twelve civilians were injured.
11 October
Norway: The Norwegian publisher of Salman Rushdie's book Satanic Verses was shot and seriously wounded at his home near Oslo.
16 October
Algeria: Terrorists shot and killed two Russian military officers and wounded a third outside an apartment building near the Algerian military academy. The Russians were instructors at the academy.
19 October
Algeria: Terrorists kidnapped a Peruvian, a Filipino, and a Colombian from the cafeteria of an Italian construction firm in Tiaret. The three were technicians employed by the firm. On 21 October the three were found dead some fifty kilometers from the abduction site. Their throats had been cut. On 26 October, the extremist Armed Islamic Group claimed responsibility for this and other attacks against foreigners.
24 October
Algeria: Three French diplomats were kidnapped as they left their apartment in Algiers. A police officer who attempted to prevent the kidnapping was shot and killed. On 26 October the Armed Islamic Group claimed responsibility for the incident. The three diplomats were released unharmed on the night of 30 October.
24 October
Israel: Two small explosive charges were detonated near the French embassy in Tel Aviv. There was no damage or casualties. A member of the Jewish extremist Kahana Hay movement claimed responsibility for the explosions, saying the attack was carried out to protest PLO leader Yasir Arafat's visit to France and agreements he signed there.
25 October
Nigeria: Four members of a Nigerian dissident group hijacked a Nigerian Airways Airbus-310 airliner with 150 passengers and crew on board shortly after it took off from Lagos. After trying unsuccessfully to land the aircraft at Ndjamena, Chad, the terrorists ordered the plane to land at Niamey, Niger. The hijackers then released two groups of passengers. After lengthy but fruitless negotiations, Nigerien police stormed the aircraft on 28 October. All four of the hijackers surrendered, but one of the crew was killed and one of the hijackers during the rescue operation.
25 October
Peru: Terrorists exploded a large bomb under a minibus in the parking lot near the departure terminal at Lima's international airport. The driver of a hotel shuttle bus was killed and about 20 other persons injured. The American Airlines cargo office, which was located nearby, sustained some damage.
29 October
France: Three terrorists threw a firebomb into the Turkish-owned Bosphorus Bank in central Paris. No serious damage was caused, but four people were injured, one seriously.
4 November
Western Europe: The PKK staged a second round of coordinated attacks against Turkish diplomatic and commercial facilities in six Western European countries. The assaults consisted mainly of firebombings and vandalism, but one person was killed and about 20 injured.
8 November
Iran: Two handgrenades were thrown into the courtyard of the French embassy in Tehran, causing no casualties and little damage. On the same day, a French citizen was injured when a handgrenade was thrown into the Tehran offices of Air France. A group called the Hizballah Committee claimed responsibility for both attacks, saying they were carried out to protest the French government's support for the Mujahedin-E-Khalq.
14 November
Philippines: Terrorists from the Islamic extremist group Abu Sayyaf kidnapped a U.S. missionary, Charles M. Watson, in Pangutaran Island, Sulu Batu. The missionary worked for the Summer Institute of Linguistics. He was released unharmed in Manila on 7 December.
20 November
Peru: Terrorists exploded a satchel bomb outside the offices of the U.S. Peruvian Bi-national Center in Lima. The bomb caused minor damage but no casualties.
25 November
Egypt: A carbomb exploded near the motorcade of Prime Minister Atif Sedki; the prime Minister was unhurt but one bystander, a teen-aged girl, was killed and at least 18 persons wounded. The "Jihad Group" later claimed responsibility.
29 November
Iraq: Terrorists shot and seriously wounded the senior fuel coordinator for the Australian CARE organization in Atrush.
2 December
Algeria: A Spanish businessman was shot and killed at an illegal roadblock manned by terrorists while driving between Oran and Annaba.
4 December
Algeria: An Italian businessman was shot and wounded by a terrorist as he left his residence in a suburb of Algiers.
5 December
Algeria: Terrorists shot and killed a Russian woman as she was shopping in a market in Algiers.
7 December
Algeria: Terrorists shot and killed a British subject at a gas station in Arzew.
7 December
Algeria: Terrorists shot and killed a retired French citizen in Larba. At the time the Frenchman was in his hut on the grounds of a company for which he had once worked.
9 December
Egypt: A police officer was killed and six others injured when a group of terrorists opened fire on two movie houses which were showing foreign films. On 12 December Al-Gam'a al-Islamiyya claimed responsibility, stating that the attack was in retaliation for the screening of "immoral" films.
11 December
Egypt: Libyan dissident, human rights activist and former Foreign Minister Mansour Kikhia was kidnapped from his hotel in Cairo. Ambassador Kikhia was visiting Cairo to attend a human rights conference. He has not been heard from since.
13 December
Iraq: One person was killed and six others were injured in Sulaimaniyah when a terrorist bomb destroyed a relief center operated by the Belgian humanitarian group "Handicap International".
14 December
Algeria: A large group of armed terrorists attacked a work camp of a hydro- electric project in Tamezguida. Fourteen Croatian citizens were taken out of the camp. Twelve were murdered by having their throats slit, but two others escaped with injuries. On 16 December the Armed Islamic Group claimed responsibility, stating that the attack was part of an ongoing campaign to rid Algeria of all foreigners and to avenge Muslims killed in Bosnia.
27 December
Egypt: Seven Austrian tourists and eight Egyptians were wounded when terrorists fired on a tour bus traveling in the old district of Cairo. A small bomb which was thrown at the bus rolled near a cafe and exploded.
29 December
Algeria: Terrorists murdered a Belgian husband and wife as they slept in their home in Bouira. The husband had his throat cut, and his wife was shot.

Appendix B: Background Information on Major Groups Discussed in the Report

Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) aka: Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims.
Description: International terrorist organization led by Sabri al-Banna. Split from PLO in 1974. Made up of various functional committees, including political, military, and financial.
Activities: Has carried out over 90 terrorist attacks since 1974 in 20 countries, killing or injuring almost 900 people. Targets the united States, the United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and various Arab countries, depending on which state is sponsoring it at the time. Major attacks include Rome and Vienna airports in December 1985, the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul, the Pan Am Flight 73 hijacking in Karachi in September 1986, and The City of Poros day-excursion ship attack in July 1988 in Greece. Suspected of carrying out assassination on 14 January 1991 in Tunis of PLO deputy chief Abu Iyad and PLO security chief Abu Hul. ANO members also attacked and seriously wounded a senior ANO dissident in Algeria in March 1990.
Strength: Several hundred plus "militial" in Lebanon and overseas support structure.
Location/Area of Operation: Headquartered in Iraq (1974-83) and Syria (1983-87); currently headquartered in Libya with substantial presence in Lebanon (in the Bekaa Valley and several Palestinian refugee camps in coastal areas of Lebanon). Also has presence in Algeria. Has demonstrated ability to operate over wide area, including Middle East, Asia, and Europe.
External Aid: Has received considerable support, including safehaven, training, logistic assistance, and financial aid from Iraq and Syria (until 1987); continues to receive aid from Libya, in addition to close support for selected operations. Also has a presence in Sudan.
Al-Fatah aka: Al-'Asifa.
Description: Headed by Yasser Arafat, Fatah joined the PLO in 1968 and won the leadership role in 1969. Its commanders were expelled from Jordan following violent confrontations with Jordanian forces during the period 1970-71, beginning with Black September in 1970. The Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 led to the group's dispersal to several Middle Eastern countries, including Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, and others. Maintains several military and intelligence wings that have carried out terrorist attacks, including Force 17 and the Western Sector. Two of its leaders, Abu Jihad and Abu Iyad, were assassinated in recent years.
Activities: In the 1960s and the 1970s, Fatah offered training to a wide range of European, Middle Eastern, Asian, and African terrorist and insurgent groups. Carried out numerous acts of international terrorism in western Europe and the Middle East in the early- tomiddle 1970s. Arafat signed the Declaration of Principles (DOP) with Israel in 1993 and renounced terrorism and violence. There has been no authorized terrorist operation since that time.
Strength: 6,000 to 8,000
Location/Area of Operation: Headquartered in Tunisis, with bases in Lebanon and other Middle Eastern countries.
External Aid: Has had close political and financial ties to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other moderate Gulf states. These relations were disrupted by the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. Also had links to Jordan. Received weapons, explosives, and training from the former USSR and the former Communist regimes of East European states. China and North Korea have reportedly provided some weapons.
Algerian Terrorism
Description: Terrorism in Algeria is conducted by a number of indigenous Islamic militant groups seeking to overthrow the current secular regime and establish an Islamic state. Algerian violence began following the ouster of President Bendjedid in 1992 and the follow-on regime's voiding of the Islamic Salvation Front's (FIS) victory in parliamentary elections of December 1991. Following a government crackdown in which many FIS leaders were imprisoned or exiled, the Islamic movement in Algeria splintered into numerous militant groups, not all of which are affiliated with the FIS. Groups that have been responsible for terrorist attacks are the Armed Islamic Group (AIG), the Movement for an Islamic State (MIS), the Army of the Prophet Muhammad, the United Company of Jihad, and the Armed Islamic Movement (AIM).
Activities: Frequent attacks against regime targets, particularly police, security personnel, and government officials; these include assassinations and bombings. Algerian terrorists have turned increasingly to violence against civilians. Since June 1993, for example, they have killed seven Algerian journalists. In September 1993, Algerian terrorists began targeting foreign nationals in Algeria, murdering two Frenchmen. In October, they killed five foreign nationals and kidnapped several more, including three French Consular officials, and threatened to begin indiscriminate attacks on all foreign residents by December. Since 1992, at least 1,500 people have died in Algerian violence.
Strength: Unknown
Location/Area of operation: Algeria
External Aid: Algerian expatriates, many of whom reside in Western Europe, probably provide some financial support. In addition, Algiers accuses Iran and Sudan of supporting Algerian extremists and severed diplomatic relations with Iran in March 1993.
Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) aka: The Orly Group, 3rd October Organization
Description: Marxist-Leninist Armenian terrorist group formed in 1975 with stated intention to compel the Turkish Government to acknowledge publicly its alleged responsibility for the deaths of 1.5 million Armenians in 1915, pay reparations, and cede territory for an Armenian homeland. Led by Hagop Hagopian until he was assassinated in Athens in April 1988.
Activities: Initial bombing and assassination attacks directed against Turkish targets. Later attacked French and Swiss targets to force release of imprisoned comrades. Made several minor bombing attacks against US airline offices in Western Europe in early 1980S. Bombing of Turkish airline counter at Orly Airport in Paris in 1983--eight killed and 55 wounded--led to split in group over rationale for causing indiscriminate casualties. Suffering from internal schisms, group has been relatively inactive over past four years, although recently claimed an unsuccessful attack on Turkish Ambassador to Hungary.
Strength: A few hundred members and sympathizers.
Location/Area of Operation: Lebanon, Western Europe, Armenia, United States, and Middle East.
External Aid: Has received aid, including training and safehaven, from Syria. May also receive some aid from Libya. Has extensive ties to radical Palestinian groups, including the PFLP and PFLP-GC.
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)
Description: Founded in 1959 with the aim of creating an independent homeland in Spain's Basque region. Has muted commitment to Marxism.
Activities: Chiefly bombings and assassinations of Spanish Government targets, especially security forces. Since arrest of ETA members in France in March 1992, ETA also has attacked French interests. Finances activities through kidnappings, robberies, and extortion.
Strength: Unknown; may have hundreds of members, plus supporters.
Location/Area of operations: Operates primarily in the Basque autonomous regions of northern Spain and southwest France but also has bombed Spanish interests in Italy and Germany and French interests in Italy.
External Aid: Has received training at various times in Libya, Lebanon, and Nicaragua. Also appears to have close ties to PIRA.
Chukaku-Ha (Nucleus or Middle Core Faction)
Description: An ultraleftist/radical group with origins in the fragmentation of the Japanese Communist Party in 1957. Largest domestic militant group; has political arm plus small, covert action wing called Kansai Revolutionary Army. Funding derived from membership dues, sales of its newspapers, and fundraising campaigns.
Activities: Participates in mass street demonstrations and commits sporadic attacks using crude rockets and incendiary devices usually designed to cause property damage rather than casualties. Protests Japan's imperial system, Western "imperialism," and events like the Gulf war and the expansion of Tokyo's Narita airport. Launched at least four rockets at the Us army base at Zama, near Tokyo, at the start of the G-7 Summit in July 1993.
Strength: 3,500.
Location/Area of operation: Japan.
External Aid: None known.
CNPZ (see Nestor Paz Zamora commission)
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP)
Description: Marxist group that split from the PFLP in 1969. Believes Palestinian national goals can be achieved only through revolution of the masses. Opposes the Declaration of Principles (DOP) signed in 1993. In early 1980s, occupied political stance midway between Arafat and the rejectionists. Split into two factions in 1991, one pro-Arafat and another more hardline faction headed by Nayif Hawatmah (which has suspended participation in the PLO).
Activities: In the 1970s, carried out numerous small bombings and minor assaults and some more spectacular operations in Israel and the occupied territories, concentrating on Israeli targets such as the 1974 massacre in Malalot in which 27 Israelis were killed and more than 100 wounded. Involved only in border raids since 1988.
Strength: Estimated at 500 (total for both factions).
Location/Area of Operation: Syria, Lebanon, and the Israeli occupied territories; attacks have taken place entirely in Israel and the occupied territories.
External Aid: Receives financial and military aid from Syria and Libya.
Devrimci Sol (Revolutionary Left) aka: Dev Sol
Description: Formed in 1978 as a splinter faction of the Turkish People's Liberation Party/Front. Espouses a Marxist ideology, intensely xenophobic, and virulently anti-US and anti-NATO; seeks to unify the proletariat to stage a national revolution. Finances its activities chiefly through armed robberies and extortion.
Activities: Since late 1980s has concentrated attacks against current and retired Turkish security and military officials. Began new campaign against foreign interests in 1990. Protesting Gulf war, claimed assassination of two US military contractors, attempted assassination of a US Air Force officer. Launched rockets at US Consulate in Istanbul in April and July 1992. Terrorist activities in 1993 were less ambitious as Dev Sol worked to recover from internal factionalism and police raids that netted several operatives and large weapons caches.
Strength: Several hundred members, several dozen armed militants.
Location/Area of Operation: Carries out attacks in Turkey--primarily in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, and Adana. Conducts fundraising operations in Western Europe.
External Aid: Possible training support from radical Palestinians.
ELN (see National Liberation Army)
ETA (see Basque Fatherland and Liberty)
FARC (see Revolutionary Army Forces of Colombia)
FATAH (see Al-Fatah)
15 May Organization
Description: Formed in 1979 from remnants of Wadi Haddad's Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Operations Group (PFLP-SOG). Led by Muhammad al-Umari, who is known throughout Palestinian circles as Abu Ibrahim or the bomb man. Group was never part of PLO. Reportedly disbanded in the mid-1980s when several key members joined Colonel Hawari's Special Operations Group of Fatah.
Activities: Claimed responsibility for several bombings in the early-to-middle 1980s, including hotel bombing in London (1980), El Al's Rome and Istanbul offices (1981), and Israeli Embassies in Athens and Vienna (1981). Anti-US attacks include an attempted bombing of a Pan Am airliner in Rio de Janeiro and a bombing on board a Pan Am flight from Tokyo to Honolulu in August 1982. (The accused bomber in this last attack, Mohammed Rashid, is currently awaiting trial in the United States for the bombing, which killed a Japanese teenager.)
Strength: 50 to 60 in early 1980s.
Location/Area of Operation: Baghdad until 1984. Before disbanding, operated in Middle East, Europe, and East Asia. Abu Ibrahim is reportedly in Iraq.
External Aid: Probably received logistic and financial support from Iraq until 1984.
Force 17
Description: Formed in early 1970s as a personal security force for Arafat and other PLO leaders.
Activities: According to press sources, in 1985 expanded operations to include terrorist attacks against Israeli targets. No confirmed terrorist activity outside Israel and the occupied territories since September 1985, when it claimed responsibility for killing three Israelis in Cyprus, an incident that was followed by Israeli air raids on PLO bases in Tunisia.
Strength: Unknown.
Location/Area of Operation: Based in Beirut before 1982. Since then, dispersed in several Arab countries. Now operating in Lebanon, other Middle Eastern countries, and Europe.
External Aid: PLO is main source of support.
FPM (see Morazanist Patriotic Front)
FPMR (see Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front)
Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (aka: The Islamic Group)
Description: An indigenous Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late 1970s; appears to be loosely organized with no single readily identifiable operational leader. Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman is the preeminent spiritual leader. Goal is to overthrow the government of President Hosni Mubarak and replace it with an Islamic state.
Activities: Armed attacks against Egyptian security and other officials, coptic Christians, Western tourists, and Egyptian opponents of Islamic extremism. It assassinated the speaker of the Egyptian assembly in October 1990 and launched a series of attacks on tourists in Egypt in 1992. The group wounded the Egyptian Information Minister in an assassination attempt in April 1993.
Strength: Not known, but probably several thousand hardcore nembers and another several thousand sympathizers.
Location/Area of Operation: operates mainly in the Al Minya, Asyut, and Qina Governorates of southern Egypt. It also appears to have support in Cairo, Alexandria, and other urban locations, particularly among unemployed graduates and students.
External Aid: Not known. Egyptian Government believes that Iran, Sudan, and Afghan militant Islamic groups support the group.
HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)
Description: HAMAS was formed in late 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood and has become Fatah's principal political rival in the occupied territories. Various elements of HA-KAS have used both political and violent means, including terrorism, to pursue the goal of establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in place of Israel. HAMAS is loosely structured, with some elements working openly through mosques and social service institutions to recruit members, raise money, organize activities, and distribute propaganda. Militant elements of HAMAS, operating clandestinely, have advocated and used violence to advance their goals. HAMAS's strength is concentrated in the Gaza Strip and a few areas of the West Bank. It has also engaged in peaceful political activity, such as running candidates in West Bank chamber of commerce elections.
Activities: HAMAS activists--especially those in the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Forces--have conducted many attacks against Israeli civilian and military targets, suspected Palestinian collaborators, and Fatah rivals.
Strength: Unknown number of hardcore members; tens of thousands of supporters and sympathizers.
Location/Area of Operations: Primarily the occupied territories, Israel, and Jordan.
External Aid: Receives funding from Palestinian expatriates, Iran, and private benefactors in Saudi Arabia and other moderate Arab states. Some fundraising and propaganda activity take place in Western Europe and North America.
Hizballah (Party of God) aka: Islamic Jihad, Revolutionary Justice Organization, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine
Description: Radical Shia group formed in Lebanon; dedicated to creation of Iranian-style Islamic republic in Lebanon and removal of all non- Islamic influences from area. Strongly anti-West and antiIsrael. Closely allied with, and often directed by, Iran, but may have conducted rogue operations that were not approved by Tehran.
Activities: Known or suspected to have been involved in numerous anti-US terrorist attacks, including the suicide truck-bombing of the US Embassy and US Marine barracks in Beirut in October 1983 and the US Embassy annex in Beirut in September 1984. Group also hijacked TWA 847 in 1985. Elements of the group were responsible for the kidnapping and detention of most, if not all, US and other Western hostages in Lebanon. Islamic Jihad publicly claimed responsibility for the carbombing of Israel's Embassy in Buenos Aires in March 1992.
Strength: Several thousand.
Location/Area of Operation: Operates in the Bekaa valley, the southern suburbs of Beirut, and southern Lebanon: has established cells in Europe, Africa, South America, North America, and elsewhere.
External Aid: Receives substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons, explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid from Iran.
Japanese Red Army (JRA) aka: Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB)
Description: An international terrorist group formed around 1970 after breaking away from gapanese communist League Red Army Faction. Now led by Fusako Shigenobu, believed to be in Syrian-garrisoned area of Lebanon's Bekaa Valley. Stated goals are to overthrow Japanese Government and monarchy and to help foment world revolution. Organization unclear but may control or at least have ties to Anti- Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB); may also have links to Antiwar Democratic Front--an overt leftist political organization-- inside Japan. Details released following November 1987 arrest of leader Osamu Maruoka indicate that JRA may be organizing cells in Asian cities, such as Manila and Singapore. Has had close and longstanding relations with Palestinian terrorist groups--based and operating outside Japan--since its inception.
Activities: Before 1977, JRA carried out a series of brutal attacks over a wide geographical area, including the massacre of passengers at Lod airport in Israel (1972) and two Japanese airliner hijackings (1973 and 1977). Anti-US attacks include attempted takeover of US Embassy in Kuala Lumpur (1975). Since mid-1960s has carried out several crude rocket and mortar attacks against a number of US embassies. In April 1988, JRA operative Yu Kikumura was arrested with explosives on the New Jersey Turnpike, apparently planning an attack to coincide with the bombing of a USO club in Naples, a suspected JRA operation that killed five, including a us servicewoman. He was convicted of these charges and is serving a lengthy prison sentence in the United States.
Strength: About 30 hardcore members; undetermined number of sympathizers.
Location/Area of Operation: Based in Syrian-controlled areas of Lebanon; often transits Damascus.
External Aid: Receives aid, including training and base camp facilities, from radical Palestinian terrorists, especially the PFLP. May also receive aid from Libya. Suspected of having sympathizers and support apparatus in Japan.
Jihad Group aka: al-Jihad, Islamic Jihad, New iihad Group, Vanguards of Conquest, Talaa'al-Fateh)
Description: An Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late 1970s; appears to be divided into at least two separate factions: remnants of the original iihad led by Abbud al-Zumar, currently imprisoned in Egypt, and a new faction calling itself Vanguards of Conquest (Talaa'al al-Fateh or the New Jihad Group), which appears to be led by Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri, who is currently outside Egypt, specific whereabouts unknown. In addition to the Islamic Group, the Jihad factions regard Shaykh Omar Abdel Rahman as their spiritual leader. The goal of all Jihad factions is to overthrow the government of President Hosni Mubarak and replace it with an Islamic state.
Activities: The Jihad groups specialize in armed attacks against high-level Egyptian Government officials. The original iihad was responsible for the 1981 assassination of President Sadat. More recently, the newer iihad group led by Zawahiri claimed responsibility for the 18 August 1993 bomb attack in Cairo, which wounded Egyptian Interior Minister Hassan al-Alfi and killed five others, and the 25 November 1993 car-bomb attack in Cairo on Prime Minister Sidqi; although Sidqi was unhurt, a teenage girl was killed and 18 others were injured. Unlike the Islamic Group--which mainly targets mid-and lower-level security personnel, Coptic Christians, and Western tourists -- the Jihad group appears to concentrate primarily on high-level, high-profile Egyptian Government officials, including Cabinet Ministers. It also seems more technically sophisticated in its attacks than the al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya--notably in its use of car bombs.
Strength: Not known, but probably several thousand hardcore members and another several thousand sympathizers among the various factions.
Location/Area of Operation: Operates mainly in the Cairo area. Also appears to have members outside Egypt, probably in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Sudan.
External Aid: Not known. The Egyptian Government claims that Iran, Sudan, and militant Islamic groups in Afghanistan support the Jihad factions.
Kurdistan Workers Party aka: Kurdistan Labor Party (PKK)
Description: Marxist-Leninist insurgent group comprised of Turkish Kurds established in 1974. In recent years has moved beyond rural-based insurgent activities to include urban terrorism. Seeks to set up an independent Marxist state in southeastern Turkey, where there is a predominantly Kurdish population.
Activities: Primary targets are Turkish Government forces and civilians in eastern Turkey but becoming increasingly active in Western Europe against Turkish targets. Conducted coordinated attacks on Turkish diplomatic and commercial facilities in dozens of Western European cities on 24 June and 4 November. In May 1993 began a campaign against Turkish tourism industry and kidnapped 19 Western tourists traveling in eastern Turkey in summer 1993; released all unharmed. Also bombed tourist sites and hotels in coastal resort cities.
Strength: Approximately 10,000 to 15,000 full-time guerrillas, 5,000 to 6,000 of whom are in Turkey; 60,000 to 75,000 part-time guerrillas; and hundreds of thousands of sympathizers in Turkey and Europe.
Location/Area of Operation: Operates in Turkey and Western Europe.
External Aid: Receives safehaven and modest aid from Syria, Iraq, and Iran.
Lautaro Youth Movement (MJL) aka: The Lautaro faction of the United Popular Action Movement (MAPU/L) or Lautaro Popular Rebel Forces (FRPL)
Description: Violent, anti-US extremist group that advocates the overthrow of the Chilean Government. Leadership largely from leftist elements but includes criminals and alienated youths. Became active in late 1980s, but has been seriously weakened by government counterterrorist successes in recent years.
Activities: Has been linked to assassinations of policemen, bank robberies, and attacks on Mormon churches.
Strength: Unknown.
Location/Area of operation: Chile; mainly Santiago.
External Aid: None.
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Other known front organizations: World Tamil Association (WTA), World Tamil Movement (WTM), the Federation of Associations of Canadian Tamils (FACT)
Description: Founded in 1976, the LTTE is the most powerful group in Sri Lanka and uses overt and illegal methods to raise funds, acquire weapons, and publicize its cause of establishing an independent Tamil state. The LTTE began its armed conflict with the Sri Lankan government in 1983 and relies on a guerrilla strategy that includes the use of terrorist tactics.
Activities: The Tigers have integrated a battlefield insurgent strategy with a terrorist program that targets not only key personnel in the countryside but also senior Sri Lankan political and military leaders in Colombo. Political assassinations have become commonplace and culminated in May 1993 with the fatal bombing of President Ranasinghe Premadasa. Other key figures assassinated since 1990 include moderate Tamil leader A. Amirthalingam (1990), Cabinet Minister Ranjan Wijeratne (1990), former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi (1991), Army General Denzil Kobbakaduwa (1992), Navy Chief Vice Admiral Clancy Fernando (1992), and opposition party leader Lalith Athulathmudali.
Strength: Approximately 10,000 armed combatants in Sri Lanka; about three to six thousand form a trained cadre of fighters. The LTTE also has a significant overseas support structure for fundraising, weapons procurement, and propaganda activities.
Location/Area of Operation: The Tigers control most of the northern and eastern coastal areas of Sri Lanka but have conducted operations throughout the island. Headquartered in the Jaffna peninsula, LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran has established an extensive network of checkpoints and informants to keep track of any "outsiders" who enter the group's area of control. The LTTE prefers to attack vulnerable government facilities, then withdraw before reinforcements arrive.
External aid: The LTTE's overt organizations support Tamil separatism by lobbying foreign governments and the United Nations. The LTTE also uses its international contacts to procure weapons, communications, and bomb-making equipment. The LTTE exploits large Tamil communities in North America, Europe, and Asia to obtain funds and supplies for its fighters in Sri Lanka. Information obtained since the mid- 1980s indicates that some Tamil communities in Europe are also involved in narcotics smuggling. Tamils historically have served as drug couriers moving narcotics into Europe.
Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR)
Description: Original FPMR was founded in 1983 as armed wing of Chilean Communist Party and named for hero of Chile's war of independence against Spain. Group splintered into two factions in late 1980s, one of which became a political party in 1991.
Activities: FPMR/D frequently attacks civilians and international targets, including US businesses and Mormon churches. In 1993, FPMR/D bombed two McDonalds' outlets and a Kentucky Fried Chicken franchise. Successful government counterterrorist operations have significantly undercut organization.
Strength: Now believed to have fewer than 500 members.
Location/Area of Operation: Chile.
External Aid: None.
The Mojahedin-e Khalq (MEK) aka: The National Liberation Army of Iran (The military wing of the MEK), Muslim Iranian Students Society (front organization used to garner financial support)
Description: Formed in the 1960s by the college-educated children of Iranian merchants, the MEK sought to counter what is perceived as excessive Western influence in the Shah's regime. In the 1970s, the MEK -- led by Masud Rajavi after 1978 -- concluded that violence was the only way to bring about change in Iran. Since then, the MEK -- following a philosophy that mixes Marxism and Islam -- has developed into the largest and most active armed Iranian dissident group. Its history is studded with anti-Western activity, and, most recently, attacks on the interests of the clerical regime in Iran and abroad.
Activities: The MEK directs a worldwide campaign against the Iranian Government that stresses propaganda and occasionally uses terrorist violence. During the 1970s, the MEK staged terrorist attacks inside Iran to destabilize and embarrass the Shah's regime; the group killed several U.S. military personnel and civilians working on defense projects in Tehran. In 1979 the group supported the takeover of the US Embassy in Tehran. In April 1992, the MEK carried out nearly simultaneous attacks on Iranian Embassies in 13 different countries in North America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The attacks caused extensive property damage and demonstrated the group's ability to mount large-scale operations overseas. The group is responsible for two armed attacks during 1993.
Strength: Several thousand fighters based in Iraq with an extensive overseas support structure. Most of the fighters are organized in the MEK's National Liberation Army (NLA).
Location/Area of Operation: In the 1980s, the MEK's leaders were forced by Iranian security forces to flee to France. Most resettled in Iraq by 1987. Since the mid-1980s, the MEK has not mounted terrorists operations in Iran at a level similar to its activities in the 1970s. Aside from the National Liberation Army's attacks into Iran toward the end of the Iran-Iraq war, and occasional NLA cross- border incursions since, the MEK's attacks on Iran have amounted to little more than harassment. The MEK has had more success in confronting Iranian representatives overseas through propaganda and street demonstrations.
External Aid: Beyond support from Iraq, the MEK uses front organizations to solicit contributions from expatriate Iranian communities.
MJL (see Lautaro Youth Movement)
Morazanist Patriotic Front (FPM)
Description: A radical, leftist terrorist group that first appeared in the late 1980s. Attacks made in protest of US intervention in Honduran economic and political affairs.
Activities: Attacks on US, mainly military, personnel in Honduras. Claimed responsibility for attack on a bus in March 1990 that wounded seven US servicemen. Claimed bombing of Peace Corps office in December 1988, bus bombing that wounded three US servicemen in February 1989, attack on US convoy in April 1989, and grenade attack that wounded seven US soldiers in La Ceiba in July 1989.
Strength: Unknown, probably relatively small.
Location/Area of Operation: Honduras.
External Aid: Had ties to former Government of Nicaragua and possibly Cuba.
MRTA (see Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement)
National Liberation Army (ELN) - Bolivia includes Nestor Paz Zamora Commission (CNPZ)
Description: ELN claims to be resuscitation of group established by Che Guevara in 1960S. Includes numerous small factions of indigenous subversive groups, including CNPZ, which is largely inactive today.
Activities: ELN and CNPZ have attacked US interests in past years but focused almost exclusively on Bolivian domestic targets in 1993.
Strength: Unknown; probably fewer than 100.
Location/Area of Operation: Bolivia.
External Aid: None.
National Liberation Army (ELN)--Colombia
Description: Rural-based, anti-US, Maoist-Marxist-Leninist guerrilla group formed in 1963. Attempted peace talks with the government ended in May 1992.
Activities: Periodically kidnaps foreign employees of large corporations and holds them for large ransom payments. Conducts frequent assaults on oil infrastructure and has inflicted major damage on pipelines since 1986. Extortion and bombings against US and other foreign businesses, especially the petroleum industry.
Strength: Has fallen off in recent years and now estimated at only about 700 combatants.
Location/Area of Operation: Colombia.
External Aid: None.
New People's Army (NPA)
Description: The guerrilla arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines, an avowedly Maoist group formed in December 1969 with the aim of overthrowing the government through protracted guerrilla warfare. Although primarily a rural-based guerrilla group, the NPA has an active urban infrastructure to carry out terrorism; uses citybased assassination squads called sparrow units. Derives most of its funding from contributions of supporters and so-called revolutionary taxes extorted from local businesses.
Activities: The NPA is in disarray because of a split in the CPP, a lack of money, and successful government operations. With US military gone from the country, NPA has engaged in urban terrorism against the police, corrupt politicians, drug traffickers, and other targets that evoked popular anger. Has vowed to kill US citizens involved in counterinsurgency campaign. Has assassinated 10 US military and private citizens since 1987. Has also attacked US businesses in rural areas that refused to pay so-called revolutionary taxes.
Strength: 16,000, plus support groups.
Location/Area of Operation: Philippines.
External Aid: Receives funding from overseas fundraisers in Western Europe and elsewhere; also linked to Libya. Diverts some funding of humanitarian aid.
Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)
Description: Terrorist group that broke away from the PFLP-GC in mid-1970s. Later split again into pro-PLO, pro-Syrian, and pro-Libyan factions. Pro-PLO faction led by Muhammad Abbas (Abu Abbas), who became member of PLO Executive Committee in 1984 but left the Executive Committee in 1991.
Activities: Abu Abbas-led faction carried out abortive seaborne attack staged from Libya against Israel on 30 May 1990. Abbas's group was also responsible for October 1985 attack on the cruise ship Achille Lauro and the murder of US citizen Leon Klinghoffer. A warrant for Abu Abbas's arrest is outstanding in Italy. Others involved in the hijacking are wanted elsewhere. Openly supported Iraq during Gulf war.
Strength: At least 50.
Location/Area of Operation: PLO faction based in Tunisia until Achille Lauro attack. Now based in Iraq.
External Aid: Receives logistic and military support mainly from PLO, but also Libya and Iraq.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
On September 9, 1993, in letters to Israeli Prime Minister Rabin and Norwegian Foreign Minister Holst, PLO Chairman Arafat committed the PLO to cease all violence and terrorism. On September 13, 1993, the Declaration of Principles between the Israelis and Palestinians was signed in Washington, D.C. Bewteen September 9 and December 31, the PLO factions loyal to Arafat complied with this commitment except for one, perhaps two, instances in which the responsible individuals apparently acted independently. Two groups under the PLO unbrella, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine - Hawatmeh faction (DFLP-H), suspended their participation in the PLO in protest of the agreement and continued their campaign of violence. The United States Government continues to monitor closely PLO compliance with its commitment to abandon terrorism and violence.
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
Description: The PIJ originated among militant Palestinian fundamentalists in the Gaza Strip during the 1970s. The PIJ is a series of loosely affiliated factions, rather than a cohesive group. The PIJ is committed to the creation of an Islamic Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel through holy war. Because of its strong support for Israel, the United States has been identified as an enemy of the PIJ. The PIJ also opposes moderate Arab governments that it believes have been tainted by Western secularism.
Activities: The PIJ demonstrated its terrorist credentials when it attacked a tour bus in Egypt in February 1990 and killed 11 people, including nine Israelis. The PIJ also has carried out crossborder raids against Israeli targets in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The PIJ has threatened to attack US interests in Jordan. PIJ agents were arrested in Egypt in September 1991 while attempting to enter the country to conduct terrorism.
Strength: Unknown.
Location/Area of operation: Primarily Israel and the occupied territories and other parts of the Middle East, including Jordan and Lebanon.
External Aid: Uncertain, possibly Iran and Syria.
PKK (see Kurdistan Workers Party)
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
Description: Marxist-Leninist group that is a member of the PLO founded in 1967 by George Habash. After Fatah, is the most important military and political organization in the Palestinian movement. Advocates a Pan-Arab revolution. Opposes the Declaration of Principles signed in 1993 and has suspended participation in the PLO.
Activities: Committed numerous international terrorist attacks between 1970 and 1977. Since the death in 1978 of Wadi Haddad, its terrorist planner, PFLP has carried out numerous attacks against Israeli or moderate Arab tarqets.
Strength: 800.
Location/Area of Operation: Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and the occupied territories.
External Aid: Receives most of its financial and military assistance from Syria and Libya.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC)
Description: Split from the PFLP in 1968, claiming that it wanted to focus more on fighting and less on politics. Violently opposed to Arafat's PLO. Led by Ahmed Jabril, a former captain in the Syrian Army. Closely allied with, supported by, and probably directed by Syria.
Activities: Claims to have specialized in suicide operations. Has carried out numerous cross-border terrorist attacks into Israel, using unusual means, such as hot-air balloons and motorized hang gliders. Hafiz Kassem Dalkamoni, a ranking PFLP-GC official, was convicted in Germany in June 1991 for bombing US troop trains. He faces additional charges in Germany for other terrorist offenses, including manslaughter.
Strength: Several hundred.
Location/Area of Operation: Headquarters in Damascus with bases in Lebanon and cells in Europe.
External Aid: Receives logistic and military support from Syria, its chief sponsor. Financial support from Libya. Safehaven in Syria . Support also from Iran.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Command (PFLP-SC)
Description: Marxist-Leninist group formed by Abu Salim in 1979 after breaking away from the now defunct PFLP-Special Operations Group.
Activities: Has claimed responsibility for several notorious international terrorist attacks in Western Europe, including the bombing of a restaurant frequented by US servicemen in Torrejon, Spain, in April 1985. Eighteen Spanish civilians were killed in the attack.
Strength: 50.
Location/Area of Operation: Operates out of southern Lebanon, in various areas of the Middle East, and in Western Europe.
External Aid: Probably receives financial and military support from Syria, Libya, and Iraq.
Popular Struggle Front (PSF)
Description: Radical Palestinian terrorist group once closely involved in the Syrian-dominated Palestinian National Salvation Front. Led by Dr. Samir Ghosheh. Rejoined the PLO in September 1991. Group is internally divided over the Declaration of Principles signed in 1993.
Activities: Terrorist attacks against Israeli, moderate Arab, and PLO targets.
Strength: Fewer than 300.
Location/Area of Operation: Mainly Syria and Lebanon, and elsewhere in the Middle East.
External Aid: Receives support from Syria and may now receive aid from the PLO.
Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) aka: The Provos
Description: A radical terrorist group formed in 1969 as the clandestine armed wing of Sinn Fein, a legal political movement dedicated to removing British forces from Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland. Has a Marxist orientation. Organized into small, tightly knit cells under the leadership of the Army Council.
Activities: Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, extortion, and robberies. Targets senior British Government officials, British military and police in Northern Ireland, and Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary groups. PIRA's operations on mainland Britain in 1993 included a large truck bombing in London's financial district and a major bombing campaign against train and subway stations and shopping areas.
Strength: Several hundred, plus several thousand sympathizers.
Location/Area of Operation: Northern Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain, and Western Europe.
External Aid: Has received aid from a variety of groups and countries and considerable training and arms from Libya and, at one time, the PLO. Also is suspected of receiving funds and arms from sympathizers in the United States. Similarities in operations suggest links with ETA
Puka Inti (Sol Rojo, Red Sun)
Description: Small but violent subversive group probably formed from dissident members of AVC guerrilla organization, which made peace with the Ecuadoran Government in 1989. Believed to be anti-US.
Activities: Series of bombings of government buildings have been attributed to Puka Inti, but group appears to lack resources to expand much beyond current strength.
Strength: Very small, perhaps fewer than 50.
External Aid: None.
Red Army Faction (RAF)
Description: The small and disciplined RAF is the successor to the Baader- Meinhof Gang, which originated in the student protest movement in the 1960s. Ideology is an obscure mix of Marxism and Maoism; committed to armed struggle. organized into hardcore cadres that carry out terrorist attacks and a network of supporters who provide logistic and propaganda support. Has survived despite numerous arrests of top leaders over the years.
Activities: Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and robberies. With decline of world communism, has had trouble recruiting replacements for jailed members. Now concentrating on domestic targets, particularly officials involved in German or European unification and German security and justice officials. Carried out one operation in 1993, destroying a new prison with 600 pounds of commercial explosives. Police shootout with two members ended in death of GSG-9 officer and group member Wolfgang Grams. Group temporarily gaivanized afterward. RAF has targeted US and NATO facilities in the past. During Gulf war, RAF shot up US Embassy in Bonn with assault rifle rounds. There were no casualties, however.
Strength: Ten to 20, plus several hundred supporters.
Location/Area of Operations: Germany.
External Aid: Self-sustaining, but during Baader-Meinhof period received support from Middle Eastern terrorists. East Germany gave logistic support, sanctuary, and training during the 1980s.
Red Brigades (BR)
Description: Formed in 1969, the Marxist-Leninist BR seeks to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the Western Alliance. In 1984 split into two factions: the Communist Combatant Party (BR-PCC) and the Union of Combatant Communists (BR-UCC).
Activities: Original group concentrated on assassination and kidnapping of Italian Government and private-sector targets; it murdered former Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1978, kidnapped US Army BGen. James Dozier in 1981, and claimed responsibility for murdering Leamon Hunt, US chief of the Sinai Multinational Force and Observer Group, in 1984. The group had been largely inactive since Italian and French authorities arrested many of its members in 1989.
Strength: Probably fewer than 50, plus an unknown number of supporters.
Location/Area of Operation: Based and operates in Italy. Some members probably living clandestinely in other European countries.
External Aid: Currently unknown; original group apparently was self-sustaining but probably received weapons from other Western European terrorist groups and from the PLO.
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
Description: Established in 1966 as military wing of Colombian Communist Party. Goal is to overthrow government and ruling class. Organized along military lines; includes at least one urban front.
Activities: Armed attacks against Colombian political and military targets. Many members have become criminals, carrying out kidnappings for profit and bank robberies. Foreign citizens often are targets of FARC kidnappings. Group traffics in drugs and has welldocumented ties to narcotraffickers.
Strength: Approximately 4,500 to 5,500 armed combatants and an unknown number of supporters, mostly in rural areas.
Location/Area of Operation: Colombia.
External Aid: None.
Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17 November)
Description: A radical leftist group established in 1975 and named for the November 1973 student uprising protesting the military regime. Anti-US, anti-Turkish, anti-NATO; committed to violent overthrow of the regime, ouster of US bases, removal of Turkish military presence from Cyprus, and severing of Greece's ties to NATO and the EC. Organization is obscure, possibly affiliated with other Greek terrorist groups.
Activities: Initial attacks were selected handgun assassinations against senior US officials, including US Embassy official Richard Welch in 1975 and US Navy Capt. George Tsantes in 1983. Began assassinating Greek officials and public figures in 1976 and added bombings, including attacks against US military buses in 1987 and assassination of US defense attache William Nordeen in 1988. Since 1990 has expanded targeting to include EC facilities and foreign firms investing in Greece and added improvised rocket attacks to its methods. Such an attack against the Greek Finance Minister in 1992 killed a passerby, 17 November's first "civilian" casualty. In 1991 was responsible for at least five of the 15 terrorist attacks against Coalition targets in Greece during the Gulf war, including the assassination in March of a US Army sergeant. Also stepped up attacks against Turkish interests with attempted murder of Turkish Embassy official in July 1991, and assassination of Turkish Embassy press attache in October 1991.
Strength: Unknown, but presumed to be small.
Location/Area of operation: Greece, primarily in Athens metropolitan area.
External Aid: May receive support from other Greek terrorist group cadres.
Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path, SL)
Description: Larger of Peru's two insurgencies, SL is among world's most ruthless guerrilla organizations. Formed in late 1960s by then university professor Abimael Guzman. Stated goal is to destroy existing Peruvian institutions and replace them with peasant revolutionary regime. Also wants to rid Peru of foreign influences. Guzman's capture in September 1992 was major blow, as were arrests of other SL leaders, defections, and President Fujimorils amnesty program for repentant terrorists.
Activities: SL engages in particularly brutal forms of terrorism, including the indiscriminate use of car bombs. Almost every institution in Peru has been a target of SL violence. Has bombed diplomatic missions of several countries represented in Peru. Carries out bombing campaigns and selective assassinations. Involved in cocaine trade.
Strength: Approximately 1,500 to 2,500 armed militants; larger number of supporters, mostly in rural areas.
Location/Area of Operation: Originally rural based, but has increasingly focused its terrorist attacks in the capital.
External Aid: None.
17 November (see Revolutionary Organization 17 November)
Sikh Terrorism
Description: Sikh terrorism is sponsored by expatriate and Indian Sikh groups who want to carve out an independent Sikh state called Khalistan (Land of the Pure) from Indian territory. Sikh violence outside India, which surged following the Indian Army's 1984 assault on the Golden Temple, Sikhism's holiest shrine, has decreased significantly since mid-1992, although Sikh militant cells are active internationally and extremists gather funds from overseas Sikh communities. Active groups include Babbar Khalsa, Azad Khalistan Babbar Khalsa Force, Khalistan Liberation Front, Khalistan Commando Force, and Khalistan National Army. Many of these groups operate under umbrella organizations, the most significant of which is the Second Panthic committee.
Activities: Sikh attacks in India are mounted against Indian officials and facilities, other Sikhs, and Hindus; they include assassinations, bombings, and kidnappings. Sikh extremists probably bombed the Air India jet downed over the Irish Sea in June 1985, killing 329 passengers and crew. On the same day, a bomb planted by Sikhs on an Air India flight from Vancouver exploded in Tokyo's Narita Airport, killing two Japanese baggage handlers. In 1991, Sikh terrorists attempted to assassinate the Indian Ambassador in Romania-- once India's senior police officer in Punjab from 1986 to 1989--and kidnapped and held the Romanian charge in New Delhi for seven weeks. In January 1993, Indian police arrested Sikhs in New Delhi as they were conspiring to detonate a bomb to disrupt India's Republic Day, and, in September 1993, Sikh militants attempted to assassinate the Sikh chief of the ruling Congress Party's youth wing with a bomb. Sikh attacks in India, ranging from kidnappings and assassinations to remote-controlled bombings, have dropped markedly since mid-1992 as Indian security forces have killed or captured a host of senior Sikh militant leaders. Total civilian deaths in Punjab have declined more than 95 percent since more than 3,300 civilians died in 1991. The drop results largely from Indian Army, paramilitary, and police successes against extremist groups.
Strength: Unknown.
Location/Area of Operation: Northern India, Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and North America.
External Aid: Sikh expatriates have formed a variety of international organizations that lobby for the Sikh cause overseas. Most prominent are the World Sikh Organization and the International Sikh Youth Federation.
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)
Description: Traditional Marxist-Leninist revolutionary movement formed in 1983. Currently struggling to remain viable. Has suffered from defections and government counterterrorist successes in addition to infighting and loss of leftist support. objective remains to rid Peru of "imperialism" and establish Marxist regime.
Activities: Bombings, kidnappings, ambushes, assassinations. Previously responsible for large number of anti-US attacks; recent activity has dropped off dramatically.
Strength: Unknown; greatly diminished in past year.
Location/Area of Operation: Peru; provided assistance in Bolivia to Bolivian ELN.
External Aid: None.
Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army (EGTK)
Description: Indigenous, anti-Western Bolivian subversive organization.
Activities: Frequently attacks small, unprotected targets, such as power pylons, oil pipelines, and government offices. Has targeted Mormon churches with fire- bombings and attacked USAID motorpool in January 1993.
Strength: Fewer than 100
Location/Area of Operation: Bolivia, primarily the Chapare region, near the Peruvian border, and the Altiplano.
External Aid: None.

Appendix C: Statistical Review

[EDITOR'S NOTE: Appendixes C-Statistical Review, and D-Map of International Terrorist Incidents, 1993 are not available in ASCII format.]

Appendix D: International Terrorist Incidents, 1994

[EDITOR'S NOTE: Appendixes C-Statistical Review, and D-Map of International Terrorist Incidents, 1993 are not available in ASCII format.]
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