Maastricht Treaty - Final Act
1. The Conferences of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member
States convened in Rome on 15 December 1990 to adopt by common accord the
amendments to be made to the Treaty establishing the European Economic
Community with a view to the achievement of political union and with a view to
the final stages of economic and monetary union, and those convened in
Brussels on 3 February 1992 with a view to amending the Treaties establishing
respectively the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Atomic
Energy Community as a result of the amendments envisaged for the Treaty
establishing the European Economic Community have adopted the following texts:
I the Treaty on European Union
The Conferences agreed that the Protocols referred to in 1 to 16 above will be
annexed to the Treaty establishing the European Community and that the
Protocol referred to in 17 above will be annexed to the Treaty of European
Union and to the Treaties establishing the European Communities.
- Protocol on the acquisition of property in Denmark
- Protocol concerning Article 119 of the Treaty establishing the European
- Protocol on the Statute of the European System of central banks and of the
European Central Bank
- Protocol on the Statute of the European Monetary Institute
- Protocol on the excessive deficit procedure
- Protocol on the convergence criteria referred to in Article 109j of the
Treaty establishing the European Community
- Protocol amending the Protocol on the privileges and immunities of the
- Protocol on Denmark
- Protocol on Portugal
- Protocol on the transition to the third stage of economic and monetary
- Protocol on certain provisions relating to the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland
- Protocol on certain provisions relating to Denmark.
- Protocol on France
- Protocol on social policy, to which is annexed an agreement concluded
between the Member States of the European Community with the exception of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, to which two
declarations are attached
- Protocol on economic and social cohesion
- Protocol on the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the
- Protocol annexed to the Treaty on European Union and to the Treaties
establishing the European Communities
2. At the time of signature of these texts, the Conferences adopted the
declarations listed below and annexed to this Final Act:
Done at Maastricht this seventh day of February in the year on thousand nine
hundred and ninety-two
- Declaration on civil protection, energy and tourism
- Declaration on nationality of a Member State
- Declaration on Part Three, Titles III and VI, of the Treaty establishing
the European Community
- Declaration on Part Three, Title VI, of the Treaty establishing the
- Declaration on monetary cooperation with non-Community countries
- Declaration on monetary relations with the Republic of San Marino, the
Vatican City and the Principality of Monaco
- Declaration on Article 73d of the Treaty establishing the European
- Declaration on Article 109 of the Treaty establishing the European Economic
- Declaration on Part Three, Title XVI, of the Treaty establishing the
- Declaration on Articles 109, 130r and 130y of the Treaty establishing the
- Declaration on the Directive of 24 November 1988 (Emissions)
- Declaration of the European Development Fund
- Declaration on the role of national Parliaments in the European Union
- Declaration on the Conference of the Parliaments
- Declaration on the number of members of the Commission and of the European
- Declaration on the hierarchy of Community Acts
- Declaration on the right of access to information
- Declaration on estimated costs under Commission proposals
- Declaration on the implementation of Community law
- Declaration on assessment of the environmental impact of Community
- Declaration on the Court Auditors
- Declaration of the Economic and Social Committee
- Declaration on cooperation with charitable associations
- Declaration on the protection of animals
- Declaration on the representation of the interests of the overseas
countries and territories referred to in Article 227(3) and (5)(a) and (b) of
the Treaty establishing the European Community
- Declaration on the outermost regions of the Community
- Declaration on voting in the field of the common foreign and security
- Declaration on practical arrangements in the field of the common foreign
and security policy.
- Declaration on the use of languages in the field of the common foreign and
- Declaration on Western European Union
- Declaration on asylum
- Declaration on police cooperation
- Declaration on disputes between the ECB and the EMI and their servants
The Conference declares that the question of introducing into the Treaty
establishing the European Community Titles relating to the spheres referred to
in Article 3(t) of that Treaty will be examined, in accordance with the
procedure laid down in Article N(2) of the Treaty on European Union, on the
basis of a report which the Commission will submit to the Council by 1996 at
ON CIVIL PROTECTION, ENERGY AND TOURISM
The Commission declares that Community action in those spheres will be pursued
on the basis of the present provisions of the Treaties establishing the
The Conference declares that, wherever in the Treaty establishing the European
Community reference is made to nationals of the Member States, the question
whether an individual possesses the nationality of a Member State shall be
settled solely by reference to the national law of the Member State concerned.
Member States may declare, for information, who are to be considered their
nationals for Community purposes by way of declaration lodged with the
Presidency and may amend any such declarations when necessary.
ON NATIONALITY OF A MEMBER STATE
The Conference affirms that, for the purposes of applying the provisions set
out in Part Three, Title III, Chapter 4 on capital and payments, and Title VI
on economic and monetary policy, of this Treaty, the usual practice, according
to which the Council meets in the composition of Economic and Finance
Ministers, shall be continued, without prejudice to Article 109j(2) to (4) and
ON PART THREE,TITLES III AND VI, OF THE TREATY ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN
The Conference affirms that the President of the European Council shall invite
the Economic and Finance Ministers to participate in European Council meetings
when the European Council is discussing matters relating to Economic and
ON PART THREE, TITLE VI, OF THE TREATY ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
The Conference affirms that the Community shall aim to contribute to stable
international monetary relations. To this end the Community shall be prepared
to cooperate with other European countries and with those non-European
countries with which the Community has close economic ties.
ON MONETARY COOPERATION WITH NON-COMMUNITY COUNTRIES
The Conference agrees that the existing monetary relations between Italy and
San Marino and the Vatican City and between France and Monaco remain
unaffected by the Treaty establishing the European Community until the
introduction of the ECU as the single currency of the Community.
ON MONETARY RELATIONS WITH THE REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO, THE VATICAN CITY AND
THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO
The Community undertakes to facilitate such renegotiations of existing
arrangements as might become necessary as a result of the introduction of the
ECU as a single currency.
The Conference affirms that the right of Member States to apply the relevant
provisions of their tax law as referred to in Article 73d(1)(a) of this Treaty
will apply only with respect to the relevant provisions which exist at the end
of 1993. However, this Declaration shall apply only to capital movements
between Member States and to payments effected between Member States.
ON ARTICLE 73d OF THE TREATY ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
The Conference emphasizes that use of the term "formal agreements" in Article
109(1) is not intended to create a new category of international agreement
within the meaning of Community law.
ON ARTICLE 109 OF THE TREATY ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
The Conference considers that, in view of the increasing importance of nature
conservation at national, Community and international level, the Community
should, in exercising its powers under the provisions of Part Three, Title
XVI, take account of the specific requirements of this area.
ON PART THREE, TITLE XV1, OF THE TREATY ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
The Conference considers that the provisions of Article 109(5), Article
130r(4), second subparagraph, and Article 130y do not affect the principles
resulting from the judgment handed down by the Court of Justice in the AETR
ON ARTICLES 109, 130r AND 130y of THE TREATY ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN
The Conference declares that changes in Community legislation cannot undermine
the derogations granted to Spain and Portugal until 31 December 1999 under the
Council Directive of 24 November 1988 on the limitation of emissions of
certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants.
ON THE DIRECTIVE OF 24 NOVEMBER 1988 (Emissions)
The Conference agrees that the European Development Fund will continue to be
financed by national contributions in accordance with the current provisions.
ON THE EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT FUND
The Conference considers that it is important to encourage greater involvement
of national Parliaments in the activities of the European Union.
To this end, the exchange of information between the national Parliaments and
the European Parliament should be stepped up. In this context, the governments
of the Member States will ensure, inter alia, that national Parliaments
receive Commission proposals for legislation in good time for information or
ON THE ROLE OF NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
Similarly, the Conference considers that it is important for contacts between
the national Parliaments and the European Parliament to be stepped up, in
particular through the granting of appropriate reciprocal facilities and
regular meetings between members of Parliament interested in the same issues.
The Conference invites the European Parliament and the national Parliaments to
meet as necessary as a Conference of the Parliaments (or "Assises")
The Conference of the Parliaments will be consulted on the main features of
the European Union, without prejudice to the powers of the European Parliament
and the rights of the national Parliaments. The President of the European
Council and the President of the Commission will report to each session of the
Conference of the Parliaments on the state of the Union.
ON THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARLIAMENTS
The Conference agrees that the Member States will examine the questions
relating to the number of members of the Commission and the number of members
of the European Parliament no later than at the end of 1992, with a view to
reaching an agreement which will permit the establishment of the necessary
legal basis for fixing the number of members of the European Parliament in
good time for the 1994 elections. The decisions will be taken in the light,
inter alia, of the need to establish the overall size of the European
Parliament in an enlarged Community.
ON THE NUMBER OF MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION AND OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT
The Conference agrees that the Intergovernmental Conference to be convened in
1996 will examine to what extent it might be possible to review the
classification of Community acts with a view to establishing an appropriate
hierarchy between the different categories of act.
ON THE HIERARCHY OF COMMUNITY ACTS
The Conference considers that transparency of the decision-making process
strengthens the democratic nature of the institutions and the public's
confidence in the administration. The Conference accordingly recommends that
the Commission submit to the Council no later than 1993 a report on measures
designed to improve public access to the information available to the
ON THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION
The Conference notes that the Commission undertakes, by basing itself where
appropriate on any consultations it considers necessary and by strengthening
its system for evaluating Community legislation, to take account in its
legislative proposals of costs and benefits to the Member States' public
authorities and all the parties concerned.
ON ESTIMATED COSTS UNDER COMMISSION PROPOSALS
ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNITY LAW
- The Conference stresses that it is central to the coherence and unity of
the process of European construction that each Member State should fully and
accurately transpose into national law the Community Directives addressed to
it within the deadlines laid down therein.
Moreover, the Conference, while recognizing that it must be for each Member
State to determine how the provisions of Community law can best be enforced in
the light of its own particular institutions, legal system and other
circumstances, but in any event in compliance with Article 189 of the Treaty
establishing the European Community, considers it essential for the proper
functioning of the Community that the measures taken by the different Member
States should result in Community law being applied with the same
effectiveness and rigour as in the application of their national law.
- The Conference calls on the Commission to ensure, in exercising its powers
under Article 155 of this Treaty, that Member States fulfill their
obligations. It asks the Commission to publish periodically a full report for
the Member States and the European Parliament.
The Conference notes that the Commission undertakes in its proposals, and that
the Member States undertake in implementing those proposals, to take full
account of their environmental impact and of the principle of sustainable
ON ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF COMMUNITY MEASURES
The Conference emphasizes the special importance it attaches to the task
assigned to the Court of Auditors by Articles 188a, 188b, 188c and 206 of the
Treaty establishing the European Community.
It requests the other Community institutions to consider, together with the
Court of Auditors, all appropriate ways of enhancing the effectiveness of its
ON THE COURT OF AUDITORS
DECLARATION ON THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE
The Conference agrees that the Economic and Social Committee will enjoy the
same independence with regard to its budget and staff management as the Court
Auditors has enjoyed hitherto.
The Conference stresses the importance, in pursuing the objectives of Article
117 on the Treaty establishing the European Community, of cooperation between
the latter and charitable associations and foundations as institutions
responsible for social welfare establishments and services.
ON COOPERATION WITH CHARITABLE ASSOCIATIONS
The Conference calls upon the European Parliament, the Council and the
Commission, as well as the Member States, when drafting and implementing
Community legislation on the common agricultural policy, transport, the
internal market and research, to pay full regard to the welfare requirements
ON THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS
The Conference, noting that in exceptional circumstances divergences may arise
between the interests of the Union and those of the overseas countries and
territories referred to in Article 227(3) and (5)(a) and (b), agrees that the
Council will seek to reach a solution which accords with the position of the
Union. However, in the event that this proves impossible, the Conference
agrees that the Member State concerned may act separately in the interests of
the said overseas countries and territories, without this affecting the
Community's interests. The Member State concerned will give notice to the
Council and the Commission where such a divergence of interests is likely to
occur and, when separate action proves unavoidable, make it clear that it is
acting in the interests of overseas territory mentioned above.
This declaration also applies to Macao and East Timor.
on the representation of the interests of the overseas countries and
territories referred to in Article 227(3) and (5)(a) and (b) of the Treaty
establishing the European Community
The Conference acknowledges that the outermost regions of the Community (the
French overseas departments, Azores and Madeira and Canary Islands) suffer
from major structural backwardness compounded by several phenomena
(remoteness, island status, small size, difficult topography and climate,
economic dependence on a few products), the permanence and combination of
which severely restrain their economic and social development.
It considers that, while the provisions of the Treaty establishing the
European Community and secondary legislation apply automatically to outermost
regions, it is nonetheless possible to adopt specific measures to assist them
inasmuch and as long as there is an objective need to take such measures with
a view to the economic and social development of those regions. Such measures
should have their aim both the completion of the internal market and a
recognition of the regional reality to enable the outermost regions to achieve
the average economic and social level of the Community.
ON THE OUTERMOST REGIONS OF THE COMMUNITY
The Conference agrees that, with regard to Council decisions requiring
unanimity, Member States will, to the extent possible, avoid preventing a
unanimous decision where a qualified majority exists in favour of that
ON VOTING IN THE FIELD OF THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY
The Conference agrees that the division of work between the Political
Committee and the Committee of Permanent Representatives will be examined at a
later stage, as will the practical arrangements for merging the Political
Cooperation Secretariat with the General Secretariat of the Council and for
cooperation between the latter and the Commission.
ON PRACTICAL ARRANGEMENTS IN THE FIELD OF THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY
The Conference agrees that the use of languages shall be in accordance with
the rules of the European Communities
ON THE USE OF LANGUAGES IN THE FIELD OF THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY
For COREU communications, the current practice of European political
cooperation will serve as a guide for the time being.
All common foreign and security policy texts which are submitted to or adopted
at meeting of the European Council and of the Council as well as all texts
which are to be published are immediately and simultaneously translated into
all the official Community languages.
The Conference notes the following declarations:
ON WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
by Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
Portugal and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which
are members of the Western European Union and also members of the European
THE ROLE OF THE WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION AND ITS RELATIONS WITH THE EUROPEAN
UNION AND WITH THE ATLANTIC ALLIANCE
- WEU Member States agree on the need to develop a genuine European security
and defence identity and a greater European responsibility on defence matters.
This identity will be pursued through a gradual process involving successive
phases. WEU will form an integral part of the process of the development of
the European Union and will enhance its contribution to solidarity within the
Atlantic Alliance. WEU Member States agree to strengthen the role of WEU, in
the longer term perspective of a common defence, compatible with that of the
- WEU will be developed as the defence component of the European Union and as
a means to strengthen the European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance. To this
end, it will formulate common European defence policy and carry forward its
concrete implementation through the further development of its own operational
WEU Member States take note of Article J.4 relating to the common foreign and
security policy of the Treaty on European Union which reads as follows:
- The common foreign and security policy shall include all questions related
to the security of the Union, including the eventual framing of a common
defence policy, which might in time lead to a common defence.
- The union requests the Western Union (WEU), which is an integral part of
the development of the Union, to elaborate and implement decisions and actions
of the Union which have defence implications. The Council shall, in agreement
with the institutions of the WEU, adopt the necessary practical arrangements.
- Issues having defence implications dealt with under this Article shall not
be subject to the procedures set out in Article J.3.
- The policy of the Union in accordance with this Article shall not prejudice
the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member
States and shall respect the obligations of certain Member States under the
North Atlantic Treaty and be compatible with the common security and defence
policy established within that framework.
- The provisions of this Article shall not prevent the development of closer
cooperation between two or more Member States on a bilateral level, in the
framework of the WEU and the Atlantic Alliance, provided such cooperation does
not run counter to or impede that provided for in this Title.
- With a view to furthering the objective of this Treaty, and having in view
the date of 1998 in the context of Article XII of the Brussels Treaty, the
provisions of this Article may be revised as provided for in Article N(2) on
the basis of a report to be presented in 1996 by the Council to the European
Council, which shall include an evaluation of the progress made and the
experience gained until then."
A. WEU's relations with European Union
- The objective is to build up WEU in stages as the defence component of the
European Union. To this end, WEU is prepared, at the request of the European
Union, to elaborate and implement decisions and actions of the Union which
have defence implications.
To this end, WEU will take the following measures to develop a close working
relationship with the Union:
The WEU Council shall, in agreement with the competent bodies of the European
Union, adopt the necessary practical arrangements.
- as appropriate, synchronization of the dates and venues of meetings and
harmonization of working methods;
- establishment of close cooperation between the Council and Secretariat-
General of WEU on the one hand, and the Council of the Union and General
Secretariat of the Council on the other;
- consideration of the harmonization of the sequence and duration of the
- arranging for appropriate modalities so as to ensure that the Commission of
the European Communities is regularly informed and, as appropriate, consulted
on WEU activities in accordance with the role of the Commission in the common
foreign and security policy as defined in the Treaty on European Union;
- encouragement of closer cooperation between the Parliamentary Assembly of
WEU and the European Parliament.
B. WEU's relations with the Atlantic Alliance
- The objective is to develop WEU as a means to strengthen the European
pillar of the Atlantic Alliance. Accordingly WEU is prepared to develop
further the close working links between WEU and the Alliance and to strengthen
the role, responsibilities and contributions of WEU Member States in the
Alliance. This will be undertaken on the basis of the necessary transparency
and complementarity between the emerging European security and defence
identity and the Alliance. WEU will act in conformity with the positions
adopted in the Atlantic Alliance.
- WEU Member States will intensify their coordination on Alliance issues which
represent an important common interest with the aim of introducing joint
positions agreed in WEU into the process of consultation in the Alliance which
will remain the essential forum for consultation among its members and the
venue for agreement on policies bearing on the security and defence
commitments of Allies under the North Atlantic Treaty.
- Where necessary, dates and venues of meetings will be synchronized and
working methods harmonized.
- Close cooperation will be established between the Secretariats-General of
WEU and NATO.
C. Operational role of WEU
- WEU's operational role will be strengthened by examining and defining
appropriate missions, structures and means, covering in particular:
Other proposals will be examined further including:
- WEU planning cell;
- closer military cooperation complementary to the Alliance in particular in
the fields of logistics, transport, training and strategic surveillance;
- meetings of WEU Chiefs of Defence Staff;
- military units answerable to WEU.
Arrangements aimed at giving WEU a stronger operational role will be fully
compatible with the military dispositions necessary to ensure the collective
defence of all Allies.
- enhanced cooperation in the field of armaments with the aim of creating a
European armaments agency;
- development of the WEU Institute into a European Security and Defence
D. Other measures
- As a consequence of the measures set out above, and in order to facilitate
the strengthening of WEU's role, the seat of the WEU Council and Secretariat
will be transferred to Brussels.
- Representation of the WEU Council must be such that the Council is able to
exercise its functions continuously in accordance with Article VIII of the
modified Brussels Treaty. Member States may draw on a double-hatting formula,
to be worked out, consisting of their representatives to the Alliance and to
the European Union.
- WEU notes that, in accordance with the provisions of Article J.4(6)
concerning the common foreign and security policy of the Treaty on European
Union, the Union will decide to review the provisions of this Article with a
view to furthering the objective to be set by it in accordance with the
procedure defined. The WEU will re-examine the present provisions in 1996.
This re-examination will take account of the progress and experience acquired
and will extend to relations between WEU and the Atlantic Alliance.
by Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
Portugal and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which
are members of the Western European Union.
"The Member States of WEU welcome the development of the European security and
defence identity. They are determined, taking into account the role of WEU as
the defence component of the European Union and as the means to strengthen the
European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance, to put the relationship between WEU
and the other European States on a new basis for the sake of stability and
security in Europe. In this spirit, they propose the following:
States which are members of the European Union are invited to accede to WEU on
conditions to be agreed in accordance with Article XI of the modified Brussels
Treaty, or to become observers if they so wish. Simultaneously, other European
Member States of NATO are invited to become associate members of WEU in a way
which will give them the possibility of participating fully in the activities
The Member States of WEU assume that treaties and agreements corresponding
with the above proposals will be concluded before 31 December 1992."
- The Conference agrees that, in the context of the proceedings provided for
in Articles K.1 and K.3 of the provisions on cooperation in the fields of
justice and home affairs, the Council will consider as a matter of priority
questions concerning Member States' asylum policies, with the aim of adoption
by the beginning of 1993, common action to harmonize aspects of them, in the
light of the work programme and timetable contained in the report on asylum
drawn up at the request of the European Council meeting in Luxembourg on 28
and 29 June 1991.
- In this connection, the Council will also consider, by the end of 1993, on
the basis of a report, the possibility of applying Article K.9 to such
The Conference confirms the agreement of the Member States on the objectives
underlying the German delegations's proposals at the European Council meeting
in Luxembourg on 28 and 29 June 1991.
ON POLICE COOPERATION
For the present, the Member States agree to examine as a matter of priority
the drafts submitted to them, on the basis of the work programme and timetable
agreed upon in the report drawn up at the request of the Luxembourg European
Council, and they are willing to envisage the adoption of practical measures
in areas such as those suggested by the German delegation, relating to the
following functions in the exchange of information and experience:
- support for national criminal investigation and security authorities, in
particular in the coordination of investigations and search operations;
- creation of data bases;
- central analysis and assessment of information in order to take stock of the
situation and identify investigative approaches;
- collection and analysis of national prevention programmes for forwarding to
Member States and for drawing up Europe-wide prevention strategies;
- measures relating to further training, research, forensic matters and
criminal records departments.
Member States agree to consider on the basis of a report, during 1994 at the
latest, whether the scope of such cooperation should be extended.
The Conference considers it proper that the Court of First Instance should
hear this class of action in accordance with Article 168a of the Treaty
establishing the European Community. The Conference therefore invites the
institutions to adapt the relevant rules accordingly.
ON DISPUTES BETWEEN THE ECB AND THE EMI AND THEIR SERVANTS
Done at Maastricht on the seventh day of February one thousand nine hundred
and ninety two
[[editor's note: the above sentence appears in all 10 languages]]
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