|Friday, 31 March 2023|
CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE
HELSINKI 1 August 1975
CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE
The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, which opened at Helsinki on 3 July 1973 and continued at Geneva from 18 September 1973 to 21 July 1975, was concluded at Helsinki on 1 August 1975 by the High Representatives of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, the Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Yugoslavia.
During the opening and closing stages of the Conference the participants were addressed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations as their guest of honour. The Director-General of UNESCO and the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe addressed the Conference during its second stage.
During the meetings of the second stage of the Conference, contributions were received, and statements heard, from the following non-participating Mediterranean States on various agenda items: the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Israel, the Kingdom of Morocco, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia.
Motivated by the political will, in the interest of peoples, to improve and intensify their relations and to contribute in Europe to peace, security, justice and co-operation as well as to rapprochement among themselves and with the other States of the world,
Determined, in consequence, to give full effect to the results of the Conference and to assure, among their States and throughout Europe, the benefits deriving from those results and thus to broaden, deepen and make continuing and lasting the process of dtente,
The High Representatives of the participating States have solemnly adopted the following:
Questions relating to Security in Europe
The States participating in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe,
Reaffirming their objective of promoting better relations among themselves and ensuring conditions in which their people can live in true and lasting peace free from any threat to or attempt against their security;
Convinced of the need to exert efforts to make dtente both a continuing and an increasingly viable and comprehensive process, universal in scope, and that the implementation of the results of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe will be a major contribution to this process;
Considering that solidarity among peoples, as well as the common purpose of the participating States in achieving the aims as set forth by the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, should lead to the development of better and closer relations among them in all fields and thus to overcoming the confrontation stemming from the character of their past relations, and to better mutual understanding;
Mindful of their common history and recognizing that the existence of elements common to their traditions and values can assist them in developing their relations, and desiring to search, fully taking into account the individuality and diversity of their positions and views, for possibilities of joining their efforts with a view to overcoming distrust and increasing confidence, solving the problems that separate them and cooperating in the interest of mankind;
Recognizing the indivisibility of security in Europe as well as their common interest in the development of co-operation throughout Europe and among themselves and expressing their intention to pursue efforts accordingly;
Recognizing the close link between peace and security in Europe and in the world as a whole and conscious of the need for each of them to make its contribution to the strengthening of world peace and security and to the promotion of fundamental rights, economic and social progress and well-being for all peoples;
Have adopted the following:
(a) Declaration on Principles Guiding Relations between Participating States
The participating States,
Reaffirming their commitment to peace, security and justice and the continuing development of friendly relations and co- operation;
Recognizing that this commitment, which reflects the interest and aspirations of peoples, constitutes for each participating State a present and future responsibility, heightened by experience of the past;
Reaffirming, in conformity with their membership in the United Nations and in accordance with the purposes and principles of the United Nations, their full and active support for the United Nations and for the enhancement of its role and effectiveness in strengthening international peace, security and justice, and in promoting the solution of international problems, as well as the development of friendly relations and co-operation among States;
Expressing their common adherence to the principles which are set forth below and are in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, as well as their common will to act, in the application of these principles, in conformity with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations;
Declare their determination to respect and put into practice, each of them in its relations with all other participating States, irrespective of their political, economic or social systems as well as of their size, geographical location or level of economic development, the following principles, which all are of primary significance, guiding their mutual relations:
I. Sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty
The participating States will respect each other's sovereign equality and individuality as well as all the rights inherent in and encompassed by its sovereignty, including in particular the right of every State to juridical equality, to territorial integrity and to freedom and political independence. They will also respect each other's right freely to choose and develop its political, social, economic and cultural systems as well as its right to determine its laws and regulations.
Within the framework of international law, all the participating States have equal rights and duties. They will respect each other's right to define and conduct as it wishes its relations with other States in accordance with international law and in the spirit of the present Declaration. They consider that their frontiers can be changed, in accordance with international law, by peaceful means and by agreement. They also have the right to belong or not to belong to international organizations, to be or not to be a party to bilateral or multilateral treaties including the right to be or not to be a party to treaties of alliance; they also have the right to neutrality.
II. Refraining from the threat or use of force
The participating States will refrain in their mutual relations, as well as in their international relations in general, from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations and with the present Declaration. No consideration may be invoked to serve to warrant resort to the threat or use of force in contravention of this principle.
Accordingly, the participating States will refrain from any acts constituting a threat of force or direct or indirect use of force against another participating State. Likewise they will refrain from any manifestation of force for the purpose of inducing another participating State to renounce the full exercise of its sovereign rights. Likewise they will also refrain in their mutual relations from any act of reprisal by force.
No such threat or use of force will be employed as a means of settling disputes, or questions likely to give rise to disputes, between them.
III. Inviolability of frontiers
The participating States regard as inviolable all one another's frontiers as well as the frontiers of all States in Europe and therefore they will refrain now and in the future from assaulting these frontiers.
Accordingly, they will also refrain from any demand for, or act of, seizure and usurpation of part or all of the territory of any participating State.
IV. Territorial integrity of States
The participating States will respect the territorial integrity of each of the participating States.
Accordingly, they will refrain from any action inconsistent with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations against the territorial integrity, political independence or the unity of any participating State, and in particular from any such action constituting a threat or use of force.
The participating States will likewise refrain from making each other's territory the object of military occupation or other direct or indirect measures of force in contravention of international law, or the object of acquisition by means of such measures or the threat of them. No such occupation or acquisition will be recognized as legal.
V. Peaceful settlement of disputes
The participating States will settle disputes among them by peaceful means in such a manner as not to endanger international peace and security, and justice.
They will endeavour in good faith and a spirit of co-operation to reach a rapid and equitable solution on the basis of international law.
For this purpose they will use such means as negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or other peaceful means of their own choice including any settlement procedure agreed to in advance of disputes to which they are parties.
In the event of failure to reach a solution by any of the above peaceful means, the parties to a dispute will continue to seek a mutually agreed way to settle the dispute peacefully.
Participating States, parties to a dispute among them, as well as other participating States, will refrain from any action which might aggravate the situation to such a degree as to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security and thereby make a peaceful settlement of the dispute more difficult.
VI. Non-intervention in internal affairs
The participating States will refrain from any intervention, direct or indirect, individual or collective, in the internal or external affairs falling within the domestic jurisdiction of another participating State, regardless of their mutual relations.
They will accordingly refrain from any form of armed intervention or threat of such intervention against another participating State.
They will likewise in all circumstances refrain from any other act of military, or of political, economic or other coercion designed to subordinate to their own interest the exercise by another participating State of the rights inherent in its sovereignty and thus to secure advantages of any kind.
Accordingly, they will, inter alia, refrain from direct or indirect assistance to terrorist activities, or to subversive or other activities directed towards the violent overthrow of the regime of another participating State.
VII. Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief
The participating States will respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief, for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.
They will promote and encourage the effective exercise of civil, political, economic, social, cultural and other rights and freedoms all of which derive from the inherent dignity of the human person and are essential for his free and full development.
Within this framework the participating States will recognize and respect the freedom of the individual to profess and practice, alone or in community with others, religion or belief acting in accordance with the dictates of his own conscience.
The participating States on whose territory national minorities exist will respect the right of persons belonging to such minorities to equality before the law, will afford them the full opportunity for the actual enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms and will, in this manner, protect their legitimate interests in this sphere.
The participating States recognize the universal significance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for which is an essential factor for the peace, justice and well- being necessary to ensure the development of friendly relations and co-operation among themselves as among all States.
They will constantly respect these rights and freedoms in their mutual relations and will endeavour jointly and separately, including in co-operation with the United Nations, to promote universal and effective respect for them.
They confirm the right of the individual to know and act upon his rights and duties in this field.
In the field of human rights and fundamental freedoms, the participating States will act in conformity with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They will also fulfil their obligations as set forth in the international declarations and agreements in this field, including inter alia the International Covenants on Human Rights, by which they may be bound.
VIII. Equal rights and self-determination of peoples
The participating States will respect the equal rights of peoples and their right to self-determination, acting at all times in conformity with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and with the relevant norms of international law, including those relating to territorial integrity of States.
By virtue of the principle of equal rights and self- determination of peoples, all peoples always have the right, in full freedom, to determine, when and as they wish, their internal and external political status, without external interference, and to pursue as they wish their political, economic, social and cultural development.
The participating States reaffirm the universal significance of respect for and effective exercise of equal rights and self- determination of peoples for the development of friendly relations among themselves as among all States; they also recall the importance of the elimination of any form of violation of this principle.
IX. Co-operation among States
The participating States will develop their co-operation with one another and with all States in all fields in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. In developing their co-operation the participating States will place special emphasis on the fields as set forth within the framework of the Conference on Security and Co- operation in Europe, with each of them making its contribution in conditions of full equality.
They will endeavour, in developing their co-operation as equals, to promote mutual understanding and confidence, friendly and good-neighbourly relations among themselves, international peace, security and justice. They will equally endeavour, in developing their co-operation, to improve the well-being of peoples and contribute to the fulfilment of their aspirations through, inter alia, the benefits resulting from increased mutual knowledge and from progress and achievement in the economic, scientific, technological, social, cultural and humanitarian fields. They will take steps to promote conditions favourable to making these benefits available to all; they will take into account the interest of all in the narrowing of differences in the levels of economic development, and in particular the interest of developing countries throughout the world.
They confirm that governments, institutions, organizations and persons have a relevant and positive role to play in contributing toward the achievement of these aims of their co-operation.
They will strive, in increasing their co-operation as set forth above, to develop closer relations among themselves on an improved and more enduring basis for the benefit of peoples.
X. Fulfilment in good faith of obligations under international law
The participating States will fulfil in good faith their obligations under international law, both those obligations arising from the generally recognized principles and rules of international law and those obligations arising from treaties or other agreements, in conformity with international law, to which they are parties.
In exercising their sovereign rights, including the right to determine their laws and regulations, they will conform with their legal obligations under international law; they will furthermore pay due regard to and implement the provisions in the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe.
The participating States confirm that in the event of a conflict between the obligations of the members of the United Nations under the Charter of the United Nations and their obligations under any treaty or other international agreement, their obligations under the Charter will prevail, in accordance with Article 103 of the Charter of the United Nations.
All the principles set forth above are of primary significance and, accordingly, they will be equally and unreservedly applied, each of them being interpreted taking into account the others.
The participating States express their determination fully to respect and apply these principles, as set forth in the present Declaration, in all aspects, to their mutual relations and co-operation in order to ensure to each participating State the benefits resulting from the respect and application of these principles by all.
The participating States, paying due regard to the principles above and, in particular, to the first sentence of the tenth principle, "Fulfilment in good faith of obligations under international law", note that the present Declaration does not affect their rights and obligations, nor the corresponding treaties and other agreements and arrangements.
The participating States express the conviction that respect for these principles will encourage the development of normal and friendly relations and the progress of co-operation among them in all fields. They also express the conviction that respect for these principles will encourage the development of political contacts among them which in time would contribute to better mutual understanding of their positions and views.
The participating States declare their intention to conduct their relations with all other States in the spirit of the principles contained in the present Declaration.
(b) Matters related to giving effect to certain of the above Principles
The participating States,
Reaffirming that they will respect and give effect to refraining from the threat or use of force and convinced of the necessity to make it an effective norm of international life,
Declare that they are resolved to respect and carry out, in their relations with one another, inter alia, the following provisions which are in conformity with the Declaration on Principles Guiding Relations between Participating States:
The participating States,
Reaffirming their determination to settle their disputes as set forth in the Principle of Peaceful Settlement of Disputes;
Convinced that the peaceful settlement of disputes is a complement to refraining from the threat or use of force, both being essential though not exclusive factors for the maintenance and consolidation of peace and security;
Desiring to reinforce and to improve the methods at their disposal for the peaceful settlement of disputes;
2. Document on confidence-building measures and certain aspects of security and disarmament
The participating States,
Desirous of eliminating the causes of tension that may exist among them and thus of contributing to the strengthening of peace and security in the world;
Determined to strengthen confidence among them and thus to contribute to increasing stability and security in Europe;
Determined further to refrain in their mutual relations, as well as in their international relations in general, from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations and with the Declaration on Principles Guiding Relations between Participating States as adopted in this Final Act;
Recognizing the need to contribute to reducing the dangers of armed conflict and of misunderstanding or miscalculation of military activities which could give rise to apprehension, particularly in a situation where the participating States lack clear and timely information about the nature of such activities;
Taking into account considerations relevant to efforts aimed at lessening tension and promoting disarmament;
Recognizing that the exchange of observers by invitation at military manoeuvres will help to promote contacts and mutual understanding;
Having studied the question of prior notification of major military movements in the context of confidence-building;
Recognizing that there are other ways in which individual States can contribute further to their common objectives;
Convinced of the political importance of prior notification of major military manoeuvres for the promotion of mutual understanding and the strengthening of confidence, stability and security;
Accepting the responsibility of each of them to promote these objectives and to implement this measure, in accordance with the accepted criteria and modalities, as essentials for the realization of these objectives;
Recognizing that this measure deriving from political decision rests upon a voluntary basis;
Have adopted the following:
Prior notification of major military manoeuvres
They will notify their major military manoeuvres to all other participating States through usual diplomatic channels in accordance with the following provisions:
Notification will be given of major military manoeuvres exceeding a total of 25,000 troops, independently or combined with any possible air or naval components (in this context the word "troops" includes amphibious and airborne troops). In the case of independent manoeuvres of amphibious or airborne troops, or of combined manoeuvres involving them, these troops will be included in this total. Furthermore, in the case of combined manoeuvres which do not reach the above total but which involve land forces together with significant numbers of either amphibious or airborne troops, or both, notification can also be given.
Notification will be given of major military manoeuvres which take place on the territory, in Europe, of any participating State as well as, if applicable, in the adjoining sea area and air space.
In the case of a participating State whose territory extends beyond Europe, prior notification need be given only of manoeuvres which take place in an area within 250 kilometres from its frontier facing or shared with any other European participating State, the participating State need not, however, give notification in cases in which that area is also contiguous to the participating State's frontier facing or shared with a non-European non-participating State.
Notification will be given 21 days or more in advance of the start of the manoeuvre or in the case of a manoeuvre arranged at shorter notice at the earliest possible opportunity prior to its starting date.
Notification will contain information of the designation, if any, the general purpose of and the States involved in the manoeuvre, the type or types and numerical strength of the forces engaged, the area and estimated time-frame of its conduct. The participating States will also, if possible, provide additional relevant information, particularly that related to the components of the forces engaged and the period of involvement of these forces.
Prior notification of other military manoeuvres
The participating States recognize that they can contribute further to strengthening confidence and increasing security and stability, and to this end may also notify smaller-scale military manoeuvres to other participating States, with special regard for those near the area of such manoeuvres.
To the same end, the participating States also recognize that they may notify other military manoeuvres conducted by them.
Exchange of observers
The participating States will invite other participating States, voluntarily and on a bilateral basis, in a spirit of reciprocity and goodwill towards all participating States, to send observers to attend military manoeuvres.
The inviting State will determine in each case the number of observers, the procedures and conditions of their participation, and give other information which it may consider useful. It will provide appropriate facilities and hospitality.
The invitation will be given as far ahead as is conveniently possible through usual diplomatic channels.
Prior notification of major military movements
In accordance with the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations the participating States studied the question of prior-notification of major military movements as a measure to strengthen confidence.
Accordingly, the participating States recognize that they may, at their own discretion and with a view to contributing to confidence-building, notify their major military movements.
In the same spirit, further consideration will be given by the States participating in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe to the question of prior notification of major military movements, bearing in mind, in particular, the experience gained by the implementation of the measures which are set forth in this document.
Other confidence-building measures
The participating States recognize that there are other means by which their common objectives can be promoted.
In particular, they will, with due regard to reciprocity and with a view to better mutual understanding, promote exchanges by invitation among their military delegations.
In order to make a fuller contribution to their common objective of confidence/building, the participating States, when conducting their military activities in the area covered by the provisions for the prior notification of major military manoeuvres, will duly take into account and respect this objective.
They also recognize that the experience gained by the implementation of the provisions set forth above, together with further efforts, could lead to developing and enlarging measures aimed at strengthening confidence.
II Questions relating to disarmament
The participating States recognize the interest of all of them in efforts aimed at lessening military confrontation and promoting disarmament which are designed to complement political dtente in Europe and to strengthen their security. They are convinced of the necessity to take effective measures in these fields which by their scope and by their nature constitute steps towards the ultimate achievement of general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control, and which should result in strengthening peace and security throughout the world.
III General considerations
Having considered the views expressed on various subjects related to the strengthening of security in Europe through joint efforts aimed at promoting dtente and disarmament, the participating States, when engaged in such efforts, will, in this context, proceed, in particular, from the following essential considerations:
Co-operation in the Field of Economics, of Science and Technology and of the Environment
The participating States,
Convinced that their efforts to develop co-operation in the fields of trade, industry, science and technology, the environment and other areas of economic activity contribute to the reinforcement of peace and security in Europe and in the world as a whole,
Recognizing that co-operation in these fields would promote economic and social progress and the improvement of the conditions of life,
Aware of the diversity of their economic and social systems,
Reaffirming their will to intensify such co-operation between one another, irrespective of their systems,
Recognizing that such co-operation, with due regard for the different levels of economic development, can be developed, on the basis of equality and mutual satisfaction of the partners, and of reciprocity permitting, as a whole, an equitable distribution of advantages and obligations of comparable scale, with respect for bilateral and multilateral agreements,
Taking into account the interests of the developing countries throughout the world, including those among the participating countries as long as they are developing from the economic point of view; reaffirming their will to co-operate for the achievement of the aims and objectives established by the appropriate bodies of the United Nations in the pertinent documents concerning development, it being understood that each participating State maintains the positions it has taken on them; giving special attention to the least developed countries,
Convinced that the growing world-wide economic interdependence calls for increasing common and effective efforts towards the solution of major world economic problems such as food, energy, commodities, monetary and financial problems, and therefore emphasizes the need for promoting stable and equitable international economic relations, thus contributing to the continuous and diversified economic development of all countries,
Having taken into account the work already undertaken by relevant international organizations and wishing to take advantage of the possibilities offered by these organizations, in particular by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, for giving effect to the provisions of the final documents of the Conference,
Considering that the guidelines and concrete recommendations contained in the following texts are aimed at promoting further development of their mutual economic relations, and convinced that their co-operation in this field should take place in full respect for the principles guiding relations among participating States as set forth in the relevant document,
Have adopted the following:
1. Commercial Exchanges
The participating States,
Conscious of the growing role of international trade as one of the most important factors in economic growth and social progress,
Recognizing that trade represents an essential sector of their co-operation, and bearing in mind that the provisions contained in the above preamble apply in particular to this sector,
Considering that the volume and structure of trade among the participating States do not in all cases correspond to the possibilities created by the current level of their economic, scientific and technological development,
are resolved to promote, on the basis of the modalities of their economic co-operation, the expansion of their mutual trade in goods and services, and to ensure conditions favourable to such development;
recognize the beneficial effects which can result for the development of trade from the application of most favoured nation treatment;
will encourage the expansion of trade on as broad a multilateral basis as possible, thereby endeavouring to utilize the various economic and commercial possibilities;
recognize the importance of bilateral and multilateral intergovernmental and other agreements for the long-term development of trade;
note the importance of monetary and financial questions for the development of international trade, and will endeavour to deal with them with a view to contributing to the continuous expansion of trade;
will endeavour to reduce or progressively eliminate all kinds of obstacles to the development of trade;
will foster a steady growth of trade while avoiding as far as possible abrupt fluctuations in their trade;
consider that their trade in various products should be conducted in such a way as not to cause or threaten to cause serious injury - and should the situation arise, market disruption - in domestic markets for these products and in particular to the detriment of domestic producers of like or directly competitive products; as regards the concept of market disruption, it is understood that it should not be invoked in a way inconsistent with the relevant provisions of their international agreements; if they resort to safeguard measures, they will do so in conformity with their commitments in this field arising from international agreements to which they are parties and will take account of the interests of the parties directly concerned;
will give due attention to measures for the promotion of trade and the diversification of its structure;
note that the growth and diversification of trade would contribute to widening the possibilities of choice of products;
consider it appropriate to create favourable conditions for the participation of firms, organizations and enterprises in the development of trade.
Business contacts and facilities
The participating States,
Conscious of the importance of the contribution which an improvement of business contacts, and the accompanying growth of confidence in business relationships, could make to the development of commercial and economic relations,
will take measures further to improve conditions for the expansion of contacts between representatives of official bodies, of the different organizations, enterprises, firms and banks concerned with foreign trade, in particular, where useful, between sellers and users of products and services, for the purpose of studying commercial possibilities, concluding contracts, ensuring their implementation and providing after- sales services;
will encourage organizations, enterprises and firms concerned with foreign trade to take measures to accelerate the conduct of business negotiations;
will further take measures aimed at improving working conditions of representatives of foreign organizations, enterprises, firms and banks concerned with external trade, particularly as follows:
Economic and commercial information
The participating States,
Conscious of the growing role of economic and commercial information in the development of international trade,
Considering that economic information should be of such a nature as to allow adequate market analysis and to permit the preparation of medium and long term forecasts, thus contributing to the establishment of a continuing flow of trade and a better utilization of commercial possibilities,
Expressing their readiness to improve the quality and increase the quantity and supply of economic and relevant administrative information,
Considering that the value of statistical information on the international level depends to a considerable extent on the possibility of its comparability,
will promote the publication and dissemination of economic and commercial information at regular intervals and as quickly as possible, in particular:
will in addition to the above encourage the development of the exchange of economic and commercial information through, where appropriate, joint commissions for economic, scientific and technical co-operation, national and joint chambers of commerce, and other suitable bodies;
will support a study, in the framework of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, of the possibilities of creating a multilateral system of notification of laws and regulations concerning foreign trade and changes therein;
will encourage international work on the harmonization of statistical nomenclatures, notably in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
The participating States,
Recognizing the importance of adapting production to the requirements of foreign markets in order to ensure the expansion of international trade,
Conscious of the need of exporters to be as fully familiar as possible with and take account of the requirements of potential users,
will encourage organizations, enterprises and firms concerned with foreign trade to develop further the knowledge and techniques required for effective marketing;
will encourage the improvement of conditions for the implementation of measures to promote trade and to satisfy the needs of users in respect of imported products, in particular through market research and advertising measures as well as, where useful, the establishment of supply facilities, the furnishing of spare parts, the functioning of after sales services, and the training of the necessary local technical personnel;
will encourage international co-operation in the field of trade promotion, including marketing, and the work undertaken on these subjects within the international bodies, in particular the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
2. Industrial co-operation and projects of common interest
The participating States,
Considering that industrial co-operation, being motivated by economic considerations, can
propose to encourage the development of industrial co-operation between the competent organizations, enterprises and firms of their countries;
consider that industrial co-operation may be facilitated by means of intergovernmental and other bilateral and multilateral agreements between the interested parties;
note that in promoting industrial co-operation they should bear in mind the economic structures and the development levels of their countries;
note that industrial co-operation is implemented by means of contracts concluded between competent organizations, enterprises and firms on the basis of economic considerations;
express their willingness to promote measures designed to create favourable conditions for industrial co-operation;
recognize that industrial co-operation covers a number of forms of economic relations going beyond the framework of conventional trade, and that in concluding contracts on industrial co-operation the partners will determine jointly the appropriate forms and conditions of co-operation, taking into account their mutual interests and capabilities;
recognize further that, if it is in their mutual interest,
concrete forms such as the following may be useful for the
development of industrial co-operation: joint production and
sale, specialization in production and sale, construction,
adaptation and modernization of industrial plants, co-operation
for the setting up of complete industrial installations with a
view to thus obtaining part of the resultant products, mixed
companies, exchanges of <
recognize that new forms of industrial co-operation can be applied with a view to meeting specific needs;
note the importance of economic, commercial, technical and administrative information such as to ensure the development of industrial co-operation;
Consider it desirable:
will encourage all forms of exchange of information and communication of experience relevant to industrial co-operation, including through contacts between potential partners and, where appropriate, through joint commissions for economic, industrial, scientific and technical co-operation, national and joint chambers of commerce, and other suitable bodies;
consider it desirable, with a view to expanding industrial co-operation, to encourage the exploration of co-operation possibilities and the implementation of co-operation projects and will take measures to this end, inter alia, by facilitating and increasing all forms of business contacts between competent organizations, enterprises and firms and between their respective qualified personnel;
note that the provisions adopted by the Conference relating to business contacts in the economic and commercial fields also apply to foreign organizations, enterprises and firms engaged in industrial co-operation, taking into account the specific conditions of this co-operation, and will endeavour to ensure, in particular, the existence of appropriate working conditions for personnel engaged in the implementation of co-operation projects;
consider it desirable that proposals for industrial co- operation projects should be sufficiently specific and should contain the necessary economic and technical data, in particular preliminary estimates of the cost of the project information on the form of co-operation envisaged, and market possibilities, to enable potential partners to proceed with initial studies and to arrive at decisions in the shortest possible time;
will encourage the parties concerned with industrial co- operation to take measures to accelerate the conduct of negotiations for the conclusion of co-operation contracts,
recommend further the continued examination - for example within the framework of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - of means of improving the provision of information to those concerned on general conditions of industrial co- operation and guidance on the preparation of contracts in this field;
consider it desirable to further improve conditions for the implementation of industrial co-operation projects, in particular with respect to:
consider it desirable that the partners, when concluding industrial co-operation contracts, should devote due attention to provisions concerning the extension of the necessary mutual assistance and the provision of the necessary information during the implementation of these contracts, in particular with a view to attaining the required technical level and quality of the products resulting from such co-operation;
recognize the usefulness of an increased participation of small and medium sized firms in industrial co-operation projects.
Projects of common interest
The participating States,
Considering that their economic potential and their natural resources permit, through common efforts, long-term co-operation in the implementation, including at the regional or sub-regional level, of major that these may contribute to the speeding-up of the economic development of the countries participating therein,
Considering it desirable that the competent organizations, enterprises and firms of all countries should be given the possibility of indicating their interest in participating in such projects, and, in case of agreement, of taking part in their implementation,
Noting that the provisions adopted by the Conference relating to industrial co-operation are also applicable to projects of common interest,
regard it as necessary to encourage, where appropriate, the investigation by competent and interested organizations, enterprises and firms of the possibilities for the carrying out of projects of common interest in the fields of energy resources and of the exploitation of raw materials, as well as of transport and communications;
regard it as desirable that organizations, enterprises and firms exploring the possibilities of taking part in projects of common interest exchange with their potential partners, through the appropriate channels, the requisite economic, legal, financial and technical information pertaining to these projects;
consider that the fields of energy resources, in particular, petroleum, natural gas and coal, and the extraction and processing of mineral raw materials, in particular, iron ore and bauxite, are suitable ones for strengthening long-term economic co-operation and for the development of trade which could result;
consider that possibilities for projects of common interest with a view to long-term economic co-operation also exist in the following fields:
recommend that the States interested in projects of common interest should consider under what conditions it would be possible to establish them, and if they so desire, create the necessary conditions for their actual implementation.
3. Provisions concerning trade and industrial co-operation
Harmonization of standards
The participating States,
Recognizing the development of international harmonization of standards and technical regulations and of international co- operation in the field of certification as an important means of eliminating technical obstacles to international trade and industrial co-operation, thereby facilitating their development and increasing productivity,
reaffirm their interest to achieve the widest possible international harmonization of standards and technical regulations;
express their readiness to promote international agreements and other appropriate arrangements on acceptance of certificates of conformity with standards and technical regulations;
consider it desirable to increase international co-operation on standardization, in particular by supporting the activities of intergovernmental and other appropriate organizations in this field.
The participating States,
Considering that the prompt and equitable settlement of disputes which may arise from commercial transactions relating to goods and services and contracts for industrial co-operation would contribute to expanding and facilitating trade and co- operation,
Considering that arbitration is an appropriate means of settling such disputes,
recommend, where appropriate, to organizations, enterprises and firms in their countries, to include arbitration clauses in commercial contracts and industrial co-operation contracts, or in special agreements;
recommend that the provisions on arbitration should provide for arbitration under a mutually acceptable set of arbitration rules, and permit arbitration in a third country, taking into account existing intergovernmental and other agreements in this field.
Specific bilateral arrangements
The participating States,
Conscious of the need to facilitate trade and to promote the application of new forms of industrial co-operation,
will consider favourably the conclusion, in appropriate cases, of specific bilateral agreements concerning various problems of mutual interest in the fields of commercial exchanges and industrial co-operation, in particular with a view to avoiding double taxation and to facilitating the transfer of profits and the return of the value of the assets invested.
4. Science and technology
The participating States,
Convinced that scientific and technological co-operation constitutes an important contribution to the strengthening of security and co-operation among them, in that it assists the effective solution of problems of common interest and the improvement of the conditions of human life,
Considering that in developing such co-operation, it is important to promote the sharing of information and experience, facilitating the study and transfer of scientific and technological achievements, as well as the access to such achievements on a mutually advantageous basis and in fields of co-operation agreed between interested parties,
Considering that it is for the potential partners, i.e. the competent organizations, institutions, enterprises, scientists and technologists of the participating States to determine the opportunities for mutually beneficial co-operation and to develop its details,
Affirming that such co-operation can be developed and implemented bilaterally and multilaterally at the governmental and non-governmental levels, for example, through intergovernmental and other agreements, international programmes, cooperative projects and commercial channels, while utilizing also various forms of contacts, including direct and individual contacts,
Aware of the need to take measures further to improve scientific and technological co-operation between them,
Possibilities for improving co-operation
Recognize that possibilities exist for further improving scientific and technological co-operation, and to this end, express their intention to remove obstacles to such co-operation, in particular through:
Fields of co-operation
Consider that possibilities to expand co-operation exist within the areas given below as examples, noting that it is for potential partners in the participating countries to identify and develop projects and arrangements of mutual interest and benefit:
Research into new methods and technologies for increasing the productivity of crop cultivation and animal husbandry; the application of chemistry to agriculture; the design, construction and utilization of agricultural machinery; technologies of irrigation and other agricultural land improvement works;
New technologies of production, transport and distribution of energy aimed at improving the use of existing fuels and sources of hydroenergy, as well as research in the field of new energy sources, including nuclear, solar and geothermal energy;
New technologies, rational use of resources
Research on new technologies and equipment designed in particular to reduce energy consumption and to minimize or eliminate waste;
Research on the means of transport and the technology applied to the development and operation of international, national and urban transport networks including container transport as well as transport safety;
Study of problems in high energy physics and plasma physics; research in the field of theoretical and experimental nuclear physics;
Research on problems in electrochemistry and the chemistry of polymers, of natural products, and of metals and alloys, as well as the development of improved chemical technology, especially materials processing; practical application of the latest achievements of chemistry to industry, construction and other sectors of the economy;
Meteorology and hydrology
Meteorological and hydrological research, including methods of collection, evaluation and transmission of data and their utilization for weather forecasting and hydrology forecasting;
Oceanographic research, including the study of air/sea interactions;
Study and forecasting of earthquakes and associated geological changes; development and research of technology of seism-resisting constructions;
Research on glaciology, permafrost and problems of life under conditions of cold
Research on glaciology and permafrost; transportation and construction technologies; human adaptation to climatic extremes and changes in the living conditions of indigenous populations;
Computer, communication and information technologies
Development of computers as well as of telecommunications and information systems; technology associated with computers and telecommunications, including their use for management systems, for production processes, for automation, for the study of economic problems, in scientific research and for the collection, processing and dissemination of information;
Space exploration and the study of the earth's natural resources and the natural environment by remote sensing in particular with the assistance of satellites and rocket-probes;
Medicine and public health
Research on cardiovascular, tumour and virus diseases, molecular biology, neurophysiology; development and testing of new drugs; study of contemporary problems of pediatrics, gerontology and the organization and techniques of medical services;
Research on specific scientific and technological problems related to human environment.
Forms and methods of co-operation
Express their view that scientific and technological co- operation should, in particular, employ the following forms and methods:
consider it desirable that periodic exchanges of views and information take place on scientific policy, in particular on general problems of orientation and administration of research and the question of a better use of large-scale scientific and experimental equipment on a co-operative basis;
recommend that, in developing co-operation in the field of science and technology, full use be made of existing practices of bilateral and multilateral co-operation, including that of a regional or sub-regional character, together with the forms and methods of co-operation described in this document;
recommend further that more effective utilization be made of the possibilities and capabilities of existing international organizations, intergovernmental and non-governmental, concerned with science and technology, for improving exchanges of information and experience, as well as for developing other forms of co-operation in fields of common interest, for example:
The participating States,
Affirming that the protection and improvement of the environment, as well as the protection of nature and the rational utilization of its resources in the interests of present and future generations, is one of the tasks of major importance to the well-being of peoples and the economic development of all countries and that many environmental problems, particularly in Europe, can be solved effectively only through close international co-operation,
Acknowledging that each of the participating States, in accordance with the principles of international law, ought to ensure, in a spirit of co-operation, that activities carried out on its territory do not cause degradation of the environment in another State or in areas lying beyond the limits of national jurisdiction,
Considering that the success of any environmental policy presupposes that all population groups and social forces, aware of their responsibilities, help to protect and improve the environment, which necessitates continued and thorough educative action, particularly with regard to youth;
Affirming that experience has shown that economic development and technological progress must be compatible with the protection of the environment and the preservation of historical and cultural values; that damage to the environment is best avoided by preventive measures; and that the ecological balance must be preserved in the exploitation and management of natural resources.
Aims of co-operation
Agree to the following aims of co-operation, in particular:
Fields of co-operation
To attain these aims, the participating States will make use of every suitable opportunity to co-operate in the field of environment and, in particular, within the areas described below as examples:
Control of air pollution
Desulphurization of fossil fuels and exhaust gases, pollution control of heavy metals, particles, aerosols, nitrogen oxides, in particular those emitted by transport, power stations, and other industrial plants; systems and methods of observation and control of air pollution and its effects, including long- range transport of air pollutants;
Water pollution control and fresh water utilization
Prevention and control of water pollution, in particular of transboundary rivers and international lakes; techniques for the improvement of the quality of water and further development of ways and means for industrial and municipal sewage effluent purification; methods of assessment of fresh water resources and the improvement of their utilization, in particular by developing methods of production which are less polluting and lead to less consumption of fresh water;
Protection of the marine environment
Protection of the marine environment of participating States, and especially the Mediterranean Sea, from pollutants emanating from land-based sources and those from ships and other vessels, notably the harmful substances listed in Annexes I and II to the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and Other Matters; problems of maintaining marine ecological balances and food chains, in particular such problems as may arise from the exploration and exploitation of biological and mineral resources of the seas and the sea-bed;
Land utilization and soils
Problems associated with more effective use of lands, including land amelioration, reclamation and recultivation; control of soil pollution, water and air erosion, as well as other forms of soil degradation; maintaining and increasing the productivity of soils with due regard for the possible negative effects of the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides;
Nature conservation and nature reserves
Protection of nature and nature reserves; conservation and maintenance of existing genetic resources, especially rare animal and plant species; conservation of natural ecological systems; establishment of nature reserves and other protected landscapes and areas, including their use for research, tourism, recreation and other purposes;
Improvement of environmental conditions in areas of human settlement
Environmental conditions associated with transport, housing, working areas, urban development and planning, water supply and sewage disposal systems; assessment of harmful effects of noise, and noise control methods; collection, treatment and utilization of wastes, including the recovery and recycling of materials; research on substitutes for non-biodegradable substances;
Fundamental research, monitoring, forecasting and assessment of environmental changes
Study of changes in climate, landscapes and ecological balances under the impact of both natural factors and human activities; forecasting of possible genetic changes in flora and fauna as a result of environmental pollution; harmonization of statistical data, development of scientific concepts and systems of monitoring networks, standardized methods of observation, measurement and assessment of changes in the biosphere; assessment of the effects of environmental pollution levels and degradation of the environment upon human health; study and development of criteria and standards for various environmental pollutants and regulation regarding production and use of various products;
Legal and administrative measures
Legal and administrative measures for the protection of the environment including procedures for establishing environmental impact assessments.
Forms and methods of co-operation
The participating States declare that problems relating to the protection and improvement of the environment will be solved on both a bilateral and a multilateral, including regional and sub-regional, basis, making full use of existing pattern and forms of co-operation. They will develop co-operation in the field of the environment in particular by taking into consideration the Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment, relevant resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Prague sym- posium on environmental problems.
The participating States are resolved that co-operation in the field of the environment will be implemented in particular through:
The participating States will further develop such co- operation by:
The participating States agree on the following recommendations on specific measures:
6. Co-operation in other areas
Development of transport
The participating States,
Considering that the improvement of the conditions of transport constitutes one of the factors essential to the development of co-operation among them,
Considering that it is necessary to encourage the development of transport and the solution of existing problems by employing appropriate national and international means,
Taking into account the work being carried out on these subjects by existing international organizations, especially by the Inland Transport Committee of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe,
note that the speed of technical progress in the various fields of transport makes desirable a development of co-operation and an increase in exchanges of information among them;
declare themselves in favour of a simplification and a harmonization of administrative formalities in the field of international transport, in particular at frontiers;
consider it desirable to promote, while allowing for their particular national circumstances in this sector, the harmonization of administrative and technical provisions concerning safety in road, rail, river, air and sea transport;
express their intention to encourage the development of international inland transport of passengers and goods as well as the possibilities of adequate participation in such transport on the basis of reciprocal advantage;
declare themselves in favour, with due respect for their rights and international commitments, of the elimination of disparities arising from the legal provisions applied to traffic on inland waterways which are subject to international conventions and, in particular, of the disparity in the application of those provisions; and to this end invite the member States of the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine, of the Danube Commission and of other bodies to develop the work and studies now being carried out, in particular within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe;
express their willingness, with a view to improving international rail transport and with due respect for their rights and international commitments, to work towards the elimination of difficulties arising from disparities in existing international legal provisions governing the reciprocal railway transport of passengers and goods between their territories;
express the desire for intensification of the work being carried out by existing international organizations in the field of transport, especially that of the Inland Transport Committee of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, and express their intention to contribute thereto by their efforts;
consider that examination by the participating States of the possibility of their accession to the different conventions or to membership of international organizations specializing in transport matters, as well as their efforts to implement conventions when ratified, could contribute to the strengthening of their co-operation in this field.
Promotion of tourism
The participating States,
Aware of the contribution made by international tourism to the development of mutual understanding among peoples, to increased knowledge of other countries' achievements in various fields, as well as to economic, social and cultural progress,
Recognizing the interrelationship between the development of tourism and measures taken in other areas of economic activity,
express their intention to encourage increased tourism on both an individual and group basis in particular by:
consider it desirable to carry out in the appropriate international framework, and with the co-operation of the relevant national bodies, detailed studies on tourism, in particular:
consider also that interested parties might wish to study the following questions:
will endeavour, where possible, to ensure that the development of tourism does not injure the environment and the artistic, historic and cultural heritage in their respective countries;
will pursue their co-operation in the field of tourism bilaterally and multilaterally with a view to attaining the above objectives.
Economic and social aspects of migrant labour
The participating States,
Considering that the movements of migrant workers in Europe have reached substantial proportions, and that they constitute an important economic, social and human factor for host countries as well as for countries of origin,
Recognizing that workers' migrations have also given rise to a number of economic, social, human and other problems in both the receiving countries and the countries of origin,
Taking due account of the activities of the competent international organizations, more particularly the International Labour Organisation, in this area,
are of the opinion that the problems arising bilaterally from the migration of workers in Europe as well as between the participating States should be dealt with by the parties directly concerned, in order to resolve these problems in their mutual interest, in the light of the concern of each State involved to take due account of the requirements resulting from its socio- economic situation, having regard to the obligation of each State to comply with the bilateral and multilateral agreements to which it is party, and with the following aims in view:
to encourage the efforts of the countries of origin directed towards increasing the possibilities of employment for their nationals in their own territories, in particular by developing economic co-operation appropriate for this purpose and suitable for the host countries and the countries of origin concerned;
to ensure, through collaboration between the host country and the country of origin, the conditions under which the orderly movement of workers might take place, while at the same time protecting their personal and social welfare and, if appropriate, to organize the recruitment of migrant workers and the provision of elementary language and vocational training;
to ensure equality of rights between migrant workers and nationals of the host countries with regard to conditions of employment and work and to social security, and to endeavour to ensure that migrant workers may enjoy satisfactory living conditions, especially housing conditions;
to endeavour to ensure, as far as possible, that migrant workers may enjoy the same opportunities as nationals of the host countries of finding other suitable employment in the event of unemployment;
to regard with favour the provision of vocational training to migrant workers and, as far as possible, free instruction in the language of the host country, in the framework of their employment;
to confirm the right of migrant workers to receive, as far as possible, regular information in their own language, covering both their country of origin and the host country;
to ensure that the children of migrant workers established in the host country have access to the education usually given there, under the same conditions as the children of that country and, furthermore, to permit them to receive supplementary education in their own language, national culture, history and geography;
to bear in mind that migrant workers, particularly those who have acquired qualifications, can by returning to their countries after a certain period of time help to remedy any deficiency of skilled labour in their country of origin;
to facilitate, as far as possible, the reuniting of migrant workers with their families;
to regard with favour the efforts of the countries of origin to attract the savings of migrant workers, with a view to increasing, within the framework of their economic development, appropriate opportunities for employment, thereby facilitating the reintegration of these workers on their return home.
Training of personnel
The participating States,
Conscious of the importance of the training and advanced training of professional staff and technicians for the economic development of every country,
declare themselves willing to encourage co-operation in this field notably by promoting exchange of information on the subject of institutions, programmes and methods of training and advanced training open to professional staff and technicians in the various sectors of economic activity and especially in those of management, public planning, agriculture and commercial and banking techniques;
consider that it is desirable to develop, under mutually acceptable conditions, exchanges of professional staff and technicians, particularly through training activities, of which it would be left to the competent and interested bodies in the participating States to discuss the modalities - duration, financing, education and qualification levels of potential participants;
declare themselves in favour of examining, through appropriate channels, the possibilities of cooperating on the organization and carrying out of vocational training on the job, more particularly in professions involving modern techniques.
Questions relating to Security and Co-operation in the Mediterranean
The participating States,
Conscious of the geographical, historical, cultural, economic and political aspects of their relationship with the non-participating Mediterranean States,
Convinced that security in Europe is to be considered in the broader context of world security and is closely linked with security in the Mediterranean area as a whole, and that accordingly the process of improving security should not be confined to Europe but should extend to other parts of the world, and in particular to the Mediterranean area,
Believing that the strengthening of security and the intensification of co-operation in Europe would stimulate positive processes in the Mediterranean region, and expressing their intention to contribute towards peace, security and justice in the region, in which ends the participating States and the non-participating Mediterranean States have a common interest,
Recognizing the importance of their mutual economic relations with the nonparticipating Mediterranean States, and conscious of their common interest in the further development of co-operation,
Noting with appreciation the interest expressed by the non- participating Mediterranean States in the Conference since its inception, and having duly taken their contributions into account,Declare their intention:
In order to advance the objectives set forth above, the participating States also declare their intention of maintaining and amplifying the contacts and dialogue as initiated by the CSCE with the non-participating Mediterranean States to include all the States of the Mediterranean, with the purpose of contributing to peace, reducing armed forces in the region, strengthening security, lessening tensions in the region, and widening the scope of co-operation, ends in which all share a common interest, as well as with the purpose of defining further common objectives.
The participating States would seek, in the framework of their multilateral efforts, to encourage progress and appropriate initiatives and to proceed to an exchange of views on the attainment of the above purposes.
Co-operation in Humanitarian and Other Fields
The participating States,
Desiring to contribute to the strengthening of peace and understanding among peoples and to the spiritual enrichment of the human personality without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,
Conscious that increased cultural and educational exchanges, broader dissemination of information, contacts between people, and the solution of humanitarian problems will contribute to the attainment of these aims,
Determined therefore to co-operate among themselves, irrespective of their political, economic and social systems, in order to create better conditions in the above fields, to develop and strengthen existing forms of co-operation and to work out new ways and means appropriate to these aims,
Convinced that this co-operation should take place in full respect for the principles guiding relations among participating States as set forth in the relevant document,
Have adopted the following:
1. Human Contacts
The participating States,
Considering the development of contacts to be an important element in the strengthening of friendly relations and trust among peoples,
Affirming, in relation to their present effort to improve conditions in this area, the importance they attach to humanitarian considerations,
Desiring in this spirit to develop, with the continuance of dtente, further efforts to achieve continuing progress in this field
And conscious that the questions relevant hereto must be settled by the States concerned under mutually acceptable conditions,
Make it their aim to facilitate freer movement and contacts, individually and collectively, whether privately or officially, among persons, institutions and organizations of the participating States, and to contribute to the solution of the humanitarian problems that arise in that connexion,
Declare their readiness to these ends to take measures which they consider appropriate and to conclude agreements or arrangements among themselves, as may be needed, and
Express their intention now to proceed to the implementation of the following:
(a) Contacts and Regular Meetings on the Basis of Family Ties
In order to promote further development of contacts on the basis of family ties the participating States will favourably consider applications for travel with the purpose of allowing persons to enter or leave their territory temporarily, and on a regular basis if desired, in order to visit members of their families.
Applications for temporary visits to meet members of their families will be dealt with without distinction as to the country of origin or destination: existing requirements for travel documents and visas will be applied in this spirit. The preparation and issue of such documents and visas will be effected within reasonable time limits, cases of urgent necessity - such as serious illness or death - will be given priority treatment. They will take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that the fees for official travel documents and visas are acceptable.
They confirm that the presentation of an application concerning contacts on the basis of family ties will not modify the rights and obligations of the applicant or of members of his family.
(b) Reunification of Families
The participating States will deal in a positive and humanitarian spirit with the applications of persons who wish to be reunited with members of their family, with special attention being given to requests of an urgent character - such as requests submitted by persons who are ill or old.
They will deal with applications in this field as expeditiously as possible
They will lower where necessary the fees charged in connexion with these applications to ensure that they are at a moderate level.
Applications for the purpose of family reunification which are not granted may be renewed at the appropriate level and will be reconsidered at reasonably short intervals by the authorities of the country of residence or destination, whichever is concerned; under such circumstances fees will be charged only when applications are granted.
Persons whose applications for family reunification are granted may bring with them or ship their household and personal effects; to this end the participating States will use all possibilities provided by existing regulations.
Until members of the same family are reunited meetings and contacts between them may take place in accordance with the modalities for contacts on the basis of family ties.
The participating States will support the efforts of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies concerned with the problems of family reunification.
They confirm that the presentation of an application concerning family reunification will not modify the rights and obligations of the applicant or of members of his family.
The receiving participating State will take appropriate care with regard to employment for persons from other participating States who take up permanent residence in that State in connexion with family reunification with its citizens and see that they are afforded opportunities equal to those enjoyed by its own citizens for education, medical assistance and social security.
(c) Marriage between Citizens of Different States
The participating States will examine favourably and on the basis of humanitarian considerations requests for exit or entry permits from persons who have decided to marry a citizen from another participating State.
The processing and issuing of the documents required for the above purposes and for the marriage will be in accordance with the provisions accepted for family reunification.
In dealing with requests from couples from different participating States, once married, to enable them and the minor children of their marriage to transfer their permanent residence to a State in which either one is normally a resident, the participating States will also apply the provisions accepted for family reunification.
(d) Travel for Personal or Professional Reasons
The participating States intend to facilitate wider travel by their citizens for personal or professional reasons and to this end they intend in particular:
They will endeavour gradually to lower, where necessary, the fees for visas and official travel documents.
They intend to consider, as necessary, means - including, in so far as appropriate, the conclusion of multilateral or bilateral consular conventions or other relevant agreements or understandings - for the improvement of arrangements to provide consular services, including legal and consular assistance.* * *
They confirm that religious faiths, institutions and organizations, practising within the constitutional framework of the participating States, and their representatives can, in the field of their activities, have contacts and meetings among themselves and exchange information.
(e) Improvement of Conditions for Tourism on an Individual or Collective Basis
The participating States consider that tourism contributes to a fuller knowledge of the life, culture and history of other countries, to the growth of understanding among peoples, to the improvement of contacts and to the broader use of leisure. They intend to promote the development of tourism, on an individual or collective basis, and, in particular, they intend:
(f) Meetings among Young People
The participating States intend to further the development of contacts and exchanges among young people by encouraging:
In order to expand existing links and co-operation in the field of sport the participating States will encourage contacts and exchanges of this kind, including sports meetings and competitions of all sorts, on the basis of the established international rules, regulations and practice.
(h) Expansion of Contacts
By way of further developing contacts among governmental institutions and non-governmental organizations and associations, including women's organizations, the participating States will facilitate the convening of meetings as well as travel by delegations, groups and individuals.
The participating States,
Conscious of the need for an ever wider knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of life in other participating States,
Acknowledging the contribution of this process to the growth of confidence between peoples,
Desiring, with the development of mutual understanding between the participating States and with the further improvement of their relations, to continue further efforts towards progress in this field,
Recognizing the importance of the dissemination of information from the other participating States and of a better acquaintance with such information,
Emphasizing therefore the essential and influential role of the press, radio, television, cinema and news agencies and of the journalists working in these fields,
Make it their aim to facilitate the freer and wider dissemination of information of all kinds, to encourage co- operation in the field of information and the exchange of information with other countries, and to improve the conditions under which journalists from one participating State exercise their profession in another participating State, and
Express their intention in particular:
(a) Improvement of the Circulation of, Access to, and Exchange of Information
(i) Oral Information
To facilitate the dissemination of oral information through the encouragement of lectures and lecture tours by personalities and specialists from the other participating States, as well as exchanges of opinions at round table meetings, seminars, symposia, summer schools, congresses and other bilateral and multilateral meetings.
(ii) Printed Information
To facilitate the improvement of the dissemination, on their territory, of newspapers and printed publications, periodical and non-periodical, from the other participating States. For this purpose:
To contribute to the improvement of access by the public to periodical and non-periodical printed publications imported on the bases indicated above. In particular:
They intend to improve the possibilities for acquaintance with bulletins of official information issued by diplomatic missions and distributed by those missions on the basis of arrangements acceptable to the interested parties.
(iii) Filmed and Broadcast Information
To promote the improvement of the dissemination of filmed and broadcast information. To this end:
The participating States note the expansion in the dissemination of information broadcast by radio, and express the hope for the continuation of this process, so as to meet the interest of mutual understanding among peoples and the aims set forth by this Conference.
(b) Co-operation in the Field of Information
To encourage co-operation in the field of information on the basis of short or long term agreements or arrangements. In particular:
(c) Improvement of Working Conditions for Journalists
The participating States, desiring to improve the conditions under which journalists from one participating State exercise their profession in another participating State, intend in particular to:
The participating States reaffirm that the legitimate pursuit of their professional activity will neither render journalists liable to expulsion nor otherwise penalize them. If an accredited journalist is expelled, he will be informed of the reasons for this act and may submit an application for re- examination of his case.
3. Co-operation and Exchanges in the Field of Culture
The participating States
Considering that cultural exchanges and co-operation contribute to a better comprehension among people and among peoples, and thus promote a lasting understanding among States,
Confirming the conclusions already formulated in this field at the multilateral level, particularly at the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies in Europe, organized by UNESCO in Helsinki in June 1972, where interest was manifested in the active participation of the broadest possible social groups in an increasingly diversified cultural life,
Desiring, with the development of mutual confidence and the further improvement of relations between the participating States, to continue further efforts toward progress in this field,
Disposed in this spirit to increase substantially their cultural exchanges, with regard both to persons and to cultural works, and to develop among them an active co-operation, both at the bilateral and the multilateral level, in all the fields of culture,
Convinced that such a development of their mutual relations will contribute to the enrichment of the respective cultures, while respecting the originality of each, as well as to the reinforcement among them of a consciousness of common values, while continuing to develop cultural co-operation with other countries of the world,
Declare that they jointly set themselves the following objectives:
(a) to develop the mutual exchange of information with a view to a better knowledge of respective cultural achievements,
(b) to improve the facilities for the exchange and for the dissemination of cultural property,
(c) to promote access by all to respective cultural achievements,
(d) to develop contacts and co-operation among persons active in the field of culture,
(e) to seek new fields and forms of cultural co-operation,
Thus give expression to their common will to take progressive, coherent and long-term action in order to achieve the objectives of the present declaration; and
Express their intention now to proceed to the implementation of the following:
Extension of Relations
To expand and improve at the various levels co-operation and links in the field of culture, in particular by:
Within their competence to adopt, on a bilateral and multilateral level, appropriate measures which would give their peoples a more comprehensive and complete mutual knowledge of their achievements in the various fields of culture, and among them:
Exchanges and Dissemination
To contribute to the improvement of facilities for exchanges and the dissemination of cultural property, by appropriate means, in particular by:
To promote fuller mutual access by all to the achievements - works, experiences and performing arts - in the various fields of culture of their countries, and to that end to make the best possible efforts, in accordance with their competence, more particularly:
Contacts and Co-operation
To contribute, by appropriate means, to the development of contacts and co-operation in the various fields of culture, especially among creative artists and people engaged in cultural activities, in particular by making efforts to:
Fields and Forms of Co-operation
To encourage the search for new fields and forms of cultural co-operation, to these ends contributing to the conclusion among interested parties, where necessary, of appropriate agreements and arrangements, and in this context to promote:
National minorities or regional cultures. The participating States, recognizing the contribution that national minorities or regional cultures can make to co-operation among them in various fields of culture, intend, when such minorities or cultures exist within their territory, to facilitate this contribution, taking into account the legitimate interests of their members.
4. Co-operation and Exchanges in the Field of Education
The participating States,
Conscious that the development of relations of an international character in the fields of education and science contributes to a better mutual understanding and is to the advantage of all peoples as well as to the benefit of future generations,
Prepared to facilitate, between organizations, institutions and persons engaged in education and science, the further development of exchanges of knowledge and experience as well as of contacts, on the basis of special arrangements where these are necessary,
Desiring to strengthen the links among educational and scientific establishments and also to encourage their co- operation in sectors of common interest, particularly where the levels of knowledge and resources require efforts to be concerted internationally, and
Convinced that progress in these fields should be accompanied and supported by a wider knowledge of foreign languages,
Express to these ends their intention in particular:
(a) Extension of Relations
To expand and improve at the various levels co-operation and links in the fields of education and science, in particular by:
(b) Access and Exchanges
To improve access, under mutually acceptable conditions, for students, teachers and scholars of the participating States to each other's educational, cultural and scientific institutions, and to intensify exchanges among these institutions in all areas of common interest, in particular by:
Within their competence to broaden and improve co-operation and exchanges in the field of science, in particular:
To increase, on a bilateral or multilateral basis, the exchange and dissemination of scientific information and documentation by such means as:
To develop in the field of scientific research, on a bilateral or multilateral basis, the co-ordination of programmes carried out in the participating States and the organization of joint programmes, especially in the areas mentioned below, which may involve the combined efforts of scientists and in certain cases the use of costly or unique equipment. The list of subjects in these areas is illustrative; and specific projects would have to be determined subsequently by the potential partners in the participating States, taking account of the contribution which could be made by appropriate international organizations and scientific institutions:
(d) Foreign Languages and Civilizations
To encourage the study of foreign languages and civilizations as an important means of expanding communication among peoples for their better acquaintance with the culture of each country, as well as for the strengthening of international co-operation; to this end to stimulate, within their competence, the further development and improvement of foreign language teaching and the diversification of choice of languages taught at various levels, paying due attention to less widely-spread or studied languages, and in particular:
(e) Teaching Methods
To promote the exchange of experience, on a bilateral or multilateral basis, in teaching methods at all levels of education, including those used in permanent and adult education, as well as the exchange of teaching materials, in particular by:
National minorities or regional cultures. The participating States, recognizing the contribution that national minorities or regional cultures can make to co-operation among them in various fields of education, intend, when such minorities or cultures exist within their territory, to facilitate this contribution, taking into account the legitimate interests of their members.
Follow-up to the Conference
The participating States,
Having considered and evaluated the progress made at the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe,
Considering further that, within the broader context of the world, the Conference is an important part of the process of improving security and developing co-operation in Europe and that its results will contribute significantly to this process,
Intending to implement the provisions of the Final Act of the Conference in order to give full effect to its results and thus to further the process of improving security and developing co-operation in Europe,
Convinced that, in order to achieve the aims sought by the Conference, they should make further unilateral, bilateral and multilateral efforts and continue, in the appropriate forms set forth below, the multilateral process initiated by the Conference,
The original of this Final Act, drawn up in English, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish, will be transmitted to the Government of the Republic of Finland, which will retain it in its archives. Each of the participating States will receive from the Government of the Republic of Finland a true copy of this Final Act.
The text of this Final Act will be published in each participating State, which will disseminate it and make it known as widely as possible.
The Government of the Republic of Finland is requested to transmit to the Secretary-General of the United Nations the text of this Final Act, which is not eligible for registration under Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations, with a view to its circulation to all the members of the Organization as an official document of the United Nations.
The Government of the Republic of Finland is also requested to transmit the text of this Final Act to the Director-General of UNESCO and to the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
Wherefore, the undersigned High Representatives of the participating States, mindful of the high political significance which they attach to the results of the Conference, and declaring their determination to act in accordance with the provisions contained in the above texts, have subscribed their signatures below:
at Helsinki, on 1st August 1975, in the name of
THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY Helmut SCHMIDT Federal Chancellor THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC Erich HONECKER First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Gerald R. FORD President of the United States of America THE REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA Bruno KREISKY Federal Chancellor THE KINGDOM OF BELGIUM Leo TINDEMANS Prime Minister THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA Todor JIVKOV First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party of Bulgaria CANADA Pierre Elliott TRUDEAU Prime Minister THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS His Beatitude Archbishop MAKARIOS III President of the Republic of Cyprus DENMARK Anker JORGENSEN Prime Minister SPAIN Carlos ARIAS NAVARRO Head of the Government THE REPUBLIC OF FINLAND Urho KEKKONEN President of the Republic THE FRENCH REPUBLIC Valery GISCARD D'ESTAING President of the French Republic THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND The Rt. Hon. Harold WILSON, O.B.E., M.P., F.R.S. First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland THE HELLENIC REPUBLIC Constantin CARAMANLIS Prime Minister THE HUNGARIAN PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC Janos KADAR First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party IRELAND Liam COSGRAVE Prime Minister ICELAND Geir HALLGRIMSSON Prime Minister THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC Aldo MORO Prime Minister of the Italian Republic and in his capacity as President in office of the Council of the European Communities THE PRINCIPALITY OF LIECHTENSTEIN Walter KIEBER Head of Government THE GRAND DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG Gaston THORN Prime Minister, Minister for Foreign Affairs THE REPUBLIC OF MALTA Dom MINTOFF Prime Minister, Minister for Commonwealth and Foreign Affairs THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO Andre SAINT-MLEUX Minister of State, President of the Government Council, Representing H.S.H. the Prince of Monaco NORWAY Trygve BRATTELI Prime Minister THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS J. M. DEN UYL Prime Minister THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND Edward GIEREK First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party PORTUGAL Francisco DA COSTA GOMES President of the Republic THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF ROMANIA Nicolae CEAUSESCU President of the Socialist Republic of Romania SAN MARINO Gian Luigi BERTI Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs THE HOLY SEE Son Excellence Monseigneur Agostino CASAROLI Secretary of the Council for Church Public Affairs SWEDEN Olof PALME Prime Minister THE SWISS CONFEDERATION Pierre GRABER President of the Confederation, Head of the Federal Political Department THE CZECHOSLOVAK SOCIALIST REPUBLIC Gustav HUSAK Secretary-General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and President of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY Suleyman DEMIREL Prime Minister THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS L. BREJNEV General-Secretary of the CC of the CPSU THE SOCIALIST FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF JUGOSLAVIA Josip Broz TITO President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Jugoslavia
*) Footnote: While recognizing that appropriate local personnel are employed by foreign journalists in many instances, the participating States note that the above provisions would be applied, subject to the observance of the appropriate rules, to persons from the other participating States, who are regularly and professionally engaged as technicians, photographers or cameramen of the press, radio, television or cinema.