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STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE
REFERENCES*

By R.J. Rummel




Note that this is not a bibliography. The items included here are usually only those cited in this book. Books, articles, and other works used for background or otherwise consulted are not listed. In a few cases, references are still given even though their estimates may have been eliminated from tables as redundant against other estimates or from the same source. References given in Lethal Politics, China's Bloody Century, and Democide, are not repeated here unless also cited in this book.**


  1. Adalian, Rouben. "The Armenian Genocide: Context and Legacy." SOCIAL EDUCATION 55 (February 1991): 99-104.
  2. Adamic, Louis. MY NATIVE LAND. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1943.
  3. Adelman, Irma and Cynthia Taft Morris. Society, Politics, & Economic Development: A Quantitative Approach. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1967.
  4. AFGHANISTAN: SIX YEARS OF SOVIET OCCUPATION. United States Department of State Special Report No. 135, Washington, D.C., December 1985.
  5. THE AFTERMATH: ASIA. Alexandria Virginia: Time-Life Books,1983.
  6. Ahamed, Emajuddin. MILITARY RULE AND THE MYTH OF DEMOCRACY. Dhaka, Bangladesh: The University Press, 1988.
  7. Ahmad, Rafiq (Ed.). THE ASSAM MASSACRE 1983 (A DOCUMENTARY RECORD). Lahore, Pakistan: Center for South Asian Studies, University of the Punjab, 1984.
  8. al-Khalil, Samir. REPUBLIC OF FEAR: THE POLITICS OF MODERN IRAQ. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1989.
  9. "Albania Accuses Tito of Genocide in Kossowo." CENTRAL EUROPE JOURNAL 14 (December 1966): 399-400.
  10. Albino, Oliver. THE SUDAN: A SOUTHERN VIEWPOINT. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
  11. Alexander, Andrew. "Bulgaria ran brutal camps for prisoners." HONOLULU STAR-BULLETIN [from Cox News Service] (July 4, 1990): A-21.
  12. Alexander, Bevin. KOREA: THE FIRST WAR WE LOST. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1986.
  13. Alexander, Edward. A CRIME OF VENGEANCE: AN ARMENIAN STRUGGLE FOR JUSTICE. New York: The Free Press, 1991.
  14. Ambartsumov, Yevgeny. "Remembering the Millions that Stalin Destroyed." MOSCOW NEWS (July, 1988): 12.
  15. Ambrose, Stephen E. "Ike and the Disappearing Atrocities." NEW YORK TIMES BOOK REVIEWS (February 24, 1991).
  16. THE AMERICAN CRIME OF GENOCIDE IN SOUTH VIET NAM. South Viet Nam: Giai Phong Publishing House, 1967.
  17. Amiel, Barbara. "Sovereignty is synthetic." WORLD PRESS REVIEW (March 1988): 17-18.
  18. AMNESTY ACTION (January/February 1991). Amnesty International publication.
  19. Anderson, Jack. "In Cambodia, Obliterating a Culture." WASHINGTON POST, (2 May 1978): B12.
  20. Andersson, Hilary. MOZAMBIQUE: A WAR AGAINST THE PEOPLE. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
  21. Andonian, Aram (Ed.). THE MEMOIRS OF NAIM BEY: TURKISH OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE DEPORTATIONS AND MASSACRES OF ARMENIANS. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1920 [This is a compressed translation of DOCUMENTS OFFICIELS CONCERNANT LES MASSACRES ARMƒNIENS, Pris: H. Turabian]
  22. AndradŽ, Dale. ASHES TO ASHES: THE PHOENIX PROGRAM AND THE VIETNAM WAR. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books, 1990.
  23. Antonov-Ovseyenko, Anton. THE TIME OF STALIN: PORTRAIT OF A TYRANNY. Translated by George Saunders. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  24. Applegate, William. "Manial's Refuge Makes It Pearl of the Orient." THE WALL STREET JOURNAL (13 July 1988): 19.
  25. Arat, Zehra F. DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1991.
  26. Archer, Jules. MAO TSE-TUNG. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1972.
  27. Arendt, Hannah. EICHMANN IN JERUSALEM: A REPORT ON THE BANALITY OF EVIL. New York: The Viking Press, 1963.
  28. Arens, Richard. (Ed.) GENOCIDE IN PARAGUAY. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1976.
  29. _____________. "Death camps in Paraguay." AMERICAN INDIAN JOURNAL 4 (July 1978): 3-12.
  30. _____________. "The Ache of Paraguay." In GENOCIDE AND HUMAN RIGHTS: A GLOBAL ANTHOLOGY, [edited] by Jack Nusan Porter. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1982, pp. 218-237.
  31. Arfa, Hassan. THE KURDS: AN HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL STUDY. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.
  32. Arnold, David. FAMINE: SOCIAL CRISIS AND HISTORICAL CHANGE. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1988.
  33. Atkin, Ronald. REVOLUTION! MEXICO 1910-1920. London: Macmillan, 1969.
  34. Avirgan, Tony and Martha Honey. WAR IN UGANDA: THE LEGACY OF IDI AMIN. Westport, Connecticut: Lawrence Hill, 1982.
  35. Aykroyd, W. R. THE CONQUEST OF FAMINE. London: Chatto & Windus, 1974.
  36. Aziz, Qutubuddin. BLOOD AND TEARS. Karachi: United Press of Pakistan, 1974.
  37. Backer, George. THE DEADLY PARALLEL: STALIN AND IVAN THE TERRIBLE. New York: Random House, 1950.
  38. Bacque, James. OTHER LOSSES: AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE MASS DEATHS OF GERMAN PRISONERS. Toronto, Canada: Stoddard Publishing Company, 1989.
  39. Bailes, Howard. "Military Aspects of the War." In THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR: THE ANGLO-BOER WAR 1899-1902. [edited] by Peter Warwick. Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex: Great Britain: Longman, 1980, pp. 65-102.
  40. Bailey, Ronald H. PARTISANS AND GUERRILLAS. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1978.
  41. ______________. THE AIR WAR IN EUROPE. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1979.
  42. ______________. WORLD WAR II: PRISONERS OF WAR. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1981.
  43. Bald, Margaret. "How the CIA helped carry out a massacre of half-a-million communists." TOWARD FREEDOM 39 (October-November 1990): 10-11.
  44. Ball, Nicole and Milton Leitenberg. "Appendix 1. Wars and Conflicts in Developing Countries and Estimates of Related Deaths Since the End of World War II." In THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR MILITARY EXPENDITURES IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, by Robert S. McNamara. Washington, D. C.: World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics, April 25, 1991.
  45. Bane, Suda Lorena and Ralph Haswell Lutz (Eds.). THE BLOCKADE OF GERMANY AFTER THE ARMISTICE 1918-1919: SELECTED DOCUMENTS OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, SUPERIOR BLOCKADE COUNCIL, AMERICAN RELIEF ADMINISTRATION, AND OTHER WARTIME ORGANIZATIONS. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1942.
  46. BANGLADESH: UNLAWFUL KILLINGS AND TORTURE IN THE CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1986.
  47. Banks, Arthur S. CROSS-POLITY TIME SERIES DATA. Cambridge, The MIT Press, 1971.
  48. _____________. "Correlates of democratic performance." COMPARATIVE POLITICS 4 (January 1972): 217-230.
  49. _____________. (Ed.) POLITICAL HANDBOOK OF THE WORLD:1977: GOVERNMENTS, REGIONAL ISSUES, AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AS OF JANUARY 1, 1977. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.
  50. Banu, Zenab. POLITICS OF COMMUNALISM: A POLITICO-HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF COMMUNAL RIOTS IN POST-INDEPENDENCE INDIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE GUJARAT AND RAJASTHAN RIOTS. Bombay, India: Popular Prakashan, 1989.
  51. Baraheni, Reza. THE CROWNED CANNIBALS: WRITINGS ON REPRESSION IN IRAN. New York: Random House, 1977.
  52. Barron, John and Anthony Paul. PEACE WITH HORROR: THE UNTOLD STORY OF COMMUNIST GENOCIDE IN CAMBODIA. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1977 [American edition titled MURDER OF A GENTLE LAND. New York: Reader's Digest Press-Thomas Y. Crowell].
  53. Barton, James L. STORY OF NEAR EAST RELIEF (1915-1930): AN INTERPRETATION. New York: Macmillan, 1930.
  54. Bauer, Yehuda. A HISTORY OF THE HOLOCAUST. New York: Franklin Watts, 1982.
  55. Bawden, C. R. THE MODERN HISTORY OF MONGOLIA. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968.
  56. Baxter, David M. "The Serbo-Croatian Antagonism." In OPERATION SLAUGHTERHOUSE: EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF POSTWAR MASSACRES IN YUGOSLAVIA, [edited] by John Prcela and Stanko Guldescu. Philadelphia: Dorrance & Co., 1970, pp. 27-42.
  57. Becker, Elizabeth. WHEN THE WAR WAS OVER: CAMBODIA'S REVOLUTION AND THE VOICES OF ITS PEOPLE. New York: Simon & Shuster (A Touchstone Book), 1986.
  58. THE BEIRUT MASSACRE: THE COMPLETE KAHAN COMMISSION REPORT. New York: Karz-Cohl, 1983.
  59. Belden, Jack. CHINA SHAKES THE WORLD. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1949.
  60. Bell, J. Bowyer and Ted Robert Gurr. "Terrorism and revolution in America." In VIOLENCE IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL & COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES. Revised Edition [edited] by Hugh Davis Grahams and Ted Robert Gurr. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1979, pp. 329-347.
  61. Beloff, Nora. TITO'S FLAWED LEGACY: YUGOSLAVIA & THE WEST SINCE 1939. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1985.
  62. Ben-Tov, Arieh. FACING THE HOLOCAUST IN BUDAPEST: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS AND THE JEWS IN HUNGARY, 1943-1945. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1988.
  63. Benevides, Maria-Victoria and Rosa-Maria Fischer Ferreira. "Popular responses and urban violence: lynching in Brazil." In VIGILANTISM AND THE STATE IN MODERN LATIN AMERICA: ESSAYS ON EXTRALEGAL VIOLENCE, [edited] by Martha K. Huggins. New York: Praeger, 1991, pp. 33-45.
  64. Berenbaum, Michael (Ed.). A MOSAIC OF VICTIMS: NON-JEWS PERSECUTED AND MURDERED BY THE NAZIS. New York: New York University Press, 1990.
  65. Bermudez, Joseph S. Jr. TERRORISM: THE NORTH KOREAN CONNECTION. New York: Crane Russak, 1990.
  66. Bernstein, Jonas. "Colombia: making violence an occupation." INSIGHT (August 15, 1988): 34-35.
  67. _____________. "Odd couple of Gulf crisis: the U.S. and Hafez al-Assad." INSIGHT (October 8, 1990): 26-27.
  68. Berwick, Dennison. SAVAGES: THE LIFE AND KILLING OF THE YANOMAMI. London: Hutchinson, 1992.
  69. Bidwell, Robin. THE TWO YEMENS. Longman Group and Westview Press, 1983.
  70. Bigelow, Katherine. "A campaign to deter genocide: the Bah‡'’ experience." In GENOCIDE WATCH, [edited] by Helen Fein. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992, pp. 189-196.
  71. Bischof GŸnter and Stephan E. Ambrose. "Introduction." In EISENHOWER AND THE GERMAN POWS: FACTS AGAINST FALSEHOOD, [edited] by GŸnter Bischof and Stephan E. Ambrose. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1992, pp. 1-25.
  72. Blackey, Robert and Clifford Paynton. REVOLUTION AND THE REVOLUTIONARY IDEAL. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Publishing, 1976.
  73. Blood, Arthur K. "Conflict in East Pakistan: background and prospects." In BANGLADESH GENOCIDE AND WORLD PRESS, edited by Fazlul Quader Quaderi. Dacca, Bangladesh: Begum Dilafroz Quaderi, 1972, pp. 24-33 [this is a leaked top secret report prepared by the American Consul General in Dacca].
  74. Bodard, Lucian. GREEN HILL: MASSACRE OF THE BRAZILIAN INDIANS. Translated by Jennifer Monaghan. New York: Outerbridge & Dienstfrey, 1971.
  75. Bollen, Kenneth A. "Issues in the comparative measurement of political democracy." AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW 45 (June 1980): 370-390.
  76. Bonds, Ray (Ed.). THE VIETNAM WAR: THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. New York: Crown Publishers, 1979.
  77. Bothe, Michael, Karl Josef Partsch, and Waldemar A. Solf. NEW RULES FOR VICTIMS OF ARMED CONFLICTS: COMMENTARY ON THE TWO 1977 PROTOCOLS ADDITIONAL TO THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS OF 1949. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1982.
  78. Botjer, George. A SHORT HISTORY OF NATIONALIST CHINA 1919-1949. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1979.
  79. Botting, Douglas. THE AFTERMATH: EUROPE. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1983.
  80. Bouscaren, Anthony T. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATIONS SINCE 1945. New York: Praeger, 1963.
  81. Bouthoul, Gaston and RenŽ Carrre. "A list of the 366 major armed conflicts of the period 1740-1974." (Compiled and Translated by Gernot Kšhler) PEACE RESEARCH 10 (July 1978): 83-108.
  82. _____________________________. "Major armed conflicts, 1965-1 July 1978." (Compiled and Translated by Gernot Kšhler) PEACE RESEARCH 11 (October 1979): 183-186.
  83. Bowen, Gordon L. "The political economy of state terrorism: barrier to human rights in Guatemala." HUMAN RIGHTS AND THIRD WORLD DEVELOPMENT, [edited] by George W. Shepherd, Jr., and Ved P. Nanda. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1985, pp. 83-124.
  84. Bowers, William J. LEGAL HOMICIDE: DEATH AS PUNISHMENT IN AMERICA, 1864-1982. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1984.
  85. Boyajian, Dickran H. ARMENIA: THE CASE FOR A FORGOTTEN GENOCIDE. Westwood, New Jersey: Educational Book Crafters, 1972.
  86. Boyle, J. A. "Dynastic and political history of the Il-Khans." In THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF IRAN: VOLUME 5: THE SALJUQ AND MONGOL PERIODS, [edited] by J. A. Boyle. Cambridge: At The University Press, 1968, pp. 303-421.
  87. Brackman, Arnold C. THE OTHER NUREMBERG: THE UNTOLD STORY OF THE TOKYO WAR CRIMES TRIALS. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1987.
  88. Braddock, Lee. "Moral unequivalence: Afghanistan is not the Soviets' Vietnam." POLICY REVIEW. (Summer, 1988), pp. 42-51.
  89. Bradsher, Henry S. "Hanoi tightens the screws." HONOLULU STAR-BULLETIN. (14 June 1976): A-10 [from the WASHINGTON STAR].
  90. _______________. "South Viets mutter as Communists tighten control." WASHINGTON STAR. (12 February 1977): 1.
  91. Braham, Randolph L. THE POLITICS OF GENOCIDE: THE HOLOCAUST IN HUNGARY. Volumes 1-2. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.
  92. BrŠndstršm, Elsa. AMONG PRISONERS OF WAR IN RUSSIA & SIBERIA. Translated by C. Mabel Rickmers. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1929.
  93. Brauman, Rony. "Famine aid: were we duped?" READER'S DIGEST. (October 1986): 65-72.
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  97. Brock, David. "Making rights a right in Cuba." INSIGHT (February 29, 1988): 8-12.
  98. Brockett, Charles D. "Sources of state terrorism in rural Central America." In STATE ORGANIZED TERROR: THE CASE OF VIOLENT INTERNAL REPRESSION, [Edited] by P. Timothy Bushnell, et al. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991, pp. 59-76.
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NOTES

* From the pre-publisher edited manuscript of the "References" in R.J. Rummel, Statistics of Democide, 1997. For full reference to this book, the list of its contents, figures, and tables, and the text of its preface, click note [5]
** For the full references to these books, the list of their contents, figures, and tables, and the text of their prefaces, click note [4] for Lethal Politics; note [2] forChina's Bloody Century; and note [3] for Democide.

This page was copied from http://www2.hawaii.edu/~rummel/ with permission by the author.
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